Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 65

INTRODUCTION

1
Introduction

Consumer behaviour refers to have a consumer behaves or acts or reacts in making a purchase of
goods and service of his choice in different situation. Consumer is a very important person to
marketer because consumer decides what to purchase? When to purchase? From where to
purchase? In order to become a successful marketer he must know the likings and dislikings of
the consumer. He must also know the time and quantity of goods and service. A consumer may
purchase your product or not. The days are gone when the market is of only sellers market. Now
the whole concept of market has been changed, none it is buyers market and the consumer is
considered to be the KING of the market.

The manufacturer produces and seller sells whatever the consumer likes. Consumer may be
refered to anyone engaged in evaluating, acquiring, using, or disposing of goods and services,
which he expands will satisfy his needs.

According to Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Knanok the term consumer behavior can be
defined as the behaviour that consumer display in searching for purchasing, using, evaluating
and disposing of products , services and ideas which they expects will satisfy their needs.

Psychological factors include an individual's motivation, perception, attitude and belief, while
personal factors include income level, personality, age, occupation and lifestyle.
Congruence between personality and the way a persuasive message is framed (i.e., aligning the
message framing with the recipients personality profile) may play an important role in ensuring
the success of that message. In a recent experiment, five advertisements (each designed to target
one of the five major trait domains of human personality) were constructed for a single product.
The results demonstrated that advertisements were evaluated more positively the more they
cohered with participants dispositional motive. Tailoring persuasive messages to the personality
traits of the targeted audience can be an effective way of enhancing the messages impact.
Behaviour can also be affected by external influences, such as culture, sub-culture, social class,
past experience reference groups, family and situational determinants. Culture is the broadest and
most abstract of the external factors, they are the complexity of learning meanings, values,
norms, and customs shared by members of a society. It is important to study the impact of culture

2
on consumer behavior as marketers expand their international marketing efforts. Subcultures
may be based on age, geographic, religious, racial, and ethnic differences. These racial/ethnic
subcultures are important to marketers because of their growth, size, and purchasing power.
Social Class refers to relatively homogenous divisions in a society into which people sharing
similar lifestyles and interests can be grouped. These social classes are important to marketers
because these consumers have similar buying habits. Reference group is defined as "a group
whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her
judgment, opinions, and actions." As consumers we use three different types of reference groups
including, associative, aspirational and dissociative as a guide to specific behaviors. Marketers
uses these groups to create advertisements. Finally,situational determinants or purchase and
usage decisions. Three types of these may have an effect: specific usage situations, purchase
situations, and the communication settings

Introduction And Evolution of DTH Industry

With the Indian economy booming at a GDP growth rate of 9.4%, there is a sense of growth
prevailing everywhere. The average Indians disposable income and purchasing power has

3
risen to never before levels. The Indian Entertainment &Media industry is also not far behind. It
is currently estimated at a worth of Rs. 450 billion with a CAGR of 18% over the next 5 years.
Terms which were alien to Indians like DTH, Digital Cable, IPTV are suddenly finding

presence in the countrys journals. A report predicts that India would overtake Japan as Asias
largest DTH by next year and be the Asia's leading cable market by 2010 and the most

profitable pay-TV market by 2015. This growth presents a lot of interesting scenarios. In this

paper, we shall analyze the challenges and opportunities present for the DTH industry within the

Indian context. We would look at the history of Indian broadcasting followed by looking

at the current DTH market. An environment analysis would be done using the porters five forces

model and the various challenges faced by the industry would be identified. Finally we would

look at the possible suggestions taking a long term view.

Currently, about 7 million households subscribe to DTH service, far lower than digital
pay TV subscribers, but the market is estimated to more than triple to 25-26 million by2010 with
the rural market expected to grow faster than the urban. Currently, about 7 million households
subscribe to DTH service, far lower than digital pay TV subscribers, but the market is estimated
to more than triple to 25-26 million by 2010 with the rural market expected to grow faster than
the urban.

History of Indian Broadcasting

The history of Indian Television dates back to the launch of Doordarshan, the countrys
national television network in 1959. Television was then seen as a luxury item that could

be afforded only by a chosen few. The transmission was in Black & White. The 9 th Asian

4
games which were held in 1982 in the countrys capital New Delhi heralded the mark of

color television broadcast in India.

In 1991, Indian economy was libera lized from the License Raj and major initiatives like
inviting foreign direct investment, deregulation of domestic businesses emerged. This lead to
the influx of foreign channels like Star TV and creation of domestic satellite channels
like Sun TV and Zee TV. This virtually destroyed the monopoly held by Doordarshan. In
1992, the Cable TV industry started. If one could list down the revolutions that happened
in Indian entertainment industry, Cable TV would top the list. It has literally changed the way the
average Indian watches the Television. The number of channels increased suddenly from 2 and
the real entertainment started. Every city in India had a complex web of co-axial cables
running through the streets with a new breed of entrepreneurs called as CABLEWALLAHS
or Local Cable Operator (LCO) taking in charge of distribution. The film industry was shocked
by this sudden growth and there were even organized protests for calling off the Cable TV
industry.

The industry survived but the sudden onset of growth made it as a disorganized sector.
There were simply too many cable operators in the country. Carrying new channels on the
existing infrastructure required new investments which the operators were reluctant to
make. Also the Channels had a difficult time in getting its returns as the existing system was a
non-addressable and the operators could simply give a number of subscribers to amass
profit.

This lead to the emergence of a new breed of firms called as Multi System Operators (MSO) who
had heavy financial muscles to make capital investments. They liaised between the cable
operator and the Channels. MSOs provide the feed to the local operators for a fee. Soon
the industry consolidated with each city having one or two MSOs operating. Most of the
channels are carried by all the MSOs but sometimes certain channels are shown only on a
specific MSO network. The MSO industry has become highly monopolistic which warrants

government participation2 to ensure competition. Current estimates show that there are
6000 MSOs operating in the country feeding 60000 LCOs.

5
In 1995, Government felt the need of regulation in Cable TV and passed the Cable TV networks
(Regulation) Act. This was also the time when the state owned Doordarshan and All India Radio
came under a new holding called as Prasar Bharati to give them enough autonomy. Even with
the basic regulation in place, there were lots of distribution issues with Cable TV. The
LCOs reported a lower number of connections where as the broadcasters demanded a
higher rate. MSOs were finding it difficult to operate under these conditions. This lead to an
amendment of the Cable TV networks (Regulation) Act in 2002 to provide Conditional
Access System (CAS). With CAS, the last mile distribution could be addressable with
accuracy and digitalization of broadcast was also possible. CAS was rolled out in 2003
starting from Chennai and later to parts of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata.

On the DTH front, the United Front government had issued a ban on use of Ku band
transmission. After a change of government, the ban got lifted finally in 2001 and TRAI
issued the guidelines for operating DTH. Countrys first private DTH license was awarded
to Dish TV in 2003 which started operations in 2004. Prasar Bharati also started its product DD-
Direct+.

In 2007, TRAI proposed a new initiative by name Headend-In-The-Sky (HITS) model


as an alternative to the existing cable distribution. Instead of the MSOs providing the

bundle, there will be a single HITS operator who will prepare the bundle of channels and

beam it to the Headend in the satellite. The LCOs can receive this digitalized bundle and deliver

to the individual homes. With HITS, country wide implementation of CAS becomes

instantaneous and cost-effective.

Terminology confusion

As a technical matter, DBS (also known by the International Telecommunication Union as


Broadcasting Satellite Service, or BSS) refers only to services transmitted by satellite in specific
frequency bands: 11.7-12.2 GHz in ITU Region 3 (Asia and Australia), 10.7 - 12.75 GHz in ITU
Region 1 (Europe, Russia and Africa), and 12.2-12.7 GHz ITU Region 2 (North and South

6
America). In 1977, the ITU adopted an international BSS Plan under which each country was
allocated specific frequencies at specific orbital locations for domestic service. Over the years,
this plan has been modified to, for example, accommodate new countries, increase coverage
areas, and reflect digital (rather than analog) technology. At present, numerous countries have
brought into use their BSS Plan allocations.

By contrast, the term DTH can apply to similar services transmitted over a wider range of
frequencies (including standard Ku band and Ka band) transmitted from satellites that are not part
of any internationally planned band. The term DBS is often used interchangeably with DTH to
cover both analog and digital video and audio services (including video on
demand and interactive features) received by relatively small dishes (less than 1 meter). A "DBS
service" usually refers to either a commercial service, or a group of free channels available from
one orbital position targeting one country. In certain regions of the world, especially in North
America, DBS is used to refer to providers of subscription satellite packages, and has become
applied to the entire equipment chain involved.

7
Commercial services

Astro satellite dishes

The second commercial DBS service, Sky Television plc (now BSkyB after its merger
with British Satellite Broadcasting's five-channel network), was launched in 1989. Sky TV
started as a four-channel free-to-air analogue service on the Astra 1A satellite, serving both
Ireland and the United Kingdom. By 1991, Sky had changed to a conditional access pay model,
and it launched a digital service, Sky Digital, in 1998, with analogue transmission ceasing in
2001. Since the DBS nomenclature is rarely used in the UK or Ireland, the popularity of Sky's
service has caused the terms "minidish" and "digibox" to be applied to products other than Sky's
hardware. News Corporation has a 32% stake in BSkyB.

Prime Star began transmitting an analog service to North America in 1991, and was joined
by DirecTV (then owned by a division of General Motors, GM Hughes Electronics), in 1994. At
the time, DirecTV's introduction was the most successful consumer electronics debut
in American history. Although Prime Star transitioned to a digital system in 1994, it was
ultimately unable to compete with DirecTV, which required a smaller satellite dish and could
deliver more programming. DirecTV purchased Prime Star in 1999 and moved all of that
provider's subscribers to DirecTV equipment. In a series of transactions consummated in
2003, Hughes Electronics was spun out of GM and the News Corporation purchased a

8
controlling interest in the new company, which was renamed The DIRECTV Group. In
2008,Liberty Media Corporation purchased News Corporation's controlling interest in DirecTV.

In 1996, EchoStar's Dish Network went online in the United States and, as DirecTV's primary
competitor, achieved similar success. Alpha Star also started but soon went under. Astro was also
started, using a direct broadcast satellite system.

Dominion Video Satellite Inc.'s Sky Angel launched on a satellite platform in the United States in
1996, with its DBS service geared toward the faith and family market. It grew from six to 36
television and radio channels of family entertainment, Christian-inspirational programming, and
24-hour news services. Dominion, under its former corporate name Video Satellite Systems Inc.,
was actually the second from among the first nine companies to apply to the FCC for a high-
power DBS license in 1981, and it was the sole surviving DBS company from the first round of
applicants until the sale of their license to EchoStar Communications Corporation in 2007 and
departure from satellite distribution in 2008. Sky Angel, although a separate and independent
DBS service, used the same satellites, transmission facilities and receiving equipment used for
Dish Network through an agreement with Echostar. Because of this, Sky Angel subscribers also
had the option of subscribing to Dish Network's channels as well.

In 2003, EchoStar attempted to purchase DirecTV, but the FCC and U.S. Department of Justice
denied the purchase based on anti-competitive concerns.

As of 2013, India has the most competitive direct-broadcast satellite market with seven operators
(six private DTH and one government-owned FTA DTH) vying for more than 110 million
television homes. Subscribers to India's six private direct-to-home (DTH) satellite television
providers have now reached 56.5 million, according to the latest figures issued by the Telecom
Regulations Authority of India (TRAI)on 31 March 2013.

9
Free services

Mahabir Pun hand-making a satellite dish in Nepal

Germany is likely the leader in free-to-air (FTA) DBS, with approximately 200 digital FTA
channels (including 18 HDTV channels and various regional channels) broadcast from the Astra
19.2E satellite constellation. These are not marketed as a DBS service, but are received in
approximately 12 million homes, as well as in any home using the Sky Deutschland commercial
DBS system. All German analogue satellite broadcasts ceased on April 30, 2012.

The United Kingdom has approximately 160 digital channels (including the regional variations
of BBC channels, ITV channels, Channel 4and Channel 5) are broadcast without encryption
from the Astra 28.2E satellite constellation, and receivable on any DVB-S-compliant receiver
(a DVB-S2 receiver is required for certain high definition television services). Most of these
channels are included within the SkyEPG, and an increasing number within the Freesat EPG.

India's national broadcaster, Doordarshan, promotes a free-to-air DBS package as "DD Free
Dish", which is provided as in-fill for the country's terrestrial transmission network. It is
broadcast from GSAT-15 at 93.5E and contains about 80 FTA channels.

While originally launched as backhaul for their digital terrestrial television service, a large
number of French channels are free-to-air on satellites at 5W, and have recently been announced
as being official in-fill for the DTT network.

10
In North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) there are over 80 FTA digital channels
available on Galaxy 19 (with the majority being ethnic or religious in nature). Other FTA
satellites include AMC-4, AMC-6, Galaxy 18, and Satmex 5. A company
called GloryStarpromotes FTA religious broadcasters on Galaxy 19.

History of Indian Broadcasting

The history of Indian Television dates back to the launch of Doordarshan, the countrys
national television network in 1959. Television was then seen as a luxury item that could be

afforded only by a chosen few. The transmission was in Black & White. The 9 th Asian games
which were held in 1982 in the countrys capital New Delhi heralded the mark of color
television broadcast in India. In 1991, Indian economy was liberalized from the License
Raj and major initiatives like inviting foreign direct investment, deregulation of domestic
businesses emerged. This lead to the influx of foreign channels like Star TV and creation
of domestic satellite channels like Sun TV and Zee TV. This virtually destroyed the
monopoly held by Doordarshan. In 1992, the Cable TV industry started. If one could list
down the revolutions that happened in Indian entertainment industry, Cable TV would top the
list. It has literally changed the way the average Indian watches the Television. The number of
channels increased suddenly from 2 and the real entertainment started. Every city in India had a
complex web of co-axial cables running through the streets with a new breed of
entrepreneurs called as CABLEWALLAHS or Local Cable Operator (LCO) taking in charge of
distribution. The film industry was shocked by this sudden growth and there were even organized
protests for calling off the Cable TV industry.

The industry survived but the sudden onset of growth made it as a disorganized sector.
There were simply too many cable operators in the country. Carrying new channels on
the existing infrastructure required new investments which the operators were reluctant to
make. Also the Channels had a difficult time in getting its returns as the existing system was a
non-addressable and the operators could simply give a reduced number of subscribers to
amass profit. This lead to the emergence of a new breed of firms called as Multi System
Operators (MSO) who had heavy financial muscles to make capital investments. They
liaised between the cable operator and the Channels. MSOs provide the feed to the local
operators for a fee. Soon the industry consolidated with each city having one or two MSOs

11
operating. Most of the channels are carried by all the MSOs but sometimes certain
channels are shown only on a specific MSO network. The MSO industry has become highly
monopolistic which warrants government participation to ensure competition. Current
estimates show that there are 6000 MSOs operating in the country feeding 60000 LCOs.

In 1995, Government felt the need of regulation in Cable TV and passed the Cable TV networks
(Regulation) Act. This was also the time when the state owned Doordarshan and All India Radio
came under a new holding called as Prasar Bharati to give them enough autonomy. Even with
the basic regulation in place, there were lots of distribution issues with Cable TV. The
LCOs reported a lower number of connections where as the broadcasters demanded a
higher rate. MSOs were finding it difficult to operate under these conditions. This lead to an
amendment of the Cable TV networks (Regulation) Act in 2002 to provide Conditional
Access System (CAS). With CAS, the last mile distribution could be addressable with
accuracy and digitalization of broadcast was also possible. CAS was rolled out in 2003
starting from Chennai and later to parts of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata.

On the DTH front, the United Front government had issued a ban on use of Ku band
transmission. After a change of government, the ban got lifted finally in 2001 and TRAI
issued the guidelines for operating DTH. Countrys first private DTH license was awarded
to Dish TV in 2003 which started operations in 2004. Prasar Bharati also started its product DD-
Direct+.

In 2007, TRAI proposed a new initiative by name Headend-In-The-Sky (HITS) model as


an alternative to the existing cable distribution. Instead of the MSOs providing the
bundle, there will be a single HITS operator who will prepare the bundle of channels and
beam it to the Headend in the satellite. The LCO can receive this digitalized bundle and deliver
to the individual homes. With HITS, country wide implementation of CAS becomes
instantaneous and cost-effective. This benefits both the broadcasters and the customers by
ensuring Addressability, Better quality of service and increased number of channels. Another
emerging trend is the IPTV which is yet to be regulated and one can expect lot of action in this
sector

Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)

12
IPTV is a service where television signals are digitally sent over the telecommunications
line. It is often presented as a bouquet of Video (IPTV), Audio (Telephone) and Data
(Broadband Internet) services. With widespread adoption of Broadband in the country and
the growing techno savvy population, IPTV has a potential to become a huge success.
Telecom companies such as BSNL and MTNL have spotted these earnings potential and
have already started with trial implementation in cities like Bangalore and Kolkata.
Companies like Reliance Communications and Bharti Airtel are also planning to follow soon.
IPTV takes the interactivity to a newer level. In regular mediums, all the channels are pushed to
the consumer regardless of his preference. IPTV encourages a two-way request-response
model where the consumer chooses the program he wants to view. Right now this
medium is totally unregulated and hence there is a chance for customers being taken for
a ride. Cable companies are urging the TRAI to issue a consultation paper process to
include IPTV under the aegis of Cable TV act. Even if strict regulations are enforced on, we
see IPTV as a considerable threat to DTH in Urban and Semi Urban areas where broadband
has made its mark.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers


DTH industry relies on three major supplies: Customer premise equipment (CPE)
comprising of the Satellite Dish, Set Top Box with the necessary Access Card, the Ku
band transponders in the orbiting satellites and content. With India set to overtake Japan as
Asias largest DTH by next year, the bargaining power of Indian DTH operators with CPE
suppliers have been steadily increasing.

However, the availability of transponders is increasingly becoming difficult. The KU band


transponder is generally provided by Astrix, the commercial wing of ISRO either through
its own satellites or by leasing transponders from suppliers like Panamsat, LMI ABS and
Singapores ST1. With only two domestic satellite launches between 2007 and2010 and
increasing DTH players, Astrix is in a better position to use DTH as its cash cow for the next 5 to
10 years. Also the crash of INSAT 4C last year and Dutch SES New skies NSS-8 in the
beginning of this year has worsened the situation of DTH players.

As there is not much of regulation particularly in terms of channel pricing, acquiring content
from the broadcasters is also difficult. DTH vendors are at the mercy of the broadcasters.

13
Bargaining Power of Buyers
We would take the entire broadcasting industry for analyzing the bargaining power of the buyers.
With enough options to choose both from the point of alternate mediums like Cable, IPTV and
Terrestrial broadcast and from the point of increasing DTH operators, the consumer is at his
will to decide.

Customers will continue to have a high bargaining power until DTH platforms try to differentiate
them as superior players with better content and clarity.

Inter Firm Rivalry

With 3 operational players and 4 players in the queue, the Inter firm rivalry is quite
high. The competition from state owned DD-Direct to private players is negligible from
the content point of view as the number of channels offered by DD-Direct is very
limited. However, DD-Direct does not charge any monthly subscription fee which poses a
threat to the private players who charge monthly subscription charges. Between Dish TV and
Tata Sky there is an intense rivalry exhibited by price wars and discount schemes offered to
new connections. Being the First mover, Dish TV had price advantage in both the STB as
well as in procuring the transponders. On the other hand, Tata Sky claims its STB offers superior
DVD quality video due to its advanced STB. While Dish TV is planning to spend Rs. 850
crores over the next 3 years, the rival Tata Sky is willing to spend Rs.2000 crores over the
medium term. The companies have also set ambitious targets with Dish TV aiming to reach 4.5
million subscribers in the next 18 to 20 months while Tata Sky aiming for 8 million subscribers
by 2012.

Challenges Faced by the Industry

Policy and Regulation

Being a nascent industry, there are lots of teething issues with the current policy
framework and the way it is regulated in reality. Some of the notable challenges faced are as
below:

14
Lack of exclusive content
In the global DTH market, competition is mostly on providing niche content. In India, TRAI
does not allow a broadcaster to offer content exclusively to a specific player

Hence content differentiation as a USP is not possible currently in the Indian scenario. TRAI has
clearly indicated that exclusivity can be provided only when DTH market matures and
there is perfect competition in the market place. But DTH operators are feeling that without
content differentiation, the competition can only be on price which may even cannibalize
the industry.

The rule of Must Carry


DTH operator is obliged to carry all the channels provided by every broadcaster on a non-
discriminatory basis. However, with the capacity constraints in place, this is not feasible. So in
cases, where the operator is willing to broadcast only the popular channels, the
broadcasters either deny giving the entire bouquet or charge prices for the complete
bouquet.

The litigations showed in Table 2 shows the extent of problems cropping up due to this clause.
Operators like Dish who have more transponders and operators who have a cable
company backing like Sun Direct are supporting the Must carry clause where as
transponder-scarce new entrants like Bharti Airtel are against this clause.

Cap on Foreign Investment


As per the current policy, the total foreign equity including FDI/NRI/OCB/FII cannot exceed
49% and within that FDI component cannot exceed 20%. This would reduce the interest of
foreign investors as they cannot get a controlling stake in the company in spite of a heavy
investment. On the contrary, up to 74% of foreign equity, with no limit on FDI, is allowed in the
Cable industry. With DTH being a capital intensive industry, these limitations hurt the
expansion plans of the cash constrained operators.

Cap on Cable Company/Broadcaster Investment

In order to ensure a fair com Broadcasting/Cable company investment in the DTH venture to
20% and also prevent the DTH firm to hold more than 20% in a Broadcasting/Cable company.

15
As one can see, DTH operators are able to overcome this challenge by spinning of new
companies. But removing this rule would reduce the bureaucracy involved and also
reduce the content cost for an operator due to the synergies created between him and the
Broadcaster.

Interoperability issue

TRAI mandates an open architecture for STBs to ensure technical interoperability but in reality
this is not being implemented. However, with increasing consumer awareness, the dilution
of this rule would soon be corrected. In addition, in the recent consultation paper, TRAI also
wants to try out the commercial interoperability (The ability to return a purchased STB or
lease a STB) route. Although this is good from the consumer point of view, DTH operators
cannot build a switching cost for the end user.

Non-availability of Transponders
Right now, ISRO has INSAT 4A and INSAT 4B in the orbit with 12 Ku transponders each. The
next in the line is INSAT 4CR due in September 2007, which will open up another 12 Ku
transponders. INSAT 4G will be launched in 2009-10 with a capacity of 18 Ku
transponders. Also with the launch of INSAT 4G, ISRO would have used up the entire
spectrum that was allotted to it by WARC, ITU.

Even with 54 transponders by 2010, with 7 operators, the demand-supply gap is huge with each
operator getting approximately 150 channels. Also if any of these launches fail like INSAT 4C, it
may spoil the plans of DTH operators.

Current regulations stipulate a DTH operator to use only Indian satellites or in case of foreign
satellites, they have to be approved and leased by ISRO.

Weak Financials
Dish TV is the only listed DTH operator and we have used it to analyze the industry financials.
By looking at the P&L account, we can infer that Dish TV is a loss making unit as of now.
Operating costs contribute to 50% of the total expenses and the cost to acquire the
content forms 69% of this entire operating cost. Broadcasters are not willing to accept a lower
cost for their content. The situation would be worse for companies that do not have a backing of
a broadcaster Another interesting perspective is to look is the Average Revenue Per User

16
(ARPU). While reports state the ARPU of significant players in Asia-Pacific at $21, Dish TV
currently has an ARPU of $2.7 (Rs. 111). To become profitable, Dish TV has to increase
the subscriber base and make them pay more for the services.

Quality of Service Issues

There are couple of QoS issues which currently affect the DTH operators.
They are:-

Technical Glitch - Rain Fade


By definition, Ku band signals get weakened by rain and snow. This results in reduced
image clarity and sometimes total cutoff. This is a fundamental problem with the design of the
transmission frequency. In India, people are glued to their TV soaps and sports events like
Cricket matches. So even a tiny service disruption, during these events is seen as a major
weakness of the DTH platform.

Poor Levels of Service


A search on Indias popular consumer forum Mouthshut.com reports that only 28%
recommend Dish TV and 57% recommend Tata Sky. Even with the skew for errors and
incorrect data, this shows the low satisfaction levels of
consumers. Some of the glaring complaints are Poor after-sales support, Removal of
channels off air without notification, Open-ended contractual agreements favoring the
operators and Lack of grievance cells.

Recommendations

The DTH operators along with consumer forums should participate in the consultation process
undertaken by TRAI on DTH to work out an amicable solution that favors the entire industry.
The key things to put forward are:-

Enabling content exclusivity


Allowing niche contents such as International channels and Adult content
Revisiting the implications of Must-carry clause
Reduction of the existing revenue sharing %

17
This may not be easily possible since there are conflicting interests between the
operators. TRAI may also reiterate that existing frameworks helps in curbing monopoly.

Accelerated Subscriber and Revenue Growth


From the Dish TV financials, it is very clear, that only volumes will help to break-even
and see profitability. Hence, DTH operators should continue to acquire new subscribers at
a faster rate. The industry should aim to achieve a higher ARPU from the current values. To
reach these goals, Operators can employ techniques such as :

Subsidization
The initial entry cost should be reduced by subsidizing the CPE. Although this would negatively
affect the profitability in the short run, it is a good move to acquire formidable market
share. With content differentiation out of the question, only cost leadership will help the
firms to operate in the long run.

Value Added Services

While an operator could not differentiate content, it is possible to differentiate in terms of


the add-on services like Movie-on-Demand, Interactive program guides and Good quality of
Built-in games. With increasing disposable incomes, people would be willing to pay more for
any value addition. DTH operators can also acts as a convergence provider bundling
services of voice, fax, data, communication and Internet on the same. Telecom companies are
using this route to penetrate via the IPTV model.

Aggressive Marketing & Partnering

Consumers should be educated on the DTH platform and how it addresses their
entertainment needs. DTH should be marketed more as a lifestyle product rather than a utility.
Having presence in the retail store chains and in the web media would also help. Operators
should also capitalize the real estate boom by partnering with builders. Tata Skys Multi
Dwelling Unit (MDU) model where one dish is shared by every home is a good way to win
customers easily. When the infrastructure is already created by an operator, people would
naturally opt to go with him.

18
Tapping niche markets

With the mobile STBs, DTH operators can tap the markets such as Luxury cars, Flights,
Tourist buses and Trains. Dish TV is already in tie up with King Fisher Airlines and in
talks with luxury bus manufacturers like Volvo. Also in areas where terrestrial or Cable TV is not
feasible like hilly areas or Line-of-Control, DTH has a huge potential to acquire customer base.

Better Quality of Service


Service level is a key differentiator in DTH. Although technical glitches such as rain fade cannot
be fully solved, they can however be reduced by providing a better antenna with water
proof coating and by increasing the transmission power. The majority of the issues raised right
now are regarding customer experience.

While increasing the customer base is important for growth, retaining the existing customers is
of paramount importance. With increasing consumer awareness and easy access to information,
bad news spreads rapidly. A negative feedback in a consumer forum is something to be
really worried. Customer service representatives should be equipped to handle disgruntled
customer calls with a faster and valid response. Grievance redressal mechanisms should be
established with service level guarantees.

Investment in a Subscriber Management System (SMS) for an efficient and accurate


billing system should be made. The overall focus of the industry should be customer centric.
Customer and Content must be the king which would drive the firms towards profit.

19
20
INFORMATION ABOUT THE DTH COMPANIES

TATA SKY

About Tata Sky

Incorporated in 2001, Tata Sky Ltd is a joint venture between Tata Sons and 21st Century Fox.
Tata Sky endeavors to offer Indian viewers a world-class television viewing experience through
its satellite television service. Tata Sky offers customers interactive services as well as a variety
of channels ranging from entertainment, sports, movies and music to news and documentaries in
DVD quality picture and CD quality sound.

VISION

Tata Sky aims to revolutionise Indian home entertainment by empowering television viewers
with Choice, Control and Convenience through a wide array of programming choices and
interactive features.

PARTNERS

Tata Sky has partnered with global leaders in the space of digital technology to bring a state-of-
the-art satellite television service to India.
Satellite

21
Tata Sky has leased all 12 Ku-Band transponders on ISROs Indian satellite, INSAT 4A, the most
advanced and high-powered KU-Band communication satellite in the region, developed keeping
in mind local requirements. The satellite enables Tata Sky to offer superior picture and sound
quality with a wide range of channels.

Business Support Software


A leading provider of technology solutions for pay television, NDS, played a key role in the end-
to-end system architecture needed for launching the nationwide digital service. The NDS Video
Guard conditional access solution provides superior broadcast security and enables Tata Sky to
offer multiple programming and pricing packages.

IT
Tata Sky has invested in the best of breed technology infrastructure from Oracle, IBM and Cisco.
This infrastructure ensures maximum up time, reliability and scale. Software applications like
CRM, billing, ERP are deployed in a clustered environment, which not only ensures high
availability but also enriches the customer xperience.

Set top box


Tata Sky has partnered with Thomson, Humax, Huawei and Pace, world leaders in digital
broadcast technology for building top-of-the line set top boxes, customized specifically for the
Indian markets. The technologys feature rich design enables Tata Sky to deliver multiple
programming, pricing packages and interactive services to its customers.

Systems Integration
Tata Consultancy Services (TCS): TCS is a Systems Integration partner for Tata Sky Ltd. It
supports IT operations in the areas of billing, ERP and other customer care and employee related
internal facing applications.

Service Support
TATA Business Support Services Limited provides Contact Center Services to Tata Sky from 12
high-end call centers offering round the- clock support in 13 different languages.

22
TBSS offers Tata Sky Customer Care services right from managing Customer queries and
complaints to Customer retention along with Back Office integration. TBSS also provides
support for Installation and activation of DTH Connections, Tata Sky Partner support and
Campaign management i.e. Cross selling and Up selling of products and services.

CUSTOMER SERVICE NETWORK

Tata Sky has established an extensive customer service network across the country. The company
takes direct responsibility for installing and servicing the hardware at every subscriber's home,
thereby ensuring the highest levels of customer service. The Tata Sky field force of
approximately 3000 service installers are complemented by high-end 24x7 call centres, manned
by multi-lingual customer service associates, trained to solve all customer problems.

TATA BRAND

The TATA Group is one of Indias largest and most respected business conglomerates.
Headquartered in India, the TATA group comprises over 100 operating companies in seven
business sectors: communications and information technology, engineering, materials, services,
energy, consumer products and chemicals. The Tata groups core purpose is to improve the
quality of life of the communities it serves and the Tata name has been respected for more than
140 years - trusted for its adherence to strong values and business ethics.

SKY BRAND

The SKY brand, owned by the UK-based British Sky Broadcasting Group, brings to Tata Sky the
reputation of more than two decades of experience in satellite broadcasting. SKY is well known
for the innovative products and services launched by BSkyB - such as DTH broadcasting in
1989, digital satellite broadcasting in 1998, interactive television services in 1999, the SKY+
personal video recorder in 2001 and SKY Go in 2011.

The Company believes in the conduct of the affairs of its constituents in a fair and
transparent manner by adopting highest standards of professionalism, honesty, integrity

23
and ethical behaviour. Towards this end, the Company has adopted the Tata Code of
Conduct (the Code), which lays down the principles and standards that should govern
the actions of the Company and its employees. Any actual or potential violation of the
Code, howsoever insignificant or perceived as such, would be a matter of serious concern
for the Company. The role of the employees in pointing out such violations of the Code
cannot be undermined. There is a provision under the Code requiring employees to report
violations, which states: 25.
Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement between listed companies and the Stock Exchanges
has been recently amended which, inter alia, provides for a non-mandatory requirement
for all listed companies to establish a mechanism called Whistle Blower Policy for
employees to report to the management instances of unethical behaviour, actual or
suspected, fraud or violation of the Companys code of conduct or ethics policy. c.
Accordingly, this Whistle Blower Policy (the Policy) has been formulated with a view
to provide a mechanism for employees of the Company to approach the Ethics
Counsellor / Chairman of the Audit Committee of the Company.
Definitions the definitions of some of the key terms used in this Policy are given below.
Capitalised terms not defined herein shall have the meaning assigned to them under the
CoScope
This Policy is an extension of the Tata Code of Conduct. The Whistle Blowers role is
that of a reporting party with reliable information. They are not required or expected to
act as investigators or finders of facts, nor would they determine the appropriate
corrective or remedial action that may be warranted in a given case.
Whistle Blowers should not act on their own in conducting any investigative activities,
nor do they have a right to participate in any investigative activity.

24
BIG TV

INTRODUCTION
Reliance Digital TV is one of the largest Indian pay TV providers, providing direct broadcast
satellite serviceincluding satellite television, audio programming, and interactive television
servicesto commercial and residential customers in India. It uses MPEG-4 digital compression
technology, transmitted using MEASAT-3 91.5East. It is the 5th DTH service launched in India.

Reliance ADAG launched their DTH service on 19 August 2008. Reliance digital TV limited is a
part of Reliance Communications Ltd., a subsidiary of Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group
founded by the Late Dhirubhai Ambani, the Indian business tycoon and owned by his son Anil
Ambani. BIG TV started operations from 19 August 2008 with the slogan "TV Ho Toh BIG Ho"
("If you have a TV, make it BIG"). It currently offers close to 250 channels and many interactive
ones, 32 cinema halls (i.e. Pay Per View Cinema Channels) as well as many Radio channels. The
company plans to increase the number of channels in the near future to 400 and begin High
Definition (HD) broadcast. There are also plans to introduce services like i-Stock, i-News and
other such interactive services in the future.

Technical Details
Reliance BIG TV's launch in August deployed the MPEG4 technology. MPEG4 technology can
support HD TV and not MPEG2 which is used by the earlier entrants in the DTH industry.

25
The MPEG4 technology helps to broadcast up to 35 to 40 channels per transponder. With 12
transponders they are able to broadcast over 400 channels. They are currently utilizing only 9 of
their transponders to broadcast over 230 channels

Reliance Digital TV HD
Enhanced contrast and saturation give you sharper, brighter and more vivid picture and sound
quality than ever before on live television. Enjoy television with digital quality audio and
transform your home into a multiplex.

Enjoy the uninterrupted flow of the high-definition signal directly into your HD TV to give you
smooth, life-like picture quality.

Reliance Digital TV's HD Set Top-Box comes with revolutionary technology that up-scale all
250 channels into HD like quality with video resolution of 1080p at 50 Hz. Your HD experience
can go to the next level with the following channels that broadcast directly in HD

AIRTEL DIGITAL TV

26
Introduction
Airtel Digital TV is an Indian direct broadcast satellite service provider owned and operated by
Bharti Airtel. Its satellite service, launched on 2008, transmits digital satellite television and
audio to households in India. It uses MPEG-4 digital compression with DVB-S2 technology,
transmitting using the satellites INSAT-4CR 74E and SES-7 108.2E.
Airtel Digital TV service was launched on 8 October 2008.

Technical information
Airtel Digital TV's standard definition broadcasts are in MPEG-4 with Interactive Service (ITV)
and 7-day EPG (electronic programme guide). Interactive Service (ITV) of Airtel Digital TV
includes an add-on service that allows a user to shop, book movie tickets etc. A universal remote
is included in the package that can, over IR frequencies, control both the TV and the DTH box.
Like other DTH service providers, it also provides a Pay Per View interactive service that
includes a catalogue of movies in Hindi, English and Regional languages.

Airtel Digital TV Recorder


A premium DVR Digital Video Recorder allows 150 hours of recording live TV on a 160 GB
hard disk with MPEG 4 picture clarity. This product was discontinued after the launch of [HD]
Recorder.

27
Airtel Digital TV [HD]
Airtel Digital TV HD provides channels in their native resolution of 1080i or 720p with 16:9
aspect ratios. The STB is compatible with 7.1 Channel Dolby Digital Plus surround sound as
well and is in fact the first HD STB in India to be compliant with Dolby digital Plus. Released an
newer UI(version 402)on 25 march which has a features like VOD(Video On Demand)and
Recording facility using external HDD.

Airtel Digital TV [HD] Recorder


On 4 May 2010, Airtel digital TV from Bharti Airtel announced the launch of its 3D ready High
Definition Personal Video Recorder (HD Recorder). Retaining its pioneering Remote Recording
feature, Airtel digital TV's HD Recorder offers unique features of Automatic Favorites, Search
and Genre and Category sort and is 3D ready. It is also the first STB in India to support
compatibility for 1080p signals in future.

On 24 May 2011, Airtel announced that its digital TV HD and HD-DVR boxes are software-
enabled to view standarddefinition (SD) content upscale to 1080i HD. Picture Quality: Airtel
Digital TV has DVD quality picture (We are not sure about HD yet though, but the picture
quality is flawless, looks amazing on TVs no matter what size) There was no pixilation and the
picture was perfect.

Sound Quality
It has amazing sound, almost DVD quality there as well. No hiccups in audio, nice streaming.

Remote
Universal Remote is provided with Airtel Digital TV, meaning that your TV and the STB will
work with the same remote. So say goodbye to two remotes! Also, even though it is a universal
remote, it is actually really light unlike Tata Sky and Big TV remotes.
Set Top Box
The overall appearance of the Airtel STB is very sleek and stylish, it does not appear like a huge
bulky box. Its really nice and compact.
Dish
Airtel Digital TV has a bigger Dish than the existing companies, which makes sure that you
dont lose connectivity even in heavy rainfall.
28
Channels
Airtel Digital TV has almost all the popular channels.
Pricing
Airtel Digital TV has flexible pricing options, and a lot of packs to make sure you get what you
want.
Active Services
Airtel Digital TV has 8 active services which are very useful as well. It includes iMatinee
through which you can book cinema tickets, iCity for knowing more about your city and its
places, iNews for getting in touch with the latest news, iShop for shopping, iAstro for knowing
your astrological predictions, iTravel for knowing more about travelling, iLearn and iNet.

29
DISH TV

Introduction
Dish TV India Limited is an Indian company engaged in the business of providing direct-to-
home (DTH) satellite television service, which includes teleport service, customer support and
transponder space leasing. Dish TV is a division of Zee Network Enterprise (Essel Group
Venture). Dish TV India Limited is ranked # 437 and #5 in the list of media companies in the
Fortune India 500 roster of Indias largest corporations in 2011. It uses MPEG-2 digital
compression technology, transmitting using NSS-6 Satellite at 950. Dish TV's managing
director and Head Of Business is Jawahar Goel who is also the promoter of Essel Group and is
also the President of Indian Broadcasting Foundation. Zee Network incorporated Dish TV to
modernize television (TV) viewing. It provides features such as Electronic Programme Guide
(EPG), parental lock, games, 330+ channels and services, interactive TV and movies on demand.

Technical Details
Dish TV uses NSS-6 to broadcast its programs. NSS-6 was launched on 17 December 2002 by
European-based satellite provider, New Skies. Dish TV hopped on to NSS-6 from an INSAT
satellite in July 2004. The change in the satellite was to increase the channel offering as NSS 6
offered more transponder capacity. However, Dish TV booked additional transponders on the
new Asiasat 5 satellite for starting its MPEG-4 based HD services. Dish TV is currently using 5
transponders on Asiasat 5.

Dish tru HD

30
Dish TV recently launched its high definition service called Dish truHD. Its major competitors
are SUN Direct HD, Tata Sky HD, Airtel Digital TV HD and the Reliance Digital TV. It
supports 1080i HD quality. Currently there are 41 HD Services with 12 true HD channels and the
rest up-scaled. DISHTV plans to give more HD content to its customers.

Dish truHD+

Dish TV Recently introduces its PVR service which requires an External USB Hard disk drive to
be plug into the Set Top Box's USB Port it can provide & support recording space up to 2 TB

31
OBJECTIVES

32
OBJECTIVES

Following are the objectives of my research:-

To know the awareness level and preferences of the consumer about the different brands
of the DTH broadcast service.
To know the purchasing power of the consumers.
To check out the satisfaction level and expectation of consumer

33
NEED OF THE STUDY

The evolution and growth of Direct To Home industry over the past few decades has been
responsible for the tremendous changes in the technology of human communication. The DTH
industry is playing a unique role in strengthening the Indian Economy by providing new
opportunities for direct telivision services to people at their home. Further advancement in DTH
provides unlimited opportunities for socio-economic development and social engagements
through new innovative thinking tools.

So, it becomes necessary to study the origin, growth and development of DTH industry in India
and the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. Despite the increasing
importance of DTH services the research pertaining to these services in Indian context has been
limited. So the present study will make a modest attempt to ascertain the changes taken place in
telecommunication industry, to evaluate selected companies performance and to know about
customers perception regarding the services provided by these companies.

34
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

35
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methods of data collection:-

Nature of data:-There are two types of data namely primary data and secondary data. For this
research both primary and secondary data has been used. Primary research is conducted from. It
is original and collected to solve the problem in hand. Secondary research already exists since it
has been collected for other purposes. It is conducted on data published previously and usually
by someone else. Secondary research costs far less than primary research, but seldom comes in a
form that exactly meets the needs of the researcher.

Primary data:-Data collected for first time through field survey.

In this research primary data collected through Questionnaires.

Secondary data:-It refers to information and facts already collected. Such data is collected with
the objective of understanding the past status of any variable.

In this research secondary data is collected through:-

Journals and magazines


Internet

Research Design

A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner
that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. In fact, the
research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the
blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. One may split the overall research
design into following parts:

a) The sampling design which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for
the given study.
b) The observational design which relates to the condition under which the observation are
to be made.

36
c) The statistical design which concerns with the question of how many items are to be
observes and how the information and the data gathered are to be analyzed.
d) The operational design which deals with the techniques by which the procedure specified
in the sampling, statistical and observational design can be carried out.

Research design for this research project is descriptive.

Sampling Design

A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining sample from a given population. It refers to the
technique or procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample.

Sample design may as well lay down the items to be included in the sample i.e. the size of the
sample. Sample design is designed before data is collected. There are many sample designs from
which a researcher can choose. Some design is relatively more precise and easier to apply than
others.

Universe

Collection, population or set of entities, items or quantities (grouped together on the basis of
common or defining characteristics or features) from which a representative sample is drawn for
comparison or measurement.

So, all the customers everyone who know and prefer using DTH Services

Population

Population refers to part of universe from which the sample for conducting the research is
selected. Universe and population can be same in some researches. It may be infinite or finite. In
finite universe the number of items are certain, but in case of infinite the number of item is
infinite i.e. we cannot have an idea about the total number of items.

The population for this study is finite i.e. people are to use DTH services according to their
wants.

Sample Unit

Sampling unit refers to smallest possible individual who is an eligible respondent. In this study
the sampling unit is:

37
Any individual who use DTH Services in Ludhiana.

Area covered:-Urban Ludhiana

Sampling Size

This refers to the total number of respondents selected from the universe to constitute a sample.
The size of the sample should neither be excessively large, nor too small. It should be optimum.
An optimum sample is one which fulfills the requirement of efficiency, representatives,
reliability and flexibility.

The sample size for this research is 100.

Sampling technique:-

In this research study, convenience sampling is opted for. Convenience sampling is done purely
on the basis of convenience or accessibility. This sampling method has been mainly chosen
because of lack of time and lack of expertise.

Statistical tools used

The main statistical tools used for the collection and analysis of data in this project will be:-

Percentages
Pie Charts
Bar Diagrams

38
DATA ANALYSIS
&
INTERPRETATION

39
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRITATION OF DATA

Q1. Do you know about the DTH concept?

No. of Respondents Percentage


Yes 80 80%
No 20 20%

90
80
70
60
50 Series 3
40 Series 2
Series 1
30
20
10
0
Yes No

Figure no. 1

Analysis :- Table is to study th3 awareness level about the availability of DTH services
60% of respondants are aware about the same but 40% respondant are not aware about the
availability of DTH services. So it can be concluded that people are becoming more aware
about presence of DTH services. It shows that not many people know about the DTH
services. But majority of people know about the DTH.

40
Q2. What you have in your home?
No. of respondents
Cable 15
DTH Satelite 65

Series 1
70

60

50

40 Series 1

30

20

10

0
DTH Services Cable

Figure no. 2

Analysis :- Table is to study the no. of respondants who are using cable or DTH Service. From
the analysis it is known that 65 out of 80 respondants are using DTH service. It shows that more
and more people are adopting the concept of DTH service at there home.

41
Q3. Which DTH Service are you using?

No. of respondents
Airtel 25
Tata Sky 20
Dish tv 20
Fastway 15

Series 1
30

25

20
Series 1
15

10

0
Airtel Tata sky Dish tv Fastway

Figure no. 3

Analysis :- Table is to study that which DTH service peole are using at their home. It is shown
that 25 out of 80 are using Airtel Digital tv at theit home which means people like Airtel at first.

42
Q4. What feature you considered most important?

No. of respondents Percentage


Sound 20 20%
Video 16 16%
Technical 16 16%
Looks 12 12%
Brand 10 10%
Price 26 26%

Figure no. 4

Analysis:- The table aims to study the consumer preference in regard to the various features
availability in good DTH services are analised on following features. Like sound, video, technology,
looks, brand, price. Out of all mentioned features price is considered to be more important and brand
is least favourable. This table shows that the customer want every feature to be there in a good DTH
service provider.

Q5. What video feature you like most in DTH?

43
No. of
Respondents Percentage
Colour effect 60 60%
Clarity/Resolution 40 40%

70

60

50

40

Series 1
30

20

10

0
Colour effect Clearity

Figure no. 5

Analysis: The table aims to study the various video features that are provided by the companies,
features are colour effect and picture clearity. Most liked by the respondants id colour effect like the
colours which prevail in real life. Maximum number of respondents look for colour effect and then
they look the clarity of resolution.

Q6. What technical feature do you look for purchasing a DTH ?

44
No. of Respondents Percentage
Multi System 10 10%
On-Off Timer 20 20%
Function with remote 24 24%
Dynamic look 20 20%
Any other 26 26%

Figure no. 6

Analysis:- The table aims to study the consumer preference in regard to the various technical
features which are provided by the company. Features are multi system, on off timer, function with
remote, dynamic look, any other. The most preferred feature is the functioning with remote The
above data shows that the most of the people are look for the remote Functions and for dynamic
look.

Q7. What other External features influence your purchase?

No. of respondents Percentage

45
Speakers 44 44%
Cabinet 40 40%
Cabinet button 16 16%

4.5

3.5

2.5
Series 1
2

1.5

0.5

0
Speakers Cabinet Cabinet button

Figure no. 7

Analysis:- The table aims to study the consumer preference in regard to the various external
features that are given complimentary by the service provider these feature influence the
purchase of a buyer. Various features that are provided are speakers, cabinet, cabinet button. The
above table shows that the majority of the people influenced by the Cabinet button.

Q8. What Brand of DTH you like to Purchase?

No. of Respondents Percentage


Airtel Digital TV 30 30%
TATA SKY 20 20%
DISH TV 20 20%
BIG TV 30 30%

46
Figure no. 8

Analysis:- The table aims to study the consumer preference in regard to the various DTH service
providers that are available in the market the consumer can choose between them according to his
choice. The various service providers are as follows airtel, tata sky, dish tv, big tv. The table shows
that the most of the people like to purchase DTH of Aitel as they like that.

Q9. What Price range in you like to purchase?

No. of Respondents Percentage


500 40 40%
500-700 20 20%
700-1000 30 30%
1000 and above 10 10%

47
Figure no. 9

Analysis:- The table aims to study the consumer preference in regard to the various price ranges
which are preferred by the buyer or respondent that he is ready to pay for the product. The rice
range should be kept low as there are more number of people that prefer to buy at lower prices.
The price ranges which were selected are below 500, 500-700, 700-1000, above 1000. The above
table shows that the people like that product which have the low prices.

Q10. What factor influenced your purchase?

No. of Respondents Percentage


Price 24 24%
Quality 10 10%
Brand Image 16 16%
Advertisement 20 20%
Features 14 14%
Promotional offer 20 20%

48
Figure no. 10
Analysis: The table aims to study the consumer preference in regard to the various factors that
influence the purchase of the buyer which is dependent upon various factors. The factors which
are mainly considered are price, quality, brand image, advertisement, features, promotional
offers. The above table shows that the most of the people like to purchase a product after see the
price of product.

Q11. Which Promotional offer influence your Purchase?


No. of Respondents Percentage
Free gifts 20 20%
Price offer 16 16%
Scratch Cards 14 14%
Free coupons 24 24%
Lucky Draw 26 26%

49
Figure no. 11

Analysis:- The table aims to study the consumer preference in regard to the various offers that
influence the choice of the buyer which attracts him the most because this will be beneficial in making
an increase in sale. The offers that are provided by the companies are free gift, price offers, scratch
cards, free coupons, lucky draw and many others. The above table shows that the most of the people
are influenced by the price of the Product as the most of the people bought due to price

Q12. Are the consumers satisfied with the service or not?

No. of Respondents
Yes 80
No 20

50
Satisfaction Level

Yes
No

Figure no. 12

Analysis:- The table is to study the satisfaction level of the customers or respondants towards the
services provided by their DTH service provider. It is shown that the 80% of the customers are
satisfied with the services provided by their service provider.

51
FINDINGS

52
FINDINGS

More than 50% respondents have their DTH satellite antenna. Airtel digitl tv is most
preferable service. Price is the major factor for the consumers while purchasing a
product. All most all respondents are satisfied with the service of the DTH antenna. Price
and quality takes a important place in consumers minds. Brand image is very much
important for purchasing a DTH service product. Television is the main source which
gives the clear idea about purchasing a product or not. Free gifts and lucky draws are
main schemes which influence the purchase of a product.

GENERAL FINDINGS

Consumers are aware of DTH services of the DTH services.


Consumers prefer DTH services rather than cable.
Consumers like AIRTEL DIGITAL SERVICE the most.
Customers like the remote function to be installed.
Cabinate bottom is preferred.
Provisions for speakers is the most preferred by consumers.
Whatever price is charged by the service it should be the lowest.
The most influenced thing for purchase is price.
Customers are satisfied with the service.

SPECIFIC FINDINGS

The percentage of people who are aware of DTH service is around 60%
The features that consumer prefer the most is low price which is most preferred.
Out of all mentioned features price is considered to be more important and brand is least
favourable.
About 60% of consumers wants good colour effects.
Most liked by the respondants id colour effect like the colours which prevail in real life
Romotrol control as an extra feature is preferd by 24% of respondants.
Speakers are liked by 44% of respondants as an external feature.
30% of respondants prefer Airtel Digital TV.
Around 40% of respondants want price to be charged under 500.

The most of the people like to purchase a product after see the price of product.
Lucky draws are prefered by 24% of respondants.
More and more respondents are attracted by price framed are for spondents from
Ludhiana.

53
65/80 are using DTH service.

54
LIMITATIONS

55
LIMITATIONS

No Study is 100% conclusive and accurate. Thus some inefficiency is there in the study.
All the consumers are not easily approachable.
Study is on the Ludhiana city that cannot give you a right picture of the consumer attitude
of the whole.
All consumers are not healthy cooperative.
A small size of 50 persons or respondents cannot be representative of whole universe.

56
SUGGESTIONS

57
SUGGESTIONS

The following suggestions are based on the peoples response which may be considered by the
service providers.

These days people are started to liking the DTH services


Quality place a vital role while purchasing any of the products.
Airtel Digital Tv is the most preferable service by the consumers.
All the consumers are not easily approachable.
Price is the major factor for the consumers while purchasing a product.
Quality of the satellite must be the best.
Price charged should be the lowest.
Remote facility should be provided.

58
CONCLUSION

59
CONCLUSION

The project report was based on the consumer behaviour regarding Direct-to-Home satellite
services. These days people are started to liking the DTH services. People are getting aware
about the DTH concept. And they want to purchase it on the cheaper prices. Quality place a vital
role while purchasing any of the products.

Airtel Digital TV is the most preferable service by the consumers. It conlude that the many
customers do not like to purchase a product until they See a advertisement on T.V or newspaper.
Thats why the companies are spending much of their money on the advertisements for
promoting the DTH service. Consumer will only buy the product if he is aware a bot its
availability and its features so the customer must be well informed about the product.

The growth in disposable incomes and the subsequent demand for the multiple sets of DTH in a
single home are certain variables which are expected to sustain the growth momentum of the
DTH services in India.

From above analysis it is concluded that private players are more efficient in providing facilities
like movie on demand, 24x7 broadcasting and easy payment of bill.

Dish TV requires lot of advertisement and have to add up too many facilities like gaming,
learning channels ,movie on demand ,24 x7 broadcasting

60
ANNEXURE

61
QUESTIONNAIRE

Demographic Profile

1)Name:-

2)Gender:-

3)Age:- Below 20: 21-40: 41-60:

4)Education:- Under graduate:

Graduate:

Post graduation:

5)Marital status:- Married: Unmarried:

6)Occupation:- Businessman:

Professional:

Employed:

Other:

7)Monthly Income:- Below 100000:

100000-300000:

300000-500000:

Above 500000:

8)Family Size:- 2 members:


62
2-4:

4-6:

Above 6:

Q.1 Do you know about the DTH concept?


(1)Yes (2) No

Q.2 What you have in your home?


(1) Cable (2) DTH Satelite

Q.3 Which DTH service are you using?

1) Airtel 2) Tatasky 3) Dish tv


4)fastway 5) Other

Q .4 What feature you considered most important?


(1) Sound (2) Video
(3) Technical (4) Looks
(5) Brand (6) Price
63
Q.5 What video feature you like most in DTH?
(1) Colour (2) Clarity
Q.6 What technical feature do you look for purchasing a DTH ?
(1) Multi System (2) On-Off Timer
(3) Remote Function (4) Dynamic Look

Q.7 What other External features influence your purchase?


(1) Speaker (2) Cabinet

Q. 8 What Brand of DTh you like to Purchase?


(1) Airtel Digital (2) TATA SKY
(3) DISH TV (4) BIG TV

Q.9 What Price range in you like to purchase?


(1) 500 (2) 500-700
(3) 700-1000 (4)1000-above

64
Q.10 What factor influenced your purchase?
(1) Price (2) Quality
(3) Brand Image (4) Advertisement

Q.11 Which Promotional offer influence your Purchase?


(1) Free Gifts (2) Price Offer
(3) Scratch cards (4) Free coupons

Q.12 Are the consumers satisfied with the service of not?


(1) Yes (2) No

65