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Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol.

It occurs
in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation.
Fermentation is also used more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium,
often with the goal of producing a specific chemical product. French microbiologist Louis Pasteur is often
remembered for his insights into fermentation and its microbial causes. The science of fermentation is known
as zymology.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation

Question: What Is Fermentation?


Fermentation is a process used to produce wine, beer, yogurt and other products. Here's a look at the
chemical process that occurs during fermentation.
Answer: Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or
a sugar, into an alcohol or an acid. For example, yeast perform fermentation to obtain energy by converting
sugar into alcohol. Bacteria perform fermentation, converting carbohydrates into lactic acid.

http://chemistry.about.com/od/lecturenoteslab1/f/What-Is-Fermentation.htm

Ethyl Alcohol or Ethanol Production from Molasses by Fermentation

Sugar industries produce molasses from the sugar cane processing. Molasses have 50 -55% concentration of
sugar in the form of sucrose, with chemical formula C12H22O11. This source of compound is used for preparing
ethyl alcohol. Ethanol in the form of absolute and rectified spirit can be made from molasses. Basis raw materials
for an industry to produce 1 ton of ethyl alcohol requires, molasses up to 5.6 tons, sulfuric acid 27 kg and
ammonium sulphate 2.5 kg.
The chemical reactions involved for ethanol production from molasses:

Main reaction:
C12H22O11 + H2O 2C6H12O6 ,with enzyme invertase.
C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 -31.2 KCal ,with enzyme zymase.
Side reaction:
2C6H12O6 + H2O ROH +RCHO (high molecular weight alcohols C2H5OH)

http://www.inclusive-science-engineering.com/ethyl-alcohol-or-ethanol-production-from-molasses-by-
fermentation/

What is the functions of Pasteur salt solutions in fermentations?

The pasteur salts in solution act as a buffer to any acids the yeast may create. Since yeast only converts sugar
(most likely sucrose or glucose) to ethanol under anaerobic conditions, and it is unreasonable to assume that
there will be no oxygen present in the laboratory, some acetic acid is created as a result.

http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_functions_of_Pasteur_salt_solutions_in_fermentations#slide=1

Pasteurs salt solution

Laboratory reagent consisting of potassium phosphate and calcium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and ammo
niumtartrate in distilled water.

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc.