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DESIGN SHOWCASE Micropower Circuit Monitors Positive Supply Current ‘The inexpensive circuit of Figure I converts the load ‘current of a positive power supply to a ground-refer- enced signal voltage, without recourse t0 the instrumentation amplifier, extra power supply, and ‘matched sets of resistors typical of such circuits. The output current Lo (proportional to supply current) flows through Ro to produce Vo. Because Io is generated by a tue current source, you can reference Vo to ground or to any reasonable level within the supply range. The measurement is independent of variations in the supply voltage. Because the op amp’s common-mode range includes the supply rails, it can sense small voltages near the positive rail, such as those across Rs, Feedback resistor Ry should equal 100Rs or 1000Rs. The op amp drives, P-channel MOSFET Qy, whose drain-source current produces a voltage across Rr equal to that across Rs, subject to an error of #Vos. As a result, To = (ILRs #V0s)(1/RP), and Vo = (IRs +Vos)(RoRF). ‘The component values shown provide a Vo range of 0 to IV for the supply-current range 0 10 1A, You can add a trimming poteatiometer to null Vos. The remain- ing gain error depends on the tolerance of Rs, Re, and Ro, and you can set this error to zero by trimming Re (of Ro. The op amp draws 201A and operates with a voltage as low as2.5V, This opamp supply'is produced by the five diodes, which are biased by Rz and the input supply voltage as shown in the table igure 1. Ths sine loal-