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CONTENIDO COMPLETO CURSO DE INGLS ONLINE

Gramtica Inglesa: Tiempos Verbales


Presente simple Presente simple continuo
Pasado simple y continuo Futuro simple
Pluscuamperfecto Futuro continuo
El pretrito perfecto Pretrito perfecto continuo
Los verbos modales Tiempos verbales con there + be
Reported speech El condicional
Las oraciones pasivas Conjugaciones

Tiempos Verbales - Presente simple


Verb Tenses - Present simple
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to talk)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + verbo principal --> I talk (Yo hablo)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + auxiliar negativo + verbo principal --> I don't talk (Yo no hablo)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Auxiliar + sujeto + verbo principal? --> Do I talk? (Hablo yo?)

El presente simple se utiliza para hablar de cosas que suceden


habitualmente.

Se suele utilizar con los siguientes adverbios de tiempo (ordenados segn


su frecuencia):
Always, every day, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, barely, hardly ever,
never.

- I have my lunch every day at school. (Yo como cada da en la escuela)

Se utiliza para hablar de acciones de larga duracin, hechos cientficos o


generalidades.

- Elephants live in Africa and India. (Los elefantes viven en frica y en


India)

Excepciones:
Cuando utilizamos el verbo "to be", este siempre va delante del adverbio. Por ejemplo:
- I never go to hotels (el adverbio "never" va delante del verbo principal Go)
- I am always happy (el adverbio "always" va detrs del verbo principal Be)

Con los horarios de trenes, autobuses, metros, aviones, etc... se utiliza siempre el
presente simple independientemente de que la accin est sucediendo en el mismo
momento en que hablamos. Por ejemplo:
- The plain lands at 14:30 (ahora son las 14:25)
- The train arrives on time today (estamos en la estacin de tren y vemos a nuestro tren
acercarse al andn)

Tiempos Verbales - Pasado simple y Pasado Continuo


Verb Tenses - Past Simple and Past Continuos

Past simple (Pasado simple)


Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to eat)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + verbo en pasado --> I ate (Yo com)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + did + not + verbo--> I did not eat (Yo no com)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Did + sujeto + verbo? --> Did I eat? (Com yo?)

El pasado simple se utiliza para hablar de una accin concreta que


comenz y acab en el pasado. Lo usamos con expresiones como: last year,
yesterday, last night...

Ejemplo:
- Tomy stayed at home last night. (Tom se qued en casa anoche.)

Tambin podemos expresar una duracin hablando del pasado: all day, for
years, for thirty minutes...

Ejemplo:
- Tomy talked to me for two hours. (Tom habl conmigo durante dos
horas.)

En el pasado simple tambin se utiliza la forma "used to"


(acostumbraba/sola) para expresar algo que solamos hacer en el pasado
pero que ya no hacemos.
Ejemplo:
- When I was a child I used to watch scary films. (De pequeo/a sola ver
pelculas de miedo)

Otras partculas
La partcula Ago hace referencia a una accin terminada en un tiempo
pasado y significa "hace". Siempre se coloca al final de la frase.

Ejemplo: Jackie left school a long time ago (Hace tiempo que Jackie dej la
escuela).

Past continuous (Pasado continuo)


Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to eat)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + was/were + verbo en gerundio --> I was eating (Yo estaba comiendo)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + was/were + not + verbo en gerundio --> I was not eating (Yo no estaba
comiendo)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Was/were + sujeto + verbo en gerundio? --> Was I eating? (Estaba yo comiendo?)

El pasado continuo lo utilizamos para hablar de una accin concreta que


comenz y acab en el pasado pero que tuvo una duracin continuada.

- I was driving along East street when I saw a fire


Conduca por la Calle del Este cuando v fuego.

- I was running when I met Tina.


Iba corriendo cuando me encontr con Tina.
Verb Tenses: Past Perfect
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical (example with verb to sleep)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + had + participio del verbo --> I had slept (Yo haba dormido)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + had + not + participio del verbo -->I had not slept (Yo no haba dormido)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Had + sujeto + participio del verbo --> Had I slept? (Haba yo dormido?)
Usamos el past perfect para referirnos a una accin o evento que comenz
en el pasado y que es anterior a otra accin tambin en el pasado.

Ejemplo:
- They couldn't believe what had happened. (No podan creer lo que haba
pasado)

Como ya vimos en el present perfect, el past perfect tambien puede ir


acompaado de partculas como for, during, since, ago, just, already, yet.

For/during: ambos significan durante, pero se utilizan de manera


diferente.
For --> siempre se utiliza junto con expresiones que indiquen un periodo de
tiempo como cuatro horas, dos meses, 6 aos...
Ejemplo:
I had been here for two hours (Llevaba all dos horas)
During --> se utiliza seguido de un nombre.
Ejemplo: We had talked during the night. (Hablamos durante la noche)

Since: Since significa desde y lo usamos para especificar un momento


determinado en el tiempo: last night, yesterday, the second world war...
Ejemplo: My mother had been a teacher since 1955. (Mi madre fue
profesora desde 1955)

Just: Se utiliza para indicar que una accin acaba de tener lugar y siempre
se coloca entre el verbo Have y el participio.
Ejemplo: She had just gone out. (Se acababa de ir)

Alrady: Es muy parecido a just en cuanto a que ocupa la misma posicin


entre el verbo have y el participio, pero su significado es "ya".
Ejemplo: I had already seen that film. (Ya haba visto aquella pelcula)

Yet: Significa "todava" y se coloca siempre a final de la frase.


Ejemplo: She hadn't seen your brother yet. (Ella todava no haba visto a tu
hermano)

Verb Tenses: Past Perfect continuous


Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical (example with verb to sleep)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + had been+ verbo en gerundio --> I had been sleeping (Yo haba estado
durmiendo)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + had + not + been + verbo en gerundio -->I had not been sleeping (Yo no haba
estado durmiendo)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Had + sujeto +been + verbo en gerundio--> Had I been sleeping? (Haba estado yo
durmiendo?)

Al igual que el past perfect, usamos el past perfect continuos para


referirnos a una accin o evento en el pasado que sucedi antes de otra
accin tambin en el pasado pero esta vez expresando continuidad en aquel
tiempo pasado.

Observamos que al igual que en el present perfect continuous, el past


perfect continuous tambin nos podemos referir a algo que se estuvo
haciendo en un periodo de tiempo. Por ejemplo: two weeks, during two
hours, for five years, since yesterday.

Ejemplo:
I was very angry. I had been waiting for two hours!
(Estaba muy enfadado. Haba estado esperando durante dos horas!)

- En el anterior caso, vemos que la accin empez en un pasado lejano y


acababa de terminar en el momento de hablar, pero los efectos o
consecuencias de "estar enfadado" seguan vigentes.

Ejemplo:
- We had been waiting for hours when the train finally arrived.
(Estuvimos esperando durante horas cuando el tren finalmente lleg.)
- We had been thinking about how to change our plan
( Habamos estado pensando en cmo cambiar nuestro plan)
Tiempos Verbales - Verb Tenses: Present perfect
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to eat)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + have/has + verbo en participio --> I have eaten (Yo he comido)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + have/has + not + verbo en participio --> I have not eaten (Yo no he comido)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Have/Has + sujeto + verbo en participio? -->Have I eaten? (He comido yo?)
El Present Perfect se utiliza para hablar de algo que empez en el pasado
y contina en el presente.
Ejemplo:
- I have been here for two hours. (Llevo aqu dos horas)
- I have read this book very quickly. (He ledo este libro muy rpido)

Los tiempos perfectos pueden ir acompaados de partculas como for,


during, since, ago, just, already, yet.

For/during: ambos significan durante, pero se utilizan de manera


diferente.
For --> siempre se utiliza junto con expresiones que indiquen un periodo de
tiempo como cuatro horas, dos meses, 6 aos...
Ejemplo:
I have been here for two hours (He estado aqu durante dos horas)
During --> se utiliza seguido de un nombre.
Ejemplo: We have talked during the night. (Hemos hablado durante la
noche)

Since: Since significa desde y lo usamos para especificar un momento


determinado en el tiempo: last night, yesterday, the second world war...
Ejemplo: My mother has been a teacher since 1955. (Mi madre ha sido
profesora desde 1955)

Just: Se utiliza para indicar que una accin acaba de tener lugar y siempre
se coloca entre el verbo Have y el participio.
Ejemplo: She has just gone out. (Se acaba de ir)

Alrady: Es muy parecido a just en cuanto a que ocupa la misma posicin


entre el verbo have y el participio, pero su significado es "ya".
Ejemplo: I've been already seen that film. (Ya he visto esa pelcula)

Yet: Significa "todava" y se coloca siempre a final de la frase.


Ejemplo: She hasn't seen your brother yet. (Ella todava no ha visto a tu
hermano)

Usamos el present perfect para hablar sobre experiencias que hemos


tenido en la vida.

Ejemplo: Have you ever been in love? (Has estado alguna vez
enamorado?)

Tambin usamos el present perfect para hablar sobre una accin pasada, cuando
vemos los resultados en el presente.

Ejemplo: He has had a heart attack. (he is at hospital)


Ha tenido un ataque al corazn (est en el hospital)

Los verbos modales - Modal Verbs

Can
Indica habilidades o posibilidad.
Ejemplos
I can speak english (Yo s hablar ingls.)
The doctor can see you at 3.00 ( El doctor le puede visitar a las tres. )
Can you speak german? (Sabes hablar alemn? )
Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + can + verbo
negativa: sujeto + can not / can't + verbo
pregunta: can + sujeto + verbo?
respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + can / No, sujeto + can't

Could
Es el pasado de can. Tambin se utiliza para preguntar por algo, pero ms
educadamente que con can.
Ejemplos
Could you speak Japonese before you went to Japan? (Sabas hablar japons antes de
que fuiste a Japn?)
Tony could swim when he was six. (Toni sabia nadar cuando tena seis aos. )
Could you help me? (Podra ayudarme?)
Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + could + verbo
negativa: sujeto + could not / couldn't + verbo
pregunta: could + sujeto + verbo?
respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + could / No, sujeto + couldn't

May
Lo utilizamos para decir que algo es posible o muy probable. Lo usamos con el
presente o futuro.
Tambin se utiliza para preguntar por algo pero ms educadamente que con el
could.
Ejemplos
I may stay at home or I may go to a disco.(Puede que me quede en casa o puede que vaya
a la discoteca)
May I use your dictionary? (Podra usar su diccionario?)
Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + may + verbo
negativa: sujeto + may + not
pregunta: may + sujeto + verbo?

Might
Es el pasado de may. Tambin se usa para expresar una eventualidad pero con
ms probabilidad.
Ejemplos
Be careful. You might burn yourself. (Ten cuidado. Te podras quemar.)
Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + might + verbo
negativa: sujeto + might not / mightn't

Must
Se utiliza cuando pensamos o realizamos algo que es necesario o muy probable.
La forma negativa equivale a una prohibicin.
Para hablar en pasado o futuro debemos usar el modal have to.
Ejemplos
I am really tired. I must go home now. (Estoy realmente cansado. Debo irme a casa ahora)
You must keep your room tidy. (Debes conservar tu habitacin ordenada.)

Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + must + verbo
negativa: sujeto + must not / musn't + verbo
pregunta: must + sujeto + verbo?
respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + must / No, sujeto + mustn't

Have to
Lo utilizamos para expresar que algo es necesario.
Para formular la pregunta y la negacin debemos utilizar el auxiliar do.
El pasado es had to.
Ejemplos
You have to drive on the right in the USA.(Tienes que conducir por la derecha en los EEUU.)
I don't have to wear a uniform at school. (No tengo que llevar uniforme en la escuela.)
Did you have to work yesterday? (Tuviste que trabajar ayer?)
Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + have to + verbo
negativa: sujeto + don't have to / do have to + verbo
pregunta: Do + sujeto + have to + verbo?
respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + do does // No, sujeto + don't doesn't

Should
Se utiliza para dar consejo o una opinin.
Ejemplos
You should have a holiday. (Deberas tener vacaciones.)
You shouldn't work so hard (No deberas trabajar tanto.)
What do you think I should do? (Qu crees que debera hacer?)
Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + should + verbo
negativa: sujeto + should not / shouldn't + verbo
pregunta: should + sujeto + verbo?
respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + should / No, sujeto + shouldn't

Ought to
Significa deber, esperar que ocurra algo...
Ejemplos
I think I ought to tell him. (Creo que debo contrselo.)
She ought to pass the exam. (Seguramente aprobar el examen.)
Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + ought + verbo
negativa: sujeto + ought not / oughtn't + verbo
pregunta: ought + sujeto + verbo?
respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + ought / No, sujeto + oughtn't

Would / would like


Would se utiliza en general para las frases condicionales.
Tambin lo usamos para predicciones, ofrecimientos y para preguntar por algo
educadamente.
Ejemplos
I would like to go to London (Me gustara ir a Londres)
Peter was working very hard. He would be tired tomorrow. (Peter estuvo trabajando
duro. Estar cansado maana.)
Would you like coffe? (Le gustara tomar caf?)
Sintaxis
afirmativa: sujeto + would + verbo
afirmativa corta: sujeto+ 'd + verbo
negativa: sujeto + would not / wouldn't+ verbo
pregunta: would + sujeto + verbo?
respuesta corta: Yes, sujeto + would / No, sujeto + wouldn't
Estilo indirecto - Reported Speech

El Estilo indirecto o Reported speech es una estructura que se emplea


cuando queremos decir o hacer mencin sobre algo que alguien ha dicho
previamente.

Direct speech Reported speech


(estilo directo) (estilo indirecto)
"I always drink coffee". She She said that she always
said. drank coffee.
"Yo siempre bebo caf." Ella dijo. Ella dijo que ella siempre beba caf.

Para hacer mencin sobre lo que alguien ha dicho usamos verbos como explain,
promise, say, tell, suggest... Aunque los ms utilizados son say y tell.

No es necesario cambiar el tiempo del verbo si el verbo de la oracin


principal est en presente. En el ejemplo anterior podramos decir: She said
that she always drink coffee.

Para introducir lo que ha dicho, usamos that aunque muchas veces se


puede omitir esta palabra.

Al convertir una oracin de "Direct Speech" a "Reported Speech" tenemos


en cuenta que el verbo principal retrocede un tiempo verbal.

Tabla de cambios que sufre el verbo:

Direct speech Reported speech

past simple
present simple
He said he was happy
I am happy
He said he slept
I sleep
past continuos
present continuos
He said he was feeling
I am feeling happy
happy
I am sleeping
He said he was sleeping
past simple past perfect
I was happy He said he had been
happy
I slept
He said he had slept
past perfect
present perfect
He said he had been
I have been happy
happy
I have slept
He said he had slept
past perfect continuos
present perfect continuos He said he had been
I have been feeling happy feeling happy
I have been sleeping He said he had been
sleeping
simple conditional
future
He said he would be
I will be happy
happy
I will sleep
He said he would sleep
simple conditional
perfect
future perfect
He said he would have
I will have been happy
been happy
I will have sleep
He said he would have
slept

Verbos modales

Direct speech Reported speech

COULD
CAN
He said he could sleep
I can sleep
MAY MIGHT
I may sleep He said he might sleep
WILL WOULD
I will sleep He said he would sleep
MUST HAD TO
I must sleep He said he had to sleep

Cambios que pueden sufrir algunas partculas de lugar y tiempo:

now at that moment, then


tonight that night
today that day
last night the night before
this morning that morning
this week that week
next week the following week
next year the year after
here there

Reported Speech: questions

En las oraciones interrogativas usamos el mismo orden gramatical: el sujeto


va despus del verbo pero no es necesario usar el auxiliar "do" o "did".

Direct speech Reported speech


"Where do Susan and Ann He asked me where Susan
work? " and Ann worked.
l me pregunt dnde trabajaban Mary y
"Dnde trabajan Susan y Ann?"
Tom.

La voz pasiva - The Passive Voice

Concepto de Voz Activa y Pasiva

Podemos enfocar la accin del verbo en el sujeto (voz activa) o en el objeto


(voz pasiva).

Ejemplos:
Voz Activa: The porter carries the bags. (el portero lleva los bolsos)
Voz Pasiva: The bags are carried by the porter. (los bolsos son llevados por
el portero)

Reglas gramaticales

La voz pasiva se forma utilizando el verbo to be + el verbo principal en


participio (past participle).

Para transformar una oracion activa a pasiva tenemos en cuenta los


siguientes puntos:

El objeto de la oracin activa pasa a ser el sujeto de la pasiva


El verbo principal se sustituye por el auxiliar "to be", en su mismo tiempo,
junto al verbo principal en participio.
El sujeto de la oracin principal pasa a ser complemento agente de la
pasiva
Si hacemos mencin en la oracin al sujeto que realiza la accin (sujeto
agente), ste ir normalmente introducido por la preposicin by:

Tabla de cambios verbales en la transformacin de Voz Activa a Voz Pasiva

Tomando en cuenta los puntos anteriormente mencionados, en este


esquema vemos los cambios que sufre el tiempo verbal de una oracion
activa al ser transformada a oracion pasiva.

Usamos como ejemplo: to write a letter (escribir una carta)


write (presente/present) / wrote (pasado/past) / written
(participio/participle)

Tiempo verbal
de la frase Frase activa Frase pasiva
activa
present I write a letter The letter is written
present The letter is being
I'm writing a letter
continuos written
past I wrote a letter The letter was written
I was writing a The letter was being
past continuos
letter written
The letter has been
present perfect I've written a letter
written
I had written a The letter had been
past perfect
letter written
The letter will be
future I will write a letter
written
I'm going to write a The letter is going to be
future II
letter written
I have to write a The letter has to be
modals
letter written
I should write a The letter should be
modals
letter written
The letter must be
modals I must write a letter
written

Usos de la voz pasiva


- Usamos la voz pasiva cuando queremos dar importancia a "lo que pas"
ms que a quin hizo la accin.
ejemplo:
Her money was stolen. (su dinero fue robado)

- Tambin usamos la voz pasiva para mantener un mismo sujeto en varias


frases:
ejemplo:
I met that woman. I was surprised at how attractive she was... (Me
encontr con esa mujer. Me qued sorprendido de lo hermosa que era.)
En este ejemplo la persona se mantiene ella misma como sujeto.

Tambin usamos la voz pasiva para describir procesos cientficos.


ejemplo:
The water is heated to a temperature of from 60 to 80 C. (El agua es
hervida a una temperatura de entre 60 a 80 grados)

Gramtica inglesa- English Grammar


Tiempos Verbales - Presente continuo
Verb Tenses - Present continuos
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to talk)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + to be + verbo en gerundio --> I am talking (Estoy hablando)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + to be + not + verbo en gerundio --> I am not talking (No estoy hablando)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
To be + sujeto + verbo en gerundio? --> Am I talking? (Estoy hablando?)
El presente continuo se utiliza para hablar sobre algo que est pasando en
el momento en el que hablamos.
I'm writing a letter.
Estoy escribiendo una carta. He is doing some homework.
l est haciendo algunos deberes.

Tambin lo usamos para hablar de algo que est sucediendo en la


actualidad pero no necesariamente cuando hablamos.
I'm looking for a job at the moment
En estos momentos estoy buscando trabajo.

Usamos el presente continuo para hablar de algo que est ya decidido que
se har en el futuro.
- I'm meeting a friend this evening. (He quedado con un amigo esta noche)

- What are you doing next weekend? (Qu vas a hacer este fin de
semana?)
- we are watching a film at home. (Veremos una pelcula en casa).

Excepciones:
Con los verbos de sentimiento: "Like, dislike, love, hate", siempre le seguir
un verbo en gerundio (-ing). Por ejemplo: Peter loves dancing (a Pedro le
encanta bailar).
Tiempos Verbales: El futuro simple
Verb Tenses: The future simple
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to eat)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + will + verbo principal --> I will eat (Yo comer)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto +will + not + verbo principal --> I will not eat (Yo no comer)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Will + sujeto + verbo principal? -->Will I eat? (Comer yo?)
Formas cortas
I'll, you'll, he'll, she'll... (afirmativa)
I won't, you won't, she won't... (negativa)

Usamos el futuro simple en los siguientes casos:

Decisiones recientes que no han sido planeadas con antelacin


Cuando hemos decidido que vamos a hacer algo mientras estamos
hablando.

- I'm cold. (Tengo fro)


- Don't worry, I'll close the window. (No te preocupes, ya cierro la ventana)

- I have to lose weight! I'll stop to eating candies/sweets,


- Tengo que perder peso! Dejar de comer caramelos.

Predicciones
Tambin lo usamos para hablar sobre algo que sabemos o creemos que
pasar en un futuro.
- I think Spain will win the football match. (Creo que Espaa ganar el
partido de ftbol)

- I think it will be important. (Creo que ser importante)

Promesas, ofrecimientos, amenazas o solicitudes


- I promise you that no one will ever come between us. (Te prometo que
nunca nadie se interpondr entre nosotros)

- Will you come home with me? (Vendrs a casa conmigo?)

Will not / Won't


Utilizamos la forma negativa cuando queremos decir que alguien se niega a
hacer alguna cosa.
Ejemplo:
I have told her to go to the conference but se won't. (Le he dicho que vaya
a la conferencia pero no ir)

Shall
Es una partcula que se puede utilizar en los mismos contextos que will, sin
embargo ha quedado relegado a contextos formales o en contextos en que
la persona que habla se ofrece voluntaria para hacer algo, para ayudar, o
para pedir opinin.
Ejemplos:
Contexto formal: We shall be late tomorrow (Maana llegaremos tarde)
Ofrecimiento: Shall I open the window? (Quiere que abra la ventana?)
When shall we go shopping today or tomorrow? (Cuando deberamos ir a
comprar hoy o maana?)

Going To
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical (example with verb to eat)
GOING TO + MAIN VERB
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + to be + going to + verbo infinitivo --> Sandra is going to drink some coffee
(Sandra va a tomarse un caf)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + to be + not + going to + verbo infinitivo -->
Sandra is not going to drink some coffee (Sandra no va a tomarse un caf)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
To be + not + sujeto + going to + verbo principal en infinitivo? -->
Is Sandra going to drink a coffee? (Va Sandra a tomarse un caf?)
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical (example with verb to go)
GOING TO + COMPLEMENT
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + to be + going to + complemento --> They are going to the beach (Ellos van a
la playa)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + to be + not + going to + complemento --> They are not going to the beach
(Ellos no van a la playa)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
To be + not + sujeto + going to + verbo principal en infinitivo? -->Are they going to the
beach? (Van a la playa?)

Planes de futuro

El verbo going to se utiliza para planes de futuro ya sean inmediatos o a


largo plazo.

El aspecto que lo diferencia del futuro con will es el sentido de


"planificacin". De ah que digamos "I am going to Paris in August" (Me voy
a Pars en Agosto), cuando se trata de un plan a largo plazo. En cambio, si
decimos "I will go to Paris in August", el receptor entiende que el locutor
acaba de tomar la decisin de irse de viaje a Pars en Agosto. As pues la
diferencia est en la intencin del interlocutor.

Algo va a ocurrir con certeza

Tambin podemos utilizar la forma going to cuando tenemos la seguridad


de que algo va a suceder. En estos casos el hablante cuenta con una serie
de indicadores que le permiten precedecir el futuro ms o menos inmediato
sin equivocarse.

Ejemplo: (si vemos a alguien poco abrigado en un da fro de lluvia)


- You are going to get a cold (Vas a coger un resfriado)

En algunas ocasiones podemos utilizar el futuro con will o el futuro con


going to para hacer predicciones indistintamente. La diferencia est en el
grado de seguridad del hablante.
Ejemplo:
- He will fail the examen (l suspender el examen) --> Aqu tenemos un
gran certeza que el va a suspender. Aqu intervienen opiniones personales
subjetivas.
- He is going to fail the exam (El va a suspender el examen). --> Aqu nos
basamos en hechos que nos llevan a la conclusin de que el va a suspender
el examen. Seguramente no ha estudiado hasta el ltimo momento.

Otros Usos:

Para hablar de algo que acabamos de decidir que vamos a hacer en el


futuro.
- I'm going to write some letters this evening. (Voy a escribir unas cartas
esta noche.)

Cuando vemos una accin futura a causa de una situacin del presente.
- Microsoft is going to launch a new product. (Microsoft va a lanzar un
nuevo producto.)

Para hablar de planes o ambiciones para el futuro.


- I'm going to have a year off. (Voy a tomarme un ao sabtico.)
- He is going to work in a restaurant in Paris. (l va a trabajar en un
restaurante en Pars.)

Tiempos Verbales - El pretrito perfecto continuo


Verb Tenses - Present perfect continuos

Present Perfect Continuos - Pretrito Perfecto Continuo

sintaxis: sujeto + have / has + been (participio del verbo to be) + verbo
en infinitivo + terminacin ing

Usamos este tiempo cuando queremos expresar el sentido de la


continuidad de una accin que ha comenzado en el pasado y que
dura todava en el presente o que acaba de terminar.

Nos referimos a algo que hemos estado haciendo en un perodo de tiempo,


por ejemplo: for two weeks, for two hours, for five minutes, since
yesterday...

Ejemplo 1 :
I'm very angry. I have been waiting for two hours!
(Estoy muy enfadado. He estado esperando durante dos horas!.) En este
caso la accin empez en el pasado y acaba de terminar pero los efectos o
consecuencias de la accin duran en estos momentos, que sera estar
enfadados. Ejemplo 2:
I have been working on this issue since the morning. -now I'm still working
on it-
(He estado trabajando en este asunto desde la maana -ahora todava
estoy trabajando en l-)
En este caso he estado realizando una accin en el pasado, que todava
continuo realizando. Ejemplo 3:
I'm tired because I have been dancing all the day.
(Estoy cansado porque he estado bailando todo el da.)
En este caso nos habla de una accin que empez en el pasado y que acaba
de terminar y por la cual estamos cansados ahora.

Ejemplo 4:
It has been raining all the week.
(Ha estado lloviendo toda la semana)
En este caso la accin empez en el pasado y contina en el presente.

Ejemplo 5:
I think she has been crying.
(Creo que ha estado llorando)
Cuando no indicamos la duracin de la accin damos a entender que ha sido
recientemente.
Ejemplo 6:
They've been living here since I was young. (Ellos han estado viviendo aqu
desde que yo era joven)They've been working here since I was eighteen.
(Ellos han estado trabajando aqu desde que yo tena 18 aos)
En estos dos ejemplos nos encontramos con los verbos Live y Work donde no
encontramos diferencia al hablar en pretrito perfecto o pretrito perfecto continuo.
There be

Utilizamos there + be para hablar sobre la existencia de algo. El sujeto real


se sita despus del verbo.

There is a pencil. (Hay un lpiz.)

There + be se puede expresar en todos los tiempos verbales. Fjate que


algunos tiempos tienen diferente conjugacin para el singular y el plural.
there is (presente singular)
there are (presente plural)

Tabla de los tiempos verbales con there + be:

Tiempos Singular Plural Significado

present There is There are hay

past There was There were haba, hubo

present
There has been There have been ha habido
perfect

past perfect There had been There had been haba o hubo habido

future There will be There will be habr

future perfect There will have been There will have been habr habido

There are going to


Going to There is going to be va a haber
be

There was going to There were going to


Going to II iba a haber
be be

conditional I There would be there would be habra

There would have There would have


conditional II habra habido
been been

Modal Can There can be There can be puede haber

Modal Could There could be There could be podra / pudo haber

Modal May There may be There may be puede haber

Modal Might There might be There might be podra haber

Modal Should There should be There should be debera haber

Modal Must There must There must debe haber

Modal Have to There has to be There have to be tiene que haber

tuvo / tena que


Modal Had to There had to be There had to be
haber

There could have There could have Podra / pudo haber


Modal Could II
been been habido

There might have There might have


Modal Might II Podra haber habido
been been
Modal Should There should have There should have
Debera haber habido
II been been

There must have There must have


Modal Must II Debe haber habido
been been

There has to have There have to have Tiene que haber


Modal Have II
been been habido

There had to have There had to have Tena/tuvo que haber


Modal Had II
been been habido

Ejemplos con todos los tiempos verbales:

Tiempos verbales Ejemplo con there

present There is a party. (Hay una fiesta)

past There was a party (Haba una fiesta)

present perfect There has been a party. (Ha habido una fiesta)

past perfect There had been a party. (Haba habido una fiesta)

future There will be a party. (Habr una fiesta)

future perfect There will have been a party. (Habr habido una fiesta)

Going to There is going to be a party. (Va a haber una fiesta)

Going to II There was going to be a party. (Iba a haber una fiesta)

Conditional I There would be a party. (Habra una fiesta)

Conditional II There would have been a party. (Habra habido una fiesta)

Modal Can There can be a party. (Puede haber una fiesta)

Modal Could There could be a party. (Podra haber una fiesta)

Modal May There may be a party. (Puede haber una fiesta)

Modal Might There might be a party. (Podra haber una fiesta)

Modal Should There should be a party. (Debera haber una fieista)

Modal Must There must be a party. (Debe haber una fiesta)

Modal Have to There has to be a party. (Tiene que haber una fiesta)

Modal Had to There had to be a party. (Tena que haber una fiesta)

There could have been a party. (Pudo haber habido una


Modal Could II
fiesta)
There might have been a party. (Podra haber habido una
Modal Might II
fiesta)

There should have been a party. (Debera haber habido una


Modal Should II
fiesta)

There must have been a party. (Debe haber habido una


Modal Must II
fiesta)

There has to have been a party. (Tiene que haber habido una
Modal Have II
fiesta)

There had to have been a party. (Tena que haber habido una
Modal Had II
fiesta)

Frases condicionales - Conditional Sentences

TIPOS DE CONDICIONALES
Tipo if frase principal
1 Simple Present will (future)
would + Infinitivo
2 Simple Past
(Conditional)
would + have + past participle
3 Past Perfect
(Conditional Perfect)

1. Primer condicional / First Conditional

Este condicional indica que la condicin es muy probable que se cumpla.

IF + simple present,... + future (will)

If I learn, I'll pass the exam.

If we don't hurry up, we will be late.


(Si no nos damos prisa, llegaremos tarde.)

What will you do if you don't go to London?


(Qu hars si no vas a Londres?)

2. Segundo condicional / Second Conditional


Lo usamos en casos hipotticos, situaciones imaginarias o poco probables.

IF + past simple,..+ conditional simple (would/could)

If I learnt, I would pass the exam.

If I won the lottery, I would be rich.


(Si yo ganara la lotera, sera rico)

If the football tickets were available, I would pay any price for them.
(Si hubieran entradas para el ftbol, pagara cualquier precio por ellas.)

3. Tercer condicional / Third Conditional

Indica una condicin en el pasado, que ya no se puede cumplir.

IF + past perfect ...


+ conditional perfect (would have).

If I had learnt, I would have passed the exam.

If he had worked hard in all his subjects, he would not have failed this
semester.
(Si l hubiera trabajado en todas sus asignaturas, l no hubiera suspendido
este semestre)

If we had been more careful, we wouldn't have had the accident.


(Si hubisemos sido ms cuidadosos, no habramos tenido el accidente.)

Otros casos

Existen otras formas de construir frases condicionales:


IF + simple present, ... present simple
If you ring this number, nobody answers.

IF + simple present, ... imperativo.


If you drink, don't drive.
CONJUGACIONES

conjugacin verbo to be conjugacin verbo to have


conjugacin verbo to do conjugacin verbo to fall

Conjugacin verbo be (ser o estar)

infinitivo: to be
presente: am / is / are
pasado: was / were
participio: been

Modo indicativo

Presente (present): yo soy, t eres, l es ...

sintaxis: sujeto + presente

I am It is
You are We are
He is You are
She is They are

Pretrito imperfecto /pasado simple (past simple): yo era, t eras,


l era...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I was It was
You were We were
He was You were
She was They were

Pretrito perfecto compuesto (present perfect): yo he sido, t has


sido, l ha sido...

sintaxis: sujeto + have / has + participio del verbo

I have been It has been


You have been We have been
He has been You have been
She has been They have been
Pluscuamperfecto (past perfect): yo haba / hube sido, t
habas /hubiste sido, l haba /hubo sido...

sintaxis: sujeto + had + participio del verbo

I had been It had been


You had been We had been
He had been You had been
She had been They had been

Futuro (future): yo ser, t sers, l ser...

sintaxis: sujeto + will + verbo en infinitivo

I will be It will be
You will be We will be
He will be You will be
She will be They will be

Futuro perfecto (future perfect): yo habr sido, t habras sido, l


habr sido...

sintaxis: sujeto + will have + participio del verbo

I will have been It will have been


You will have been We will have been
He will have been You will have been
She will have been They will have been

Condicional (conditional): yo sera, t seras, l sera.. .

sintaxis: sujeto + would/should + modo infinitivo del verbo

I would be It would be
You would be We would be
He would be You would be
She would be They would be

Condicional perfecto (past conditional): yo habra o hubiera sido,


t habras o hubieras sido...
sintaxis: sujeto + would + have + participio del verbo

I would have been It would have been


You would have been We would have been
He would have been You would have been
She would have been They would have been

Modo Subjuntivo

Presente subjuntivo: Yo sea, t seas, l sea...

sintaxis: sujeto + infinitivo

I be It be
You be We be
He be You be
She be They be

Pretrito imperfecto: yo fuera, t fueras, l fuera...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I were It were
You were We were
He were You were
She were They were

Pluscuamperfecto: yo hubiera sido, t hubieras sido, l hubiera


sido...

sintaxis: sujeto +had + participio del verbo

I had been It had been


You had been We had been
He had been You had been
She had been They had been

Conjugacin verbo do (hacer)

infinitivo: to do
presente: do / does
pasado: did
participio: done
Modo indicativo

Presente (present simple): yo hago, t haces, l hace..

sintaxis: sujeto + presente

I do It does
You do We do
He does You do
She does They do

Pretrito imperfecto /pasado simple (past simple): yo haca, t


hacas, l haca...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I did It did
You did We did
He did You did
She did They did

Pretrito perfecto compuesto (present perfect): yo he hecho, t


has hecho, l ha hecho...

sintaxis: sujeto + have / has + participio del verbo

I have done It has done


You have done We have done
He has done You have done
She has done They have done

Pluscuamperfecto (past perfect): yo haba / hube hecho, t habas


/hubiste hecho, l haba /hubo hecho...

sintaxis: sujeto + had + participio del verbo

I had done It had done


You had done We had done
He had done You had done
She had done They had done
Futuro (future): yo har, t hars, l har...

sintaxis: sujeto + will + verbo en infinitivo

I will do It will do
You will do We will do
He will do You will do
She will do They will do

Futuro perfecto (future perfect): yo habr hecho, t habras hecho,


l habr hecho...

sintaxis: sujeto + will have + participio del verbo

I will have done It will have done


You will have done We will have done
He will have done You will have done
She will have done They will have done

Condicional (conditional): yo hara, t haras, l hara.. .

sintaxis: sujeto + would/should + modo infinitivo del verbo

I would do It would do
You would do We would do
He would do You would do
She would do They would do

Condicional perfecto (past conditional): yo habra o hubiera hecho,


t habras o hubieras hecho...

sintaxis: sujeto + would + have + participio del verbo

I would have done It would have done


You would have done We would have done
He would have done You would have done
She would have done They would have done

Modo Subjuntivo

Presente subjuntivo: Yo haga, t hagas, l haga...


sintaxis: sujeto + infinitivo

I do It do
You do We do
He do You do
She do They do

Pretrito imperfecto: yo hiciera, t hicieras, l hiciera...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I did It did
You did We did
He did You did
She did They did

Pluscuamperfecto: yo hubiera hecho, t hubieras hecho, l hubiera


hecho...

sintaxis: sujeto +had + participio del verbo

I had done It had done


You had done We had done
He had done You had done
She had done They had done

Conjugacin verbo have (tener o haber)

infinitivo: to have
presente: have / has
pasado: had
participio: had

Modo indicativo

Presente (Present simple): yo tengo, t tienes, l tiene ...

sintaxis: sujeto + presente

I have It has
You have We have
He has You have
She has They have
Pretrito imperfecto / pasado simple (past simple): yo tena, l
tena, t tenas...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I had It had
You had We had
He had You had
She had They had

Pretrito perfecto compuesto (present perfect): yo he tenido, t


has tenido, l ha tenido...

sintaxis: sujeto + have / has + participio del verbo

I have had It has had


You have had We have had
He has had You have had
She has had They have had

Pluscuamperfecto (past perfect): yo haba / hube tenido, t habas


/ hubiste tenido, l haba / hubo tenido...

sintaxis: sujeto + had + participio del verbo

I had had It had had


You had had We had had
He had had You had had
She had had They had had

Futuro (future): yo tendr, t tendrs, l tendr...

sintaxis: sujeto + will + verbo en infinitivo

I will have It will have


You will have We will have
He will have You will have
She will have They will have

Futuro perfecto (future perfect): yo habr tenido, t habras tenido,


l habr tenido...
sintaxis: sujeto + will have + participio del verbo

I will have had It will have had


You will have had We will have had
He will have had You will have had
She will have had They will have had

Condicional (conditional): yo tendra, t tendras, l tendra...

sintaxis: sujeto + would/should + modo infinitivo del verbo

I would have It would have


You would have We would have
He would have You would have
She would have They would have

Condicional perfecto (past conditional): yo habra o hubiera


tenido, t habras o hubieras tenido...

sintaxis: sujeto + would + have + participio del verbo

I would have had It would have had


You would have had We would have had
He would have had You would have had
She would have had They would have had

Modo Subjuntivo

Presente subjuntivo: Yo tenga, t tengas, l tenga...

sintaxis: sujeto + infinitivo

I have It have
You have We have
He have You have
She have They have

Pretrito imperfecto: yo tuviera, t tuvieras, l tuviera...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I had It had
You had We had
He had You had
She had They had

Pluscuamperfecto: yo hubiera tenido, t hubieras tenido, l


hubiera tenido...

sintaxis: sujeto +had + participio del verbo

I had had It had had


You had had We had had
He had had You had had
She had had They had had

CONJUGACIN DEL VERBO: TO FALL

PRESENT / PRESENTE
Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I fall Do I fall? I do not fall
You fall Do you fall? You do not fall
He falls Does he fall? He does not fall
She falls Does she fall? She does not fall
It falls Does it fall? It does not fall
We fall Do we fall? We do not fall
You fall Do you fall? You do not fall
They fall Do they fall? They do not fall

PAST / PASADO
Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I fell Did I fall? did
I fall
You fell Did you fall? not
He fell Did he fall? did
You fall
She fell Did she fall? not
It fell Did it fall? did
He fall
We fell Did we fall? not
You fell Did you fall? did
They fell Did they fall? She fall
not
did
It fall
not
did
We fall
not
You did fall
not
did
They fall
not

FUTURE / FUTURO
Negative
will
I fall
not
will
You fall
Affirmative Interrogative not
I will fall Will I fall? will
He fall
You will fall Will you fall? not
He will fall Will he fall? will
She fall
She will fall Will she fall? not
It will fall Will it fall? will
It fall
We will fall Will we fall? not
You will fall Will you fall? will
We fall
They will fall Will they fall? not
will
You fall
not
will
They fall
not

PRESENT PERFECT / PRETRITO PERFECTO


Negative
have
I fallen
not
Affirmative Interrogative
have
I have fallen Have I fallen? You fallen
not
You have fallen Have you fallen?
He has not fallen
He has fallen Has he fallen?
She has not fallen
She has fallen Has she fallen?
It has not fallen
It has fallen Has it fallen?
have
We have fallen Have we fallen? We fallen
not
You have fallen Have you fallen?
have
They have fallen Have they fallen? You fallen
not
have
They fallen
not

PAST PERFECT / PLUSCUAMPERFECTO


Affirmative Interrogative Negative
had
I fallen
not
had
You fallen
not
I had fallen Had I fallen? had
He fallen
You had fallen Had you fallen? not
He had fallen Had he fallen? had
She fallen
She had fallen Had she fallen? not
It had fallen Had it fallen? had
It fallen
We had fallen Had we fallen? not
You had fallen Had you fallen? had
We fallen
They had fallen Had they fallen? not
had
You fallen
not
had
They fallen
not

CONDITIONAL / CONDICIONAL
Negative
would
I fall
not
would
You fall
Affirmative Interrogative not
I would fall Would I fall? would
He fall
You would fall Would you fall? not
He would fall Would he fall? would
She fall
She would fall Would she fall? not
It would fall Would it fall? would
It fall
We would fall Would we fall? not
You would fall Would you fall? would
We fall
They would fall Would they fall? not
would
You fall
not
would
They fall
not

Gramtica Inglesa
Los determinantes Los indeterminantes
Pronombres interrogativos Comparativos y superlativos
Las preposiciones Lista Comparativos y superlativos
Question Tags Los sustantivos
Las conjunciones Contables e incontables
Sintaxis de la pregunta La hora
Los nmeros ordinales Los nmeros cardinales
Expresar cantidades Pronombres personales
Adjetivos calificativos El verbo to get (I)
Adjetivos Lista de phrasal verbs
Los adverbios Abecedario
Gerundio y terminacin -ing Verbos compuestos - Phrasal verbs
Expresar fechas Formas cortas
Trminos Gramaticales False Friends

El artculo en ingls - El artculo determinado

Los artculos en ingls, a diferencia del castellano, no tienen gnero. En


muchas ocasiones la nocin de masculino, femenino o neutro coincide en
castellano, pero no siempre es as.

As por ejemplo, en castellano decimos: El coche "gnero masculino", en


ingls es The car "gnero neutro: it", aunque podemos observar que en
formas coloquiales podemos referirnos al coche adjudicndole gnero
femenino: "My car let me down last night, she broke down".

The article definite/El artculo determinado

The corresponde a los siguientes artculos en espaol el, la, los, las. Tanto
se utiliza para las formas singulares como para formas plurales.

Ejemplos:
The boy (el nio) masculino-singular
The boys (los nios) masculino-plural
The girl (la nia) femenino-singular
The girls (las nias) femenino-plural
The book (el libro) neutro-singular
The books (los libros) neutro-plural

Este artculo puede ir precedido de las preposiciones of, to. En ingls no


hay contraccin de preposicin y artculo. "Del" y "al" se traducen por: of
the (del) to the (al).

Ejemplos:
Days of the week (das de la semana)
I'm going to the garden (me voy al jardn)
Usos del artculo The - En qu casos utilizamos The?

Cuando sabemos de quin o de qu estamos hablando.


Utilizamos "the" para indicar algo o alguien en particular, por ello se
llama definido. Hablamos de algo o alguien concreto que tanto el
emisor como el receptor del mensaje conocen porque ya ha salido
anteriormente en la conversacin o porque los dos lo conocen
previamente.
Ejemplo: Do you remember the day we went to New York?
(Recuerdas el da que fuimos a Nueva York?)
Cuando est claro a lo que nos referimos.
Ejemplo: Where is the shop your mother works in? (Dnde esta la
tienda en que trabaja tu madre?)
Para referirnos a nombres de lugares que se refieran a
repblicas, estados o reinados.
Ejemplo: We visited the United States (Visitamos los Estados Unidos)
Con los nombres plurales de mares, ocanos, canales y rios.
Ejemplo: The Pennines (Las montaas Penines)
Cuando nombramos lugares de ocio o lugares emblemticos.
Ejemplo: We visited the Eiffel tower (Visitamos la torre Eiffel)
Uilizamos The con la partcula "same", de la misma manera que
se utiliza en espaol.
Ejemplo: Your dress is the same as mine. (Tu vestido es como el mio)
Utilizamos The con la partcula "of"
Ejemplo: The house of Commons (la casa de los comunes-parlamento)
Para hacer referencia a los puntos cardinales north, south, east,
west.
Ejemplo: The south of France (El sur de Francia)
Con los adjetivos en grado superlativo:
Ejemplo: My dog is the best dog in the world (Mi perro es el mejor perro
del mundo)
Con el verbo go+to: lugares de ocio (teatro, cine), consultores
mdicos, consultores legales (abogados, etc), lugares que sierven de
punto de encuentro (aeropuertos, centro ciudad...), tiendas
especializadas (farmacias, panaderas, etc)

Cuando No usamos el artculo The

Cuando hablamos de algo en general.


Nunca utilizaremos the cuando nos referimos a la television, o
cuando nos referimos a las pasadas o futuras horas de las comidas,
los das de la semana, los meses del ao, las estaciones, los aos.
Ejemplos:
I dont like what is on tv tonight (No me gusta lo que dan por la tele esta
noche)
They will call me next week (Me llamarn la semana que viene)
Delante de nombres de personas aunque estos estn precedidos
de ttulos.
Con el verbo go + to: work, school, university, college, hospital,
prision, church, bed
Con el verbo go sin preposicin: home
En general no se utiliza el artculo con nombres de lugares,
aunque hay algunas excepciones como hemos visto en el apartado
anterior.
En general no se utliliza el artculo con nombres de ciudades,
aunque hay algunas excepciones como hemos visto en el apartado
anterior.

Tiempos Verbales - Verb Tenses: Present perfect


What...? Qu...?
Where...? Dnde...?
When...? Cundo...?
Who...? Quin...?
Whose...? De quin...?
How...? Cmo...?
Why...? Por qu...?
Which...? Cul...?

What kind of music do you like? ( Qu tipo de msica te gusta?)


What is the weather like? (Qu tiempo hace?)
What's he like? (Cmo es l?)
What does he like? (Qu le gusta a l?)
What does he look like? (Cmo es l? -de aspecto-)
Which do you prefer jazz or pop? (Cul msica prefieres jazz o pop?)
Who's that man? (Quin es ese hombre ?)
Who's got my bag? (Quin tiene mi bolso?)
Whose bag is this? (De quin es este bolso?)
Where is Santa Monica? (Dnde est Santa Mnica?)
When is your birthday? (Cundo es tu cumpleaos?)
Why are you in a hurry? (Por qu tienes prisa?)
How is your mother? (Cmo est tu madre?)
How do you spell your name? (Cmo se deletrea tu nombre?)
How old are you? (Cuntos aos tienes?)
How tall are you? (Cmo eres de alto?)
How much money do you have got? (Cunto dinero tienes?)
How many tickets do you want? (Cuntas entradas quieres?)
How long have you lived in this town? (Cunto tiempo has vivido en esta
ciudad?)
Objeto y sujeto

Who y what pueden actuar como objeto o como sujeto en una oracin
interrogativa. Si actan como sujeto no utilizarn auxiliar (do,will,be...)
para preguntar. En cambio, si actan como objeto debern preguntar con el
auxiliar.

Sintaxis de la pregunta cuando who y what actan


como objeto
Question word + Auxilar + Sujeto + verbo en
infinitivo
Who did you ring? (a quin llamaste?)

Sintaxis de la pregunta cuando who y what actan


como sujeto
Question word +verbo + objeto
Who rang you? (quin te llam?)

ejemplo1:

Fred saw Julia


sujeto verbo objeto

Who saw Julia? Fred --> pregunta de sujeto (Quin vi a Julia?)


Who did Fred see? Julia --> pregunta de objeto (A quin vi Fred?)

ejemplo2:

Oracin principal Dany asked the teacher. (Dani pregunt al profesor)

1) Preguntamos por el sujeto Who asked the teacher ? Dany (quin pregunt al
profesor? Dani)

2) Preguntamos por el objeto Who did Dany ask? the teacher (a quin pregunt
Dani?Al profesor)

ejemplo3:

He saw a woman being murdered


1) Who saw a woman? him
2) Who did he see? a woman being murdered

ejemplo4:

I went to the party with Emely


1) Who went with me? Emely
2) Who did Emely go with? me

Adems, generalmente ponemos las preposiciones al final de las oraciones


interrogativas.
ejemplo:

What are you talking about? correcto


About what are you talking? incorrecto

Las preposiciones - The prepositions

Las preposiciones es una de las partes de la lengua Inglesa que ms


cuesta aprender a los hablantes de lengua Castellana o Espaola. Por ello es
recomendable memorizar las diferentes variaciones y usos dependiendo de
si hablamos de preposiciones de lugar, localizacin, movimiento o tiempo.
Veremos que muchas de las preposiciones se repiten en los diferentes
apartados. Por ello se recomienda hacer ejercicios prcticos que sean
variados y que nos ayuden a ver la diferencia entre ellos.

En otros casos veremos que habr expresiones que simplemente tendremos


que memorizar. Es altamente recomendable que el alumno lea diferentes
textos de diferentes fuentes para facilitar el aprendizaje.

Preposiciones de tiempo y lugar

IN

Significado: en, dentro, dentro de


Uso: lugares tanto para indicar espacios cerrados como espacios abiertos.
Lo utilizamos para indicar que algo est dentro de una cosa, en un lugar
cerrado, o en el interior de algo fsicamente. Sin embargo, como vemos en
los ejemplos tambin se utiliza para indicar que se est en un lugar
geogrfico, detrs del verbo arrive cuando este indica ciudad o pas.

Ejemplos:

I live in Brighton. (Vivo en Brighton)


The cat is in the box. (El gato est dentro la caja)
I found your address in the phone book. (He encontrado tu direccin
en la gua telefnica)
My parents in law arrived in France on Monday. (Mis suegros llegaron
a Francia el lunes)

AT

Significado: en, a, al, cerca de, tocando


Uso: delante de edificios como casas, aeropuertos, universidades (para
indicar que estamos dentro), antes de top (parte superior), bottom (parte
inferior), at the end of (al final de), para indicar acontecimientos como
reuniones, fiestas, conciertos, deportes, etc.. detrs de arrive cuando nos
referimos a lugares que no sean ciudades o pases.

Ejemplos:

I study at university. (Estudio en la universidad)


He is at home. (l est en casa)
I always visit my sister at work. (Siempre visito a mi hermana en el
trabajo)
She doesnt like waiting at the metro stop. (A ella no le gusta esperar
en la estacin del metro)
At the table. (En la mesa -para trabajar o comer-)
The papers are at the top shelf. (Los papeles estn en la estantera
de arriba)
Ill see you at the theatre. (Nos vemos en el teatro)

ON

Significado: sobre, encima de algo tocando


Uso: se coloca delante de nombres de lugares con base como mesas,
suelos, etc, ante nombres de lugares de una habitacin como techo, pared
o techo, para indicar que alguien esta dentro de un transporte pblico o
dentro una planta de edificio, para indicar la distancia de un punto a otro.

Ejemplos:

The pen is on the table. (El bolgrafo est sobre la mesa)


They have a picture of Paris on the wall. (Tienen una foto de Paris en
la pared)
It was the first time I was on a plane. (Era la primera vez que suba
a un avin)
My room is on the first floor. (Mi habitacin est en la primera
planta)
I found a coin on the way to school. (Me encontr una moneda de
camino a la escuela)

TO
Significado: hacia, direccin a (siempre indica movimiento)
Uso: se coloca tras los verbos de movimiento como ir, venir, volver,
caminar, volar, etc detrs de el verbo get (para dar el sentido de llegar a
algn lugar)

Ejemplos:

They will come to the wedding (Vendran a la boda)


Sofia will fly to Canada (Sofia volar hasta Canad)

BEFORE

Significado: antes, antes de


Uso: se coloca tras verbos y nombres o sustantivos

Ejemplos:

Ring me before 1 oclock. (Llmame antes de la 1)


They arrived before me. (Llegaron antes que yo)

AFTER

Significado: despus, despus de, tras


Uso: se coloca tras verbos y nombres o sustantivos.

Ejemplos:

My boss paid me after I told them the problem. (My jefe me pag
cuando le cont el problema)

DURING

Significado: durante
Uso: Se coloca y puede ir seguido de verbos y nombres o sustantivos.

Ejemplos:

Dont ring me during the morning. (No me llames durante la


maana)

FOR
Significado: durante
Uso: Se coloca tras verbos y nombres o sustantivos. Aunque signifique lo
mismo que during no tienen exactamente el mismo matiz. Este se utiliza
para expresar un periodo de tiempo ya sean das, horas, meses o aos.

Ejemplos:

I stayed in England for 4 years. (Estuve en Inglaterra durante 4


aos)

WHILE

Significado: mientras
Uso: Se coloca tras verbos y nombres o sustantivos.

Ejemplos:

I will work while I can. (Trabajar mientras pueda)

QUESTION TAGS

En ingls es frecuente que terminemos las frases con otra frase corta, de
signo contrario, la cual tiene la intencin de pedir la opinin o buscar la
aprobacin del interlocutor, son las llamadas question tags.

Equivalen a: verdad?, no es verdad?, no?, no es as? en serio?

Your brother is older than you, isn't he?


(Tu hermano es mayor que t, no es as?)

You can help me, can't you?


(Puedes ayudarme, verdad?)

Para formar esta pregunta corta utilizaremos el auxiliar de la frase principal


y su sujeto pero de signo contrario. Si no tuviera auxiliar entonces
utilizaramos el auxiliar to do.

He doesn't like Susan, does he?


He likes Susan, doesn't he?
He is getting married, isn't he?
He isn't getting married, is he?
You worked yesterday, didn't you?

El interlocutor puede contestar retomando las question tags.

He likes Susan. (Le gusta Susan)


Doesn't he? (de verdad?)

Conjunciones - Conjunctions

Las conjunciones son empleadas para enlazar entre s las palabras y/o
oraciones. Segn constan de una o ms palabras las llamamos simples o
compuestas:

Conjunciones Simples
After despus (de) que
Although aunque, si bien
And y, e
cuando, mientras, a medida que,
As
como, pues
Because porque
Before antes que
But pero, sino
Except excepto, salvo
For ya que, pues
Furthermore adems
However sin embargo
If si
Lest para que no, por temor de que
Moreover adems, por otra parte
Namely a saber
Nevertheless sin embargo, no obstante
Notwithstanding no obstante, con todo
Or o, u
Otherwhise de otra manera, si no
a condicin de que, con tal de
Provided
que
Since puesto que, ya que, desde que
Still sin embargo, no obstante
Therefore por lo tanto, por eso
Though aunque
Till mientras no, hasta que
Unless a menos que
Until hasta que
Whenever cada vez que, siempre que
Whereas visto que, mientras que
Whether si
While mientras, mientras que, aunque
Why por qu
Yet sin embargo, no obstante

Conjunciones
Compuestas
According to de acuerdo a, segn
As if como si
As long as siempre que, con tal de que
As often as cada vez que, siempre que
As soon as en cuanto, tan pronto como
As though como si
As well as tan... como, tanto... como
As..as tan ... como
Because of debido a
Both...and tanto...como
Even if aun si, aunque
Even when aun cuando
In case en caso
In case of en caso de
In consequence por consiguiente
In order that para que, a fin de que
In order to para
In proportion as a medida que
In such a way as de modo que
Neither... nor ni... ni
Not only ... but no slo... sino
Of course por supuesto
Or else o bien, sino
Seeing that puesto que, en vista de que
So as not to para no
So as to para
So that para que
So then as pues
Whether... or si... o
Esquema: Sintaxis de las oraciones interrogativas

Question Object Manner Place Time


Aux + Sbj + Vb+
Word + + verb + Adv. + Adv.?
modo
Pronombre adverbio adverbio
auxiliar sujeto verbo objeto del
interrogativo lugar tiempo
verbo
Do you travel abroad very often?
every
How many tourist visit the city
year?
What do they say?
How long your last
did you leave
ago work?
to the this
Did you go
cinema weekend?
Who hates you ?
Who do you hate?
Why will she visit him soon?
many you went
Did you take when
photos abroad?
any
Have you got
luggage?
How much
do you have?
money
Los nmeros ordinales - Ordinal Numbers

Primero, segundo y tercero son as:

1st first
2nd second
3rd third

La abreviatura de los nmeros ordinales se forma con el nmero en cifra


seguido por las ltimas dos letras de la palabra completa: 1st (first), 2nd
(second), 3rd (third), 20th (twentieth), 23rd (twenty-third)...

Del cuarto al decimoavo tienen la terminacin -th:

4th fourth
5th fifth
6th sixth
7th seventh
8th eighth
9th ninth
10th tenth
11th eleventh
12th twelfth
13th thirteenth
14th fourteenth
15th fifteenth
16th sixteenth
17th seventeenth
18th eighteenth

Las decenas, millares y el milln tambin tienen la terminacin -th:


Para los nmeros 20th,30th,40th,50th,60th,70th,80th y 90th (la
terminacin suena como <tiez>)

20th twentieth
30th thirtieth
40th fortieth
80th eightieth
100th hundredth
1000th thousandth
1.000.000th millionth

Las decenas se unen con un guin al igual que los nmeros cardinales,
pero las unidades tienen la terminacin -th, menos first que termina en -st,
second que termina en -nd, y third que termina en -rd.

21st twenty-first
22nd twenty-second
23rd twenty-third
24th twenty-fourth

NMEROS ORDINALES

1st
first
2nd
second
3rd
third
4th
fourth
5th
fifth
6th
sixth
7th
seventh
8th
eighth
9th
ninth
10th
tenth
11th
eleventh
12th
twelfth
13th
thirteenth
14th
fourteenth
15th
fifteenth
16th
sixteenth
17th
seventeenth
18th
eighteenth
19th
nineteenth
20th
twentieth
21st
twenty-first
22nd
twenty-second
30th
thirtieth
40th
fortieth
50th
fiftieth
60th
sixtieth
70th
seventieth
80th
eightieth
90th
ninetieth
100th
hundredth

101st hundred and


first
200th
two hundredth
1.000th
thousandth
10.000th
ten thousandth

hundred
100.000th
thousandth
1.000.000th
millionth

Los cuantificacdores
The quantifiers
Lots of / A lot of, much /many, few y little

Utilizamos los cuantificadores para expresar la idea de cantidad o nmero.


En el siguiente resumen podrs estudiar cmo y cundo usarlos.

Lots of / A lot of

Expresan idea de gran cantidad.

Lots of + nombre singular o plural

He's got lots of books


Tiene muchos libros

A lot of + nombre singular o plural

I've got a lot of experience


Tengo mucha experiencia

Many / Much

Expresan idean de gran cantidad. Se utilizan sobretodo en frases negativas


e interrogativas.
Many + nombre plural contable:

There aren't many tourists


No hay muchos turistas

Much + nombre singular no contable

You haven't got much money


No tienes mucho dinero

El many y el much tambin se combinan con too y so.


Too se utilizar para expresar cantidad excesiva.
So se utlizar tambin para expresar cantidad excesiva pero sobretodo en
exclamaciones.

Too many + nombre plural contable

There are too many changes for me.


Hay demasiados cambios para mi.

Too much + nombre singular incontable

There is too much work.


Hay demasiado trabajo

So many + nombre plural contable

There are so many things I want to do!


Hay tantas cosas que deseo hacer!

So much + nombre singular incontable

We've got so much work to do!


Tenemos tanto trabajo que hacer!

Little / Few

Little / few expresan un nmero reducido


A little / A few expresan la idea de una cantidad media

Little / a little + nombre singular no contable


You have little to offer.
Tienes poco que ofrecer.

Can we have a little more information?


Podemos tener un poco ms de informacin?

Few / a few + nombre plural contable

Very few people eat enough proteins


Muy poca gente come suficientes proteinas.

I'm going to buy a few books today.


Hoy voy a comprar unos cuantos libros.

Los adjetivos cualificativos - The descriptive adjectives

Los adjetivos son palabras que nombran o indican cualidades, rasgos y


propiedades de los nombres o sustantivos a los que acompaan.

It's a dark street


It's getting old

El adjetivo se situa antes del nombre o despus de un grupo de verbos


(appear, be, become, feel, get, look, seem, smell, stay, taste)

My sister is beautiful
She looks tired
It's getting dark

Podemos usar dos o ms adjetivos juntos:


a small black book

El orden de los adjetivos

Como norma general, seguimos el siguiente orden cuando utilizamos varios adjetivos:

1 opinin /valor delicious, wonderful, nice...


2 tamao y longitud huge, short, large, small ...
3 edad / temperatura new, old, hot ...
4 forma y superficie round, fat, thin ...
5 color red, black ...
6 origen Spanish, American, Victorian ...
7 material silver, cotton, paper, iron ...
8 uso electric, political
9 nombre bath (towel)

a large black paper


a small red table
a wonderful old city
a small old bath towel

El adjetivo - The adjective

Un adjetivo es una palabra que acompaa y modifica al nombre. Puede


ampliar, complementar o cuantificar su tamao.

the tall professor


a seven-year-old child

El ingls tiene ocho clases de adjetivos:

Clases de adjetivos:
1. Calificativos: fat, red, nice...
2. Demostrativos: this, that, these, those
3. Distributivos: each, every, either, neither
4. Cuantitativos: some ,any, many...
5. Interrogativos: which?, what? ...
6. Posesivos: my, your...
7. Propios: English, Spanish
8. Numerales: one, four, first, second...

El gnero y nmero

El adjetivo en ingls es invariable, es decir, no cambia con el gnero ni con


el nmero:
fast --> rpido, rpida, rpidos, rpidas

Los adjetivos demostrativos tienen diferentes formas para el singular y el


plural:

this pencil (este lpiz)


these pencils (estos lpices)

los adjetivos cuantitativos tienen diferentes formas para el singular y el


plural: much milk (mucha leche)
many books (muchos libros)

Los Adverbios - The adverbs

Un adverbio es la palabra que normalmente acompaa al verbo para


modificar su significado. Un adverbio tambin puede modificar a los
adjetivos o a otros adverbios.

Ejemplo:
They write the letter. (Escriben la carta.)
They write the letter quickly. (Escriben la carta deprisa).
En este ejemplo quickly es un adverbio de modo que modifica al verbo to
write para expresar que escriben deprisa.

Tipos de adverbios

adverbios de tiempo: last week, soon, now... Responden a la pregunta de:


cundo?
adverbios de lugar: at home, abroad, everywhere... Responden a la
pregunta de: dnde?
adverbios de grado: less, much, more... Responden a la pregunta de:
cunto?
adverbios de modo: aloud, fast, hard, low... Responden a la pregunta de:
cmo?
adverbios de frecuencia: sometimes, usually... Responden a la pregunta
de: con qu frecuencia?cuntas veces?
adverbios de afirmacin o razn: certainly, likely, neither, moreover... Nos
dicen algo sobre la situacin descrita en la oracin.

El orden de los adverbios en una oracin

Hay cuatro posiciones en una oracin donde puede ir un adverbio:


Al principio de la oracin. Ejemplo: Every day we go to our place of
business.
En el medio (al lado del verbo y despus del objeto si lo hay). Ejemplo:
We never said it would be easy.
Al final. Ejemplo: You must drive carefully.
Entre el auxiliar y participio. Ejemplo: We have always followed the
rules.

Los adverbios de lugar y de tiempo normalmente van al final de la oracin.


ejemplo: This web page will be down this weekend.

Los adverbios de frecuencia normalmente van en el medio de la oracin.


ejemplo: I've always wanted a smoking jacket!
Los adverbios: normally, usually, often, sometimes, every day, once a week
... adems pueden ir al principio o al final de la oracin.

Los adverbios de modo normalmente van al final de la oracin, aunque los


adverbios con terminacin -ly pueden ir tambin en el medio.
ejemplos:
He drives perfectly.
He perfectly recognized her.

Los adverbios de afirmacin o razn pueden ir a principio, en medio o a


final de la oracin. A excepcin de also que suele ir en medio de la oracin y
too/as well que van al final.
ejemplos:
Maybe she will laugh again.
We also accept payment by check.
We accept payment by check, too / as well.

Formar adverbios con la terminacin -ly

Muchos adverbios son formados a partir de adjetivos aadindoles la


terminacin -ly que equivale a la terminacin en castellano de -mente:
ejemplo: honest --> honestly (honrado - honradamente)

Aunque para ciertos adjetivos existen unas reglas a seguir:

1. La regla general es aadir la terminacin -ly al adjetivo.

slow - slowly

2. Los adjetivos terminados en consonante -y, cambian la terminacin -y


por la de -ily

easy - easily

3. Adjetivos terminados en ic: se cambia la terminacin -ic por -ically

automatic - automatically

4. Adjetivos terminados en -le, se cambia la terminacin -le por -ly.

terrible - terribly

Gerundio (Usos) - Gerund (Uses)

CASOS EN LOS QUE USAMOS EL GERUNDIO

Caso 1: Cuando la accin acta como sujeto.


Ejemplo:
Driving is getting dangerous. - Conducir es peligroso

Caso 2: Despus de verbos como like (gustar), hate (odiar), prefer


(preferir) cuando hablas de gustos.
Ejemplo:
I hate studying history - Odio estudiar historia

Caso 3: Despus de be used to.


Ejemplo:
He's not used to wearing a hat - l no suele llevar sombrero.

Caso 4: Despus del verbo mind.


Ejemplo:
Do you mind waiting in the car? - Te importa esperar en el coche?

Caso 5: Despus de los verbos como start, keep on, stop, para expresar el
principio y el fin de una accin.
Ejemplo:
I'm trying to keep on working - Intento seguir trabajando
Please, stop laughing at me - Por favor, para de reirte de mi
What do I need to start studying at University? - Qu necesito para
empezar a estudiar en la universidad?

Caso 6: Despus del verbo need (necesitar).


Ejemplo:
Young people need caring adults. - Los jvenes necesitan los cuidados de
los adultos.

Caso 7: Despus de la expresin: look forward to


Ejemplo:
I'm looking forward to seeing you. - Tengo muchas ganas de verte.

Caso 8: Despus de la expresin: what about o how about, para sugerir


cualquier cosa.
Ejemplo:
What about going to the beach? - Vamos a la playa?

Caso 9: Despus de la expresin: be worth.


Ejemplo:
This game is not worth buying. - No vale la pena comprar este juego.

Caso 10: Despus de la expresin: can't help.


Ejemplo:
I can't help falling in love. - No puedo evitar enamorarme.

La fecha - The date

Se expresan las fechas con nmeros ordinales


(first, second, third, etc.):

Today is the 1st of April --> hoy es el 1 de abril

Utilizamos la preposicin on para expresar los das.


On Saturday

Utilizamos la preposicin in para expresar meses o aos.

In April

Los meses y los das se escriben en mayscula.

June - junio
Friday - viernes

Los das de la semana son :

Sunday - domingo
Monday - lunes
Tuesday - martes
Wednesday - mircoles
Thursday - jueves
Friday - viernes
Saturday - sbado

Meses del ao:

January - enero
February - febrero
March - marzo
April - abril
May - mayo
June - junio
July - julio
August - agosto
September - septiembre
October - octubre
November - noviembre
December - diciembre

Estaciones del ao:

spring - primavera
summer - verano
autumn (UK) fall (USA) - otoo
winter - invierno
Formato de fechas:

June, 30th 1997 / 30 de junio de 1997

November 10, 2005 / 10 de noviembre de 2005

04/18/1999 (Formato USA mes/da/ao)


18/04/1999 (Formato UK da/mes/ao

Vocabulario:

Month - Mes
Monthly - Mensual
Today - Hoy
Daily - Diario
Tomorrow - Maana
Tonight - Esta noche
Yesterday - Ayer
Week - Semana
Weekend - Fin de semana
Weekly - Semanal
Year - Ao
Century - Siglo
Decade - Dcada

Das festivos:

Easter - Pascua
Halloween - Vspera de Todos los Santos - Noche de Brujas
Thanksgiving - Da de Accin de Gracias
Independence day - Da de la Independencia
Christmas - Navidad
New year's day - Da de ao nuevo
New year's eve - Vspera de ao nuevo

INDEFINITE ARTICLE / ARTCULO INDEFINIDO DEL INGLS

El significado de a o an es el mismo y se utilizan para indicar algo o alguien


en singular. Nunca lo utilizaremos para referirnos a ms de una cosa.
A o an, corresponde a los siguientes artculos en espaol: un, una.

Usos del artculo a/an

Se utiliza para hablar del oficio de alguien.


Ejemplo: Maria is a journalist. (Maria es periodista)

O para definr algo o a alguien o decimos algo de alguna cosa o de


alguien.
Ejemplos:
A dog is an animal (El perro es un animal)
James is a nasty person (James es mala persona)

REGLAS GRAMATICALES

A se utiliza con nombres que comienzan por consonante.


a book (un libro)
a pen (un bolgrafo)
a chair (una silla)
Usamos a antes de una palabra comenzada por la letra u cuando esta
es pronunciada como el sonido figurado "yu". Ejemplo: a university
An se usa con nombres que comienzan por vocal.
an animal (un animal)
an answer (una contestacin)
an example (un ejemplo)
Excepcion: An hotel

Adjetivos: Los comparativos y superlativos


Adjectives: Comparatives and Superlatives

Grados del adjetivo:

Al igual que en en espaol, cuando queremos hacer comparaciones


contrastamos cualidades o atributos por medio de adjetivos en sus diversos
grados:

1. El grado positivo: es la cualidad en el grado ms simple: fast (rpido)


2. El grado comparativo:

- comparativo de superioridad: faster than ... ms rpido que ....


- comparativo de inferioridad: less fast than ... menos rpido que ....
- comparativo de igualdad: as fast as .... tan rpido como ...
3. El grado superlativo: the fastest ... el ms rpido

Formacin del comparativo y del superlativo:

Para formar el comparativo o superlativo aplicaremos diferentes reglas


segn los siguientes grupos:

1. Para adjetivos cortos o de una slaba:

- La comparacin:
Para formar el comparativo aadimos al adjetivo la terminacin -er:
Por ejemplo, al adjetivo fast (rpido) le aadimos -er: faster (ms rpido)

Ejemplos:
A train is faster than a bicycle.(Un tren es ms rpido que una bicicleta.)
The sea is larger than a lake. (El mar es ms grande que un lago.)

- El superlativo:
Para formar el superlativo aadiremos al adjetivo -est, adems el
adjetivo ir precedido del artculo The.
Por ejemplo, al adjetivo old (viejo) le aadimos -est: the oldest (el ms
viejo/mayor)

Ejemplos:
My father is the oldest. (Mi padre es el ms mayor)
My house is the largest. (Mi casa es la ms grande)

2. Para los adjetivos acabados en "y", "er", "le", "ow" de dos


slabas:

- La comparacin:
Para formar comparaciones se aade la terminacin -er.
Y si acaban en y, esta se sustituir por la i latina.
Por ejemplo, el adjetivo easy (fcil) acabar con -ier: easier (ms fcil)

Ejemplos:
This work is easier than yours (Este trabajo es ms fcil que el tuyo.)
I'm cleverer than her (Soy ms inteligente que ella.)
My car is slower than yours (Mi coche es ms lento que el tuyo.)

- El superlativo:
Para formar el superlativo aadiremos -est.
Y si acaban en y, esta se sustituir por la i latina. Adems siempre ir
precedido por el artculo The. Por ejemplo el adjetivo ugly (feo) acabar
con -iest: the ugliest (el ms feo)

Ejemplos:
This man is the ugliest. (Este hombre es el ms feo.)

3. Para adjetivos largos de dos o ms slabas

- La comparacin:
Para formar comparaciones, el adjetivo ir precedido de la palabra more.
Por ejemplo, el adjetivo modern (moderno) ser more modern (ms
moderno)

Ejemplos:
This house is more modern. (Esta casa es ms moderna.)

- El superlativo:
Para formar el superlativo, el adjetivo ir precedido por : The + most
El adjetivo beautiful (hermoso) ser: The most beautiful (el ms
hermoso).

Ejemplos:
This woman is the most beautiful. (Esta mujer es la ms hermosa).

Los adjetivos irregulares:

Son los adjetivos que tienen una sintaxis particular para comparaciones y superlativos:

adjetivo comparacin superlativo


good better The best
bad worse The worst
far further-farther The furthet-farthest
old older / eldest oldest / eldest
many/much more most
little less least

Otros ejemplos:

I'm stronger. (Soy ms fuerte.)


I'm stronger than you. (Soy ms fuerte que t.)
This car is more comfortable than yours. (Este coche es ms cmodo que el
tuyo.)
She's got the same dress than yours. (Tiene el mismo vestido que t.)
You're as fast as him. ( Eres tan rpido como l.)
You're not as good as him! (No eres tan bueno como l!)
He's the richest man in the town. (Es el hombre ms rico de la ciudad.)
She's the most beautiful actress I know. (Ella es la actriz ms hermosa que
conozco.)

LISTA de ADJETIVOS COMPARATIVO-SUPERLATIVO

able abler ablest


achy achier achiest
acute acuter acutest
airy airier airiest
ample ampler amplest
angry angrier angriest
apt apter aptest
arty artier artiest
ashy ashier ashiest
bad worse worst
baggy baggier baggiest
bald balder baldest
balky balkier balkiest
balmy balmier balmiest
bare barer barest
batty battier battiest
beady beadier beadiest
beastly beastlier beastliest
beefy beefier beefiest
big bigger biggest
bitter bitterer bitterest
black blacker blackest
bland blander blandest
blank blanker blankest
bleak bleaker bleakest
bleary blearier bleariest
blind blinder blindest
blithe blither blithest
blond blonder blondest
bloody bloodier bloodiest
blotchy blotchier blotchiest
blowzy blowzier blowziest
blue bluer bluest
blunt blunter bluntest
blurry blurrier blurriest
boggy boggier boggiest
bold bolder boldest
bonny bonnier bonniest
bony bonier boniest
bossy bossier bossiest
botchy botchier botchiest
bouncy bouncier bounciest
brainy brainier brainiest
brambly bramblier brambliest
brash brasher brashest
brassy brassier brassiest
bratty brattier brattiest
brave braver bravest
brawny brawnier brawniest
breathy breathier breathiest
breezy breezier breeziest
brief briefer briefest
bright brighter brightest
briny brinier briniest
brisk brisker briskest
bristly bristlier bristliest
broad broader broadest
broody broodier broodiest
brown browner brownest
brusk brusker bruskest
bubbly bubblier bubbliest
bulgy bulgier bulgiest
bulky bulkier bulkiest
bumpy bumpier bumpiest
bunchy bunchier bunchiest
burly burlier burliest
bushy bushier bushiest
busy busier busiest
cagy cagier cagiest
calm calmer calmest
campy campier campiest
canny cannier canniest
catchy catchier catchiest
catty cattier cattiest
chalky chalkier chalkiest
chancy chancier chanciest
chaste chaster chastest
chatty chattier chattiest
cheap cheaper cheapest
cheeky cheekier cheekiest
cheery cheerier cheeriest
cheesy cheesier cheesiest
chewy chewier chewiest
chilly chillier chilliest
chintzy chintzier chintziest
choice choicer choicest
choosy choosier choosiest
choppy choppier choppiest
chubby chubbier chubbiest
chummy chummier chummiest
chunky chunkier chunkiest
civil civiler civilest
clammy clammier clammiest
classy classier classiest
clean cleaner cleanest
cleanly cleanlier cleanliest
clear clearer clearest
clever cleverer cleverest
clingy clingier clingiest
cliquy cliquier cliquiest
cloddy cloddier cloddiest
close closer closest
cloudy cloudier cloudiest
clumpy clumpier clumpiest
clumsy clumsier clumsiest
coarse coarser coarsest
cold colder coldest
comely comelier comeliest
comfy comfier comfiest
common commoner commonest
cool cooler coolest
corky corkier corkiest
corny cornier corniest
costly costlier costliest
coy coyer coyest
cozy cozier coziest
crabby crabbier crabbiest
crackly cracklier crackliest
crafty craftier craftiest
craggy craggier craggiest
cranky crankier crankiest
crass crasser crassest
crawly crawlier crawliest
crazy crazier craziest
creaky creakier creakiest
creamy creamier creamiest
creepy creepier creepiest
crinkly crinklier crinkliest
crisp crisper crispest
crispy crispier crispiest
croaky croakier croakiest
cross crosser crossest
croupy croupier croupiest
cruel crueler cruelest
crummy crummier crummiest
crunchy crunchier crunchiest
crusty crustier crustiest
cuddly cuddlier cuddliest
curly curlier curliest
curt curter curtest
curvy curvier curviest
cushy cushier cushiest
cute cuter cutest
daffy daffier daffiest
daft dafter daftest
dainty daintier daintiest
damp damper dampest
dandy dandier dandiest
dank danker dankest
dark darker darkest
dead deader deadest
deadly deadlier deadliest
deaf deafer deafest
dear dearer dearest
deep deeper deepest
deft defter deftest
demure demurer demurest
dense denser densest
dewy dewier dewiest
dicey dicier diciest
dim dimmer dimmest
dingy dingier dingiest
dippy dippier dippiest
dire direr direst
dirty dirtier dirtiest
dizzy dizzier dizziest
dopey dopier dopiest
dotty dottier dottiest
dowdy dowdier dowdiest
downy downier downiest
drab drabber drabbest
drafty draftier draftiest
dreamy dreamier dreamiest
dreary drearier dreariest
dressy dressier dressiest
droopy droopier droopiest
drowsy drowsier drowsiest
dry drier driest
ducky duckier duckiest
dull duller dullest
dumb dumber dumbest
dumpy dumpier dumpiest
dusky duskier duskiest
dusty dustier dustiest
early earlier earliest
earthy earthier earthiest
easy easier easiest
edgy edgier edgiest
eery eerier eeriest
empty emptier emptiest
faint fainter faintest
fair fairer fairest
false falser falsest
fancy fancier fanciest
far farther farthest
far further furthest
fast faster fastest
fat fatter fattest
fatty fattier fattiest
faulty faultier faultiest
feeble feebler feeblest
few fewer fewest
fierce fiercer fiercest
fiery fierier fieriest
filmy filmier filmiest
filthy filthier filthiest
fine finer finest
firm firmer firmest
fishy fishier fishiest
fit fitter fittest
flabby flabbier flabbiest
flaky flakier flakiest
flashy flashier flashiest
flat flatter flattest
fleecy fleecier fleeciest
fleet fleeter fleetest
flighty flightier flightiest
flimsy flimsier flimsiest
flip flipper flippest
floppy floppier floppiest
fluffy fluffier fluffiest
foamy foamier foamiest
foggy foggier foggiest
folksy folksier folksiest
fond fonder fondest
foolhardy foolhardier foolhardiest
foul fouler foulest
foxy foxier foxiest
frail frailer frailest
frank franker frankest
freaky freakier freakiest
free freer freest
fresh fresher freshest
friendly friendlier friendliest
frizzy frizzier frizziest
frosty frostier frostiest
frothy frothier frothiest
frumpy frumpier frumpiest
full fuller fullest
funky funkier funkiest
funny funnier funniest
furry furrier furriest
fussy fussier fussiest
fuzzy fuzzier fuzziest
gabby gabbier gabbiest
game gamer gamest
gamy gamier gamiest
gaudy gaudier gaudiest
gaunt gaunter gauntest
gauzy gauzier gauziest
gawky gawkier gawkiest
gentle gentler gentlest
germy germier germiest
ghastly ghastlier ghastliest
giddy giddier giddiest
glad gladder gladdest
glairy glairier glairiest
glassy glassier glassiest
gleamy gleamier gleamiest
glib glibber glibbest
gloomy gloomier gloomiest
glossy glossier glossiest
gluey gluier gluiest
glum glummer glummest
godly godlier godliest
good better best
goodly goodlier goodliest
gooey gooier gooiest
goofy goofier goofiest
gory gorier goriest
gouty goutier goutiest
grabby grabbier grabbiest
grainy grainier grainiest
grand grander grandest
grassy grassier grassiest
grave graver gravest
gray grayer grayest
greasy greasier greasiest
great greater greatest
greedy greedier greediest
green greener greenest
grey greyer greyest
grim grimmer grimmest
grimy grimier grimiest
grippy grippier grippiest
gripy gripier gripiest
grisly grislier grisliest
gritty grittier grittiest
grizzly grizzlier grizzliest
groggy groggier groggiest
groovy groovier grooviest
gross grosser grossest
grouchy grouchier grouchiest
grubby grubbier grubbiest
gruff gruffer gruffest
grumpy grumpier grumpiest
grungy grungier grungiest
guilty guiltier guiltiest
gummy gummier gummiest
gushy gushier gushiest
gusty gustier gustiest
gutsy gutsier gutsiest
hairy hairier hairiest
hammy hammier hammiest
handsome handsomer handsomest
handy handier handiest
happy happier happiest
hard harder hardest
hardy hardier hardiest
harsh harsher harshest
hasty hastier hastiest
haughty haughtier haughtiest
hazy hazier haziest
heady headier headiest
healthy healthier healthiest
hearty heartier heartiest
heavy heavier heaviest
hefty heftier heftiest
high higher highest
hip hipper hippest
hoarse hoarser hoarsest
hokey hokier hokiest
holy holier holiest
homely homelier homeliest
homey homier homiest
hot hotter hottest
huffy huffier huffiest
huge huger hugest
humble humbler humblest
hungry hungrier hungriest
husky huskier huskiest
icky ickier ickiest
icy icier iciest
idle idler idlest
ill iller illest
inky inkier inkiest
itchy itchier itchiest
jaunty jauntier jauntiest
jazzy jazzier jazziest
jerky jerkier jerkiest
jolly jollier jolliest
jouncy jouncier jounciest
juicy juicier juiciest
jumpy jumpier jumpiest
keen keener keenest
kind kinder kindest
kindly kindlier kindliest
kingly kinglier kingliest
knobby knobbier knobbiest
knotty knottier knottiest
kooky kookier kookiest
lacy lacier laciest
lame lamer lamest
lank lanker lankest
lanky lankier lankiest
large larger largest
late later latest
lax laxer laxest
lazy lazier laziest
leafy leafier leafiest
leaky leakier leakiest
lean leaner leanest
leery leerier leeriest
lengthy lengthier lengthiest
light lighter lightest
likely likelier likeliest
linty lintier lintiest
lithe lither lithest
little littler littlest
lively livelier liveliest
loamy loamier loamiest
lofty loftier loftiest
lonely lonelier loneliest
long longer longest
loony loonier looniest
loose looser loosest
lordly lordlier lordliest
loud louder loudest
lousy lousier lousiest
lovely lovelier loveliest
low lower lowest
lowly lowlier lowliest
lucky luckier luckiest
lumpy lumpier lumpiest
mad madder maddest
mangy mangier mangiest
manly manlier manliest
marshy marshier marshiest
mature maturer maturest
mealy mealier mealiest
mean meaner meanest
measly measlier measliest
meaty meatier meatiest
meek meeker meekest
mellow mellower mellowest
mere merer merest
merry merrier merriest
messy messier messiest
mighty mightier mightiest
mild milder mildest
milky milkier milkiest
minty mintier mintiest
minute minuter minutest
misty mistier mistiest
moist moister moistest
moldy moldier moldiest
moody moodier moodiest
mopy mopier mopiest
mossy mossier mossiest
mouldy mouldier mouldiest
mousy mousier mousiest
mouthy mouthier mouthiest
mucky muckier muckiest
muddy muddier muddiest
muggy muggier muggiest
murky murkier murkiest
mushy mushier mushiest
musty mustier mustiest
naive naiver naivest
narrow narrower narrowest
nasty nastier nastiest
natty nattier nattiest
naughty naughtier naughtiest
near nearer nearest
neat neater neatest
needy needier neediest
nervy nervier nerviest
new newer newest
newsy newsier newsiest
nice nicer nicest
nifty niftier niftiest
nimble nimbler nimblest
nippy nippier nippiest
noble nobler noblest
noisy noisier noisiest
nosy nosier nosiest
numb number numbest
nutty nuttier nuttiest
obscure obscurer obscurest
odd odder oddest
oily oilier oiliest
old elder eldest
old older oldest
oozy oozier ooziest
pale paler palest
palmy palmier palmiest
paltry paltrier paltriest
pasty pastier pastiest
patchy patchier patchiest
pearly pearlier pearliest
pebbly pebblier pebbliest
peppy peppier peppiest
perky perkier perkiest
pert perter pertest
pesky peskier peskiest
petty pettier pettiest
phlegmy phlegmier phlegmiest
phony phonier phoniest
picky pickier pickiest
piggy piggier piggiest
pimply pimplier pimpliest
pink pinker pinkest
pithy pithier pithiest
plain plainer plainest
plucky pluckier pluckiest
plump plumper plumpest
plumy plumier plumiest
plush plusher plushest
pointy pointier pointiest
poky pokier pokiest
polite politer politest
poor poorer poorest
porky porkier porkiest
portly portlier portliest
posh posher poshest
pretty prettier prettiest
prickly pricklier prickliest
prim primmer primmest
prissy prissier prissiest
profound profounder profoundest
prosy prosier prosiest
proud prouder proudest
pudgy pudgier pudgiest
puffy puffier puffiest
pulpy pulpier pulpiest
punchy punchier punchiest
puny punier puniest
pure purer purest
pushy pushier pushiest
quaint quainter quaintest
quaky quakier quakiest
queasy queasier queasiest
quick quicker quickest
quiet quieter quietest
quirky quirkier quirkiest
rainy rainier rainiest
rangy rangier rangiest
rank ranker rankest
rare rarer rarest
raspy raspier raspiest
ratty rattier rattiest
raw rawer rawest
ready readier readiest
real realer realest
red redder reddest
reedy reedier reediest
remote remoter remotest
rich richer richest
ripe riper ripest
risky riskier riskiest
ritzy ritzier ritziest
rocky rockier rockiest
roomy roomier roomiest
rosy rosier rosiest
rotten rottener rottenest
rough rougher roughest
rowdy rowdier rowdiest
ruddy ruddier ruddiest
rude ruder rudest
runny runnier runniest
runty runtier runtiest
rusty rustier rustiest
sad sadder saddest
safe safer safest
sage sager sagest
saggy saggier saggiest
saintly saintlier saintliest
salty saltier saltiest
sandy sandier sandiest
sane saner sanest
sappy sappier sappiest
sassy sassier sassiest
saucy saucier sauciest
scabby scabbier scabbiest
scaly scalier scaliest
scanty scantier scantiest
scarce scarcer scarcest
scary scarier scariest
schmaltzy schmaltzier schmaltziest
scraggly scragglier scraggliest
scrappy scrappier scrappiest
scratchy scratchier scratchiest
scrawny scrawnier scrawniest
screechy screechier screechiest
scrimpy scrimpier scrimpiest
scrubby scrubbier scrubbiest
scruffy scruffier scruffiest
scurvy scurvier scurviest
secure securer securest
seemly seemlier seemliest
severe severer severest
shabby shabbier shabbiest
shady shadier shadiest
shaggy shaggier shaggiest
shaky shakier shakiest
shallow shallower shallowest
shapely shapelier shapeliest
sharp sharper sharpest
shifty shiftier shiftiest
shiny shinier shiniest
shoddy shoddier shoddiest
short shorter shortest
showy showier showiest
shrewd shrewder shrewdest
shrill shriller shrillest
shy shyer shyest
sick sicker sickest
sickly sicklier sickliest
sightly sightlier sightliest
silky silkier silkiest
silly sillier silliest
silty siltier siltiest
simple simpler simplest
sincere sincerer sincerest
sketchy sketchier sketchiest
skinny skinnier skinniest
slangy slangier slangiest
slaphappy slaphappier slaphappiest
sleek sleeker sleekest
sleepy sleepier sleepiest
sleety sleetier sleetiest
slender slenderer slenderest
slick slicker slickest
slight slighter slightest
slim slimmer slimmest
slimy slimier slimiest
slippery slipperier slipperiest
sloppy sloppier sloppiest
sloshy sloshier sloshiest
slouchy slouchier slouchiest
slow slower slowest
sludgy sludgier sludgiest
slushy slushier slushiest
sly slier sliest
sly slyer slyest
small smaller smallest
smart smarter smartest
smeary smearier smeariest
smelly smellier smelliest
smoggy smoggier smoggiest
smoky smokier smokiest
smooth smoother smoothest
smudgy smudgier smudgiest
smug smugger smuggest
snaky snakier snakiest
snappy snappier snappiest
snarly snarlier snarliest
sneaky sneakier sneakiest
sneezy sneezier sneeziest
snide snider snidest
snippy snippier snippiest
snobby snobbier snobbiest
snoopy snoopier snoopiest
snooty snootier snootiest
snowy snowier snowiest
snug snugger snuggest
soapy soapier soapiest
sober soberer soberest
soft softer softest
soggy soggier soggiest
solid solider solidest
soon sooner soonest
sooty sootier sootiest
soppy soppier soppiest
sore sorer sorest
sorry sorrier sorriest
sound sounder soundest
soupy soupier soupiest
sour sourer sourest
spare sparer sparest
sparse sparser sparsest
speedy speedier speediest
spicy spicier spiciest
spiffy spiffier spiffiest
spiky spikier spikiest
spindly spindlier spindliest
spiny spinier spiniest
splashy splashier splashiest
splotchy splotchier splotchiest
spongy spongier spongiest
sporty sportier sportiest
spotty spottier spottiest
sprightly sprightlier sprightliest
springy springier springiest
spry sprier spriest
spry spryer spryest
spunky spunkier spunkiest
squabby squabbier squabbiest
square squarer squarest
squashy squashier squashiest
squatty squattier squattiest
squeaky squeakier squeakiest
squirmy squirmier squirmiest
stagy stagier stagiest
staid staider staidest
stale staler stalest
starchy starchier starchiest
stark starker starkest
starry starrier starriest
stately statelier stateliest
steady steadier steadiest
stealthy stealthier stealthiest
steamy steamier steamiest
steely steelier steeliest
steep steeper steepest
stern sterner sternest
sticky stickier stickiest
stiff stiffer stiffest
still stiller stillest
stingy stingier stingiest
stinky stinkier stinkiest
stocky stockier stockiest
stodgy stodgier stodgiest
stony stonier stoniest
stormy stormier stormiest
stout stouter stoutest
straggly stragglier straggliest
straight straighter straightest
strange stranger strangest
streaky streakier streakiest
stretchy stretchier stretchiest
strict stricter strictest
stringy stringier stringiest
strong stronger strongest
stubborn stubborner stubbornest
stubby stubbier stubbiest
stuffy stuffier stuffiest
stumpy stumpier stumpiest
stupid stupider stupidest
sturdy sturdier sturdiest
sudsy sudsier sudsiest
sulky sulkier sulkiest
sultry sultrier sultriest
sunny sunnier sunniest
supple suppler supplest
sure surer surest
surly surlier surliest
svelte svelter sveltest
swampy swampier swampiest
swanky swankier swankiest
swarthy swarthier swarthiest
sweaty sweatier sweatiest
sweet sweeter sweetest
swift swifter swiftest
tacky tackier tackiest
talky talkier talkiest
tall taller tallest
tame tamer tamest
tan tanner tannest
tangy tangier tangiest
tardy tardier tardiest
tart tarter tartest
tasty tastier tastiest
taut tauter tautest
tawdry tawdrier tawdriest
tawny tawnier tawniest
teary tearier teariest
teeny teenier teeniest
tense tenser tensest
terse terser tersest
testy testier testiest
tetchy tetchier tetchiest
thick thicker thickest
thin thinner thinnest
thirsty thirstier thirstiest
thorny thornier thorniest
thready threadier threadiest
thrifty thriftier thriftiest
throaty throatier throatiest
tidy tidier tidiest
tight tighter tightest
tinny tinnier tinniest
tiny tinier tiniest
tipsy tipsier tipsiest
toothy toothier toothiest
touchy touchier touchiest
tough tougher toughest
trendy trendier trendiest
tricky trickier trickiest
true truer truest
trusty trustier trustiest
twangy twangier twangiest
tweedy tweedier tweediest
ugly uglier ugliest
unhealthy unhealthier unhealthiest
unruly unrulier unruliest
vague vaguer vaguest
vile viler vilest
wacky wackier wackiest
wan wanner wannest
warm warmer warmest
wary warier wariest
wavy wavier waviest
waxy waxier waxiest
weak weaker weakest
wealthy wealthier wealthiest
weary wearier weariest
weedy weedier weediest
weepy weepier weepiest
weighty weightier weightiest
weird weirder weirdest
wet wetter wettest
wheezy wheezier wheeziest
whiny whinier whiniest
white whiter whitest
wide wider widest
wild wilder wildest
wily wilier wiliest
windy windier windiest
wintry wintrier wintriest
wiry wirier wiriest
wise wiser wisest
wispy wispier wispiest
witty wittier wittiest
wobbly wobblier wobbliest
woodsy woodsier woodsiest
woody woodier woodiest
woolly woollier woolliest
woozy woozier wooziest
wordy wordier wordiest
worldly worldlier worldliest
wormy wormier wormiest
worthy worthier worthiest
wriggly wrigglier wriggliest
wry wrier wriest
yeasty yeastier yeastiest
young younger youngest
zany zanier zaniest
zippy zippier zippiest

Nombres: Singular y Plural - Nouns: Singular and Plural

Reglas gramaticales

A la mayoria de nombres se les agrega una "s" al final para formar


el plural.
camera / cameras
pen / pens
cup / cups
car / cars

Reglas generales para formar el plural

Palabras que terminan en consonante + y: la "y" cambia a "i" y


aadimos"es"
party - parties
city - cities

Palabras que terminan en vocal + y: aadimos una "s".


boy - boys
toy - toys

Palabras que terminan en SS, S, SH, CH, X, O: aadimos ES


glass - glasses
bus - buses
brush - brushes
watch - watches
box - boxes
tomato - tomatoes

Palabras que terminan en F, FE: cambiamos la F o FE por VES


leaf - leaves
wife - wives

Plurales irregulares

Muchos sustantivos se pluralizan de un modo irregular, existen dos casos:

Caso 1
Cuando el singular y plural no cambian.

fish (pez o pescado) singular


fish (peces o pescados) plural

sheep (oveja) singular


sheep (ovejas) plural

Caso 2

Cuando el plural vara de modo irregular. Por lo tanto, no existe regla la cual
se pueda seguir y hay que aprenderse las formas irregulares de cada uno.

SINGULAR SIGNIFICADO PLURAL SIGNIFICADO


man hombre men hombres
woman mujer women mujeres
child nio children nios
person persona people personas
tooth diente teeth dientes
foot pie feet pies
mouse ratn mice ratones

Expresar cantidades: Contables e Incontables


Express quantities: Countables and Uncountables

Es necesario entender correctamente la diferencia entre incontable y


contable para poder expresar correctamente las cantidades.
Podemos separar los nombres en dos grupos: los incontables y los
contables.

Los contables son aquellos nombres de cosas, gente, etc que nosotros
podemos contar. Por ejemplo nosotros podemos decir: one pencil, two
pencils, three pencils... Entonces decimos que pencil es contable.

chair, book, cat, pen, box, letter ...

Incontable es todo aquello que nosotros no podemos contar. Por ejemplo


nosotros no podemos decir: one rice, two rices, three rices... Entonces
decimos que rice es incontable.
salt, wood, tea, wine, sugar, oxygen, advice, bread, furniture,
hair, information, money, news, spaghetti, weather, rice

Adems muchos nombres pueden ser contables e incontables a la vez


dependiendo de la funcin que desempeen:
Por ejemplo:

There are two lambs. (Hay dos corderos)

We like lamb. (Nos gusta la carne de cordero)

Podemos contar cantidades de cosas incontables usando por ejemplo:


glass, bottle, litre, etc...
ejemplos:
a glass of water
three cartons of milk
a loaf of bread

En esta tabla puedes ver las principales difirencias entre contables


e incontables:

contables incontables
no tienen plural: rice no
tienen plural: egg- eggs
puede ser rices
no podemos usar a o an : no
delante de singular podemos decir a milk. Deben ir
contable podemos usar a o precedidos, si quieren
an : individualizarse, de alguna
an apple palabra con valor partitivo como
a carton of milk.
podemos usar nmeros no podemos usar nmeros
delante de un contable: two delante de un incontable: no
eggs podemos decir two rices
many se usa para nombres
much se usa para nombres
plurales contables
singulares no contables
How many students were
How much milk is in the fridge?
there?
There is too much information.
There are too many people.
Usamos few o a few para
Usamos little o a little para
expresar una idea de
expresar una idea de cantidad
cantidad reducida o media:
reducida o media: little milk o a
few biscuits o a few biscuits
little milk (poca leche o un poco
(pocas galletas o unas
de leche)
cuantas galletas)
El tiempo - Study english: The time

La hora en ingls

Una manera fcil de decir la hora es la de decir los nmeros tal cual:

10.20 ten twenty


2.15 two fifteen
5.45 five forty-five

Para decir las horas en punto podemos decir:

nine o nine o'clock (nueve en punto)


Pero no podemos decir: six-thirty o'clock

Podemos dar la exactitud de la hora diciendo:

11:00
eleven a.m eleven in the morning
eleven p.m eleven at night

Otra manera de decir la hora es la siguiente:

1:00 one o'clock


3:10 ten past three
4:15 a quarter past four
5:30 half past five
8:35 twenty-five to nine
9:45 a quarter to ten

Diferencias entre ingls britnico e ingls americano

* a quarter past (UK) y cuarto // a quarter after (US) y cuarto


* a half past (UK) y media // thirty (US) y media

Preguntar y decir la hora

What time is it? What's the time? (Qu hora es?)


It's ... (Es la... Son las...)
(At) What time ... ? (A qu hora ... ?)
It's about ... (Son aproximadamente las ... )

En el ingls americano no se suele utilizar la expresin half past (y


media). En su lugar tratan a la hora como si fuese digital. En cambio s
utilizan a quarter past (y cuarto) y a quarter to (menos cuarto).

No se utiliza oralmente el reloj de 24 horas excepto para el caso de


horarios de aviones o trenes. Entonces para decir que son las 4:00 podemos
decir four o'clock in the morning. Para decir 16:30 se dira half past four in
the afternoon.

Para diferenciar la maana de la tarde se emplea am y pm.

eleven a.m eleven in the morning (por la maana)


eleven p.m eleven at night (por la noche)

Los nmeros cardinales - The cardinal numbers

Del 1 al 12:
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve.

Del 13 al 19:
La terminacin es -teen que suena como <tin>
thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen.

20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90:


La terminacin es -ty y suena como <ti>
twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety

Para formar decenas:


Se aade un guin despus de la decenas y el nmero:
twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three... (veintiuno, veintids, veintitrs....)
forty-one, fifty-two, ninety-eight... (cuarenta y uno, cincuenta y dos,
noventa y ocho...)

Para formar centenas:


a/one hundred, two hundred .... (cien, doscientos...)

Para unir las centenas con las decenas:


Se unirn con el and.
two hundred and fifty-five... ( doscientos cincuenta y cinco)

Para los millares:


a/one thousand, two thousand... (mil, dos mil...)

Para los millones:


a/one million, two million... (un milln, dos millones...)

Ejemplos:
a / one hundred and two (102)
three hundred and twelve (312)
five thousand and ten (5,010)
two million five hundred thousand (2,500,000)
six thousand two hundred and seventy - nine ( 6,279)
two thousand two hundred and twenty -two (2,222)
three thousand three hundred and thirty -three (3,333)

NMEROS CARDINALES

1
one
2
two
3
three
4
four
5
five
6
six
7
seven
8
eight
9
nine
10
ten
11
eleven
12
twelve
13
thirteen
14
fourteen
15
fifteen
16
sixteen
17
seventeen
18
eighteen
19
nineteen
20
twenty
21
twenty-one
22
twenty-two
30
thirty
40
forty
50
fifty
60
sixty
70
seventy
80
eighty
90
ninety
100
a/one hundred

101 a/one hundred


and one
200
two hundred
1,000
a/one thousand
10,000
ten thousand

100,000 a/one hundred


thousand

1,000,000 a/one million


Pronombres I /Tabla de pronombres en ingls

Pronombres personales
Ejemplo Traduccin ejemplo
(funcin de sujeto)
I yo I am ill. Yo estoy enfermo.
You t You are hungry. T ests hambriento.
He l He is handsome. l es guapo.
She ella She is pretty. Ella es guapa
It ello (neutro) It's cold today. Hoy hace fro.
Nosotros estamos
We nosotros We are tired.
cansados.
Vosotros estis
You vosotros You are angry.
enfadados.
They are at the
They ellos, ellas Ellos estn en el cine.
cinema.
Pronombres personales
Ejemplo Traduccin ejemplo
(funcin de objeto)
Me m I want it for me. Lo quiero para m.
You a t, a usted I 'm helping you. Te estoy ayudando.
Him a l Can you see him? Le puedes ver?
Her a ella Give it to her. Dselo a ella.
It a ello Give it a kick. Dale una patada.
Us a nosotros He is helping us. l nos est ayudando.
You a vosotros I saw you. Os vi.
Them a ellos I 'm waiting for them. Los estoy esperando.
Pronombres posesivos
(en funcin de artculo del Ejemplo Traduccin ejemplo
sujeto)
My mi, mis This is my blouse. Esta es mi blusa.
Your tu, tus This is your tie. Esta es tu corbata.
His su, sus (de l) This is his wardrobe. Este es su armario.
Her su, sus (de ella) This is her dress. Este es su vestido.
This is its Esta es su
Its su, sus
temperature. temperatura.
nuestro/a These are our Estas son nuestras
Our
nuestros/as suitcases. maletas.
vuestro/a, Estos son vuestros
Your These are your seats.
vuestros/as asientos.
Their su, sus (de ellos) Here are their socks. Aqu estn sus
calcetines.
Pronombres posesivos
Ejemplo Traduccin ejemplo
(en funcin de pronombre)
Mine mio/s, ma/s This coat is mine. Este abrigo es mio.
My name is Tony. Mi nombre es Toni.
Yours tuyo/s, tuya/s
What's yours? Cul es el tuyo?
suyo/s, suya/s Este ordenador es de
His This computer is his.
(de el) el.
suyo/s, suya/s El bolso azul es de
Hers The blue bag is hers.
(de ella) ella.

nuestro/s, The suitcases are Las maletas son


Ours
nuestra/s ours. nuestras.
vuestro/a, The handicap is La desventaja es
Yours
vuestros/as yours. vuestra.
suyo/a, suyos/as
Theirs This is theirs. Esto es de ellos.
(de ellos)
Pronombres reflexivos Ejemplo Traduccin ejemplo
Myself yo mismo, a mi I saw it for myself. Yo mismo lo v.
Yourself t mismo, a ti Don't burn yourself ! No te quemes!
l mismo, a si
Himself He hurt himself. Se hizo dao.
mismo
ella misma, a si
Herself She did it herself. Lo hizo ella misma.
misma
l mismo, as The cat scratched
Itself El gato se rasc.
mismo itself.
We are enjoying Estamos disfrutando
Ourselves nosotros mismos
ourselves. nosotros mismos.
Did you paint the Pintsteis la casa
Yourselves vosotros mismos
house yourselves? vosotros mismos?
They were speaking to Ellos hablaban consigo
Themselves ellos mismos
themselves. mismos.
Otras formas de pronombres
Existe la forma "each other" que no es reflexiva sino que es una forma
recproca. A diferencia del reflexivo, tenemos dos sujetos diferentes que hablan
el uno al otro, se miran el uno al otro, etc...
Nunca puede haber ms de dos personas.
Ejemplo: John and Peter spoke to each other on the trip.
(John y Peter se hablaron durante el viaje)
En Ingls no existe la forma usted, ustedes formal. Por lo tanto los
nativos de la lengua ni siquiera lo tienen conceptualizado como una forma
aqu llamada formal. Se tiene que entender entonces que la forma
masculina, femenina y neutra son lo mismo, lo nico que les diferencia es el
genero.

www.blenglish.com
El verbo to get

receive (recibir)
get a birthday
present (coger o
become, catch
(volverse) (recibir un regalo agarrar)
be
de cumpleaos) coger un
get dark anochecer get a cold
get drunk emborracharse get a prize for resfriado
get coger el
the best... get a bus
vestirse autobus
dressed (recibir un
get get by the coger por
casarse premio por el...)
married arm el brazo
get a phone call
get
deprimirse (recibir una
depressed
llamada
telefnica)

obtain (obtener,
<buy> conseguir)
begin (empezar)
get comprar
empezar a
get to know something algo para
conocer
significados to eat comer
empezar a
get to like del verbo conseguir
gustar get a job
Let's get vamos a GET (I) un trabajo
get the conseguir
going! empezar!
best las mejores
marks notas

fetch (traer) arrive (llegar)


get llegar a prepare (preparar)
trame el can I give te preparo
get my coat home casa
abrigo you a algo de
get the llama a la she'll
get llegar a drink? beber?
police! policia! to give preparar la
trame la here at las cinco
get the ball lunch comida
pelota five
PHRASAL VERBS

break down parar de trabajar (mquina o vehculo)


break (something)
destruir algo, tirar abajo (ej.pared)
down
bring (someone) up criar y educar a un nio
carry on seguir haciendo algo
close something down cerrar o terminar una actividad
cut down tirar abajo (al suelo, ej. un rbol)
fall out with
pelearse o discutir con alguin
(someone)
get (something)
comunicar una idea
across
get away with estar a punto de ser castigado
get by sobrevivir
get down to
empezar a hacer algo seriosamente
(something)
get on (with someone) llevarse bien con alguin
get out tener tiempo libre despus del trabajo
recuperarse de una mala experiencia o
get over
enfermedad
give back devolver
give in (to someone) estar deacuerdo on alguin
go on continuar haciendo algo
go down caer, bajar ( los precios)
grow up crecer, llegar a hacerse adulto
hold on esperar
keep on continuar haciendo algo
look out prestar atencin, tener cuidado
look up (something) buscar informacin
look up to (someone) admirar a alguin
make (something) up inventar algo
make (time) up recuperar tiempo
make up (with
empezar a ser amigos otra vez
someone)
pick on (someone) criticar duramente o fastidiar
put (money) by ahorrar dinero
put (someone)down denigrar, ensuciar la honra de alguin
put (something) off posponer,retrasar algo
put (someone)
transmitir, conectar por telfono
through
put (someone) up dar alojamiento a alguin
put (price) up incrementar (precios)
slow down reducir la velocidad
speak up hablar alto, subir la voz
parecerse o tener el mismo carcter de
take after
alguin
take down apuntar, tomar nota
take off despegar
take (something) over encargarse de algo o tomar el control
take up ocupar, empezar una aficin
tell (someone) off regaar a alguin
throw out (someone) echar a alguin de tu casa
watch out tener cuidado
El abecedario - The alphabet

Abecedario (pronunciacin figurada)

A (i) B (bi) C (si)


D (di) E (i) F (ef)
G (gi) H (eich) I (ai)
J (jei) K (kei) L (el)
M (em) N (en) O (ou)
P (pi) Q (kiu) R (ar)
S (es) T (ti) U (yu)
V (vi) W (dobliu) X (ecs)
Y (ui)
Z (sed)
Gramtica inglesa- English Grammar
Los verbos compuestos
Phrasal Verbs (Verbos frasales) - Prepositional verbs (Verbos
preposicionales)

Prepositinal verbs y Phrasal Verbs

En ingls hay muchos verbos que constan de dos partes: el verbo + una
preposicin o partcula adverbial.

Los prepositional verbs (verbos preposicionales) constan de un verbo ms


una preposicin. La preposicin siempre va detrs del objeto y en las
oraciones interrogativas suelen posicionarse al final.

I'm waiting for you


Who are you waiting for?

Los phrasal verbs (verbos frasales) constan de dos partes: el propio verbo
ms una partcula adverbial.

Muchas veces un phrasal verb tiene el mismo significado que un verbo


normal. En este caso utilizaremos los phrasal verbs para hablar de una
manera ms informal.
find out = discover = descubrir

La diferencia entre preposicin y partcula adverbial

La diferencia entre una preposicin y una partcula adverbial es que la preposicin


est unida a un sustantivo o pronombre y una partcula adverbial forma parte y
depende solo del verbo.

Veamos la diferencia con el ejemplo live down que puede actuar como verbo
preposicional y tambin como verbo adverbial.

a) preposicional: He lives down the street


b) adverbial: I lived down that incident.

a) En este caso, down es una preposicin. ( l vive abajo de la calle.)


b) En este caso, down es una partcula adverbial que va unida y depende
directamente del verbo. (Consegu olvidar ese accidente)

Tipos de Phrasal Verbs

Los verbos compuestos pueden ser transitivos o intransitivos, segn lleven o no un


complemento objeto directo en forma de sintagma nominal. De ello depender el orden
de la frase.
Haremos una clasificacin segn lo anterior mencionado:

VERBO + PREPOSICIN + COMPLEMENTO DIRECTO


transitivo (que lleva complemento directo)
1: La preposicin va entre en verbo y el complemento directo
Looking at him you'd never guess he is a policeman.
VERBO + PARTCULA ADVERBIAL + COMPLEMENTO DIRECTO
transitivo (que lleva complemento directo)
1: Si el complemento es un sustantivo, la partcula adverbial podr ir detrs
del verbo o detrs del complemento
look (something) up: consultar algo -en un libro-
He looked up the word - He looked the word up
2: Si el complemento es un pronombre, la partcula ir siempre detrs.
cheer (somebody) up: animar a alguien
I wanted to get him something to cheer him up.

VERBO + PARTCULA ADVERBIAL


intransitivo (que no lleva complemento directo)
1: En estos la partcula va colocada inmediatamente despus del verbo.
The machine has broken down

VERBO +PARTCULA ADVERBIAL+ PREPOSICIN


+ COMPLEMENTO DIRECTO
transitivo (que lleva complemento directo)
1: Contienen dos partculas, la primera partcula funciona como adverbio y
la segunda como preposicin. No se admite la colocacin de un
componente entre las partculas.
He ran away from the police.
She came in for dinner.

Formas Cortas - Formas Contractas - Short Forms

Algunas conjugaciones pueden contraerse cuando van detrs de


pronombres como I, you, he...

I am --> I'm

Tambin las podemos usar detrs de nombres.

Susan has had a baby --> Susan's had a baby

Las formas cortas se utilizan en el lenguage coloquial y en cartas informales.


Verbo Forma corta

am (presente verbo to be) I'm

are (presente verbo to be) you're, we're, you're, they're

is (presente verbo to be) he's, she's, it's

has (presente verbo to have) he's, she's, it's

have (presente verbo to have) I've, you've, we've, they've

had (pasado verbo to have) I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, they'd

would (condicional) I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, they'd

I'll, you'll, he'll, she'll, it'll, we'll, you'll,


will (futuro)
they'll

shall (futuro) I'll, we'll

Hacemos formas cortas con los pronombres interrogativos.

Verbo Forma corta

is (presente verbo to be) what's, who's, when's, how's...

had (pasado verbo to have) who'd

would (condicional) who'd

will (futuro) what'll, who'll

Podemos hacer formas cortas con here, there y that.

Forma larga Forma corta

here is here's

there is / there will there's / there'll

that is / that will that's / that'll

Tambin podemos hacer la forma corta de algunos verbos en negativo.

Verbo Forma larga negativa Forma corta negativa

is
is not isn't
(presente verbo to be)
are (presente verbo to
are not aren't
be)

do (presente verbo to
do not don't
do)

does (presente verbo to


does not doesn't
do)

did (pasado verbo to do) did not didn't

has (presente verbo to


has not hasn't
have)

have (presente verbo to


have not haven't
have)

had (pasado verbo to


had not hadn't
have)

would, can, must, need, would not, can not, must wouldn't, can't, mustn't,
should... not... needn't, shouldn't...

will (futuro) will not won't

shall (futuro) shall not shan't

False friends: Palabras en ingls que tienen parecido lxico pero un significado
diferente y nos pueden confundir.

traduccin error de en ingls


ingls
correcta traduccin sera...

actually realmente actualmente nowadays

abuse insultos abuso imposition

actual verdadero, real actual present

anticipation esperanza anticipacin advance

apparition fantasma aparicin appearance

arena estadio arena sand

carpet alfombra carpeta file

calve parir calvo bald

cart carro carta letter

code cdigo codo elbow


design diseo designar to designate

dude petimetre duda doubt

emergent en vas de desarrollo emergente resultant

editor redactor (jefe) editor publishing

floor piso, suelo flor flower

fracas ria, alboroto fracaso failure

fume humo fumar to smoke

gala fiesta, de fiesta gala full dress

grass hierba grasa grease

habit costumbre habitar to occupy

introduce presentar introducir to bring in

invidious odioso envidioso envious

lute lad luto mourning

discurso,
lecture lectura reading
debate

mar estropear mar sea

mayor alcalde mayor main

notice aviso noticia new

notify avisar notificacin notification

official agente oficial officer

pale plido pala spade

bragas,
panties panties, medias tights
calzones

quiet reservado quieto still

quote citar cuota quota

darse cuenta
realize realizar to achieve
de

record registro recordar to remember

rice arroz rizo curly


spade pala espada sword

sale venta sala living

scenery paisaje escenario stage

sensible sensato sensible sensitive

tape cinta tapa lid, cover

topic tema tpico local

united unido unidad unit

viva examen oral viva hurrah

Vocabulario ingls-espaol organizado por temas


Colores Objetos Personas
El hogar La ciudad La familia
Saludos El cuerpo Personalidad
La cabeza La identidad Viajar al extranjero
Las nacionalidades El aspecto fsico El hospital
En el hotel Previsin Tiempo

Los colores

Ingls Espaol
black titGrisN
blue azul
brown marrn
green verde
grey gris
navy azul marino
orange naranja
pink rosa
purple violeta / morado
red rojo
white linkBlanco
yellow amarillo
El hogar

Ingls Espaol
accomodation alojamiento
apartment piso / apartamento
bedsit habitacin amueblada (uk)
studio apartment habitacin amueblada (usa)
block of flats bloque de apartamentos (uk)
bloque de apartamentos
aparment building
(usa)
building edificio
bungalow casa de una planta
converted reformado
cottage casa de campo
dwelling vivienda / lugar de residencia
farmhouse granja
first floor primer piso (uk)
ground floor primer piso (usa)
second floor primer piso (usa)
furnished amueblado
home casa / hogar
house casa
lodgings alojamiento / albergue
luxury de lujo
mansion mansin
modernized modernizado
property propiedad
tenement bloque de viviendas
tower block bloque (de pisos)
unfurnished sin amueblar

Saludos, despedidas y presentaciones

Buenos das
Good morning

Buenas tardes
Good afternoon

Buenas noches
Good evening

Buenas noches
Good night

Adios!
Bye, Good bye

Hasta luego!
See you later!

Hasta pronto!
See you (soon)!

Hasta maana!
See you tomorrow!

Hola!
Hi! Hello!
(tambin en ingls americano: howdy! hiya!)

Cmo ests?
How are you?

Qu tal?
How are things?

Qu tal?
How are you getting on?

Bien, gracias
Fine, thanks

A qu te dedicas?
What do you do?

Cmo te llamas?
What's your name?
Puedo presentarme?
May I introduce myself?

Quisiera que conociese a...


I'd like you to meet...

Le presento a ...
Let me introduce you to ...

Encantado, Mucho gusto.


Nice / pleased to meet you.

Mucho gusto! / Cmo les va?


How do you do?

Cmo est tu familia?


How's your family?

Tu familia est bien?


Is your family well?

Saldalos en mi nombre.
Give them my kindest regards.

Buena suerte!
All the best!

Estoy a tu disposicin.
I am at your disposal.

Recuerdos a todos.
Kind regards to everybody.

Recuerdos! / Mis mejores deseos!


Best wishes!

Partes de la cabeza
Ingls Espaol
cheek mejilla
chin barbilla
ear oreja
eye ojo
eyebrow ceja
eyelash pestaa
eyelid prpado
face cara
forehead frente
hair pelo
jaw mandbula
lip labio
mouth boca
neck cuello
nose nariz
skull crrneo
teeth dientes
tongue lengua
throat garganta
tooth diente
Vocabulario: Nacionalidades

Country Pas Nationality


Algeria Argelia Algerian
Argentina Argentina Argentinian
Australia Australia Australian
Austria Austria Austrian
Belgium Blgica Belgian
Brazil Brasil Brazilian
Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgarian
Canada Canad Canadian
Chile Chile Chilean
China China Chinese
Czechoslovakia Checoslovaquia Czechoslovakian
Denmark Dinamarca Danish
Egypt Egipto Egyptian
England Inglaterra English
Finland Finlandia Finnish
France Francia French
Germany Alemania German
Great Britain Gran Bretaa British
Greece Grecia Greek
Holland Holanda Dutch
Netherlands Pases Bajos Dutch
Hungary Hungra Hungarian
India India Indian
Iran Irn Iranian
Iraq Iraq Iraqui
Ireland Irlanda Irish
Israel Israel Israeli
Italy Italia Italian
Japan Japn Japanese
Lebanon Lbano Lebanese
Luxemburg Luxemburgo Luxemburger
Mexico Mxico Mexican
Morocco Marruecos Moroccan
New Zealand Nueva Zelanda New Zealander
Northern Ireland Irlanda del Norte Northern Irish
Norway Noruega Norwegian
Pakistan Pakistn Pakistani
Peru Per Peruvian
Poland Polonia Polish
Portugal Portugal Portuguese
Romania Rumania Romanian
Russia Rusia Russian
Saudi Arabia Arabia Saud Saudi
Scotland Escocia Scottish
South Africa Sudfrica South African
Spain Espaa Spanish
Sweden Suecia Swedish
Switzerland Suiza Swiss
Turkey Turqua Turkish
United Kingdom Reino Unido British
United States of Estados Unidos de
American
America America
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Yugoslavian
Vocabulario: En el hotel

Frases:
Ingls
What's the daily (weekly) rate?
What time do I have to check out?
I would like a single (double) room
Is it a good hotel?
My room key please
Is it necessary to make a reservation?
What did he have to pay for?
At what time is dinner served?
Charge it to my bill
Please, send for a taxi
How long will you remain?
Serve my breakfast in my room, please
I have booked a room
Is there any letter for me?

Vocabulario
Ingls Espaol
porter portero
waiter camarero
bath room cuarto de bao
key llave
breakfast desayuno
dinner comida
supper cena
menu carta
luggage equipaje
valet botones
bill cuenta
room number habitacin nmero
Forma y tamao de los objetos

Ingls Espaol
big grande
circle crculo
curved curvo
deep profundo
enormous enorme
flat plano
giant gigante
gigantic gigantesco
high alto
huge inmenso
large grande
little pequeo
long largo
low bajo
massive enorme
medium mediano
narrow estrecho
oval ovalado
pointed puntiagudo
rectangle rectngulo
round redondo
shape forma
short corto
tamao /
size
talla
small pequeo
square cuadrado
straight recto
tall alto
grueso /
thick
gordo
delgado /
thin
fino
tiny diminuto
triangle tringulo
wide ancho

La ciudad

Ingls Espaol
area zona / rea
avenue avenida
bridge puente
building edificio
building site obra
busy concurrido
castle castillo
cementery cementerio
centre centro
church iglesia
city ciudad
corner esquina
district distrito / barrio
fountain fuente
graffiti pintadas
the high street la calle principal (uk)
main street la calle principal (usa)
inhabitant habitante
kerb bordillo
lamppost farola
lane carril / camino
neighbour vecino / vecina
park parque
pavement acera (uk)
sidewalk acera (usa)
residential residencial
road carretera
shopping centre centro comercial
side street callejn / pasaje
slums barrio bajo
square plaza
statue estatua
street calle
street light farola
tower torre
town hall ayuntamiento
traffic trfico
village pueblo

Las partes del cuerpo

Ingls Espaol
ankle tobillo
arm brazo
back espalda
bone hueso
bottom trasero
breast pecho (de mujer)
calf pantorrilla
chest pecho
elbow codo
figure tipo / figura
finger dedo (de la mano)
fist puo
flesh carne
foot pie
feet pies
genitals genitales
hand mano
heel taln
hip cadera
joint articulacin
knee rodilla
knuckle nudillo
leg pierna
limb extremidad
muscle msculo
nail ua
nerve nervio
nipple pezn
rib costilla
shoulder hombro
side costado
skin piel
spine columna vertebral
thigh muslo
thumb dedo pulgar
toe dedo (del pie)
vein vena
waist cintura
wrist mueca
Vocabulario: La identidad de las personas

Ingls Espaol

address direccin

age edad

birthday cumpleaos

to be called llamarse
Christian name nombre de pila

divorced divorciado

family name apellido

female mujer, hembra

forename nombre de pila

gender sexo

initials iniciales

male hombre, varn

marital status estado civil

married casado

Miss seorita

Mr sr. (seor)

Mrs sra. (seora)

Ms sra/srta (seora,seorita)

name nombre

nationality nacionalidad

place of birth lugar de nacimiento

postcode cdigo postal

separated separado

sex sexo

single soltero

surname apellido

telephone number nmero de telfono

unmarried soltero

widow viuda

widower viudo

Vocabulario: El aspecto fsico

Ingls Espaol
appearance aspecto
attractive atractivo
bald calvo
beard barba
beautiful precioso
blond rubio
complexion tez, cutis
dark moreno
fat gordo
freckles pecas
good-looking guapo
hair pelo
handsome guapo
moustache bigote
old viejo
pretty bonito
short bajo
skinny flaco, delgaducho
skin piel
slim delgado, esbelto
tall alto
thin delgado
ugly feo
wrinkle arruga
Weather Forecast - Previsin del Tiempo
Rain showers in the morning with thunderstorms developing
by the afternoon.
Thunderstorms early, mainly cloudy overnight with a few
showers.
Intervals of clouds and sunshine.
Windy with strong thunderstorms.
Damaging winds with some storms.
A storm system will spread heavy rain and gusty winds into
the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast.
Cloudy with periods of rain.
Partly cloudy skies in the morning will give way to cloudy
skies during the afternoon.
Times of sun and clouds.
A few showers early turning to a steady rain by the afternoon
with a few thunderstorms possible.

Vocabulario
Ingls Espaol
Atmosphere Atmsfera
Breeze Brisa
Bright Despejado
Cloud Nube
Cloudy Nuboso-Nublado
Cool Fresco
Cyclone Cicln
Damp Hmedo
Dry Seco
Freeze Helada
Fog Niebla
Mist Neblina
Frost Escarcha
Hail Granizo
Heat Calor
Heat wave Ola de calor
Humidity Humedad
Hurricane Huracn
Lightning Relmpago
Temperate Templado
Rain Lluvia
Rainbow Arco iris
Shower Chubasco
Snow Nieve
Snowy Nevado
Snowfall Nevada
Sunny Soleado
Thunder Trueno
Thunderbolt Rayo
Thunderstorm Tormenta
Typhoon Tifn
Wind Viento
Windy Ventoso

Frases
Ingls Espaol
It's raining Est lloviendo
It's cold Hace fro
It's sunny Hace sol
It's hot Hace calor
Las personas

Ingls Espaol
adolescent adolescente
adult adulto
baby beb
boy chico
chap to
child nio/a
fellow colega
gentleman seor, caballero
girl chica
grown-up adulto
individual individuo
lady seora
man hombre
middle-aged de mediana edad
old viejo
people gente
person persona
teenager adolescente
nio que empieza a
toddler
andar
woman mujer
young joven
youth adolescente

La familia

Ingls Espaol
adopted adoptado
aunt ta
brother hermano
cousin primo/a
dad pap
daughter hija
daughter-in-law nuera
elder el/la mayor
family familia
father padre
father-in-law suegro
foster parents familia de acogida
godfather padrino
godmother madrina
grandchild nieto/a
grandchildren nietos
granddad abuelito
granddaughter nieta
grandfather abuelo
grandma abuelita
grandmother abuela
grandpa abuelito
grandparents abuelos
grandson nieto
great-grandfather bisabuelo
great-grandmother bisabuela
husband marido
mother madre
mother-in-law suegra
mum mam
nephew sobrino
niece sobrina
older mayor
only child hijo/a nico/a
orphan hurfano
parents padres
single parent padre/madre soltero
sister hermana
son hijo
son-in-law yerno
stepdaughter hijastra
stepfather padrastro
stepmother madrastra
stepson hijastro
twins gemelos
uncle to
wife esposa

Personalidad

Ingls Espaol

absent-minded distrado
ambitious ambicioso
amusing divertido
anxious preocupado / inquieto
arrogant arrogante
bad malo
bad-tempered de mal genio
brave valiente
calm tranquilo
character carcter
charming encantador
cheerful alegre
clever listo
engredo / credo /
conceited
vanidoso
crazy loco
cruel cruel
decisive decisivo
enthusiastic entusiasta
friendly amable
funny divertido
generous generoso
gentle tierno / dulce
good-natured afable / bonachn
intelligent inteligente
kind amable
lazy perezoso
mean mezquino / agarrado
modest modesto
nasty sucio / obsceno
naughty travieso / pcaro
nervous nervioso
nice simptico
optimistic optimista
pessimistic pesimista
polite educado
quiet tranquilo
rude maleducado / grosero
self-confident seguro de s mismo
sensible sensato
sensitive sensible
serious serio
shy tmido
silly tonto
stupid estpido
sweet amable / dulce
well-behaved de buen comportamiento
wicked malvado / malo

FRASES Y VOCABULARIO TIL INGLS-ESPAOL


PARA VIAJAR AL EXTRANJERO

Asking for information

Could you tell me the way to the station?


Podra decirme el camino para ir a la estacin

Which way is the Eiffel tower from here?


Cmo se va a la torre Eiffel desde aqu?

Could you tell me where is the Museum?


Podra decirme dnde est el museo?

Where is the nearest bus-stop?


Dnde est la parada de bus ms cercana?

Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to Round Street, please?
Disculpe, podra decirme cmo llegar a Round Street, por favor?
Directions

turn right / go right: girar a la derecha


turn left : girar a la izquierda
take the first left / take the first on your left: girar la primera a la izquierda
take the second left: girar la segunda a la izquierda
go straight on / carry on / walk along there: seguir recto, caminar recto

Which way do we go?


Por dnde tenemos que ir?

Turn right out of the hotel and carry straight on for about 150 metres.
Salga del hotel y gire a la derecha y siga recto unos 150 metros.

Then you come to a roundabout. Take the first exit.


Entonces entrar en una rotonda. Tome la primera salida.

Then you walk along there for about another 200 metres and then you'll find the
station.
Entonces siga recto alrededor de otros 200 metros y encontrar la estacin.

At the airport

airhostess (uk) / air stewardess (us): azafata


boarding card /pass: tarjeta de embarque
check-in: facturacin (del equipaje)
departure lounge: sala de embarque
to land: aterrizar
to take off: despegar

Could I have your ticket, please?


Podra darme su billete, por favor?

Do you have any baggage?


Tiene equipaje?

Yes, this suitcase and this briefcase.


Si, esta maleta y este maletin

Here's your boarding pass. Have a nice flight.


Aqu tiene su tarjeta de embarque. Que tenga un buen vuelo.

Good morning. Can I see your passport?


Buenos das. Puedo ver su pasaporte?

Are you a tourist or on business?


Viaja como turista o va de negocios?

Which boarding gate must we go to?


A qu puerta de embarque tenemos que ir?

At what time does our plane take off?


A qu hora despega nuestro avin?

The plane is delayed.


El avin est demorado

At the hotel

to check in: registrarse


to check out: pagar e irse del hotel
full board: pensin completa
half board: media pensin
single /double bed: cama individual / doble
single / double room: habitacin individual / doble
to book a room: reservar una habitacin
no vacancies: completo
vacancies: habitaciones libres

I'd like a room for the night.


Quisiera una habitacin para la noche

Would you like a single room, or a double room?


Quiere una habitacin individual o doble?
How much is the room?
Cunto cuesta la habitacin?

Here's your key. Your room number is 101.


Aqu est su llave. Su habitacin es la 101.

If you need anything, dial 0 for the reception area.


Si necesita cualquier cosa, marque el 0 para contactar con recepcin

At the shop

discount: descuento
cut-price: de oferta
bargain: ocasin, ganga
cash desk / checkout: caja
reduction: descuento
shop assistant (uk) / salesperson (us): dependiente/a
to wrap up: envolver
receipt: recibo

How would you like to pay?


Cmo quiere pagar?

Do you take credit cards?


Aceptan tarjetas de crdito?

What's its price?


Qu precio tiene?

I'll try it on.


Me lo probar.

How much is altogether?


Cunto es todo?

At the restaurant

Dish of the day: plato del da


House wine: vino de la casa
Set meat: men del da
Dessert: postre
Lunch: almuerzo, comida
Starter: primer plato, entrante
Main course / dish: segundo plato, plato principal
Meal: comida
Side dish: acompaamiento
Rare / Medium / well-done: poco hecho / al punto / muy hecho

Can I see a menu, please?


Puedo ver el men, por favor?

What's today's special?


Cul es el plato especial de hoy?

Would you like something to drink?


Quiere algo de beber?

Yes, I'd like a coke.


Si, quisiera una coca cola

I'd like the check (bill <uk>), please.


Quisiera la cuenta, por favor

Waiter, the bill, please.


Camarero, traiga la cuenta por favor.

Means of transportation

Cab, taxi: taxi


Taxi rank, Cab rank (us): parada de taxis
Bus: autobs
Bus-station: estacin de autobuses
Bus-stop: parada de autobs
Tube, Underground (uk), Subway (us): metro
Railway station (uk), railroad station (us): estacin de ferrocarril
Luggage rack: portaequipajes
Are you free?
Est libre?

Take me to the station.


Llveme a la estacin

What is the fare?


Cunto es el trayecto?

How much is one card?


Cunto cuesta una tarjeta?

Could you tell me when we get there?


Me podra avisar cuando lleguemos?

Where does this bus go to?


A dnde va este autobs?

Vocabulario: EL HOSPITAL

FRASES
Ingls
Call a doctor, please
Where does it hurt?
I have a pain here
I have a temperature
I am allergic
Take one of these pills every four hours
Breathe, exhale, put out your tongue...
Have you ever been to the Emergency Ward?
What do doctors do in the hospital?
Which ward is he in?
Is it serious, doctor?
They operated on his leg to save it.
I had a general anaesthetic.
The doctors visit the patients very often.
The doctor takes the temperature of the patient.
Nurses are very busy during the night.

Vocabulario
Ingls Espaol
anesthetic anestesia
ambulance ambulancia
blood transfusion transfusin de sangre
crutch muleta
doctor doctor / mdico
nurse enfermera
operation operacin
surgeon cirujano
patient paciente
surgery ciruja
stretcher camilla
prescription receta mdica
pain killer calmante
wound herida
temperature fiebre
shivers escalofros
Ejercicios y Actividades en ingls
Test de nivel Verbos irregulares
Traducir: pretrito perfecto Traducir: pretrito perfecto continuo
Ejercicios con canciones Correccin de errores: tema varios
Ordenar frases: presente Ordenar frases: temas varios
Clasificar for/since Clasificar: contable/incontable
Traduccin: cantidades Vocabulario: animales
Test: El tiempo Test: Los plurales
Test: vocabulario personalidad Traduccin: pluscuamperfecto
Who y what Traduccin: pron. interrogativos
Memorizar phrasal verbs Test preposiciones
Test: Las conjunciones Test: El gerundio
Test: phrasal verb Traduccin: there be
Test sobre la alimentacin Ejercicio: Definiciones verbos
Ordenar frases: tema adjetivos Ejercicio: Traduccin frases similares
What or Which? Test: Comparativos y Superlativos

TEST DE NIVEL INGLS

El siguiente test determinar aproximadamente tu nivel gramatical en


el idioma ingls.
Completa las 30 cuestiones seleccionando una de las tres opciones
posibles.
Al final del ejericio haz clic en el botn "Resultado" y obtendrs la
correccin del ejercicio

1. Where ___ he from?


is

are

am

2. She ___ a bath now.

is having

has

having

3. ___ the disc put into the disc-drive?

Is

Are

It is

4. The train left __ time.

in

on

at

5. Diana ___ to Italy a week ago.

goes

went

go

6. We hate ____.

wait
waits

waiting

7. Ok, I think ___ come with you.

I 'll

I'm going

8. She types a lot _______ than you.

much quickly

quickly

more quickly

9. We have ___ milk, but we don't have ___ eggs.

some / any

some /some

any / some

10. ___ he working yesterday?

Was

Were

Are

11. I ______ a novel when he knocked at the door.

read

have read

was reading
12. This isn't Laura's bag. ____ is ____.

Hers / bigger

Her / bigger

Hers / biger

13. We've decided ______ married in the summer.

to get

getting

got

14. The burglar ____ her flat.

broke

broke into

broke in

15. I only have _____ potatoes.

a few

a little

little

16. China has____ biggest population in the world.

the

so

17. Last year there ____ people from all over the world.

were
was

are

18. After she ____ the coffee, she sat down.

make

has made

had made

19. I've ____ made some coffe. It's in the kitchen.

yet

just

ever

20. I think it would be a good idea ____ the conference in


Spain this year.

to hold

hold

holding

21. That lovely old house ____ have been pulled down.

shouldn't

mustn't

wouldn't

22. I'm very angry because _________ since 6.30 .

I wait

I have waited

I have been waiting


23. If ____ I will get wet.

rains

it rains

rain

24. At this time tomorrow ______ over the Atlantic.

we flying

we'll be flying

we'll fly

25. My parents _____ meet us at the airport tonight.

go to

will be to

are going to

26. ____ the period of the guarantee all repairs to the system are free.

along

while

during

27. Which team ____ the game?

did it win

won

did they win

28. For a period of two years from installation, the control system ____ by
a full guarantee.
will cover

are covered

is covered

29. We don't believe what Peter told us about Mary. We think ________.

He is making it

He is making it up

He is making it on

30. This book is worth ________.

reading

to read

read

Ejercicios: Traducir frases


Tiempos Verbales
Tema: Present Perfect

Traduce las siguientes frases al ingls:


Escribe en las cajas de texto, al final del ejercicio
encontrars las respuestas.

1. Ellos se han trasladado a un nuevo apartamento.

2. l me dijo su nombre pero lo he olvidado.

3. Dnde est mi llave? La he perdido.

4. Quieres comer alguna cosa? No gracias, acabo de comer.

5. No olvides enviar la carta! - La acabo de enviar.


6. No la he enviado todava.

7. Ha parado ya de llover?

8. Has estado alguna vez en China?

9. Tengo este coche desde 1991.

10. Nosotros no hemos tenido problemas hasta ahora.

Traduccin:

1. They have moved into a new apartment.


2. He told me his name but I've forgotten it.
3. Where is my key? I've lost it
4. Would you like to eat something? No, thanks. I've just had lunch.
5. Don't forget to post the letter! - I've already posted it.
6. I haven't posted it yet.
7. Has it stopped raining yet?
8. Have you ever been to China?
9. I've had this car since 1991.
10. We haven't had any problems so far.
Letras de canciones
Elton John - Your song
Elton John - Blue eyes
Elton John - Don't let the sun go down
on me
My heart will go on - Celine Dion
Beatles - Help
Beatles - Hey Jude
Beatles - A cross the universe
George Michael - One more try
George Michael - Father figure
Brian Adams - Everything I do
U2 - With or without your
U2 - Angel of Harlem
Queen - Who wants to live forever
Queen - Innuendo
Spandau Ballet - True
Spandau Ballet - Gold
Phil Collins - All of my life
Phil Collins - Another day in the
paradaise
Depeche Mode - A question of lust
Depeche Mode - Condemnation
Ricky Martin - Livin' la vida loca
Ricky Martin - Shake your bon-bon
- Aviso legal -
Esta seccin tiene el objetivo de mostrar el uso del
lenguaje expresado en la msica, en este website
dirigido a los estudiantes del idioma ingls. No
obstante, ante cualquier reclamacin de titulares de
los derechos aqu utilizados, no tenemos ningn
inconveniente en retirar dicho material; por favor,
comunicarlo a travs del email:
ingles@ciudadfutura.com

Ejercicio: Ordenar frases


Tema: Presente simple y presente continuo
Pon en orden las siguientes frases como en el siguiente
ejemplo:

I / married / when / young / was / I


I married when I was young

Escribe en las cajas de texto, al final del ejercicio


encontrars las respuestas.

1) is / having / He / breakfast

2) every / basketball / play / I / Tuesday

3) 7:30 / gets up / My father / at

4) do / What / every / day / do / you / ?

5) holiday / going / I'm / on / thinking / of

6) I do / read / do / you / books / a lot of / Yes,

7) and / sometimes / the cinema / my friend / I / to / go

8) brother / doesn't / Canada / live / My / in

9) to / How / go / do / your / you / school


10) the summer / really / important / sun cream / wear / It's / to / in

11) days / these / Peter /What / doing / is / ?

12) looking / I'm / for / at / a job / the moment

Solucin ejercicio:

1. He is having breakfast.
.2. I play basketball every tuesday.
3. My father gets up at 7:30
4. What do you do every day?
5. I'm thinking of going on holiday.
6. Do you read a lot of books? Yes, I do.
7. My friend and I sometimes go to the cinema.
8. My brother doesn't live in Canada.
9. How do you go to your school?
10. It's really important to wear sun cream in the summer.
12.What is Peter doing these days?
13 I'm looking for a job at the moment..

Ejercicios: Qu utilizamos, For o Since?

Usamos for y since (durante y desde) para referirnos a un perodo de


tiempo especfico normalmente del pasado.
Clasifica las siguientes palabras segn tengan que ir acompaadas de since
o for.

Ejemplo: I have been waiting since 12:30. (He estado esperando desde
las 12:30)

En este caso las 12:30 es la expresin a clasificar. La pondramos en la


columna del since, ya que para referirnos a ese perodo de tiempo no
podramos usar for. No sera correcto: I have been waiting for 12:30
Tienes un campo de texto para que puedas escribir las palabras.
Pulsa aqu para ver la solucin del ejercicio.

yesterday - the Second World War - a century - a moment - I was 30 - four hours -
1955 - Friday night - a long time - two months - june 1st - last night - last spring -
lunch time - four days - 25 years - ever - a few minutes - 11:45

For Since

12:30

Respuestas del ejercicio Clasificar expresiones segn for y since.

yesterday - the Second World War - a century - a moment - I was 30 - four hours -
1955 - Friday night - a long time - two months - june 1st - last night - last spring -
lunch time - four days - 25 years - ever - a few minutes - 11:45

For Since

four days last night

two months 11:45

a long time lunch-time

25 years yesterday

ever 1955

a moment friday night

a century june 1st

a few minutes I was 30


four hours the second World War

last spring

Ejercicios ingls
Tema: expresar cantidades con many, much, little, few

Traducir:

1. Hace solo dos semanas que est aqu, pero ya ha hecho unos cuantos
amigos.

2. Lo siento por ella, tiene pocos amigos.

3. Estoy muy contenta, he podido ahorrar algo de dinero.

4. Conoces a mucha gente? No, solo a unas cuantas personas.

5. Nos hemos de dar prisa, tenemos poco tiempo.

6. Tiene suerte, tiene pocos problemas y no tiene muchos hijos.

7. Hiciste muchas fotos cuando fuiste al extranjero?

8. No deberas fumar tanto.

9. Tengo un montn de dinero pero poco tiempo para gastarlo.

10. Jack no tiene muchos deberes. El tiene que hacer pocos ejercicios.

Traduccin:
1. He has just been here for only two weeks, but he has already made a few
friends.
2. I'm sorry for her, she has got few friends.
3. I'm very happy, I have been able to save a little money.
4. Do you know many people? No, I don't. I only know a few people.
5. We must hurry up, we have little time.
6. He is lucky, he has few problems and he has few children
7. Did you take many photos when you went abroad?
8. You shouldn't smoke so much.
9. I have a lot of money but little time to spend it.
10. Jack doesn't have much homework. He has to do few exercises.

Ejercicio Test: El tiempo atmosfrico


Completa las siguientes oraciones seleccionando una de las tres
opciones posibles.
Al final del ejercicio haz clic en el botn "Corregir Ejercicio" y
obtendrs la correccin del ejercicio
Temas relacionados: Ejercicio Listening
Principio del formulario
1. Open the window. There's a lovely cool ........ outside.

gale

gust

breeze

2. She ___ a bath no

2. We had to postpone the match because it started to ..................

gale

shower

pour

3. Close to the Equator the weather is hot and ..........

humid

mild

damp
4. The roof was ............ in the hurricane.

blown

blown off

blown down

5. There's ............. in the air.

ray

thunder

clouds

6. ......... came down over the hills.

mist

clouds

gale

7. ........ is a precipitation that originates in convective clouds in the form of


balls or irregular pieces of ice.

a rain ice

a hail

a freeze

8. What's the ........... today?

day

weather

weather like
9. ____ weather conditions.

badly

poor

strong

10. The daily disappearance of the sun below the western horizon as a
result of the earth's rotation.

sunrise

sunset

sun pillar

11. The daily appearance of the sun on the eastern horizon as a result of
the earth's rotation.

sunrise

sunset

sun pillar

12. _____ is considered the mixture of gases that make up the earth's
atmosphere

air

clouds

rain

13. This old house is very cold and ........ in winter.

damp
frost

hail

14. Atmospheric conditions devoid of wind or any other air motion...

calm

hot

warm

15. When we were coming back we were caught in the ................

downpour

flood

rain

Ejercicio: Completar frases


Tema: Adjetivos relacionados con la personalidad

Completa las oraciones de abajo con los ajetivos de


personalidad que te indicamos a continuacin:
outgoing, careful, calm, relaxed, sympathetic, vain,
stubborn, rebellious, sensitive, sensible, caring, lazy,
positive, selfish, easygoing, laid-back, self-assured,
arrogant, hard-working, egotistical, ambitious, generous,
sociable, unselfish, confident, superstitious, shy

Abrir ventana con los significados

Escribe en las cajas de texto y haz clic en el botn


solucin.
A person who loves talking to new people and going to
parties is....

Solucin

... is sociable and outgoing

He never gets stressed. He doesn't take life too seriously. He


is ...

Solucin

He is relaxed, calm and positive

Sad films make him cry. He hates arguments and shouting.


He is ...

Solucin

He is sensitive

I don't like talking with other people when I don't know


them. I'm ...

Solucin

I'm shy
He worries about taking risks and thinks everything is
dangerous. He is ...

Solucin

He is careful.

If I say: "Here are the key of my car. Use it whenever you


want" I'm ...

Solucin

I'm unselfish.

My mother always say: "Don't look black cats. It's unlucky".


She is ...

Solucin

She is superstitious.

When he makes a decision it's impossible to make him


change his mind. He is...

Solucin
He is stubborn

He never buys anyone a present. He is ...

Solucin

He is stingy or mean

EJERCICIOS - INGLS - QUESTION WORDS


Construye preguntas con Who y What:
( al final del ejercicio encontrars las respuestas )

Ejemplo:
Somebody was typing.
Who w as typing?

1. I phoned somebody.

2. I'm doing something.

3. I want something.

4. I bought something.

5. I used something.

6. Somebody has got my pen.


7. Somebody cleaned the kitchen.

8. Peter and Mary saw something.

9. Somebody lives in that house.

10. I'm going to cook something.

Respuestas
1. Who did you phone?
2. What are you doing?
3. What do you want?
4. What did you buy?
5. What did you use?
6. Who has got it?
7. Who cleaned the kitchen?
8. What did Peter and Mary see?
9. Who lives in that house?
10. What are you going to cook?

Ejercicio: Las conjunciones

A continuacin tienes una serie de oraciones a las cuales les falta alguna
conjuncin, completalas escogiendo la/s palabra/s correctas.

Al final del ejercicio pulsa el botn "resultado" para obtener la correccin del
ejercicio, se sealizarn en color titGrisN las respuestas correctas del
ejercicio.
Corresponde a la leccin: Las Conjunciones

1. ___ you give it to her, I'll be satisfied.

If

Whether

Even if

2. I went there ___ I couldn't see him.

but

unless

lest

3. He speaks ___ softly and clearly.

both

whereas

yet

4. I turned the heating on ___ it was cold.

provided

because

in spite of

5. I must go to the shop ___ it closes.

provided

then
before

6. See ___ they are out or not.

even if

unless

whether

7. ___ you were in his place, you would do nothing at all.

Whether

if

Wether

8. You should study more vocabulary ___ you can speak better.

as long as

acording to

so that

9. I didn't have time to study for the exam ___ I couldn't pass it.

in order that

and therefore

whether

10. ___ I liked the sweater, I decided not to buy it.

Although

Even though

Even

11. I'm not feel better ___ the pills.


in spite of

although

even though

12. My brother studies encyclopedias ___ he can answer quiz question.

provided

so that

in spite of

13. I'm going to study more ___ to be more successful.

in order

therefore

why

14. ___ I had left my house, it started to rain.

As soon as

When

Whenever

15. My leg hurts ___ I run.

as

when

since

Ejercicio Test: Phrasal Verbs


A continuacin tienes una serie de cuestiones las cuales estn
incompletas y tienes que completar seleccionando una de las tres
posibles opciones.
Al final del ejercicio haz clic en el botn "Corregir Ejercicio" y
obtendrs la correccin del ejercicio
Temas relacionados: Leccin Gramtica
Ejercicio Listening
Principio del formulario
1. You have to ___your cigarette _____ when you enter the non-smoking
area.

let ... down

put .... out

pull .... down

give ... away

2. They ____ all the money ____ to the people poor.

give .... away

take .... on

put .... in

bring ... up

3. The firemen are trying to _____ the cause of the fire.

get in

look up

look for

find out

4. The british athlete _____ a new world record.

set up

obtain on
get up

received in

5. My daughter _____ her brother.

seems in

looks at

takes after

leaves in

6. The plane is going to ______ in twenty minutes.

fly away

take off

blow up

let up

7. My brother uses my things and never ____ them ____ .

drive ... back

return ... up

put .... back

set .... up

8. The music is too loud. ____ it ____ , please.

come ... down

put .... down

let .... down

turn .... down


9. The police said:_____ your hands and don't move a muscle!

put on

put up

put away

put along

10. ____ your coat and make yourself comfortable.

take off

take up

take on

take in

11. Peter is so fast! It's really hard to ______ with him.

get up

follow up

catch up

take up

12. The burglar ____ her flat.

broke up

broke into

broke in

broke off

13. We don't believe what Peter told us about Mary. We think he is


________.

making it off
making it up

making it on

making it new

14. I'm very sad because yesterday I _____ with my best friend.

fell out

fallen out

break out

made out

15. Our parents had an argument last night but they ______ today.

fall out

let up

get up

made up

16. We ______ to New York at six o'clock to avoid the traffic.

get in

go on

set off

put on

17. My mother opened the door and _____ the old cat.

put in

go in

get in

let in
18. Please, be quiet ... ______!

warm up

stand on

shut up

wait on

19. I was ________ by my grandmother.

bring up

brought up

get up

got up

20. My sister is very intelligent. Everybody ______ to her.

looks up

looks after

looks in

looks at

Ejercicio: Test
Tema: Salud - Alimentacin

Test: Do you know your nutrition facts?


Evaluates your general knowledge of nutrition.

::. Health .::


Which of the following recipes has the most vitamin
1.
A per serving?
carrot potato pure
calf's liver with lemon parsley butter
brown rice salad with red peppers

2. Is margarine better for you than butter?


butter has saturated fats which raise cholesterol
it is best to use small quantities of both
all of the above

When cooking your vegetables and trying to preserve


3.
the vitamins,
the best cooking method would be to:
bake them
microwave them
boil them

Are olive and canola oils better for you than corn and
4.
soybean
(vegetable) oils?
this is probably true
this is false

The B vitamin folate (folic acid) may help reduce the


5.
risk of:
heart disease
colon cancer
certain birth defects
all of the above

Which is the most concentrated source of food


6.
energy?
proteins
vitamins
carbohydrates
fats

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's


7.
Food Guide
Pyramid, from which food group should you eat the
Ejercicios y Vocabulario Listening - Ejercicios Audio
Vocabulario Saludos Los nmeros cardinales y ordinales
Fechas, das de la semana, mes,
Gramtica: Los plurales
ao ...
Vocabulario: La familia Pronombres interrogativos
Gramtica: Adverbios Vocabulario: Navidad
Conjunciones Vocabulario: Profesiones y Oficios
Gramtica: There + be Gramtica: Condicionales
Gramtica: Los Modales Gramtica: El Futuro
Vocabulario: Medidas Phrasal Verbs
Vocabulario: Adjetivos
calificativos

Ingls Comercial - Ingls Negocios


Vocabulario - Informtica
Vocabulario - La empresa
Estructura de una carta comercial
Ejemplo de carta
Contenido de una carta comercial
Vocabulario telefnico
Llamadas telefnicas
Presentaciones
Llamadas telefnicas2
Artculo: Email Writing
Artculo: Must Do's at Events
Artculo: Seven Step Sale
18th April 2002

Sales Department
Limpoz Ltd.
9 Berstgood Street
London L923

Dear Sirs,

We are a large record store in the centre of Barcelona, and we would like to
know more about the tapes that you advertised in this month's edition of "Hi Fi"
magazine.

Could you send us some information about your products? We would like to
know if the tapes are a leading brand name or they are made by small
independent companies, and if they would be suitable for recording classical
music or only for dictations of messages.

In addition, we would be grateful if you could send us some samples. If they


have the quality we require, we will place a substancial order. Also, we would
like to know if you offer any kind of trade discount.

Thank you in advance


Yours faithfully,

Sing
XXXXXX
Oscar Guzman
Head of Purchasing

Frases tiles para escribir cartas comerciales

Primer prrafo

We have seen your advertisement in... (Hemos ledo su anuncio en...)


Thank you for your inquiry about the... (Agradecemos su solicitud de oferta
sobre los...)
This is to inform you that... (La presente es para informarles que ...)
I am writing to you with regard to... (Les escribo en relacin con...)
Thank you for your letter of 5th december... (Gracias por su carta del 5 de
diciembre...)
In reply to your letter of 4th july 2001 in which you enquire about... (En
respuesta a su carta del cuatro de julio en la que nos solicitan informacin
sobre...)
We are a wholease firm based in ... (Somos una empresa de venta al mayor
situada en ...)

Segundo prrafo

Details of the new prices are enclosed... (Adjunto la lista de los nuevos
precios...)
May I take this opportunity to enclose our latest list of prizes... (Me permito
aprovechar la oportunidad para incluir nuestra ltima lista de precios...)
Could you please send us your current catalogue and price list for ... ( Podran
enviarnos su catlogo actualizado y su lista de precios ...)
We would be very happy to discuss different terms of payment with you.
(Tendramos mucho gusto en hablar con usted sobre las diferentes condiciones
de pago.)
Tercer prrafo / Despedida

We look forward to receiving your order, (A la espera de recibir su pedido en


breve,)
We are at your disposal for any further information you may require, (Estamos
a su entera disposicin para cualquier otra informacin que pueda necesitar,)
We hope to hear from you shortly, (Esperamos tener noticias suyas en breve,)
Thanking you in advance, (Agradecindoles por anticipado,)
Despedida / Firma

Yours sincerely, (Atentamente)


Your faithfully, (Les saluda atentamente)
<Best> Regards, (Saludos)

Vocabulario telefnico

hang up: colgar


cut off: cortar
hold on: esperar
pick up: descolgar
call-ring back: volver a llamar
put trough: pasar la llamada
directory: gua telefnica
collect call: cobro revertido
switchboard operator: telefonista
directory enquirie: informacin telefnica
dialing: sonido telefnico
bad line: mala seal

Llamadas telefnicas: Cuando nosotros llamamos

Nos identificamos...

My name is ______.
This is _______ (here).

Si preguntamos por alguien...

Could I speak to _____, please?


Could you put me through to _______, please?
Could I have extension 123, please?
I'd like to speak to ________ , please.

Explicamos el motivo de la llamada...

I'm calling to ask about...


I'm phoning to tell you about...

Si queremos dejar un mensaje...

Could you give ____ a message?


Could you ask ___ to call me when he gets back?

Agradecemos la atencin...

Thanks you very much for your help.


Thanks for the information.

Cierre de la llamada...

Good bye.
Bye.
Presentaciones

Cuando nos queremos presentar formalmente...

May I introduce myself? My name's Mr. Wish. Good morning.


My name's Mr. Ruiz. How do you do? (shake hands)
How do you do? Pleased to meet you.

Cuando ya conocemos a la persona...

Hi! Hello Peter!


Hi Ann! How are you?
Fine, thanks. And you?
Fine.

Llamadas telefnicas

Contestamos al telfono.

Good morning.
Good afternoon.
Good evening.
Paul Smith speaking.
Who's calling, please?

Nos presentamos.

This is Paul Smith speaking.


Hello, this is Paul Smith from Microsoft.

Preguntamos por alguien.

Could I speak to Mr Roger, please?


I'd like to speak to Mr Roger, please.
Could you put me through to Mr Roger, please?

Nos disculpamos por no poder comunicarle con la persona que pide.

I'm afraid Mr Roger isn't in at the moment.


I'm sorry, he's in a meeting at the moment.
I'm afraid he's on another line at the moment.

Ponemos a alguien en espera.


Just a moment, please.
Could you hold the line, please?
Hold the line, please.

No entendemos o no escuchamos bien al interlocutor.

I'm sorry, I don't understand. Could you repeat that, please?


I'm sorry, I can't hear you very well. Could you speak up a little, please?
Could you spell that, please?

Pasamos la llamada a otra persona.

One moment, please. I'll see if Mr Roger is available.


I'll put you through.
I'll connect you.
I'm connecting you now.

La persona est comunicando

I've tried to get through several times but it's always engaged.

Tomamos nota de un mensaje.

Can I take a message?


Would you like to leave a message?
Can I give him a message?
I'll tell Mr Roger that you called
I'll ask him to call you as soon as possible.

ARTCULO INGLS de NEGOCIOS


Nivel Avanzado
EMAIL WRITING

How many emails do you write each day?

How much time do you spend ploughing through your inbox?

Nowadays, email is an important communication tool both for personal and


business use. We constantly communicate by email with colleagues,
superiors, suppliers, customers, etc. and due to the fact that it's so easy to
forward an email to an endless list of people, you never know in whose
hands your email might end up in. So, if you think about it, it wouldn't shock
you if I say that your email is a powerful personal PR tool and that how you
write your email will influence the image people have about you.

Now, are you paying enough attention to the quality of your email? Here are
a few tips to take into account:

1. Informative Subject Line. Be concise but informative, this helps your


recipient to understand the content and they can prioritize. Never send it
blank.

2. Use the spell check. Mistakes look bad, they give an awful impression.
You must also re-read the text and make sure you don't make any other
grammatical mistakes, this just causes confusion and your email more difficult
to understand.

3. Pay attention to your tone. People too often reply rapidly to emails and
this means they transmit their emotions with much more ease than with
traditional letters. Take your time and calm down before replying. DON'T
WRITE IN CAPS, THERE'S NO NEED TO SHOUT!

4. Be conservative. In day-to-day business it's best to be concise, brief and


to the point, while also being polite.

5. Use the "reply" button. How many times have you received an email that
just said OK! OK to what??? People are busy - and if like me also forget with
ease - so help to jog their memories by including their message.

6. Urgent tag. If you're one of those who always send their email with the
urgent label, I would just like to let you know that NO-ONE TAKES ANY
NOTICE (sorry for shouting).

7. Organise the information. If you are asking various questions - or even


answering them - be schematic and help your reader follow you. When
answering questions it's also best to summarise each question before your
answer.

8. Be careful what you forward. Someone else's email could be offensive


depending on who receives it, edit it if necessary.

9. I believe it's best to leave the graphics and emoticons for friends and
family.

10. Sign off professionally. Work on a signature that looks smart and
professional, it's good for your image.
Here are just a few tips that I hope will help you to reflect on the importance
of email writing. Although emails are normally shorter, they should be written
with the same care and caution than traditional letters, it's your professional
image that's at stake.

EMAIL WRITING - VOCABULARY

emails - emilios (as by Gomaespuma)


ploughing - arar, but here trabajar lentamente
inbox - bandeja de entrada
Nowadays - Hoy en da
colleagues - compaeros
suppliers - proveedores
customers - clientes
forward - re-enviar
endless list - larga lista
end up in - acabar
shock - sorpender
PR or public relations - relaciones pblicas
paying enough attention - prestar suficiente atencin
take into account - tomar en cuenta
subject - asunto
concise - breve
recipient - receptor
Mistakes - errores
awful - fatal
reply - responder
much more ease - con mucha ms facilidad
Take your time - toma tu tiempo
calm down - tranquilzate
polite - educado
busy - ocupado
help to jog their memories - ayuda a refrescar la memoria
tag - etiqueta
NO-ONE TAKES ANY NOTICE - nadie hace caso
signature - firma
smart - elegante
reflect - reflexionar
care - cuidado
that's at stake - en juego

EMAIL WRITING - TEST


1. Why is emailing a powerful PR tool.

a. You can be more creative than traditional letters.


b. Many people receive your email even people you don't know.
c. because you can personalise the mail to your recipient.

YOUR ANSWER

2. Emails have the risk of expressing unwanted emotions?

a. True. We normally reply quickly to email letting our emotions flourish.


b. True. And its common to use CAPS LOCK to show this.
c. True. This is the good thing about email. It more realistic and down-to-earth
communication.

YOUR ANSWER

3. We should write emails as if they were traditional letters?

a. Of course. And take special care of those grammatical mistakes.


b. True. Your professional image is at stake.
c. False. But that doesn't mean you can be careless.

YOUR ANSWER

Your Correct
Reason
Answer Answer

We constantly communicate by email with


colleagues, superiors, suppliers, customers,
b. Many people
etc. and due to the fact that it's so easy to
receive your
forward an email to an endless list of people,
email even
you never know in whose hands your email
people you
might end up in. So, if you think about it, it
don't know.
wouldn't shock you if I say that your email is a
powerful personal PR tool...

a. True. We
normally reply
People too often reply rapidly to emails and this
quickly to email
means they transmit their emotions with much
letting our
more ease than with traditional letters...
emotions
flourish.

There's some truth in the other two answers, but


c. False. But emails are much more informal and do not need
that doesn't all the formalities. I don't mention this in the
mean you can article but I only say you should take the same
be careless. care as traditional letters not write them as
traditional letters.

ARTCULO INGLS de NEGOCIOS


Nivel Avanzado
MUST DO's AT EVENTS
Do you think that business functions are a waste of time?

Many business people consider trade fairs and other business events as a sheer
waste of time, but in most cases either the objectives set were inappropriate or
the methodology wasn't quite right or even both.

Networking is a great way to generate new business, but as any business


technique you must go about it in a systematic and professional manner and
never expect too much from these business events. They are usually just door-
openers, the beginning of professional relationships on which to work on in the
future to generate good business.

I hope you agree that business functions are an excellent way to meet new people
and that this is the first step towards generating new business. If this is so, here
are 10 things you should have in mind:

1. Be prepared. - Carry all your networking tools at all times: informative


badge, business cards, brochures, business card file with people you can refer
to...

2. Set goals. - Obviously your goal is just to meet new contacts, so set a number
of contacts you intend to make.

3. Be proactive and friendly. - Offer to help and act as a host not as a guest.

4. Listen and ask questions. - Remember you have two ears and one mouth, use
them proportionally. Only talk about yourself once you have found out what the
other does.

5. Don't try to close deals. - Remember we are developing relationships for


future business, don't spoil it!

6. Give referrals. - Whenever possible try to refer them to others that may
interest them or provide them with interesting information.

7. Exchange business cards. - Ask for two cards so you can pass it on to
someone else, this sets the stage for networking to happen.

8. Be efficient. - Don't spend more than 10 minutes with each person. If needed
set a future appointment.

9. Take down notes. - Write notes on the back of the business cards to help you
remember each person.

10. Follow up. - All the rest is useless if you don't follow up with a call or an
email and it's important not to break any promises you have made, this has very
MUST DO's AT EVENTS - VOCABULARY

business functions - funciones de empresa


trade fairs - ferias
business events - eventos de empresas
sheer waste of time - mera prdida de tiempo
wasn't quite right - no fue exactamente correcto
generate new busienss - generar nuevo negocio
go about it - enfocarlo
door-openers - abre puertas
have in mind - tener en cuenta
informative badge - etiqueta informativa
business cards - tarjetas de visita
brochures - catlogo
business card file - tarjetero
contacts you intend to make - contacto que pretendes realizar
close deals - cerrar acuerdos
don't spoil it - no lo espropees
refer - recomendar
follow up - seguimiento
not to break any promises - no rompes ninguna promesa
signs - signos
willing to accept - dispuestos a aceptar

MUST DO's AT EVENTS - TEST

This is a comprehension test and must choose the option that best fits the text, although you
may agree more with other answers.

1. Networking is an informal way to generate business.

a True and you mustn't expect too much.


b False, you need a professional approach.
c False, it's just a door-opener.

YOUR ANSWER

2. What should be your objective at a business event?

a. Generate business.
b. Meet interesting business people.
c. Meet potential clients.

YOUR ANSWER

3. You should introduce yourself to everyone at the event?


a. The objective is to meet as many people as possible..
b. No only those that interest you..
c. Yes, but look out for the right moment.

YOUR ANSWER

Your Correct
Reason
Answer Answer

Networking is a great way to generate new


b False, you
business, but as any business technique you
need a
must go about it in a systematic and
professional
approach. professional manner and never expect too much
from these business events.

I hope you agree that business functions are an


c. Meet potential
excellent way to meet new people and that this is
clients.
the first step towards generating new business.

And to finish, one last tip: Look for signs that


show that people are open to receive others.
c. Yes, but look
Never interrupt a group that is in closed circle,
out for the right
look for those that are positioned in a U-shape,
moment.
this indicates the conversation isn't very
intensive...

ARTCULO INGLS de NEGOCIOS


Nivel Avanzado
SEVEN STEP SALE
You dont need to work in sales to find useful some sales training. If you think
about it, all of us sell. We sell ourselves for promotion or new job opportunities, the
project we work on to attract company funds or for it to be accepted by senior
management. We may also sell ourselves to convince our colleagues that youre
the worlds best "mus" player. As a result, we are constantly selling something to
someone, even though the objective isnt to gain a payment.

So, with this in mind, Im going to briefly go through a seven step guide to selling
that I hope will help you in your day-to-day:

STEP 1: Planning. Depending on the importance of the sale, this step should be
larger or smaller. Basically, you should be prepared. You should know your product
inside out, as well as your buyer needs, this will help you propose solutions to
those needs with your products. Know off by heart your presentation and dont
forget to properly test your visual aids if you are going to use these. Think of all
possible questions that may be asked and make sure you have answers to all of
them. Overall, think carefully about what you expect from your meeting and plan to
achieve it.

STEP 2: Opening. Obviously, as in any situation, you should be polite and


professional, introduce yourself if your audience doesnt know you, but above all,
use this opening time to build credibility and trust towards yourself and your
company or project. Provide an overview oriented towards the needs of your
audience and ask questions that show that you are interest in them and that youre
not just there to carryout your presentation just as you would to anyone else.

If you have carried out the first step well, your confidence will help you transmit
the right sensations.

STEP 3: Questioning. As I have said before, no-one likes someone who is only
interested in themselves, their products, projects or company. People like to feel
that you are taking your time to analyse and understand their needs in order to
offer solutions. So we must ask open questions that will provoke answers that may
bear this information in order to adjust our presentation to the real needs of our
audience. Make sure its your audience that does the talking in this part of the
meeting, listen carefully and when you have all the information use it in your
presentation, but never try to solve problems in this part.

To finish summarise the key points before starting your presentation.

STEP 4: The Presentation. You must know your product inside out, but dont
make the mistake of just presenting the wonderful benefits of your product. Use
the information gathered previously to put this into perspective and show your
audience how these benefits will solve their needs and priorities. Focus on the key
benefits. You may have a long list of benefits which need to be mentioned, but
SEVEN STEP SALE - VOCABULARY

training - formacin
funds - fondos
senior management - alta direccin
"mus" - no similar game in England
briefly - brevemente
inside out - de arriba a abajo
needs - necesidades
propose - proponer
know off by heart - saber de memoria
polite - educado
audience - audencia
credibility -credibilidad
trust - confianza
overview - introduccin general
confidence - confianza en ti mismo
bear - lleva
adjust - adaptarse
make sure - asegrate
summarise - resume
key points - puntos clave
gathered - recogido
put this into perspective - poner en perspectiva
deter - desviar
main issues - temas principales
faith - f
objections - objecciones
arise - surgir
even more so - an ms
hinders - dae
in an exemplary way - de forma ejemplar
close the deal - cerrar el trato
homework - deberes
overcome - superar
its just not going to happen - simplemente, no occurir
misunderstandings - malentendidos

SEVEN STEP SALE - TEST

This is a comprehension test and must choose the option that best fits the text, although you
may agree more with other answers.
1. You must always plan thoroughly.

a. True. This is probably the most important step.


b. True. This will improve the rest of the process.
c. Depends.

YOUR ANSWER

2. You must stick to your well prepared presentation.

a. True. Never change what works..


b. False. The presentation should be natural and this means flexible.
c. False. You must adapt it to your audience.

YOUR ANSWER

3. What will provide you with recommendations?

a. Building up trust with the customer.


b. Adapting to the customers needs.
c. A good after-sales follow-up.

YOUR ANSWER

Your Correct
Reason
Answer Answer

STEP 1: Planning. Depending on the


c. Depends.
importance of the sale...

Use the information gathered previously to put


c. False. You must
this into perspective and show your audience
adapt it to your
how these benefits will solve their needs and
audience.
priorities.

Word-of-mouth-marketing is important and its


c. A good after-
normally as a consequence of this last, but
sales follow-up.
important, process.