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Toward a New Energy Paradigm


istributed generation Hence, the DG is becoming a part of
JOSEP M. GUERRERO, (DG) is emerging as the strategic plans of most countries
FREDE BLAABJERG, a new paradigm to to address current challenges associ-
TOSHKO ZHELEV, produce on-site ated with energy management.
KAS HEMMES, highly reliable and Today, electrical and energy engi-
ERIC MONMASSON, good quality electri- neering have to face a new scenario in
SAMIR JEMEI, cal power. Thus, the DG which small distributed power genera-
MARIA P. COMECH, systems are presented as a suitable tors and dispersed energy storage
RAMON GRANADINO, form to offer highly reliable electrical devices have to be integrated together
and JUAN I. FRAU power supply. The concept is particu- into the grid. The new electrical grid
larly interesting when different kinds will deliver electricity from suppliers
of energy resources are available, such to consumers using digital technology
as photovoltaic (PV) panels, fuel cells to control appliances at consumers
(FCs), or wind turbines. The DG of dif- homes to save energy, reducing cost
ferent kinds of energy systems allow and increasing reliability and transpar-
for the integration of renewable and ency. The idea behind this concept is
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MIE.2010.935862 nonconventional energy resources. to have devices that plug into your


outlet and you would plug your appli-
ance into this device. These devices The integration of new technology in existing
would communicate and report to the
electric companies at what time your installations can significantly speed up the
appliance used energy and how much
energy was used. This will in turn
process of adaption of new technology.
charge you more for the electricity that
you use during peak hours of late after- The trends in power electronics as an research and development (R&D)
noon and early evening. In this sense, interface between those prime sour- funding is appropriate for dealing with
the expected whole energy system will ces and the electrical grid will be those huge challenges. The call for
be more interactive, intelligent, and explained. Then, the control imple- innovation and breakthroughs in sci-
distributed. Using DG of energy sys- mentation for these electrical interfa- ence and technology is loud, but we
tems makes no sense without using ces by using advanced digital devices tend to forget about innovation and
distributed storage (DS) systems to will be examined. Finally, examples of breakthroughs in the way we organize
cope with the energy balances. those topics applied in the electrical institutions and R&D funding to reach
This article deals with the integra- grid of Spain will be given, showing those objectives. Six forms of integra-
tion of renewable distributed energy this country as a paradigmatic case tion can be distinguished [1], [2].
resources as depicted in Figure 1. of high penetration of the DG and
Concepts about the DG combined renewable energy. Integration of Components
with storage energy systems will be into a System
presented. The article highlights the Integrated Energy Systems Much of present energy research is
application of hydrogen generation The challenges the world is facing with focused on the component level. It is
systems, FCs, and its combination relation to energy supply, sustainabil- obvious that this is necessary, be-
with renewable energy resources, ity, and climate change are huge. cause without components with a
especially solar and wind, to inte- However, the question arises whether long endurance and good perform-
grate these systems into the grid. or not our present organization of ance specifications, it is impossible to


3 Energy
Wind Turbine Storages
Solar Cells
dc Television
Solar ac
Heat Motor
Loads 3 3 3 1-3
Power Station Pump
Transformer Facts/Cups
Energy Robotics
CHP Compensator

FCs dc
Power Supply
Transport ac ~ dc
Fuel =


FIGURE 1 The distributed electrical generation systems.


construct well-functioning energy sys- Integration of Industries into example of the integration of the trans-
tems. Still, the perception and relative Ecoparks (Industrial Ecology) port and energy sector.
importance of the problems on the Industrial ecology has already devel-
component level is often different oped into a recognized area of re- Integration of Functions
from those from a system perspec- search in the science and technology. The development of a product dedi-
tive. Therefore, it is important to cou- The slogan cradle to cradle reflects cated for just one function often leads
ple R&D and also long-term R&D to the principles of industrial ecology in to an expensive product. Synergy and
direct implementation as fast as possi- mimicking the closed cycles that exist cost reduction can be achieved by
ble without losing a long-term vision, in nature. multifunctional products. A very illus-
depending on the specific develop- trative example is the use of solar pan-
ment phase of the technology. Integration of New Technology els or solar heat collectors instead of
into the Existing Technology roof tiles. Architects and industrial
Integration of Energy Sources The replacement of old, less-efficient designers are all educated to apply the
into Multisource Multiproduct technology by a new and more-effi- principles of integration of functions
Energy Systems cient technology is a long process. to their designs. The engineers in the
The super-wind concept is an interest- This is not only a consequence of the field of energy technology usually do
ing example of a multisource multiprod- long-development times and often nec- not work with those concepts.
uct energy system. The fluctuating essary cost reductions of new technol-
renewable electricity production from ogy but also because of the long Microreactor Technology for
wind or solar is compensated by the depreciation time of existing large Distributed Fuel Generation
flexible coproduction of hydrogen and industrial (power) plants. The integra- The recent tendency to seek the best
electric power by a high-temperature tion of new technology in existing way to capture CO2 green-house gas
internal-reforming FC fueled by natural installations can significantly speed (GHG) and to store it underground
gas or biogas (see Figure 2). It offers up the process of adaption of new seems to be a sustainable solution.
the possibility to continuously pro- technology. An example is the applica- Mitigation of CO2 emissions is a major
duce valuable economic products all tion of high-temperature FCs in a top- concern because of the severe cli-
the time [2]. If less electricity is need- ping cycle in existing power plants. mate changes resulting from uncon-
ed from the FC (because of increased trolled GHG emission. In parallel, the
wind), the operation can be changed Integration of Sectors depletion of fossil fuel reserves are
to produce more hydrogen. This con- The integration of the waste and ener- forcing scientists to look for alterna-
cept that we called super-wind is a gy sectors is a form of integration on tive fuel resources with minimal
promising alternative if a hydrogen the highest system level on a large changes and investments (if possible)
market is developing in the future, e.g., scale. This is an example of a successful in new infrastructure.
for the automotive sector. Other exam- integration realized in waste incinera- Imagine returning home from col-
ples are superheating, where steam in tion plants. In the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) lege, plugging your car into a socket,
an existing power plant can be super- concept, electrical vehicles charge up and producing overnight your 10 L of
heated by an external source (e.g., their batteries from the electricity grid. fuel for the next day. This may not be
waste heat from a FC) and integration When the electrical vehicles become a dream, but one of the options of
of fossil energy with solar energy in the hybrid FC-battery vehicles, it is also tomorrows distributed fuel genera-
thermal decomposition of natural gas likely that the FCs will deliver electrical tion. The focus of this approach is:
into hydrogen and carbon. power to the electricity grid. This is an n on the development of the con-
cept of distributed fuel-genera-
tion technology
n on the parallel utilization of un-
wanted CO2, which can derive
E-Power E-Power
from thermal combustion, gasifi-
cation, or chemical conversion.
IR-FC The background of the actual
process is CO2 capturing and its cata-
CO/H2 lytic conversion back to hydrocarbons.
NG This process includes absorption of
Heat CO2 from the surrounding air or its sep-
aration from combustion/pyrolysis/gas-
ification processes followed by reverse
water gas-shift process (CO2 reacts
FIGURE 2 The super-wind concept. An example of integrated multisource multiproduct with H2 to form CO and H2Osyngas)
energy system. and Fischer-Tropsch (FTS) process of


conversion of syngas (hydrogenation of safety and reduced environmental pure CO2 for efficient conversion. Cur-
CO) to a series of hydrocarbons and impact. rent technologies are estimating the
water. These processes are well known Figure 3 presents the block diagram cost of CO2 scrubbing at about US$30
and well established. The novel con- of the process of CO2 conversion to per ton of CO2, which corresponds to
cept in our case is the intent to perform hydrocarbons. One should note that about six cents per kilogram. The
these catalytic processes in microreac- there are four microreactors in a series energy required for supplying the
tors. There are two main expected attributed to the reverse water gas- required hydrogen is estimated to be
advantages of this novel concept: shift reaction. The reason is that this in the range of 5 kWhel/Nm3H2. Rely-
n the development of fundamentals reaction is reversible and to secure CO ing on renewable energy resources
for possible distributed fuel gen- generation and prevent its reconver- (wind) for hydrogen provision, the
eration and sion back to CO2, at least one of the current estimate shows that a liter of
n the utilization of microprocessing products (here it is the water) has to liquid petroleum produced through
advantages, i.e., better heat and be removed as soon as possible. The promoted technology would cost in
mass transfer, higher reaction rates, reactor is followed by a cooler/con- the range of e3. The authors of [3]
more controllable product quality, denser to secure water-vapor conden- report that energy resynthesis pen-
lower temperatures and pressures, sation and separation. alty is 82% ideally and 95% on a practi-
better resources management, re- Another important issue is the cal basis. As the cost of offshore wind
duced missions and cost, enhanced provision of cheap, concentrated, and power is predicted to be reduced by

Steam Reforming
Short Chain

Dioxide Syngas Distillation
rWGS FTS Resynthesized
Reactor Reactor Fuel Products
Hydrogen Reboiler

Hot Hydrocarbons

Water Oxygen
Electrolyzer Boiler

and FTS
Heater Condensers

Stack Petrol

Heavy Oil

Fuel Gases 5.6 1.6

Bypass Naphtha 33.0 24.6
Kerosene 44.8 49.2
Heating Cooling Gas Oil 16.6 24.6
O2 Feed Separation

CO2 Feed C1C4 to Self-Powered Combustion


FIGURE 3 (a) Block diagram of fuel resynthesis process and (b) microreactor system.


2020, this resyn jet fuel would be com- FCs (PEMFCs) are the most appropri- the ancillaries that are located around
petitive with conventional jet fuel, ate. Compared with other types of the FC.
especially if carbon taxes apply. FCs, PEMFCs generate more power for One of the other main objectives of
The described idea gives a radical a given volume or weight of FC. This FC research is to reduce costs in the
and promising way for reducing the high-power density characteristic production of FC systems and their
negative environmental impact of fuel makes them compact and lightweight. related components. During the last
combustion and CO2 emission gener- In addition, the operating temperature decade, a cost reduction of a factor of
ation. It adds the missing link among is less than 100 C, which allows rapid ten has been achieved, but more
biofuel generation, fuel combustion, start-up. These traits and the ability to research is needed to reduce the cost
and CO2 emission mitigation [4], [5]. rapidly change power output are of FC systems to a competitive level
some of the characteristics that make (e.g., the amount of noble catalyst has
New Trends in FC Systems the PEMFC the top candidate for auto- to be reduced 0.5 mg/cm2 today).
Among the different technological motive power applications. The general technological barriers
alternatives, FC power generation be- To produce power, an FC system is to be overcome include the cost, the
comes a more and more interesting made of several components that work fuel choice, the need to make improve-
and promising solution for both auto- together. The basic system require- ments to achieve higher specific
motive industry and stationary power ments for a PEMFC system include four powers and power densities, and the
plants. However, many technological major circuits. Considering the air cir- electrical engineering part.
hurdles must still be overcome before cuit, a compressor must be placed at Different barriers considering an
the development of industrial and the inlet of the FC so as to provide oxy- FC system have been presented previ-
competitive products in these fields. gen for the electrochemical reaction ously. Among all these challenges, the
The FCs convert fuel and air directly and to raise its efficiency by increasing authors would point out one of the
to electricity, heat, and water in an the air pressure. Considering the hy- major priority concerning FCs. Indeed,
electrochemical process. Figure 4 de- drogen circuit, hydrogen can be di- an FC system has to be demonstrated
picts the general scheme of an FC, as rectly stored on board or supplied as durable and reliable. To succeed in
well as the power electronics convert- through a reforming system. Special this task, highly efficient models have
ers and the related controller. care must also be taken on the water to be developed to fully control the
There are several different types management system. In fact, the PEM FCs behavior and/or to improve the
of FCs, but they are all based around a must always be maintained in a well- performances of the FC system. Fur-
central design, which consists of two hydration state so as to ensure the thermore, real-time diagnosis and ef-
electrodes, a negative anode and a migration of protons H from the ficient control laws have to be
positive cathode. These are sepa- anode to the cathode. Moreover, in implemented to increase the durabil-
rated by a solid or liquid electrolyte most cases, a special water-coolant cir- ity and lifetime of the FC system. The
that carries electrically charged ions cuit exists within the stack. The aim is FC lifetime requirements vary signifi-
between the two electrodes. A cata- to obtain a self-sufficient water system. cantly, from 5,000 h for light-vehicle
lyst such as platinum is often used to Finally, an electrical converter must be applications to 30,000 h for trucks.
speed up the reactions at the electro- placed at the output of the FC, provid- The operation of an FC is usually sub-
des. The FCs are classified according ing the electrical power to the dc ject to inherent uncertainty in various
to the nature of the electrolyte and electrical bus of the vehicle. It has to operating parameters (fuel and oxi-
their operating temperature. be noticed that the electrical response dant stack starvation, FC temperature,
Considering automotive applica- of the FC does not only depend on the membrane hydration, or pressure var-
tions, proton exchange membrane stack but also on the time response of iations), which can cause severe tran-
sients in the performance of the cell.
That is why it is necessary to design
some robust control laws for the FC
dc/dc Converter
PEM Fuel Cell HF Transformer Rectifier
parameters. Furthermore, the techno-
Inverter dc-Link
logical choices made for various FC
ancillaries have to be evaluated and
adapted to increase the lifetime and

durability of the FC systems [6].
One way to optimize simultane-
ously the performances, lifetime, and
Diagnosis Control
durability is to perform an online diag-
DSP Controller nosis of the PEMFC. Narjiss et al. [7]
developed an online detection of the
FIGURE 4 Block diagram of an FC system, including the power electronics converter and FC dysfunction in embedded applica-
the digital controller. tions without additional hardware


(Hw) component. Indeed, the power
converter usually coupled with the FC Real-time diagnosis and efficient control laws
is, here, used to perform the diagnosis
strategies. have to be implemented to increase the
In addition, many different kinds of
physical phenomena are involved in
durability and lifetime of the FC system.
the performances of an FC. Independ-
ently of the problems of cost, reliabil- management issues, cold start-up, A wide-spread use of renewable
ity, and durability, the use of PEMFC efficient and real-time control, online energy sources in distribution net-
in a vehicle requires also to fully con- diagnosis, power electronics topolo- works and a high-penetration level will
trol its behavior and thus to have at gies, real and large-scale experimental be seen in the near future in many pla-
ones disposal a highly efficient mod- tests and evaluation, and power elec- ces. Denmark has a high-power ca-
el. Many different kinds of models are tronics topologies. pacity penetration (>20%) of wind
developed in our research group energy, having presence in major areas
based on electrochemical impedance Power Electronics in of the country, and today, 18% of the
measurements, polarization curves, Renewable Energy Systems whole electrical energy consumption
and semiempirical models. The global electrical energy consump- is covered by wind energy. The main
Jemei et al. [8] explored a powerful tion is still rising, and there is a steady advantages of using renewable energy
solution provided by an artificial neu- demand to increase the power capacity. sources are the elimination of harmful
ral network. Indeed, black box models It is expected that it has to be doubled emissions and inexhaustible resources
allow getting a behavioral model with- within 20 years. The production, distri- of the primary energy. However, the
out identifying all the FC parameters. bution, and use of the energy should be main disadvantage, apart from the
They are based on a set of easily as technological efficient as possible, higher costs, e.g., PV, is the uncontroll-
measurable inputs such as tempera- and incentives to save energy at the ability [30]. The availability of renew-
ture, current, or pressures within the end user should also be set up. Deregu- able energy sources has strong daily
stack and are able to predict the out- lation of energy has lowered the invest- and seasonal patterns, and the power
put voltage of the FC stack. The first ment in larger power plants, which demand by the consumers could have
step to achieve this kind of model is means the need for new electrical a very different characteristic. There-
to study the behavior of the FC to power sources may be very high in the fore, it is difficult to operate a power
determine the most relevant parame- near future. Two major technologies system installed with only renewable
ters that govern the FC behavior. will play important roles to solve the generation units because of the
Thanks to a methodology based on future problems. One is to change the characteristic differences and the high
fast Fourier transform, a recurrent electrical power production sources uncertainty in the availability of the
neural network dynamic model of the from the conventional, fossil (and short renewable energy sources.
FC is performed. This model covers term) based energy sources to renew- Wind turbine technology is one of
the whole range of possible FC cur- able energy resources. Another is to the most important emerging renew-
rent frequency solicitations. This use high-efficient power electronics in able technologies. It started in the
modeling strategy provides an inter- power generation, power transmission/ 1980s with a few tens of kilowatt
esting and powerful solution even in distribution, and end-user application. production power to today with multi-
dynamical operating modes (errors In classical power systems, large megawatt-size wind turbines that are
on the computed voltage versus power-generation plants located at being installed. It also means that, in
measured ones is below 2.5%). adequate geographical places produce the beginning, wind power production
Different technological challenges most of the power, which is then did not have any impact on the power
considering the FC power generation transferred to large consumption cen- system control, but now because of
have been presented in this section. ters over long distance transmission their size, they have to play an active
The main research objective is cost lines. The system control centers moni- part in the grid. Earlier, the technol-
reduction in all aspects of FC produc- tor and regulate the power system con- ogy used in wind turbines was based
tion, materials, systems, and applica- tinuously to ensure the quality of the on a squirrel-cage induction generator
tions, together with those of related power, such as frequency and voltage. connected directly to the grid. By that,
components. To overcome these bar- However, now the overall power system power pulsations in the wind are
riers, our research group proposes is changing, a large number of DG units, almost directly transferred to the
different technical and engineering including both renewable and nonre- electrical grid. Furthermore, there is
challenges to investigate, which will newable sources such as wind turbines, no control of the active and reactive
allow improving FC performances wave generators, PV generators, mini- power, which typically are important
and decreasing the FC system cost. hydro, FCs, and gas/steam-powered control parameters to regulate the
To reach these objectives, many combined heat and power stations, are frequency and voltage [9], [10]. As the
points still have to be studied: water being developed and installed. power range of the turbines increases,


these control parameters become kilowatt for a power electronic sys- also known as system-on-program-
more important, and it is necessary to tem is also decreasing. The trend of mable-chip (SoPC). In this area, a
introduce power electronics as an power electronic conversion is shrink- mature technology is the digital signal
interface between the wind turbine ing in volume and weight. This shows processor (DSP) controller [13]. This
and grid. Power electronics is chang- that integration is an important key to platform has the great advantage to
ing the basic characteristic of the be competitive, as more available func- integrate within the same component
wind turbine from being an energy tions can be implemented in such a a performing 32-b DSP core and a col-
source to be an active power source. product. Accordingly, power electron- lection of peripherals. This architec-
The electrical technology used in ics will be a key point to allow the ture is clearly optimized for the
wind turbine is not new. It has been change from the traditional centralized control of electrical systems, but it suf-
discussed for several years, but now, grid to a more distributed and smart fers from a lack of customization, thus
the price per produced kilowatt hour grid, as depicted in Figure 6. limiting the achievable bandwidth of
is so low, that solutions with power the controlled systems. For example,
electronics are very attractive. Digital Control of no concurrency is allowed between
Power electronics has changed Power Electronics the tasks.
rapidly over the last 30 years, and the Another important topic is regarding Another possibility is the use of
number of applications has been in- the control of the DG energy systems. field programmable gate arrays
creasing, mainly because of the devel- Indeed, these new systems are requir- (FPGAs) [14]. These components
opments of the semiconductor devices ing very performing and flexible take benefits of a high-integration
and the microprocessor technology. controllers. In this context, digital rate and, as DSP controllers, they can
For both cases, higher performance is technology is of big interest since it be programmed by software (Sw)
steadily given for the same area of sili- allows implementing complex control even if, in this case, the developed Sw
con, and at the same time, they are con- strategies easily. On the other hand, is only devoted to the description of
tinuously reducing in price. Figure 5 analog controllers, despite of their the architecture that will support the
shows a typical power electronic sys- drawbacks such as parameter drifting final application (VHDL or verilog lan-
tem consisting of a power converter, or lack of integration, still remain the guages). Thus, by using an FPGA-
load/source, and control unit. The pow- reference in terms of rapidity and based controller, the designer is able
er converter is the interface between bandwidth. to build a fully dedicated digital sys-
the load/generator and grid. The power That is the reason why digital con- tem that is perfectly adapted to the
may flow in both directions, of course, troller execution times must be re- algorithm to implement. Depending
dependent on topology and applica- duced while keeping the inherent of the cases, the resulting architec-
tions [11], [12]. flexibility of all digital solution. This tures can be all Sw, Hw, or mixed Sw/
Three important issues are of con- can only be achieved with the help of Hw. This customization of the archi-
cern using such a system: reliability, efficient digital platforms. Today, such tecture allows reducing significantly
efficiency, and cost. For the moment, digital platforms exist, some of them the execution time of the control algo-
the cost of power semiconductor also integrate analog functions such as rithm. The obtained performances
devices is decreasing between 1 and analog-to-digital conversion, and they are then closed of their analog coun-
5% every year for the same output can be developed by the use of per- terparts. However, to better under-
performance, and the price per forming design tools. This concept is stand the effect of this new degree of
freedom in the design of the control-
ler, one has to examine in details the
different possible cases that exist in
Bidirectional Power Flow the field of power converter control.
These cases can be divided in two
main groups: high-demanding appli-
Communication 2/3 2/3
cations and constrained switching
frequency applications. The high-
Renewable demanding applications consists of
Sources Power Converter applications where timing constraints
Electrical are so stringent that it is the digital
controller that represents the main
Control limitation of the whole control loop.
This group can be classified in two
(Local/Centralized) subtypes. The first subtype concerns
the control of static converters where
FIGURE 5 Power electronic system with the grid, load/source, power converter, power is segmented to reduce the
and control. stress of the power switches, such as


interleaved choppers and multilevel dedicated Hw architecture can be of controller between different processes
converters [15]. These topologies of great interest, since this way, control like in [18] where a single FPGA-based
converters imply to control concur- processing time can be drastically controller is used to control up to four
rently multiple channels of the pro- reduced up to a fraction of the switch- ac-drives in 50 ls [see Figure 7(d)].
cess [see Figure 7(a)]. The second ing period. The reduction of processing Finally, the third reason is the possibil-
subtype concerns applications where time, beyond its immediate improve- ity of adding a new control functionality
the sampling frequency is very high ment of the closed-loop bandwidth, is during this remaining time such as
(equal or above megahertz) same as also interesting for three other reasons. health monitoring [19] or predictive
that for switch-mode power supplies All of them take benefits of the remain- control [20] [see Figure 7(e)].
[16]. In such case, no option but hav- ing time between the end of the control To conclude, FPGA-based custom-
ing a performing Hw architecture tasks and the next sampling time. The ized digital control platforms are
[see Figure 7(b)]. first reason is the possibility to simplify definitely an attractive solution for
The constrained switching fre- the complexity of the control algorithm implementing always ever more com-
quency applications consists of appli- by accurately choosing the moment plex DG energy systems. The main
cation where sampling is not critical where the different control tasks are advantages are the ability to reach
because of switching frequency limita- executed within the switching period. quasi-analog control performances
tion (acceptable level of switching For example, in [17], no filter is required by means of flexible digital solutions
losses in the power converter). In this since the exact average current is with the addition of new control func-
case, Sw implementation is possible. measured [see Figure 7(c)]. The second tionalities such as health-monitoring
However, even in this case, using reason is the possibility of sharing the and performing communications.


Coal Generators

Transmission Network
Central Power Plants
Transmission Network
Power Distribution Network

Distribution Network Consumers

Informational Flow Power Flow

Commercial Houses
Buildings Industry

Central Power
Power Plant
Plants Commercial
Buildings Generators
Houses Electricity Transmission Network
Transmission Local
Lines Heat
Storage CHP Plant
PV Distribution
Network DG
Power Plant Storage Power
Power Quality Houses
Quality Device Central Consumers
Device Power Plants

Informational Flow Power Flow Green Power


FIGURE 6 Power plants toward distributed power generation: (a) traditional power systems and (b) decentralized future power systems.


systems [system operator and trans-
The main advantages of using renewable energy mission network owner (TSO)]. As
the system operator guarantees the
sources are the elimination of harmful emissions continuity and security of the power
supply and the proper coordination
and inexhaustible resources of the of the production and transmission
primary energy. system, performing its functions
based on the principles of transpar-
ency, objectiveness, and independ-
Integrating Renewable Energy economic activity (57.8% between ence (see Figure 8). In addition, REE
into Transmission Grids 1996 and 2008). Electrically speaking, is the manager of the transmission
Spain is a paradigm example of renew- Spain is a peninsula with weak electri- grid and acts as the sole transmission
able energy integration into the electri- cal interconnections with the Euro- company on an exclusive basis. Over
cal grid, with the following features: pean Union. the last decade, wind generation in
high external-energy dependency (84% Red Electrica de Espana (REE) was Spain has experienced an extraordi-
in 2008), high electricity consumption the first company in the world dedi- nary growth, continuously increasing
growth rates, 70.6% between 1996 cated exclusively to power transmis- its contribution to demand supply.
and 2008: significant growth of the sion and the operation of electrical This external requirement together
with the unique properties associ-
ated with wind power management,
which may affect the secure opera-
tion of the power system, has encour-
aged REE to create a Control Centre
of Renewable Energies (CECRE).
CECRE allows the maximum amount
of production from renewable energy
sources, especially wind energy, to
be integrated into the Spanish power
system under secure conditions.
(a) The particular features of the
Spanish system within the European
context and its electrical connection
emphasize the ambitious objectives
(k)Ts (k + 1) Ts in renewable energy:
n formerly in 2010: 12% in primary
energy (30% in electric energy)
n currently in 2020: 20% in final
energy (40% in electric energy).
(k)Ts (k + 1)Ts CECRE is an operation unit inte-
(c) grated into the Electrical Control Cen-
First Plant Control ter (CECOEL) of REE. The generation
of the renewable energy producers,
Second Plant Control
which have been set up in our country
are managed and controlled by
CECRE. In addition, this center is the
sole interlocutor in real time between
(k)Ts (k + 1) Ts
CECOEL and each one of the author-
ized generation control centers, to
which the wind farms are connected.
Its main function is to supervise and
control the renewable energy genera-
tors, mainly wind power. It also articu-
(k 1) Ts (k )Ts (k + 1) Ts
lates the integration of its production
to the power system in a way compati-
ble with its security.
FIGURE 7 Performing FPGA-based digital controllers. (a)(e) Timing charts (Ts is the
sampling period, which is also equal to the switching period, in blue: A/D conversion, Figure 9 shows an excellent appli-
in orange: control tasks). cation example of DG and storage,


allowing the global optimization of
the electrical system, thus delaying Wind turbine technology is one of the most
the building of conventional infra-
structures, i.e., lines and substations. important emerging renewable technologies.
It consist of a 3-MW PV system com-
bined with a 4-MW 3 3-h battery set
located in a certain area of the Span- fault happened far from the wind farm field test. Once this validation is made,
ish operator Empresa Nacional de [28]. This is the reason why, in grids compliance with grid requirements can
Electricidad S.A. (ENDESA), in which with significant wind energy penetra- be certified using simulations of the
it is optimized the demand curve, tion, the voltage dip and subsequent validated model.
shaving the peak and delaying the wind farm disconnections would create Taking into account the require-
need for a new substation of 66/15 kV. an important stability problem [29]. ments exposed previously, the main
System operators of the different characteristics that a voltage dip gen-
Low-Voltage Ride Through countries have established diverse volt- erator should have are variable sag
for Wind Turbines age-limit curves for fault ride through. depth, adjustable sag duration, and
The present wind energy penetration Wind turbines must remain connected flexible input. The last requirement is
into the electrical network has forced to the grid when facing voltage dips, as needed to present high-input imped-
system operators to adapt their grid long as voltage at the PCC remains ance during the dip, compared with
codes to this new generation, prevent- above the specified voltage profile. the short-circuit power of the grid, pre-
ing an unacceptable effect on the sys- Compliance with grid codes can be venting the system from affecting sig-
tem safety and reliability [21][26]. checked by means of simulation of vali- nificantly its voltage.
One of these new connection require- dated models. Today, there are models The voltage-dip generators are
ments regarding wind energy is fault for the different generator types re- based on the use of two impedances
ride-through capability. In the past quired for grid stability studies through [Figure 10(a)]. The parallel impedance
[27], wind generators were not allowed dynamic simulation. However, to certify enables the generation of the fault
to remain connected to the utility when the validity of the simulation models while the series impedance immu-
voltage at the point of common cou- when testing voltage dip ride-through nizes the grid from the dip, and the
pling (PCC) fell below 85%, forcing capability, the obtained results must be test can be performed without affect-
their disconnection even when the validated by the ones measured on a ing other systems connected to it. In

Special Regime International ExchangesREE Generators

Transmission GridREE System OperatorREE TSO (Foreign)

Outages Market OperatorOMEL

Accepted Bids
Technical Constraints

Demand Bids
Suppliers and
Consumers Under
Distribution Companies Market Price
Approved Tariffs Demand Bids
Network < 132 kV

Energy Flows

FIGURE 8 Electricity sector in Spain (courtesy of Red Ele

ctrica de Espana).


the proposed voltage-dip generator
SINEU Zone (Day: Peak 2025Winter) [Figure 10(b)], the series impedance is
Storage from Storage made up of a three-phase series
Grid System PV Generation Discharging impedance at the system input and
Low Load Demand to Grid the parallel branch consisting of a tap
25,000 transformer and a three-phase imped-
ance grounded through a control
switch in the secondary of the trans-
15,000 former. The system includes some

other control elements to perform the

10,000 voltage dip generation, a 100% voltage
dip can be achieved, and the imped-
ance banks have single-phase switches
0 to have the possibility of performing
single-phase, two-phase, and three-
PV (to Battery and Grid) phase tests in wind turbines up to
(a) 20 kV and 5 MW.
Peak 2025
Net Load
from Grid
Grid Customers
Demand Demand (Shaved) This article has shown the concept of
DG as a way to integrate energy sys-
25,000 tems. As an example, it was illustrated
using microreactors for the DG CO2 or
hydrogen, which can be used to
empower FC systems. DG of electricity

by using FCs and dispersed microreac-

tors can be used to support renewable
energy systems integration. The wind
5,000 energy integration was presented as
an application of large-scale integra-
0 tion of DG and DS concepts. However,

it was pointed out that to enhance the

penetration of renewable energy sys-
Storage Storage PV Battery
from Grid Discharging tems into the grid, power electronics
from PV Generation
to Grid and digital control systems are re-
to Grid
(b) quired. Finally, the electrical grid in
Spain was presented as a paradigm
FIGURE 9 (a) Demand curve and (b) load curves of the PV plus the storage system. for renewable energy integration.

Wind Turbine
MV Network MV Position
Series Impedance R R
Reducing the Impact of S S
the Fault on the Grid T T
and Bypass Switch

Wind Turbine RST
Parallel Impedance
Allowing the
Generation of the
Fault by Means of
the Series Switch

Voltage Dip Generator Impedances

(a) (b)

FIGURE 10 Voltage-dip generator scheme: (a) general system and (b) proposed system.


Biographies Electronics Society. He received five for the Dutch Greening of Gas proj-
Josep M. Guerrero received the IEEE Prize Paper Awards over the last ect, which is a large feasibility study
B.S. degree in telecommunications six years. He is a Fellow of the IEEE. on the addition of hydrogen into the
engineering, the M.S. degree in elec- His research interests include power natural gas grid in The Netherlands.
tronics engineering, and the Ph.D. electronics, static power converters, In October 2005, he joined the sec-
degree in power electronics from ac drives, switched reluctance drives, tion Technology Dynamics and Sus-
the Technical University of Catalo- modeling and characterization of pow- tainable Development of the same
nia, Barcelona, Spain, in 1997, 2000, er semiconductor devices and simu- faculty, working on innovative energy
and 2003, respectively. He is an lation, wind turbines, and green systems in the wider context of
associate professor with the Depart- power inverters. sustainability.
ment of Automatic Control Systems Toshko Zhelev received his bach- Eric Monmasson is currently a
and Computer Engineering, Techni- elors degree in chemical engineering full professor and the head of the
cal University of Catalonia, Barce- and masters degree in chemical Institut Universitaire Professionnal-
lona, where he currently teaches cybernetics from Moscow University ise de Genie Electrique et dInforma-
courses on DSP, FPGAs, microproc- of Chemical Technology, and his Ph.D. tique Indutrielle, University of Cergy-
essors, and renewable energy. Since degree in energy conservation from Pontoise, Cergy-Pontoise, France. He
2004, he has been responsible for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. is also with the Systemes et Applica-
the Renewable Energy Laboratory, He is a professor at the Department tions des Technologies de lInforma-
Escola Industrial de Barcelona. He is of Chemical and Environmental Sci- tion et de lEnergie (SATIE, UMR
a Senior Member of the IEEE. He is ences, University of Limerick, Ire- CNRS8029). At SATIE, his current
the editor-in-chief of International land, where he is a director of the research interests include the ad-
Journal of Integrated Energy Systems. postgraduate program known as vanced control of electrical motors
He is an associate editor for IEEE Graduate Diploma in Chemical Engi- and generators and the use of FPGAs
Transactions on Industrial Electronics, neering. He holds a position of a vis- for energy control systems. He is the
IEEE Transactions on Power Electron- iting professor at the University of chair of the technical committee on
ics, International Journal of Power Surrey, United Kingdom and a posi- electronic systems-on-chip of the
Electronics, and International Journal tion of extraordinary professor at IEEE Industrial Electronics Society.
of Industrial Electronics and Drives. the University of Pretoria, South Africa. He is also a member of the steering
His research interests include PVs, He is a member of the CAPE Work- committee of the European Power
wind energy conversion, uninterrup- ing partybranch of the European Electronics Association and of the
tible power supplies, storage energy Federation of Chemical Engineers number one technical committee of
systems, and microgrids. and a member of the executive board the International Association for
Frede Blaabjerg received the of its educational branch EURECHA. Mathematics and Computers in Sim-
M.Sc.E.E. degree from Aalborg Uni- He is a member of the executive ulation (IMACS). He is an associate
versity, Denmark, in 1987, and the board of the Charles Parsons Insti- editor of IEEE Transactions on Indus-
Ph.D. degree from the Institute of tute in Energy and Sustainable Envi- trial Electronics. He is the author or
Energy Technology, Aalborg Univer- ronment. His research interests coauthor of two books and more
sity, in 1995. He is currently with include process systems engineering, than 100 scientific papers. He is a
Aalborg University, where he became process integration, and sustainable Senior Member of the IEEE.
the dean of the Faculty of Engineer- industrial resources management. Samir Jeme received his mas-
ing and Science in 2006. He is an Kas Hemmes received his mas- ters degree from the University of
associate editor of Journal of Power ters degree in experimental and Franche Comte , Belfort, France, in
Electronics and the Danish journal Elte- theoretical physics from Groningen 2001, and his Ph.D. degree in engi-
knik. He has authored or coauthored University in 1983 and his Ph.D. de- neering sciences from the University
more than 300 papers and is the gree in perpendicular magnetic re- of Franche Comte  and the University
author of Control in Power Electronics. cording from Twente University in of Technology of Belfort-Montbe liard,
He is an associate editor of IEEE 1986. He became assistant professor France, in 2004. Since 2005, he has
Transactions on Industry Applications and then associate professor in the been a research engineer and works
and IEEE Transactions on Power Elec- Department of Materials Science of on fuel cell systems for transporta-
tronics. In 2006, he became the editor- TU Delft, where he was responsible tion in the Fuel Cell Laboratory
in-chief of IEEE Transactions on Power for the molten carbonate fuel cell Institute of Belfort, France, with the
Electronics. He received the 1995 projects carried out within the frame- Energy team (ENISYS/FEMTO-ST).
Angelos Award and the Annual Teach- work of the National Fuel Cell Re- His research interests include fuel
er Prize at Aalborg University in 1995. search Program for 15 years. In cell systems dedicated to automo-
In 1998, he received the Outstand- November 2001, he joined the Energy tive applications, modeling, fuel
ing Young Power Electronics Engi- and Industry sections of Technology, cell system characterization, and
neer Award from the IEEE Power Policy, and Management responsible compressors.


Maria P. Comech received her efficient transformers. He will lead Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 19331942,
May 2008.
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical from ENDESA the ECCOFLOW proj- [16] L. Corradini, P. Mattavelli, E. Tedeschi,
engineering from the University of ect (20102013), cofinanced by the and D. Trevisan, High bandwidth multi-
sampled digitally controlled DC/DC con-
Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, in 2003 EC, to develop and perform the field verters using ripple compensation, IEEE
and 2008, respectively. Her Ph.D. test of a superconducting fault cur- Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1501
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thesis was on the subject of model- rent limiter (HTS based on coated [17] F. Blaabjerg, P. C. Kjaer, P. O. Rasmussen,
ling and testing wind turbines conductor YBCO tape) for operation and C. Cossar, Improved digital current
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