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Certification Examinations

for Oklahoma Educators

Oklahoma Subject Area Tests

STUDY GUIDE

012 Physical Education/Health/Safety

This test is now delivered


as a computer-based test.

See www.ceoe.nesinc.com for


current program information.

Office of Educational
Quality and Accountability

OK-SG-FLD012-05
TABLE OF CONTENTS

STUDY GUIDE INTRODUCTION


PURPOSE OF THIS S TUDY G UIDE ................................................................................... 1-1
KEY FEATURES OF THIS S TUDY GUIDE ............................................................................ 1-1
FOR OTHER CEOE S TUDY GUIDES ................................................................................ 1-1
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ....................................................................................... 1-1

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS FOR


OKLAHOMA EDUCATORS
AN OVERVIEW OF THE TESTING PROGRAM ...................................................................... 1-2
Test Development Process .................................................................................................... 1-2
Characteristics of the CEOE Tests ........................................................................................ 1-3
Test Descriptions .................................................................................................................... 1-3
Test Administration ................................................................................................................ 1-8
Score Reports .......................................................................................................................... 1-8

HOW TO PREPARE FOR THE TEST .................................................................................. 1- 9


Study the Competencies ........................................................................................................ 1-9
Identify Resources ................................................................................................................... 1-9
Study Techniques .................................................................................................................... 1-9
Review the Practice Test Questions...................................................................................... 1-9

SAMPLE TEST DIRECTIONS .......................................................................................... 1-10


Sample General Test Directions ............................................................................................ 1-10
Sample Constructed-Response Assignment Directions ....................................................... 1-11

THE DAY OF THE TEST ................................................................................................ 1-12


Preparation .............................................................................................................................. 1-12
At the Test Site ....................................................................................................................... 1-12

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety i


FIELD-SPECIFIC INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 2-1
Test Competencies .................................................................................................................. 2-1
Practice Test Questions .......................................................................................................... 2-1

TEST COMPETENCIES ................................................................................................. 2-2


PRACTICE T EST QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ..................................................................... 2-15
Practice Selected-Response Questions ................................................................................. 2-15
Practice Constructed-Response Assignment ........................................................................ 2-25
A Sample Strong Response to the Practice Constructed-Response Assignment ............... 2-26
A Sample Weak Response to the Practice Constructed-Response Assignment ................ 2-29

CONSTRUCTED-RESPONSE ASSIGNMENT SCORING ............................................................. 2-31


Sample Performance Characteristics for Constructed-Response Assignments ................. 2-31
Sample Scoring Scale for Constructed-Response Assignments ........................................... 2-31

Readers should be advised that this study guide, including many of the
excerpts used herein, is protected by federal copyright law.

Copyright 2014 by the Office of Educational Quality and Accountability


and Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.
Evaluation Systems, Pearson, P.O. Box 226, Amherst, MA 01004

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators, CEOE, Oklahoma General Education Test, OGET,
Oklahoma Professional Teaching Examination, OPTE, Oklahoma Subject Area Tests, and OSAT are trademarks
of the Office of Educational Quality and Accountability and Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s).

Pearson and its logo are trademarks, in the U.S. and/or other countries, of Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s).

ii Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


STUDY GUIDE INTRODUCTION AND
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE
CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS FOR
OKLAHOMA EDUCATORS

The first two sections of the study guide are available in a separate PDF file. Click the link below to view or print these
sections.

Study Guide Introduction and General Information About the Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 1-1


FIELD-SPECIFIC INFORMATION
Test Competencies
Practice Test Questions and Answers
Constructed-Response Assignment Scoring

INTRODUCTION
This section includes a list of the test competencies, as well as a set of practice selected-response (multiple-choice)
questions and one or more practice constructed-response assignments (if applicable), for the test field included in this
study guide.

Test Competencies
The test competencies are broad conceptual statements that reflect the subject-matter skills, knowledge, and
understanding an entry-level educator needs to teach effectively in Oklahoma public schools. The list of test
competencies for each test field represents the only source of information about what a specific test will cover and
therefore should be reviewed carefully.

The descriptive statements that follow the competencies are included to provide examples of possible content
covered by each competency. These descriptive statements are neither exhaustive nor exclusionary.

Practice Test Questions


The practice selected-response questions and any practice constructed-response assignments included in this section
are designed to give you an introduction to the nature of the questions included in this OSAT test field. The practice
test questions represent the various types of questions you may expect to see on an actual test; however, they are not
designed to provide diagnostic information to help you identify specific areas of individual strengths and weaknesses or
to predict your performance on the test as a whole.

To help you prepare for your OSAT, each practice selected-response question in this section is preceded by the
competency it measures and followed by a brief explanation of the correct response. On the actual test, the
competencies, correct responses, and explanations will not be given.

If the test field included in this guide has a constructed-response assignment, sample responses are provided
immediately following the practice constructed-response assignment. The sample responses in this guide are for
illustrative purposes only. Your written response should be your original work, written in your own words, and not
copied or paraphrased from some other work.

A description of the process that is used for scoring the constructed-response assignment is provided in addition to the
OSAT performance characteristics and score scale.

When you are finished with the practice test questions, you may wish to go back and review the entire list of test
competencies and descriptive statements for your test field.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-1


TEST COMPETENCIES: PHYSICAL EDUCATION/HEALTH/SAFETY

SUBAREAS:
I. Healthy Growth, Development, and Relationships
II. Health-Related Physical Fitness
III. Motor Skills and Movement Activities
IV. Safe Living and Risk Reduction
V. Consumer, Community, and Environmental Health
VI. The Health and Physical Education Program

SUBAREA IHEALTHY GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND RELATIONSHIPS

Competency 0001

Demonstrate knowledge of the stages and characteristics of human growth and development.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Demonstrate knowledge of stages and characteristics of physical, cognitive, and social and emotional
development during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.
Recognize typical growth patterns and physical changes that occur at different developmental stages in the life
cycle.
Demonstrate knowledge of the influence of various factors (e.g., genetics, family history, lifestyle behaviors,
environment, nutrition) on growth and development.
Describe the interrelationships of physical, cognitive, and social and emotional growth, development, and
health during childhood and adolescence.

Competency 0002

Apply knowledge of the structures, functions, and interactions of human body systems.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Compare and contrast the structures, components, and functions of major body systems.
Apply knowledge of basic anatomy and physiology in relation to growth and development, overall health, and
recovery from illness and injury.
Apply knowledge of physiological changes that result from regular physical activity and healthy lifestyle
behaviors (e.g., effects on the cardiovascular, muscular, and skeletal structures and systems).
Apply knowledge of the interactions between body systems in producing movement and ways in which body
systems and energy pathways are utilized during physical activity.

2-2 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


Competency 0003

Analyze the importance of proper nutrition for maintaining and enhancing personal health.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Compare and contrast types, functions, and sources of essential nutrients and ways in which nutrition affects
growth and development.
Analyze nutritional needs, concerns, and requirements for various ages, health conditions, and purposes.
Apply knowledge of how to access and use nutritional information and guidelines (e.g., USDA's
ChooseMyPlate.gov) to establish, monitor, and achieve personal nutritional goals.
Select concepts, skills, and resources for evaluating the nutritional needs, concerns, and requirements for
various ages, health conditions, and purposes.
Interpret nutritional facts and labels and use this information to make informed health-enhancing decisions and
choices regarding food.
Analyze how dietary practices and behaviors are influenced by various factors (e.g., family, peers, availability,
cost, media messages).

Competency 0004

Apply knowledge of concepts, principles, and strategies for maintaining mental and emotional
health.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Recognize types and sources of stress, effects of stress on health, and strategies for coping with stress in
health-enhancing ways.
Analyze factors that affect mental and emotional health.
Apply knowledge of skills and strategies used to maintain and improve mental and emotional health.
Analyze the relationship between healthy behaviors (e.g., self-acceptance, effective communication, decision-
making skills) and mental and emotional health.
Apply knowledge of signs, symptoms, causes, and effects of mental and emotional health disorders, including
depression and suicidal tendencies, and methods and resources for treating, reporting, and obtaining help for
these conditions.
Apply knowledge of behaviors and traits associated with unhealthy eating patterns and eating disorders, causes
and effects of eating disorders, and types of assistance and resources for individuals with eating disorders.
Analyze the relationship between physical activity and emotional and mental well-being (e.g., the role of
regular physical activity in developing a positive body image and self-concept and in relieving mental and
emotional tension).
Examine the benefits of a physically active lifestyle (e.g., reduced stress, social interaction, improved work
productivity, reduced health care costs).

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Competency 0005

Apply knowledge of strategies and skills that support healthy communication and healthy
interpersonal, social, and family relationships.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Determine ways in which effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills can enhance social health and
improve interpersonal and family relationships.
Apply knowledge of principles, concepts, and techniques for expressing needs, desires, and feelings in healthy
ways.
Apply knowledge of factors that contribute to the development of friendships and social support systems and
ways of strengthening friendships and other interpersonal relationships.
Recognize characteristics of healthy and unhealthy dating relationships, responsibilities associated with dating,
and techniques for seeking help when confronted by inappropriate behaviors or dating violence.
Analyze the characteristics of healthy families and skills and strategies for advocating for and improving family
health and family relationships.
Examine ways in which functions, responsibilities, and the composition of families change with life events and
healthy strategies for coping with changes within families.
Apply knowledge of family problems, types and functions of family services and resources, and procedures for
obtaining assistance for children and families.

SUBAREA IIHEALTH-RELATED PHYSICAL FITNESS

Competency 0006

Analyze principles and components of health-related physical fitness.


The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Recognize the components of health-related physical fitness and identify activities that promote each
component.
Differentiate among types of physical fitness training (e.g., circuit, interval, isometric) and training and
conditioning principles (e.g., frequency, intensity, specificity, progressive overload).
Analyze various factors that influence physical fitness and health and potential health risks associated with
negative influences.

Competency 0007

Apply knowledge of principles, procedures, and activities for developing cardiovascular fitness.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of principles, skills, safety practices, and physiological processes involved in developing
cardiovascular fitness.
Apply knowledge of techniques and resources, including technology, for determining and monitoring intensity,
duration, and endurance levels during aerobic activities (e.g., calculating target heart rate, using heart rate
monitors).
Select appropriate cardiovascular fitness activities for various developmental levels and purposes.
Apply knowledge of the benefits of regular participation in cardiovascular fitness activities and strategies for
integrating these activities into daily life.

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Competency 0008

Apply knowledge of principles, procedures, and activities for promoting health-related muscular
strength, endurance, and flexibility.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of principles, skills, exercises, and proper form for promoting strength and endurance of the
major muscle groups of the body.
Recognize types of muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility training (e.g., progressive resistance, body
support, static and dynamic stretching activities) and appropriate equipment, practices, and considerations for
training.
Apply knowledge of techniques and procedures for evaluating muscular strength and endurance and
determining appropriate levels of intensity, duration, and frequency of training to improve muscular strength
and endurance.
Recognize components of flexibility (e.g., muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons) and principles, techniques, and
proper form for exercises that promote flexibility.
Select appropriate muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility activities for various muscles, joints,
developmental levels, and purposes.
Analyze the safety and effectiveness of various strengthening and flexibility exercises.
Apply knowledge of the benefits of regular participation in muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility
activities and strategies for integrating these activities into daily life.

Competency 0009

Apply knowledge of principles, strategies, and procedures for developing personal fitness and/or
weight management plans.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Analyze factors involved in planning and evaluating fitness plans and programs for individuals with various
strengths and needs.
Apply knowledge of principles and methods for developing physical fitness goals and for designing,
implementing, and monitoring personal fitness plans (e.g., assessing health status, setting realistic goals,
tracking progress).
Apply knowledge of principles and procedures for analyzing time, cost, accessibility, and other resource
factors in relation to physical fitness plans and activities.
Analyze the relationships between diet, physical activity, eating habits, and body composition (e.g., caloric
intake and expenditure, effects of eating habits on body composition).
Apply knowledge of procedures, activities, resources, and benefits involved in developing, estimating, and
maintaining healthy levels of body composition (e.g., reducing consumption of saturated fats, evaluating claims
of weight management programs, interpreting BMI).
Examine strategies and activities for integrating healthy eating patterns and effective weight management
practices into daily life.
Apply knowledge of ways in which physical activity patterns are likely to change throughout life and strategies
for addressing these changes, including how to plan for lifelong wellness.

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SUBAREA IIIMOTOR SKILLS AND MOVEMENT ACTIVITIES

Competency 0010

Apply knowledge of principles and characteristics of motor development.


The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Analyze sequences and characteristics of motor development, including perceptual motor development, and
various factors that influence motor development.
Apply knowledge of theories, concepts, and typical progressions of motor skill development and motor
learning.
Classify motor skills and describe critical elements of basic motor skills and specialized movement skills.
Apply knowledge of motor learning principles such as practice, retention, readiness, observational learning,
and transfer of learning as they relate to motor skill acquisition.
Apply knowledge of characteristics of motor learning feedback, techniques for detecting errors in motor
performance, and how to provide appropriate prompts, cues, and constructive feedback.

Competency 0011

Apply knowledge of movement concepts and principles related to the development of rhythmic
skills, locomotor movement, nonlocomotor movement, and manipulative skills.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Differentiate among basic elements of rhythm, techniques and activities for rhythmic skill development, and
appropriate cues and prompts for rhythmic movement.
Apply knowledge of movement concepts related to body awareness, spatial awareness, direction, level,
pathway, range, force, and speed in the context of rhythmic, locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative
activities.
Apply knowledge of types and characteristics of locomotor and nonlocomotor skills and appropriate activities
and strategies for developing locomotor and nonlocomotor skills.
Apply knowledge of the types and characteristics of manipulative skills and appropriate activities and
techniques for developing manipulative skills.
Determine appropriate strategies for integrating rhythmic skills with locomotor and nonlocomotor skills.
Apply knowledge of techniques, skill progressions, organizational strategies, safety practices, and proper use of
equipment for fundamental movements (e.g., tumbling, balance, and weight transfer).
Apply knowledge of techniques, elements, sequences, skill progressions, organizational strategies, safety
practices, and activities for creative movement and various forms of dance.

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Competency 0012

Analyze principles and concepts of biomechanics and their applications to movement activities.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Analyze how the human body and external forces create movement.
Analyze biomechanical and scientific principles and concepts related to motion, stability, center of gravity,
force projection and absorption, distance, momentum, speed, velocity, acceleration, and rotation.
Relate concepts and principles of biomechanics to movement challenges and sports activities.
Examine how to use principles and concepts of biomechanics to analyze motor skills and activities and to
improve motor performance.
Analyze ways in which anatomical differences and motor fitness variables affect human movement and motor
performances (e.g., in relation to skill level, fitness level, gender, age, body size and type).

Competency 0013

Apply knowledge of techniques, skills, activities, and safety practices for traditional and
nontraditional team activities and sports.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of rules, techniques, skill progressions, organizational strategies, safety practices, cues, types
and uses of equipment, and lead-up activities for traditional team activities and sports.
Apply knowledge of rules, techniques, skill progressions, organizational strategies, safety practices, cues, and
types and uses of equipment for nontraditional team activities and sports (e.g., korfball, lacrosse).
Analyze the functions of leadership in team activities and sports and the benefits of team and group
membership.
Apply knowledge of the role of traditional and nontraditional team activities and sports in promoting personal
management and social skills.

Competency 0014

Apply knowledge of techniques, skills, activities, and safety practices for individual, lifetime, and
recreational activities and sports.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of rules, techniques, skill progressions, organizational strategies, safety practices, cues, and
types and uses of equipment for individual and lifetime activities and sports.
Apply knowledge of techniques, skill progressions, organizational strategies, safety practices, supervisory
procedures, and cues for aquatic activities.
Apply knowledge of techniques, skill progressions, safety practices, organizational strategies, cues, and types
and uses of equipment for recreational and outdoor activities (e.g., orienteering, hiking, camping, spelunking).
Analyze the benefits of participation in individual, lifetime, and recreational activities and sports and how these
activities and sports provide students with opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, risk taking, self-expression,
improvement, and personal satisfaction and achievement.
Apply knowledge of the role of traditional and nontraditional individual, lifetime, and recreational activities and
sports in promoting personal management and social skills.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-7


SUBAREA IVSAFE LIVING AND RISK REDUCTION

Competency 0015

Analyze the nature, control, and prevention of illness and disease.


The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Analyze the significance of identifying, adopting, and maintaining personal health behaviors and practices in
order to prevent illness and disease.
Distinguish among types, characteristics, modes of transmission, and signs and symptoms of common illnesses
and chronic and communicable diseases.
Apply knowledge of how to prevent and reduce risks of chronic and communicable diseases.
Analyze how genetics and family history, environment, and lifestyle behaviors can affect personal health and
increase or decrease susceptibility to illness and disease.
Apply knowledge of principles and methods of detecting, managing, controlling, and treating illness and
disease.
Analyze the influence of public health policies, scientific research, and social, cultural, and economic factors on
the incidence and prevalence of diseases, including emerging diseases.

Competency 0016

Apply knowledge of methods and techniques for enhancing safety, responding to emergencies, and
providing first aid.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of principles, rules, and precautions related to traffic, bus, and pedestrian safety; fire
prevention; weapons safety; poison prevention; water safety; and safe recreation and play.
Examine common causes and effects of accidents, factors that contribute to accidents involving children and
adolescents, and strategies for accident prevention.
Apply knowledge of perceptions, behaviors, and situations that lead to intentional and unintentional injuries
(e.g., alcohol and drug use, fatigue, stress, poor judgment, risk taking) and strategies for reducing such risks.
Apply knowledge of strategies for recognizing and avoiding unsafe situations and risk-taking behaviors (e.g.,
examining the likelihood and potential severity of injury from risk taking, proposing ways to reduce or prevent
injuries).
Apply knowledge of guidelines and practices for personal and physical safety and procedures for obtaining
assistance in an emergency.
Apply knowledge of principles and procedures for responding to life-threatening respiratory and cardiac
emergencies.
Apply knowledge of principles and procedures for first aid and emergency medical care.

2-8 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


Competency 0017

Demonstrate knowledge of human sexuality and strategies for promoting sexual and reproductive
health.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Demonstrate knowledge of factors that influence decisions about sexuality (e.g., peer pressure, emotions,
physical maturity, media messages) and how to use health-enhancing decision-making skills in sexual situations.
Describe approaches and techniques that adolescents can use to predict possible outcomes and consequences
of sexual risk behaviors and to generate healthy alternatives to risk behaviors (e.g., abstinence, postponing
sexual behavior, setting limits).
Apply knowledge of strategies, skills, and resources that adolescents can use to counteract pressure to
become sexually active.
Demonstrate knowledge of types, characteristics, and modes of transmission of sexually transmitted infections
(STIs), including HIV, and the effects of STIs on individuals, families, and communities.
Demonstrate knowledge of the goals and objectives of the HIV/AIDS Prevention Education sections of
Oklahoma's core curriculum.
Recognize strategies, methods, and resources for avoiding pregnancy and STIs and for protecting reproductive
health.
Demonstrate knowledge of strategies and skills (e.g., refusal, coping, advocacy, conflict-negotiation, and
decision-making skills) for resisting and avoiding sexual advances, intimidation, and harassment.

Competency 0018

Analyze the consequences of using alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs and strategies for avoiding
and preventing their use.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Analyze how various factors influence alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use.
Analyze implications and effects of alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse (e.g., on emotional and physical health,
academic success, social relationships, job performance).
Apply knowledge of problem-solving, communication, stress management, and role-playing techniques and
skills used to resist and prevent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use.
Analyze how to use health-enhancing decision-making skills in relation to avoiding alcohol, tobacco, and other
drugs (e.g., analyzing when assistance is needed, using collaborative decision making).
Analyze ways in which various factors (e.g., character, home environment, affiliations, media, family, peers)
help or hinder healthy decision making about alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.
Analyze ways in which risk behaviors involving alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs influence the likelihood of
engaging in other unhealthy behaviors (e.g., using poor judgment, taking physical or sexual risks, driving under
the influence).
Examine issues related to legal and illegal drug use and types and characteristics of programs, organizations,
and processes related to the prevention and treatment of alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-9


Competency 0019

Apply knowledge of principles and strategies for conflict resolution and bullying and violence
prevention.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of how to use communication, negotiation, collaboration, and refusal skills to avoid or
reduce health risks related to conflict.
Analyze causes and effects of positive and negative peer pressure and skills and strategies for responding to
negative peer pressure (e.g., refusal and negotiation skills).
Apply knowledge of peer mediation and conflict-resolution strategies used to prevent, manage, and resolve
interpersonal conflicts (e.g., managing anger, identifying nonviolent strategies to manage conflict).
Apply knowledge of appropriate responses, strategies, policies, and resources for helping students deal with
face-to-face bullying, cyberbullying, intimidation, exclusion, and aggression.
Analyze causes and effects of violence and strategies for recognizing, avoiding, and dealing with unwanted,
threatening, dangerous, and violent situations.
Recognize signs and types of abuse, emotional and health-related consequences of abuse, and strategies and
resources for preventing and stopping abuse.

SUBAREA VCONSUMER, COMMUNITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Competency 0020

Apply knowledge of how to use risk-assessment, critical-thinking, goal-setting, and decision-making


skills to make informed choices about health behaviors and lifestyle factors.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of concepts, skills, and resources needed to assess personal health risks and strengths; avoid
and reduce health risks; and establish, monitor, and attain health-related goals.
Analyze various influences on health-related behaviors and strategies for promoting responsibility for making
informed choices about personal and family health.
Apply knowledge of how to use critical-thinking and decision-making skills to address and solve health-related
issues and problems.
Apply knowledge of strategies for making health-related decisions based on risk assessment and appropriate
ways to implement these decisions to reduce risks and enhance health.
Demonstrate the ability to apply communication skills and techniques to enhance personal and family health.
Apply knowledge of strategies for improving and maintaining personal and family resources in relation to
health, fitness, and physical activity.
Apply knowledge of methods, activities, and resources used to analyze health-related problems and issues,
identify alternatives, consider outcomes and consequences, and make informed decisions and positive health
choices.

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Competency 0021

Apply knowledge of principles and skills for accessing, evaluating, and selecting valid information,
products, and services that enhance health.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of skills for researching, locating, and accessing health-related information, products, and
services from home, school, and the community.
Analyze the validity, reliability, usefulness, and safety of health-related information, products, and services.
Apply knowledge of principles for managing responsibilities and personal and family resources to maintain and
improve the health and well-being of self, family, and the community.
Describe situations that require professional health services and principles and strategies that children and
adolescents can use to locate and access school and community health resources.
Identify the roles and characteristics of health care providers, organizations, and insurance systems, and
criteria and techniques for evaluating, selecting, and using health care providers and services.
Apply knowledge of procedures, regulations, policies, and agencies designed to protect consumers of health-
related products, programs, and services.

Competency 0022

Analyze concepts, principles, and issues associated with environmental health.


The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Analyze the effects of various environmental conditions and problems (e.g., pollution, hazardous wastes) on
the health and safety of individuals and communities.
Analyze causes and effects of dangerous weather conditions and appropriate safety precautions and practices
to use in these conditions.
Analyze ways in which human behavior affects the environment and how to influence and support others in
making positive environmental health choices.
Apply knowledge of conservation principles and strategies for preventing and reducing environmental health
risks to self and others (e.g., conserving energy and water, proper disposal of waste).
Analyze the effects of environmental advocacy groups, government legislation, and scientific, engineering, and
technological advances on environmental health (e.g., on disease prevention, food production).

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Competency 0023

Apply knowledge of the roles of community, private, and public services and agencies in supporting
safe and healthy communities.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of the roles of government and private agencies (e.g., Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, National Institutes of Health, American Cancer Society) in providing health promotion and disease
prevention services and information.
Apply knowledge of the functions and responsibilities of community and public health agencies and principles
and procedures for accessing health information and services from community and public agencies.
Apply knowledge of public policies and government regulations that promote and support health and safety.
Apply knowledge of strategies and resources for advocating for and improving community health and safety
(e.g., adapting health messages and communication techniques to specific target audiences).
Recognize characteristics of community health and fitness resources and ways of accessing and using
community resources to enhance health and fitness.

Competency 0024

Analyze the influence of society, culture, and the media on personal, family, and community health.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Analyze the influence of societal and cultural factors on health beliefs, practices, and behaviors.
Analyze the influence of peer pressure and social norms on the perception and practice of health behaviors.
Analyze the effects of media on personal, family, and community health (e.g., ways in which the media sends
mixed messages about nutrition, attractiveness, sexual activity, alcohol use, and violence).
Apply knowledge of advertising and marketing methods and skills and techniques for detecting and resisting
unhealthy media messages.
Examine whether advertisements, promotional claims, and marketing practices related to health and fitness
behaviors, products, and services are accurate, exaggerated, misleading, or fraudulent.

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SUBAREA VITHE HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM

Competency 0025

Apply knowledge of significant concepts, issues, trends, goals, and purposes associated with
planning health and physical education programs.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Analyze key concepts, issues, trends, goals, and purposes associated with health and physical education
programs.
Apply knowledge of principles and procedures for developing instructional strategies and plans based on state
and national health and physical education standards.
Apply knowledge of procedures and criteria for creating an effective scope and sequence plan for health and
physical education instruction and for formulating clear and measurable goals and objectives.
Identify criteria and methods for assessing health and physical education programs and ways to use program
assessment information to adapt or modify activities and programs and to improve instruction.
Apply knowledge of current technologies, including information technology, and their applications to health
and physical education instruction, and ways to integrate technology into learning activities.
Analyze the cognitive dimensions of health and physical activities and ways to foster critical-thinking, decision-
making, problem-solving, and goal-setting skills in the context of health and physical education activities.
Analyze the relationships between health and physical education and other subject areas and methods for
integrating health and fitness instruction into the overall school curriculum.
Apply knowledge of how to use motivational principles and classroom management techniques to create a safe
learning environment that encourages positive social interaction and active engagement in learning.
Apply knowledge of legal, ethical, and professional practices and issues related to health and physical
education.

Competency 0026

Apply knowledge of how to implement health and physical education instruction, including how to
modify and adapt instruction to address special and diverse learning needs.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Demonstrate the ability to design and implement instructional methods and activities that are based on
principles of effective instruction and that encourage students to examine and interpret physical activity and
health issues from diverse perspectives.
Apply knowledge of age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate health and physical education activities
and strategies that support students' physical, intellectual, social, and emotional development.
Apply knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques that foster inquiry,
collaboration, and active participation in health and physical education lessons and activities.
Recognize ways in which students differ in their approaches to learning and appropriate strategies, services,
and resources that address diverse learning needs.
Analyze teaching resources and curriculum materials based on comprehensiveness, accuracy, usefulness, safety
considerations, and the ability to address special and diverse learning needs.
Apply knowledge of appropriate methods of instruction for students with special needs and for students from
diverse backgrounds and techniques for modifying rules, equipment, and settings to accommodate students
with special and diverse learning needs.
Apply knowledge of strategies and techniques for adapting and modifying instructional approaches, activities,
and organizational strategies to ensure the progress and safety of all students.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-13


Competency 0027

Apply knowledge of how to use health and physical education assessment strategies to foster
students' physical, intellectual, social, and emotional development.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Compare and contrast types, characteristics, advantages, and limitations of various formal and informal
assessment methods, instruments, and technology.
Apply knowledge of how to use psychomotor and cognitive assessment strategies and formal and informal
assessment techniques to assess student performance, evaluate the teaching and learning process, and provide
feedback and communicate progress to students and parents/guardians.
Demonstrate the ability to select and align assessment to health and physical education goals and learning
outcomes.
Apply knowledge of protocols and procedures for state-approved fitness tests.
Apply knowledge of appropriate ways to use, interpret, and communicate assessment results to different
audiences and for different purposes.

Competency 0028

Apply knowledge of the components of a coordinated school health program, interrelationships


between the components, and strategies for promoting and advocating for health and wellness.
The following topics are examples of content that may be covered under this competency.
Apply knowledge of the components, characteristics, functions, purposes, and goals of a coordinated school
health program.
Examine the rationale for a comprehensive school health education program, the role of health education
within a coordinated school health program, and the kinds of school and community support necessary to
implement a coordinated school health education program.
Apply knowledge of how to use appropriate data-gathering instruments to address national-, state-, and
district-level behavioral risk and needs assessment data, and how to use those data to shape and inform
instruction.
Apply knowledge of principles and methods for collaborating with students, families, administrators and other
school staff, agencies, organizations, and community members to promote and advocate for health, physical
activity, and wellness.
Recognize strategies, resources, and activities that support and enhance professional development (e.g.,
participation in conferences and collegial activities, professional literature, mentors).
Demonstrate the ability to use various communication strategies, media, and technologies to communicate,
network, collaborate, and foster engagement in the coordinated school health program and within the
teaching profession.

2-14 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: PHYSICAL EDUCATION/HEALTH/SAFETY

Practice Selected-Response Questions

Competency 0001
Demonstrate knowledge of the stages and characteristics of human growth and development.

1. The signs of a common childhood dietary


deficiency include shortened attention
span, limited ability to persevere in
challenging academic tasks, and decreased
overall cognitive performance. Which of
the following nutritional problems is
closely linked to these negative influences
on learning?

A. a low intake of fiber

B. a vitamin A deficiency

C. a high intake of protein

D. an iron deficiency

Correct Response: D. Iron is a dietary mineral that is essential for various bodily functions, including the transport
of oxygen in the blood. It is vital for healthy brain development. Children are often at risk for iron deficiency primarily
because as they grow, their increased need for iron may not be met through their diets. Without intervention, a child
whose intake of iron is low will eventually develop iron deficiency anemia. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include
weakness, fatigue, problems with memory and thinking processes, decreased work and school performance, slow
cognitive and social development during childhood, and decreased immune function.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-15


Competency 0007
Apply knowledge of principles, procedures, and activities for developing cardiovascular fitness.

2. A ninth grader who wishes to improve cardiorespiratory endurance and decrease body fat has devised
a personal fitness plan. An excerpt of the fitness plan is shown below.

Fitness Plan

Frequency of Workout: 5 days per week

Intensity of Workout: moderate

Workout Components:

1. Warm-up (10 minutes): brisk walking or jogging in place followed by dynamic stretching

2. Aerobic workout (at least 30 minutes): cycling or running

3. Cool-down (1015 minutes): walking or jogging followed by flexibility exercises

Which of the following changes would be


most appropriate for increasing the
effectiveness of this fitness plan in helping
the student achieve his or her goals?

A. stretching before, not after, the


warm-up activity

B. incorporating agility and power


training into the aerobic portion of
the workout

C. increasing the frequency of the


entire workout

D. adding a resistance or weight


training component two or three
days per week

Correct Response: D. Adding a weight-bearing component to this personal fitness plan, in the form of body-
support, resistance machine, or weight-lifting activities, will help the student increase muscle mass and decrease body
fat. These types of strength training activities raise the body's basal metabolic rate, which allows the body to burn
more calories during exercise and at rest, thus aiding in weight management. Engaging in this workout component two
or three days per week will permit the student's muscles to rest, recover, and become stronger between workouts.
Moderate-intensity aerobic activity will increase the student's cardiorespiratory capacity and stamina; dynamic
stretching and other flexibility activities will improve the student's joint range of motion and posture; and resistance,
body-support, or weight training activities will round out this personal fitness plan by enhancing the student's muscular
strength and ability to burn fat efficiently, thereby improving body composition.

2-16 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


Competency 0008
Apply knowledge of principles, procedures, and activities for promoting health-related muscular strength, endurance,
and flexibility.

3. In the exercise shown below, the student


pushes his elbow toward his chest and
holds the stretch for 15 seconds. This
exercise targets which of the following
muscles?

A. deltoid

B. rotator cuff

C. latissimus dorsi

D. brachialis

Correct Response: A. The exercise shown in the diagram is known as a shoulder or deltoid stretch. In a deltoid
stretch, the participant reaches one arm across the chest toward the opposite shoulder. The free hand is placed on
the elbow and pulls it gently in toward the chest until a stretch in the side of the shoulder is felt. The stretch is then
repeated on the other side. The lateral part of the deltoid muscle is mainly responsible for abducting the shoulder and
arm (moving them away from the middle of the body to the side). The deltoids are used in conjunction with other
muscles for many movements, such as throwing a ball or swinging a golf club or baseball bat. Performing deltoid
stretches helps keep the shoulders flexible, which in turn helps prevent injuries associated with overuse or
overextension of the joint and surrounding muscles.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-17


Competency 0012
Analyze principles and concepts of biomechanics and their applications to movement activities.

4. A physical education class is working


on outdoor adventure activities that
require understanding and application
of static and dynamic balance skills
(e.g., balancing on a small platform,
walking across a log). Which of the
following biomechanical concepts would
be most important to introduce as part of
this unit?

A. center of gravity

B. angular momentum

C. torque

D. centripetal force

Correct Response: A. It would be most appropriate to introduce the concept of center of gravity, as it is directly
applicable to the balance skills being practiced by the class. Activities that allow students to explore the concept of
center of gravity will help them learn about the effects of gravity on balance. One important concept to introduce is
that the center of gravity occurs in the body at a point where weight is equally distributed on all sides. Base of support
is another important concept related to center of gravity. When standing, increasing the distance between the feet
increases one's base of support. The height of one's center of gravity above one's base of support affects balance and
stability: lowering one's center of gravity by squatting down improves stability, and standing up straight, which raises
one's center of gravity, decreases stability.

2-18 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


Competency 0013
Apply knowledge of techniques, skills, activities, and safety practices for traditional and nontraditional team activities
and sports.

5. The following goal is a primary aim of a


middle school physical education
program.

Appreciate the value of teamwork in


group activities and apply cooperative
skills during physical activities.

During a unit on volleyball, which of the


following types of activities would be
most effective for encouraging students to
work toward this program goal?

A. involving students in lead-up games


in which the objective is to have
each student serve as many times as
possible

B. encouraging students who are


temporarily rotated out of games to
support teammates with positive
comments

C. asking students to choose teammates


and form their own teams at the
beginning of each class period

D. having students focus on passing


and setting skills while playing their
own positions in practice games

Correct Response: D. Passing and setting, as opposed to serving and spiking, are the elements of volleyball that
require the most cooperation and communication between players. Emphasizing the importance of players' keeping to
their own positions and maintaining frequent communication helps develop an overall sense of team dynamics and
strategy among players and limits the inclination of players to act individually.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-19


Competency 0019
Apply knowledge of principles and strategies for conflict resolution and bullying and violence prevention.

6. In a school district, the elementary,


middle, and high schools offer a
coordinated, well-established conflict-
resolution program. Having well-known
and established procedures for conflict
resolution helps prevent violence
primarily by:

A. increasing teachers' awareness of


potential interpersonal conflicts
between students.

B. providing students with prevention


strategies and defined alternatives to
violence.

C. rewarding students for engaging in


nonviolent behavior.

D. communicating clearly to students


and staff that violence is
unacceptable in all situations.

Correct Response: B. Having established routines for how to handle conflict demonstrates an understanding that
some conflicts will naturally occur but can be managed in proactive, peaceful ways. Engaging students in role plays and
other conflict-resolution activities that involve recognizing emotions, handling anger in appropriate ways, and using
active listening and negotiation skills provides students with valuable practice in avoiding, preventing, and managing
conflicts. Peer mediation programs, in which trained students facilitate resolving conflicts between two student
disputants or small groups, have proven effective in changing the way students understand and resolve conflict in their
lives. These activities and programs improve students' self-management, listening, decision-making, and critical-thinking
skills, as well as improve school climate.

2-20 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


Competency 0022
Analyze concepts, principles, and issues associated with environmental health.

7. Even small amounts of some environ-


mental substances are dangerous to
children because they tend to
bioaccumulate in the human body,
increasing in concentration over time.
Some can cause neurophysical effects in
children, including nervous system
damage, liver and kidney damage,
stomach and intestinal irritation, anemia,
and migraines. Which of the following
types of exposures is most closely
associated with these characteristics and
symptoms?

A. exposure to hydrofluorocarbons
used in aerosol products,
refrigeration, air-conditioning, and
the production of insulating foams

B. exposure to ground-level ozone


produced when air pollutants from
automobile emissions and
manufacturing operations interact
with sunlight

C. exposure to heavy metals via


pathways such as food, ambient air,
soil and dust, drinking water
supplies, and contact with
household items

D. exposure to trace amounts of


prescription drugs, including
antiseizure and other psychiatric
medications, found in streams,
storm runoffs, and water supplies

Correct Response: C. Exposure to heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic can occur via
pathways such as food; air; soil and dust in agricultural, residential, and industrial settings; drinking water supplies; and
contact with household items. Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized or excreted by the body
and accumulate in the soft tissues; they are especially dangerous for children's growing bodies because they target
developing organs. Ingestion is a common route of exposure in children, who may develop toxic levels from normal
hand-to-mouth activity while playing in contaminated soil, or by inhaling, tasting, or eating objects that contain heavy
metals (e.g., paint chips, dirt, toys). Lead, a soft metal that was used in paint, pipes, and drains for many years,
accounts for most cases of heavy metal poisoning in children. Children can be exposed to methylmercury by eating
contaminated fish and shellfish. Mercury is also used in paint, batteries, fluorescent bulbs, and many other industrial
and household items.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-21


Competency 0023
Apply knowledge of the roles of community, private, and public services and agencies in supporting safe and healthy
communities.

8. Which of the following tasks is a primary


mission of the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (FDA)?

A. prohibiting and prosecuting "unfair


or deceptive acts or practices"
related to wholesale and retail sales
and trade

B. ensuring that pesticides used in


agricultural food crops do not
threaten domestic animals or
endangered species

C. pursuing food safety using a system


of regulatory provisions and
inspections "from farm to table" and
for imported foods

D. testing all ingredients in cosmetics


and herbal products for safety and
conformity with no-testing-on-
animals regulations

Correct Response: C. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the federal agency that is responsible for
overseeing most of the U.S. food supply. A vital part of the FDA's mission and a primary task of FDAs Center for
Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) is to protect public health by ensuring the safety and security of food
through a system of regulatory provisions and inspections. CFSAN's responsibilities include establishing science-based
standards for preventing foodborne illness and ensuring compliance with these standards; certifying the safety of food,
food additives, and animal feed; protecting the food and feed supply from contamination; and ensuring that food labels
are truthful and contain reliable information. The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act grants the FDA the authority to
recall food products, calls for more frequent inspections of food facilities, and provides significant enhancements to the
FDA's ability to oversee food produced in foreign countries and imported into the United States.

2-22 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


Competency 0025
Apply knowledge of significant concepts, issues, trends, goals, and purposes associated with planning health and
physical education programs.

9. Before the start of a school year, a health


education teacher sends a notice home to
the parents/guardians of students enrolled
in a health class in which the topic of
sexuality will be covered. The notice
includes learning goals and objectives for
the semester and briefly describes the
lessons that will be presented to students.
According to the Oklahoma School Code
and the "Healthy Students Act of 2012," a
parent/guardian who has a child enrolled
in a class that covers sexual health
education has the right to:

A. exempt his or her child from such


instruction.

B. attend staff development programs


for teachers who provide instruction
related to sexual health.

C. verify that no more than three hours


of instructional time are devoted to
sex education.

D. review and amend sexual health


education materials prior to their use
in class.

Correct Response: A. The Oklahoma School Code provides parents/guardians with the right to exempt a student
from a class or program in which sexual topics, behaviors, or attitudes are to be discussed. No student is required to
participate in a sex education class or program if a parent/guardian of the student objects in writing to such
participation.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-23


Competency 0027
Apply knowledge of how to use health and physical education assessment strategies to foster students' physical,
intellectual, social, and emotional development.

10. A health education teacher relies largely


on ongoing informal performance
assessments to evaluate students' progress
in class. To ensure that these performance
assessments are useful to students, it is
most important for the teacher to follow
which of the following guidelines?

A. Ensure that each student's


assessment of his or her own
performance is factored into any
teacher assessment of performance.

B. Provide students with highly


specific and concrete feedback
about both their strengths and areas
needing improvement.

C. Ensure that students are given prior


notification about upcoming
assessments and ample opportunity
to prepare.

D. Encourage each student to provide


input with regard to selecting
specific skills and activities to be
assessed.

Correct Response: B. Students need detailed, constructive feedback in order to be able to accurately assess and
understand for themselves both their progress and areas that require further work. Such feedback is critical in
allowing students to recognize precisely what specific steps and strategies will best help them improve their future
performance.

2-24 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


Practice Constructed-Response Assignment

11. Use the information below to complete the exercise that follows.

A physical educator is beginning an instructional unit on basketball that will consist of eight one-hour
meetings with a class of about 20 students.

Using your knowledge of motor skills and movement activities, write an essay in which you:

specify the grade level for which instruction is being developed;

describe three basketball skills that should be included in the unit and explain the critical elements of
performance for each of these skills;

identify common errors associated with each skill and strategies for correcting them; and

describe a sequence of activities for developing each skill.

FOR YOUR REFERENCE ONLYThe constructed response item is written to assess understanding in
Subarea III, Motor Skills and Movement Activities, which consists of the competencies listed below.

Apply knowledge of principles and characteristics of motor development.

Apply knowledge of movement concepts and principles related to the development of rhythmic skills,
locomotor movement, nonlocomotor movement, and manipulative skills.

Analyze principles and concepts of biomechanics and their applications to movement activities.

Apply knowledge of techniques, skills, activities, and safety practices for traditional and nontraditional
team activities and sports.

Apply knowledge of techniques, skills, activities, and safety practices for individual, lifetime, and
recreational activities and sports.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-25


A Sample Strong Response to the Practice Constructed-Response Assignment

A fourth- or fifth-grade instructional unit on basketball should address basic


dribbling, passing, and shooting skills, using a variety of techniques such as drills,
partner work, and modified games. At the elementary level, a half-court or modified
court is often used, and the basket rim is typically lowered from regulation height.

The critical elements of dribbling include bouncing a ball with control, using either
hand to dribble, and keeping the ball between waist and knee level while dribbling.
The player should position the ball slightly in front of the body, with the nondribbling
hand protecting the ball. The dribbling hand should contact the ball with the pads of
spread fingers and push or propel the ball with a light touch, while the student
maintains a flexible wrist. The student should keep the head up while dribbling. One
common error is slapping or hitting the ball instead of pushing it; students should be
encouraged to use a "light touch" to correct this tendency. Another common error is
looking down at the ball. Students should be reminded to keep their heads up so that
they will be able to find and pass to open teammates and avoid defensive players in a
game situation. Having students shadow the movements of a leader while dribbling is
an effective way to encourage students to look up. An appropriate sequence of
activities for developing ball control and dribbling skills would be bouncing a ball while
standing still, dribbling the length of the gym, dribbling around cones, changing speeds
while dribbling (e.g., dribbling while walking, trotting, running), and playing dribble tag.

A two-handed chest pass is used as an outlet pass following a rebound or steal,


when passing the ball in from out of bounds, or when moving downcourt and passing
off a dribble. Critical elements in performing a chest pass include holding the ball
close to the chest directly in front of the body and placing the fingers of both hands
on opposite sides of the ball with the thumbs in back, parallel to each other. The
elbows should point outward to protect the ball but remain close to the body. The
student should extend both arms and step forward with one leg toward the receiver.
Weight is transferred forward as the arms extend fully, and the wrists are snapped
on release. The eyes should remain focused on the target (receiver's chest). The chest
pass should be practiced first without a ball and then with a ball against chest-high
wall targets: with a stationary partner, with a partner moving toward the passer
(opposing line drill), and finally with a partner moving down the court with the passer.
Bounce passes with partners can also be incorporated into the sequence of
instructional activities. One common error in executing chest passes is improper hand
position on the ball; this can be corrected by reminding students to rotate their
fingers upward as the pass is thrown. Another common error is failure to transfer
weight forward for momentum. Students should be reminded to take one step
forward in the direction of the pass.

(continued)

2-26 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


A Sample Strong Response to the Practice Constructed-Response Assignment (continued)

Instruction in shooting should include the essentials of a set shot. Proper


form includes placing the shooting forearm parallel to the floor with the elbow
bent to form an L and the ball resting lightly on the tips of the fingers with the
wrist flexed back. The guide hand should be placed on the side of the ball. Motion
starts with a flexion and extension of the legs. The ball should be raised from
waist level to a release at head level, with the palm of the shooting hand facing
the backboard. The shot is completed by extending the shooting arm from the
elbow and flexing the wrist downward, forming a "goose neck" on the follow-
through. Proper form should be taught first without the ball. When a ball is
added, the "shot" can be taken between partners or against wall targets so that
students are able to practice form before accuracy. Gradually, targets and
baskets can be added. Shooting drills in which students form lines and take turns
shooting can be used, with shots taken close to the basket and then farther away.
Introducing bank shots from the side can be used, emphasizing use of the
rectangle on the backboard as a target. Repetitive shots from certain spots on
the court also provide valuable practice. Common errors in executing the set shot
include not bending the knees sufficiently to generate force and lurching and
lunging during the shot. Students should be encouraged to flex and extend the legs
to achieve maximum force and a smooth trajectory. Another error is not having
the elbow under the ball. This can be corrected by having students keep their
thumb and little finger close to the same seam line on the basketball. Another
common error is jerking the shooting arm back after the shot. This can be
corrected by having students wave "good-bye" to their shot, holding the follow-
through until the ball reaches the target.

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-27


Rationale for the Sample Strong Response

Please note that the response is evaluated based upon the four performance characteristics of Purpose, Subject Matter
Knowledge, Support, and Rationale. Please also note how the score point descriptions are based upon how the
examinee attends to the performance characteristics. You should be very familiar with the CEOE performance
characteristics and score scale and refer to them when reviewing this rationale.

The response fulfills the purpose of the assignment (refer to the instructions for the assignment) by specifying a grade
level (i.e., fourth or fifth grade), describing three basketball skills (i.e., dribbling, passing, and shooting), identifying
common errors associated with each skill and strategies for correcting each error, and describing a sequence of
activities for developing each skill. Note how the writer succinctly addresses the first bullet in the very first sentence of
the response. The writer also specifies accommodations for basketball that are used for this age group. The response
reflects a thorough knowledge and understanding of basketball. For instance, the writer accurately describes three
basketball skills (i.e., dribbling, passing, and shooting) that should be included in the unit. The writer uses sound
supporting evidence as he or she describes the critical elements of each of the identified skills. For instance, the writer
explains that the critical elements of dribbling include "bouncing a ball with control, using either hand to dribble, and
keeping the ball between waist and knee level." The writer goes on to describe, in detail, how the hand should contact
the ball. The response then provides an appropriate application of subject matter knowledge as the writer explains two
common errors associated with dribbling and explains suitable strategies for correcting each error. For example, the
writer states that one common error is "looking down at the ball" while dribbling. To correct this error the writer
provides two specific strategies, including shadowing the "movements of a leader" and reminding students "to keep
their heads up" while dribbling. Lastly, the writer provides a comprehensive understanding of the topic as he or she
describes an appropriate, detailed sequence of activities for developing the skill of dribbling. The writer follows this
comprehensive approach as he or she describes the same elements (i.e., explaining the critical elements, identifying
common errors, describing strategies to correct each error, and describing a sequence of activities for developing each
skill) for instructing students on how to pass and how to shoot a basketball. Overall, this writer has demonstrated an
ably reasoned, comprehensive understanding of the topic.

2-28 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


A Sample Weak Response to the Practice Constructed-Response Assignment

Teaching basketball to sixth and seventh grade students could be a difficult task.
Assuming students have not played basketball in the past, the teacher should start at
the beginning. This means the teacher needs to explain to students how the game
works, what the rules are, and what the basics are for playing. In particular, the
physical educator should begin with teaching students the basics of basketball; including:
how to dribble the ball, pass the ball, and make a basket.

The first skill students need to learn is how to dribble the ball. The teacher
should first demonstrate what dribbling the ball looks like. Dribbling the ball would
include bouncing a ball, but not bouncing the ball higher than ones waist. To dribble
the ball the students should keep the ball in front of them, use only one hand, and keep
their head up. Students should be able to bounce the ball without looking at it. This is
the biggest error with dribbling. Students tend to look at the ball when they are
dribbling it. The best way to correct this problem is practice, practice, practice! The
teacher can first allow students to learn to dribble while looking at the ball. Then the
teacher can gradually tell students to stop looking at the ball and practice walking with
the ball while dribbling, so they have to look where they are going. By first dribbling in
place, then walking, students will slowly master their dribbling skills.

There are many different ways to pass a basketball. The best way for this
grade level would be to teach students to use a two-handed chest pass. To do this,
students need to hold the ball in front of their body, close to their chest. Students
should point their elbows outward to protect the ball. A common error with this skill is
that students try to pass the ball using only one hand. To correct this, the teacher
should remind students to use two hands and the teacher should model how to pass the
ball using two hands. The best way to learn how to pass a ball is to practice. There are
many ways to practice; the teacher should have students work in pairs and practice
passing the ball from one student to another.

The last skill students need to learn is how to make a basket. If students do not
learn how to make a basket, they will not be able to win a basketball game! Learning
to make a basket is probably the most fun part of basketball, but it can be very
challenging. The teacher can model how to shoot the ball using proper form; the
teacher should show how to bend the legs and how to hold their hands above their
head. Then the instructor can have students practice while she helps correct their
form, working one-on-one with students. After a lot of practice, the teacher can have
students practice shooting drills, so that everyone learns to make a basket.

After students have mastered these three skills they will be ready to play a real
game of basketball!

Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety 2-29


Rationale for the Sample Weak Response

Please note that the response is evaluated based upon the four performance characteristics of Purpose, Subject Matter
Knowledge, Support, and Rationale. Please also note how the score point descriptions are based upon how the
examinee attends to the performance characteristics. You should be very familiar with the CEOE performance
characteristics and score scale and refer to them when reviewing this rationale.

The purpose of this assignment (refer to the instructions for the assignment) is only partially achieved. The writer has
specified a grade level (i.e., sixth and seventh grade) for which the instructional unit on basketball is being developed.
The writer then attempts to describe three basketball skills (i.e., how to dribble the ball, pass the ball, and make a
basket) that should be included in the unit. The writer identifies three important skills; however, the explanation for
the critical elements of performance for each of these skills is lacking. The explanation for how to dribble a ball is fairly
strong; unfortunately, the explanation for how to make a basket is weak. For instance, to dribble the ball, the writer
explains that students should not dribble the ball "higher than one's waist" and should "keep the ball in front of them,"
"use only one hand," and "keep their head up." Each of these four examples are appropriate and are critical elements
for dribbling. On the other hand, when it comes to making a basket, the writer states the teacher should show
students "how to bend the legs" and "how to hold their hands above their head." These two examples demonstrate a
poorly reasoned understanding of how to make a basket, as the writer does not explain what the proper stance is for
making a basket. The writer does identify a common error for each of the three skills; however, the strategies to
correct each skill are inappropriate or weak. For each skill, the writer states that students should "practice" to correct
the errors, but the rationale for how the strategy of "practice" will help students is limited and contains few relevant
examples. Lastly, the writer fails to describe a sequence of activities for developing each skill, leaving out a response to
the fourth bullet entirely. Overall, this response demonstrates a limited understanding of how to teach basketball to
sixth and seventh grade students.

2-30 Certification Examinations for Oklahoma Educators Study GuidePhysical Education/Health/Safety


CONSTRUCTED-RESPONSE ASSIGNMENT SCORING
All responses to OSAT constructed-response assignments (written and oral) are scored using scoring scales that
describe varying levels of performance. These scales were approved by committees of Oklahoma educators who
reviewed both the performance characteristics and the scoring scales.

Each response is scored by multiple scorers according to standardized procedures during scoring sessions held
immediately after each administration of the CEOE. Scorers with relevant professional backgrounds are oriented to
these procedures before the scoring session and are carefully monitored during the scoring sessions.

A constructed-response assignment response is designated unscorable if it is blank, not on the assigned topic, illegible
or unintelligible, not in the appropriate language, or lacking a sufficient amount of original work to score. If you do not
provide a scorable response for each constructed-response assignment on your test, you cannot pass the test
regardless of your scores on the other section(s) of the test.

Sample Performance Characteristics for Constructed-Response Assignments


PURPOSE The extent to which the response achieves the purpose of the assignment

SUBJECT MATTER KNOWLEDGE Accuracy and appropriateness in the application of subject matter knowledge

SUPPORT Quality and relevance of supporting details

RATIONALE Soundness of argument and degree of understanding of the subject matter

Sample Scoring Scale for Constructed-Response Assignments


SCORE
POINT SCORE POINT DESCRIPTION

The "4" response reflects a thorough knowledge and understanding of the subject matter.
The purpose of the assignment is fully achieved.
4 There is a substantial, accurate, and appropriate application of subject matter knowledge.
The supporting evidence is sound; there are high-quality, relevant examples.
The response reflects an ably reasoned, comprehensive understanding of the topic.
The "3" response reflects a general knowledge and understanding of the subject matter.
The purpose of the assignment is largely achieved.
3 There is a generally accurate and appropriate application of subject matter knowledge.
The supporting evidence generally supports the discussion; there are some relevant examples.
The response reflects a general understanding of the topic.
The "2" response reflects a partial knowledge and understanding of the subject matter.
The purpose of the assignment is partially achieved.
2 There is a limited, possibly inaccurate or inappropriate application of subject matter knowledge.
The supporting evidence is limited; there are few relevant examples.
The response reflects a limited, poorly reasoned understanding of the topic.
The "1" response reflects little or no knowledge and understanding of the subject matter.
The purpose of the assignment is not achieved.
1 There is little or no appropriate or accurate application of subject matter knowledge.
The supporting evidence, if present, is weak; there are few or no relevant examples.
The response reflects little or no reasoning about or understanding of the topic.
The response is unscorable because it is illegible, not written to the assigned topic, written in a
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language other than English, or lacking a sufficient amount of original work to score.
B There is no response to the assignment.

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