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808

DSP/FPGA
Lab-808: Power Electronic Systems & Chips Lab., NCTU, Taiwan
http://pemclab.cn.nctu.edu.tw/

Digital Voltage Control of Boost CRM PFC AC/DC


Converters with TRIAC Phase Control Dimmer

Prof. Ying-Yu Tzou

Depart. of Electrical Engineering,


National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan
Lab808:
Power Electronic Systems & Chips, NCTU, TAIWAN
LAB808
NCTU
1/23
Contents

Introduction
TRIAC Phase Control Dimming Method
Digital Voltage Control Loop Design
Simulation and Experimental Results
Conclusion

2/23
TRIAC Dimming Control Circuit

BRIGHT R 1 250 k

DIM
vin (t )

AC R 2 3.3 k TRIAC A
vc DIAC G vtriac (t )
K
ic
C1 100 nF
vin (t )
Delay

Basic TRIAC Dimmer


G(t )
The role of R1 to adjust the size of the capacitive current
Delay time of the decision by the C1 and (R1+R2)

T (R1 R2 ) C1
Line Voltage and Dimming Waveforms

3/23
TRIAC Dimmer Fired with Ideal Line Voltage in Different
Load Conditions

(a) resistive load

(b) inductive load (c) capacitive load 4/23


LM3445 Triac Dimmable Offline LED Driver (NS)

Features:
Triac dim decoder circuit for LED dimming
Application voltage range 80VAC 270VAC
Capable of controlling LED currents greater
than 1A
Adjustable switching frequency
Low quiescent current
Adaptive programmable off-time allows for
constant ripple current
Thermal shutdown
No 120Hz flicker
Low profile 10 pin MSOP Package
Patent pending drive architecture

Applications:
Retro Fit Triac Dimming
Solid State Lighting
Industrial and Commercial Lighting
Residential Lighting
5/23
LT3799 Offline Isolated Flyback LED Controller with
Active PFC

6/23
Digital vs. Analog PFC Controller

Iin IL Iin IL
D D

Vin Vin
L
S C Vout Vin Vin L S C Vout

Rcz Ccz
Ki Kv A/D A/D
Rci Vc-sam K K
Vpwm(k ) Vpwm(k 1) 3 4 Vo (k )

Vc-sam K4
PWM T K3 K4 PWM
Vc Vpwm Vc ( K4 )Vc (k 1) Vpwm
EA2 Vv-sam Vin Vv-sam
Viref
Viref Vp
Rvi
Vin Vp Cvf Rvf A/D MULT
Vp (k) Vp (k 1) K1Vvsam( k)
(TK2 K1)Vvsam(k 1) TK2Vvsam
MULT Vref Vref
EA1

(a) Analog PFC Controller (b) Digital PFC Controller


Digital control provides flexibility for control algorithm realization
Synchronous current sampling and feedback signal reconstruction
Interleaved control for load current sharing
Robust performance for line and load variations
Efficient optimization across the entire load curves 7/23
Digital PFC Controller for LED Lighting Applications

85~265V
50~60 Hz

Digital PFC Digital


controller PWM
Controller

Digital
Lighting
Controller

Digital
PWM
Controller

8/23
Proposed Digital Control Scheme for CRM Boost PFC
Converters

iL (t ) L i D (t ) D io (t )

iQ
R1 R3
Cin Vi (t ) Q Co Vo RL
RZCD
R2 R4
Rs
LC Low- ZCD(t)
Pass Filter Vi (t ) Vo(t )


Dz
A/D A/D
VZ , ref S Q
TRIAC R Q
Vi [n] isw (t )
DIMMING Conduction i Lb * [n ]
Angle D/A
i Lb * (t ) Vo[n]
iin (t ) (t )

Vcomp [n] Verr [n ]
vin (t ) Voltage Loop Controller vref

9/23
Current Control Strategies for Boost PFC Converters
iref iave

Lf D Vo
S iL
iL Cf RL

Peak Current Control


high ref iave low ref

PFC
Controller Vr

Variable Hysteresis Control

TON

iave
iave

Average Current Control Boundary Control Mode (CRM) 10/23


Comparison of PFC Technologies
Small-Signal Modeling of Boost PFC Converters
Z in (s )

Input
Impedance of
PFC Converter

Z in (s )

Boost single-phase PFC converter with an inner current loop and an outer voltage loop.

Small-signal model of the PFC converter


Input Impedance In Consideration of Input Filter

L D vo Vin(s) 1 Iin(s)
TRIAC Q sL
Dimmer
Vo L (s ) Rs
Vm
Rl I ref (s)
iL Hc (s)
PFC
Input Impedance Z in' vg
Controller vo*

Z in ( s )
Z in' ( s )
1 ( C dc C ac ) sZ in ( s )

Vin ( s ) R p( s)
Z in ( s ) s
I in ( s ) gR l 1 s ( 1 Rs
)
z gR l L n2

(a) The ringing input current greater than holding current of


TRIAC (b) The ringing input current less than holding current of TRIAC.
LC Filter with Damping Resistor Circuits

Small-signal equivalent circuit of the boost PFC converter.

I in (t ) LLPF Rdamper
Power
Source + FB
+ vin (t ) CLPF +
TRAIC - PFC
Dimmer

I in (t ) L
Power
Source + C FB
+ vtriac (t ) +
TRAIC Rdamper PFC
-
Dimmer

14/23
Output Power as a Function of Conduction Angle

Full power

Dimming state

T
2

( degree )

(a) Full load and half load input voltage waveform. (b) Output power as a function of
conduction angle.

The linear area of output power is from the conduction angle 30 degree
to 150 degree.
When the conduction angle becomes smaller (<30), the dc-link voltage
can not maintain a constant value. And, this can be used for dimming
control. 15/23
Dimming with Variable DC Link Voltage

DC-link voltage as a function of conduction angle.


is the conduction angle, b is a parameter to adjust the drop slop.
The dc link voltage decrease from conduction angle 90 degree to 0
degree.
The minimum dc link voltage must greater than maximum input voltage,
since the PFC is a boost circuit. 16/23
Modeling amd Control of the PFC Preregulator

(a) Control Signal P(W)


i1 Voltage Loop 4000
vo
3500
Current Loop i1 vo 3000
Current reference 2500
Multiplier B
C2
2000 fC=1kHz
X
R2 R1 1500 fC=500Hz
Sinusoidal
waveform vea
R 1000 fC=100Hz
vea VREF AR 2
R1 500
Voltage Loop 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
1
fC AR
2 R2C2 Maximum power that complies with IEC 61000-
(b) (c)
Sinusoid Sinusoid 3-2 regulations for different corner frequencies
Vin sin( t ) Vin sin( t ) of the voltage regulator.

Low-pass filter corner frequency


Vea vea(t)
Current Current (a) Detail of the resistor emulator control scheme.
Reference Reference
V Vin (b) Ideal waveforms with no ripple on the error amplifier.
V ea in sin( t ) V ea sin( t )
k k (c) Real waveforms. 17/23
Frequency responses of the digital voltage loop gain
Simulation Results of Steady-State Responses

(a) no damping resistor. (b) with a 1 k damping resistor.

Simulation results of steady-state response of the input line current and the input
voltage through the TRIAC dimmer with a rated load of 25 W. 19/23
Simulation Results of Transient Responses

(a) Constant dc-link voltage. (b) Variable dc-link voltage.


Simulation results of transient response of the output voltage for dimming time is
0.1s. Load changing from 25 W to 4 W
20/23
System Parameters and Experiment Setup

Monitor PC

DC power supply
Emulator

TMS320F2812

LEDs
Load
TRIAC

Interface AC In
FLYBACK Circuit
Converter 21/23
Experimental results for the dimmable LED system with
digital PFC control at different phase control angles.

50

45

40

35

O utp ut Po w er (W )
30

(a) 150 25

20

15

10

5
Dimming Curve
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

(b) 90 Conductin Angle (degree)

Output power as a function of phase conduction angle.

(c) 30 22/23
Conclusion

Wide Dimming Control Range 5~100% Rated Power


No Flickering
Digital PFC Control Scheme for TRIAC Dimming Control
Passive Damping Technique to Reduce TRIAC Ringing
Variable DC-link Voltage Modulation Method
Experimental verification has been carried out on a DSP
(TMS320F2812) controlled PFC CRM Converter.

23/23