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# DEPARTMENT OF MATERIAL SCIENCE AND

ENGINEERING.

## AFRICAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

[AUST].

KINETICS
PROJECT ONE

GROUP;
 NWAZOJIE CHUKWUDALU CLARE 40499
 OSAWEMWENZE AMEN LILIAN 40503

## PROFESSOR: PROF. ACHENIE

14TH DECEMBER, 2016.
Problem 1: An isolated bar of a good electrical insulator contains a rapidly diffusing
unconstrained solute (i.e. component 1). Impose a constant thermal gradient along the bar, and
find an expression for its thermal conductivity when the system reaches a steady state. Assume
that no solute enters or leaves the ends of the bar. Express your results in terms of any of the Lij
coefficients.

Solution

Analysis of problem:

## Electrical Insulated bar >> No electric flow

Unconstrained Solute>>
Constant thermal gradient - >> Change in heat along the bar is constant
Thermal conductivity, k
Closed system and isolated no interaction with the environment.
Gradient are fluxes and the primary flux for this problem is Heat flux.
Other fluxes = mass, electrical, magnetic (are not present)

This material under the conditions stated above, Fourier's law applies, the thermal conductivity K
depends on the direct coefficient LQQ, as well as on the direct and coupling coefficients associated with
the unconstrained component L1Q. In general, the empirical conductivity associated with a particular flux
depends on the constraints applied to other possible fluxes.

J = 1

## J Q = J Q (FQ, Fq, Fm, F1, F2, F3,....................................... FN)

Since no other flux is present apart from heat and only one component is present, the equation
reduces to:

## J1 = J1 (FQ, F1)..Secondary driving forces

JQ JQ
JQ = FQ + F1
FQ F1

J1 J1
J1 = FQ
FQ + F1
F1
JQ JQ
FQ F1
[ ] = [ J ][ ]
1 1 J1 1
FQ F1

JQ
Recall = LQQ (rate of change of flux with respect to driving force)
FQ

J1
= L1Q
FQ

1
[ ]=[ ][ ]
1 1 11 1

JQ = Q + 1 F1

J1 = 1 FQ + 11 F1

## From Onsagers symmetry principle = , therefore L1Q = LQ1

JQ = FQ + 1 F1 ...... (1)

J1 = 1 FQ + 11 F1 ... (2)

At Steady State, the thermal and diffusion currents causes the unconstrained solute to be
redistributed thus a steady- state distribution has been reached therefore the diffusion of the
unconstrained solute i.e. Component 1 is completed therefore:

J1 = 0

## From (2) we have; 1 FQ + 11 F1 = 0

Therefore, 1 FQ = - 11 F1
1 FQ
F1 = - (3)
11

## Substitute (3) into (1)

1 FQ
JQ = FQ + 1 ( )
11

1 2 FQ
JQ = FQ - . (4)
11

JQ = - K .................................................... (5)

## from Fourier emperical law,

1
FQ = - .................................................... (6)

1 2 1
- K = [ ][ ]
11

1 1 2
K = [ ] (7)
11

## The derived expression is;

1 1 2
K = [ ]
11

This is the expression for the thermal conductivity of the electrical insulated Isolated bar as it
was forced into a steady-state distribution by the thermal flux assuming no solute(component 1)
enters or leaves the ends of the bar.

Problem 3

Consider the one-dimensional diffusion problem below in which diffusivity depends on time.
2
= () 2 0 < x L; 0<ttf

## Boundary Conditions: (1) c( 0, t)= 0

(2) |(L,t) = 0 (Insulated at this end)

## Data: 0 = 1; L = 2; tf = try different values

Solution

Pdepe in Matlab will be used to solve the diffusion problem to plot the appropriate graphs, the
equation will be re-arranged to get the necessary data needed for the plot.
Rearranging the equation;

2
= () ................... (1)
2

=

(()
)......... (2)

## Comparing equation (2) with the general equation;

C = x-m (mf ) + s

C = 1; m = 0; f =() ; s=0

p + qf = 0

p + q(() )=0

## For the first B.C we compare the coefficients of p and q

c( 0, t) = 0 .............. B.C 1
pl = Cl - Coe(-t)

Co = 1

pl = Cl - e(-t) and ql = 0

1
pr = 0 and qr =
()
but () =
1
pr = 0 and qr =

## C(x,0)= C0.............................................. I.C

C0 = 1

C(x,0)= 1

MATLAB CODE 3

Problem 4:
Consider the one-dimensional diffusion problem below in which diffusivity depends on
concentration.

2 () 2
= () + ( ) ( ) 0 < x L; 0<ttf
2

## Boundary Conditions: (1) c( 0,t)= 0

(2) |(L,t) = 0 (Insulated at this end)

## Data: 0 = 1; L = 2; tf = try different values

Solution

Pdepe in Matlab will be used to solve the diffusion problem to plot the appropriate graphs, the
equation will be re-arranged to get the necessary data needed for the plot.

## Rearranging the equation;

2 () 2
= () + ( ) ( )........ (1)
2
() 2

=

(()
) + (
) ( ) (2)

## Comparing equation (2) with the general equation;

C = x-m (mf ) + s

() 2
C = 1; m = 0; f =() ;s=( ) ( )

## For the Boundary conditions, BC

BC No 1: Left (l)

## Having the general equation as ;

p + qf = 0

p + q(() ) = 0 .................................................. (3)

## c( x,0) = 0 .............. B.C 1

pl = Cl - Coe(-t)

Co = 1

pl = Cl - e(-t) and ql = 0

## | (L,t) = 0............................... B.C 2

1
pr = 0 and qr =
()

but () =
1
pr = 0 and qr =
Initial Condition (IC);

C0 = 1

C(x,0)= 1

MatLab Code 4