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1.

Motors

1.1 Lubrication.

Lubricate regularly according to manufacturer's instructions. On sleeve-bearing and


other oil-lubricated machines, check oil reservoirs on a regular basis. In poor
environments, change oil at least once a month. Never over-lubricate; excess grease or
oil can get into windings and deteriorate insulation. Be sure to use only the lubricant
specified for the machine in question. However, you should also check into the
possibility of using modern lubricants that have excellent life and lubricating qualities.

1.2 Bearing inspection.

Bearing failures are one of the most common causes of motor failures. Typical bearing
problems include improper lubrication, misalignment of the motor with the load,
replacement with the wrong type bearing, excessive loading, and harsh environments.

On essential motors or those that are heavily used or frequently duty cycled, you should
check bearings daily using a mechanic stethoscope or infrared. Check bearing surface
temperature with a thermometer, electronic temperature sensing devices, or stick-on
temperature indicating labels. Compare temperature of hot bearings with the
temperatures of normally operating bearings. Check oil rings and watch for excessive
end play.

1.3 Rotor/stator inspection

Check air gap between the rotor and stator with feeler gages at least annually.
Measurements should be made at the top, bottom, and on both sides of the stator.
Differences in readings obtained from year to year indicate bearing wear.

1.4 Belt inspection

Check belt tension; belts should have about 1 in. of play. Sheaves should be seated
firmly with little or no play. Couplings should be tight, within tolerances, and should
operate without excessive noise. An alignment check should be made on all motor-
generator sets and on motor-load couplings when trouble is suspected.
1.5 Brush/Commutator inspection

Inspect brushes and commutators of DC motors for excessive wear. Check brushes for
proper type, hardness, conductivity, and fit in brush holders. Check holder spring
pressure with a small scale. In most instances, pressure should be 2 to 2 1/2 lbs per sq
in. of brush cross-sectional area. Call manufacturer or service company to solve
recurring problems of brush chatter, excessive brush wear, and sparking, streaking, or
threading of commutator.

1.6 Motor mount inspection

Check mounting bolts, steel base plates for possible warping, and concrete base for
cracking or spalling.

1.7 Vibration

Field vibration analysis can be accomplished by using a portable instrument that


identifies vibrations and displays their amplitudes and frequencies.

Annually, perform vibration-analysis tests. Excessive vibration may be hard to detect by


hand, but it could be enough to shorten motor life significantly. It can cause bearing
failure, metal fatigue of parts, or failure of windings. The cause of vibration is usually
mechanical in nature, such as excessive belt tension, defective sleeve or ball bearings,
misalignment, or improper balance. The most common cause is the unbalance of a
rotating member (the motor rotor, rotating load, or other drive train component).
Simple testing of the motor is done by uncoupling the load or removing the belts and
then running the motor. Electrical problems also can cause vibration.
1.8 Motor temperature control

Restricted ventilation will cause a motor to operate at a higher than desired


temperature. Dirt, dust, chemicals, snow, oil, grass, weeds, etc., can clog ventilation
passages of an open-frame motor. Keep motor clean and cool. In poor environments,
blow out dirt with dry compressed air (no more than 50 lbs) as often as needed.

Open dripproof and totally enclosed motors are protected but must not be installed
where air flow will be restricted or where excessive ambient temperatures might be
encountered. In high-temperature locations, consider the use of energy-efficient motors
that operate cooler than standard motors. Excessive ambient temperatures will shorten
motor life.

1.9 Annual Maintenance

Pull and disassemble important motors during summer shutdowns for thorough
inspection, testing, cleaning, checking of bearings, couplings or accessories, or complete
reconditioning.

1.10 Record keeping

Keep accurate records. Perform annual insulation-resistance (IR) and other appropriate
tests. Important motors should also receive a thorough visual inspection, as well as
voltage and current checks. All values should be recorded and compared each year. The
trend of the readings will indicate the condition of the motor and offer a guide to its
reliability.
2. Controls

2.1 Cleanliness

In poor environments, blow out dirt weekly; in normal environments, a quarterly or


semi-annual cleaning should be adequate. Make sure that dust or contamination is kept
off high-voltage equipment. This is important because dust may contain conducting
materials that could form unwanted circuit paths, resulting in current leakage or
possible grounds or short circuits.

2.2 Moving parts inspection

Moving parts should operate easily without excessive friction. Check operation of
contactors and relays by hand, feeling for any binding or sticking. Look for loose pins,
bolts, or bearings. If the control is dirty, it should be wiped or blown clean.

2.3 Contact inspection

Check contacts for pitting and signs of overheating, such as discoloration of metal,
charred insulation, or odor. Be sure contact pressure is adequate and the same on all
poles; verify with manufacturer's specification. Watch for frayed flexible leads.

2.4 Contact resistance testing

On essential controls, perform contact-resistance tests with a low-resistance ohmmeter


on a regular basis. Proper contact resistance should be about 50 micro-ohms. Record
readings for future comparison. This will indicate trends in the condition of contacts.

2.5 Overload relay inspection.

Overload relays should receive a thorough inspection and cleaning. You also should
check for proper setting. In general, maintenance requirements for these relays include
checking that the rating or trip setting takes into account ambient temperature as well
as the higher inrush currents of modern, energy-efficient motors. You also should verify
that contacts are clean and free from oxidation and that the relay will operate
dependably when needed. Relays should be tested and calibrated every one to three
years. Special equipment such as an OL relay tester can be used.
3. Generator Sets

3.1 Routine General Inspection

During the running of the generator, the exhaust system, fuel system, DC electrical
system, extreme temperatures, salt water, or excessive exposure to debris, such as dust
or sand, may require more frequent inspections and engine require close monitoring for
any leaks that can cause hazardous occurrences. As with any internal combustion
engine, proper maintenance is essential. Diesels are no exception, and the most
important maintenance is oil changes at every 100 hours of operation for a long and
trouble-free life assurance.

3.2 Lubrication Service

The engine oil must be checked while shutting down the generator at regular intervals
using a dipstick. Allow the oil in the upper portions of the engine to drain back into the
crankcase and follow the engine manufacturers recommendations for API oil
classification and oil viscosity. Keep the oil level as near as possible to the full mark on
the dipstick by adding the same quality and brand of oil.
The oil and filter must also be changed at acclaimed time intervals. Check with the
engine manufacturer for procedures for draining the oil and replacing the oil filter and
their disposal is to be done appropriately to avoid environmental damage or liability.

3.3 Cooling System

Check the coolant level during shutdown periods at the specified interval. Remove the
radiator cap after allowing the engine to cool, and, if necessary, add coolant until the
level is about 3/4 in. Heavy-duty diesel engines require a balanced coolant mixture of
water, antifreeze, and coolant additives. Inspect the exterior of the radiator for
obstructions, and remove all dirt or foreign material with a soft brush or cloth with
caution to avoid damaging the fins. If available, use low-pressure compressed air or a
stream of water in the opposite direction of normal air flow to clean the radiator.
3.4 Fuel System

Diesel is subject to contamination and corrosion within a period of one year, and
therefore regular generator set exercise is highly recommended to use up stored fuel
before it degrades. The fuel filters should be drained at the designated intervals due to
the water vapor that accumulates and condenses in the fuel tank. Regular testing and
fuel polishing may be required if the fuel is not used and replaced in three to six months.
Preventive maintenance should include a regular general inspection that includes
checking the coolant level, oil level, fuel system, and starting system. The charge-air
cooler piping and hoses should be inspected regularly for leaks, holes, cracks, dirt and
debris that may be blocking the fins or loose connections.

3.5 Testing Batteries


Weak or undercharged starting batteries are a common cause of standby power system
failures. The battery must be kept fully charged and well-maintained to avoid dwindling
by regular testing and inspection to know the current status of the battery and avoid
any start-up hitches of the generator. They must also be cleaned; and the specific
gravity and electrolyte levels of the battery checked frequently.
3.5.1 Testing Output: Merely checking the output voltage of the batteries is not
indicative of their ability to deliver adequate starting power. As batteries age, their
internal resistance to current flow goes up, and the only accurate measure of terminal
voltage must be done under load. On some generators, this indicative test is performed
automatically each time the generator is started. On other generator sets, use a manual
battery load tester to attest the condition of each starting battery.
3.5.2 Cleaning batteries: Keep the batteries clean by wiping them with a damp cloth
whenever dirt appears excessive. If corrosion is present around the terminals, remove
the battery cables and wash the terminals with a solution of baking soda and water ( lb
baking soda to 1 quart of water). Be careful to prevent the solution from entering the
battery cells, and flush the batteries with clean water when finished. After replacing the
connections, coat the terminals with a light application of petroleum jelly.
3.5.3 Checking specific gravity: In open-cell lead-acid batteries, use a battery
hydrometer to check the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each battery cell. A fully
charged battery will have a specific gravity of 1.260. Charge the battery if the specific
gravity reading is below 1.215.
3.5.4 Checking electrolyte level: In open-cell lead-acid batteries, verify the level of the
electrolyte at least every 200 hr of operation. If low, fill the battery cells to the bottom
of the filler neck with distilled water.
3.6 Routine Engine Exercise
Regular exercising keeps the engine parts lubricated and thwart oxidation of electrical
contacts, uses up fuel before it deteriorate, and helps to provide reliable engine starting.
Engine exercise is recommended to be executed at least once a month for a minimum of
30 min. loaded to no less than one-third of the nameplate rating.
3.7 Keep your Generator Clean
Oil drips and other issues are easy to spot and take care of when the engine is nice and
clean. Visual inspection can guarantee that hoses and belts are in good condition.
Frequent checks can keep wasps and other nuisances from nesting in your equipment.
The more a generator is used and relied on, the more it needs to be taken care of.
However, a gen set that is rarely used might not need a lot of care.
4. Battery
4.1 Charging
Make sure the battery terminals are clean and free from corrosion.
Do not attempt to charge a dried-out battery. If needed, add distilled (or drinking)
water to just above the battery plates. Do not overfill.
Refer to any written instructions provided by the battery and charger
manufacturers.
Identify the positive and negative terminals of the battery and attach the correct
charger leads.
If charging a battery connected to a vehicle, be sure that the vehicles electrical
system has protection against overvoltage or be sure that the charger will not have
high-charging voltages that may damage the vehicles electrical system.

4.2 Storage

The most important consideration when storing any battery is to make sure the never
drops below 12.4 volts. You are storing the battery for an extended period of time, one
of the best ways to prevent damage is to make sure the voltage never drops below 12.4
volts. We recommend using a type of "battery maintainer" a device that will monitor
your battery and keep it at full potential during storage. There are two types of
maintenance chargers:

Traditional "float" chargers, which provide constant voltage with tapering amperage
to the battery even when it is fully charged. The typical floating charging voltage
ranges from 13.0 to 13.8 volts.

Fully automatic multistage or multistep chargers, which monitor the battery and
charge it as necessary. Multistage maintainers will charge at varying voltages and
varying amperage. Some of these multistep chargers are also capable of working
well as a battery charger.

If it is not possible to use a maintenance charger, disconnect the battery from the
vehicle during storage to prevent the vehicle from discharging the battery. Always
provide a full charge with a battery charger prior to storage, then check the battery
voltage every three to six months and charge if it falls below 12.4 volts. Also, when
possible, store your battery in a cool, dry location.
4.3 Others

Check your battery every now and then to make sure its terminal connections are
clean, snug and protected from the elements. Signs of corrosion or leakage could
mean that your battery is no longer operating as well as it should.
Always unplug accessories and turn off lights when your car is turned off.
Keep the battery in cooler places whenever possible. Heat damages batteries.
Scrub corrosion from the terminals with a solution of water and baking soda.
5. Electric Fence

5.1 Installation

Install your fence controller under cover (unless it is solar powered) and protect it
from moisture. The fence controller lead-out wire carries voltage from the fence
terminal to the fence. A jumper wire carries voltage from one electrified fence line
to the next. Use insulted cable that is manufactured for electric fencing (10 to 14
gauge wire insulated to 20,000 volts). Do not use common electrical wiring as it is
only rated for 600 volt use.

Install at least one 6 ft. galvanized or copper ground rod within 20 ft. of the fence
controller. Use a ground rod clamp to attach the insulated ground wire to the
ground rod, do not simply wrap the wire around the rod. The ground wire should
be 10 to 14 gauge wire and insulated from 600 to 20,000 volts. For the best results,
install three ground rods 6 ft. deep into the earth, spaced 10ft. apart. If possible,
install ground rods in areas that tend to retain moisture.

Do not install ground rods within 50 ft. of a utility ground rod, buried telephone
line, or buried water-line because they could be affected by stray voltage. This is
evident if you receive pulsing shocks from water spigots or water tanks or if you
hear the pulse of the fence controller in your phone, television, or radio.

Make secure wire connections using wire clamps, wire connectors, and proper
splices. Simply wrapping the wires together can cause corrosion at the splice and
can reduce the power on the fence. Use high quality insulators, gate handles, and
insulator wrap, with UV inhibitors for your fence to help elongate its useful life. If
using metal fence posts, make sure fence wires cannot touch the post. There are
specific types of wood posts designed for electric fence use without insulators.
5.2 Maintenance

Look for and remove sources of interference: Mow or trim under bottom strand to
prevent grass and weeds from touching the fence; watch for fallen limbs or other
objects on the fence or caught in insulators.

Check insulators: A broken insulator can allow the fence strand to touch the post,
which can be a problem if you are using steel posts. A broken insulator can cause the
fence to go dead when the strand touches the metal.

Check connections: Ground-rod wires can get knocked or kicked away. Wires
attaching the cable to the fence may come loose. Make sure the system is secure!

Check the charger: Make sure it is functioning and clean. A dirty terminal can cause
it to spark.

Check insulated cable: Look for places where the cable may be abraded or frayed
and ensure it has not been gnawed on by pests.

Check fence strands: Look for frayed spots in poly tape, as metal fibers in the weave
that become separated cannot conduct current. Loose or damaged wires may lose
power and become dangerous for horses to get tangled in.
EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
OF HIGH QUALITY FARM

Paulo Emmanuel C. Dacaimat


Marden D. Villamor
Table of Contents 3. Generator Sets
1. Motors 3.1 Routine General Inspection
1.1 Lubrication 3.2 Lubrication Service
1.2 Bearing Inspection 3.3 Cooling System
1.3 Rotor / Stator Inspection 3.4 Fuel System
1.4 Belt Inspection 3.5 Testing Batteries
1.5 Brush / Commutator 3.5.1 Testing Output
Inspection 3.5.2 Cleaning Batteries
1.6 Motor Mount Inspection 3.5.3 Checking Specific
1.7 Vibration Gravity
1.8 Motor Temperature Control 3.5.4 Checking Electrolyte
1.9 Annual Maintenance Level
1.10 Record Keeping 3.6 Routine Engine Exercise
2. Controls 3.7 Keep your Generator Clean
2.1 Cleanliness 4. Battery
2.2 Moving Part Inspection 4.1 Charging
2.3 Contact Inspection 4.2 Storage
2.4 Contact Resistance Testing 4.3 Others
2.5 Overload Relay Inspection 5. Electric Fence
5.1 Installation
5.2 Maintenance
6. Appendices
To Almighty God
To our boss Mr. Federico Borromeo