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STUDY GUIDE

MODEL UNITED NATIONS ALSA E - CHALLENGE 2017

COUNCIL: UNSC

“The Central African Republic Ongoing Civil War”

His MUN experience started in the first year of college when He attended the first ever international Model United Nations named Asia-Pacific Model United Nations Conference (AMUNC) in 2016 which He represented his organization to the conference. currently in his second year of the International Relations major of Universitas Indonesia. She began her Model UN career in the university as a head delegate of UI Official Delegation for Singapore MUN 2016 in which the delegation managed to catch the Most Outstanding University Delegation award. She is really excited to hear brilliant ideas and distinct perspectives coming from each individual and she is looking forward to meet all of the UNSC delegates! meizuranovia@gmail. He always assigned as a delegate in the particular council and this is the first time for Fachri to be a part of Board of Dais in council in the Model United Nations. He is looking forward to learn as much as possible during chairing on ALSA E-Challenge MUN and hoping that the simulations will give the best experience for everyone involved in the council.com The second assistant director of the conference is Dinis Dwi Shinta Ramadhani. by taking parts in Indonesia MUN 2013 and has since participated in several national Model UN conferences. Herein. The director of the conference is Novia Meizura.fp@gmail. United Nations Security Council The Central African Republic Ongoing Civil War Welcoming Letter and Chair Description Dear Delegates. fachripramuja. United Nations Security Council will be focusing on the Central African Republic ongoing Civil War to be debated upon. we are The Board of Dais consisted of one director and two assistant directors. She started getting involved in Model United Nations circle when she was in her second year of High School. a final year student in PKN STAN. On his previous experience. namely ALSA UI MUN and Jakarta MUN both in 2014 & 2015. her curiosity triggers her 1 . We are delighted to welcome you to the United Nations Security Council of ALSA E- Challenge Model United Nations 2017! This year.com The first assistant director of the conference is Fachri Pramuja. a sophomore majoring in International Relations of Universitas Indonesia. Despite her major. majoring in Accounting.

Following IMATION. she joined Jakarta MUN 2016 and ITBMUN 2016. dinisdwi@gmail.to dig deeper about international issues through the MUN. Her first encounter with MUN was in her second year of college when she joined IMATION (ISAFIS Diplomatic Simulation).com 2 . IMATION gave her a fine first impression about MUN and it boosted her to continue her MUN career. She dearly hopes that everyone involved in this conference will get a fine learning experience and be able to share new insights. It is truly a great honor for her to serve as the member of the Board of Dais in ALSA E-Challenge MUN 2017 for it will be her first chairing experience.

Introduction of the Committee United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council is the paramount council of the UN which is responsible to maintain international peace and security. The permanent members of the Security Council are granted the “right to veto” that enables them to prevent the adoption of any substantive resolution. On the other hand. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members and a negative vote casted by a permanent member will not invalidate the decision as long as nine affirmative votes are secured. Under the Charter. and terrorism. decisions of the Security Council on all other matters—including the substantive ones—shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members. The members of the Security Council meet regularly to assess threats to international security. all member states of the UN are obligated to comply with the UNSC’s binding decisions. 3 . addressing issues that include civil wars. The establishment of the Security Council is enshrined in Chapter V of the UN Charter. The Security Council has 15 members (5 permanent. arms control. 10 rotating) and each one of them has one vote. natural disasters.

Besides that. the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. the Security Council also recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement to the parties involved in the dispute. VII. In some cases. and taking enforcement measures against recalcitrant States or other parties. ● Chapter XII: The Security Council may take part as the sole approver of the trusteeship agreements and their alteration or amendment as well as the body to whom the administering authority would be obligated as a contractual partner in this agreement. or aggression and call upon the parties to comply with provisional measures. 4 . investigate the dispute and recommend appropriate procedures or methods to settle the disputes ● Chapter VII: The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace. VIII and XII of the UN Charter which in general will be briefly described as follows: ● Chapter VI: The Security Council may call upon the parties to settle the disputes.Mandate of the Committee In order to pursue the international peace and security—as mandated by the UN Charter—the Security Council performs three main functions. breach of peace. establishing and overseeing UN peace-keeping forces. The provisions pertaining the powers of Security Council are stated in Chapter VI. The Security Council may also determine the utilization of armed forces had the non-armed measures been proven inadequate to maintain international peace and security ● Chapter VIII: The Security Council shall utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. which are: assisting the peaceful settlement of disputes.

predominantly made up of civilians from northern CAR. Following a series of coups. instability grew and. who are mostly Christian. The Anti-Balaka. they formed a loose alliance known as Séléka. resolution.dailystar." The Daily Star. "CAR leader appeals for help to halt rebel advance. Under a U. religious-based violence is an outcome. 20. 4 Ibid.1 Many rebel groups were already active in the north and northeast.com. the Séléka led brutal attacks against civilians. became the first Muslim leader of the mainly Christian country. civil wars. 1Uppsala Conflict Data Program Encyclopedia. seek revenge for the acts of Séléka over the last year and perceive Muslims as Séléka collaborators. France deployed an initial force of 1. retrieved on http://www. The Central African Republic conflict is an ongoing civil war in the Central African Republic (CAR) between the *Séléka rebel coalition and government forces. To gain supporters. Bangui. and a transitional government took over. overthrew Bozizé. Central African Republic held its first multiparty elections in 1993.uu. Central African Republic Section.200 troops to CAR in December 2013 to stabilize the capital. the Séléka. with the backing of Chad. Army General François Bozizé rebelled and took power in 2003. which began on 10 December 2012.php?id=31&regionSelect=2- Southern_Africa# 05 February 2016.N. including groups formerly loyal to Bozizé.2 In March 2013. However. 2 Ibid. 22. and in 2012. 5 .ucdp.Introduction of the Issue Since gaining independence from France in 1960. Central African Republic (CAR) has experienced six authoritarian leaders and the continuous presence of foreign troops.35.lb/News/International/2012/Dec-28/200123-car-leader-appeals-for-help-to-halt-rebel- advance.4 While the violence could appear to be religious in nature. Michel Djotodia.3 Violence intensified beyond Bangui when former-President Djotodia resigned in early January due to pressure from governments in the region.ashx. This is in part because Séléka forces include fighters from neighboring Muslim-majority countries. 06 February 2017. Thousands of Muslims fled the country out of fear of retaliation attacks by self-defense militias known as **Anti-Balaka. The group’s leader. Séléka exploited frustrations with the concentration of power in Bozizé’s family and the underdevelopment of the northern region.48. backed by heavily armed mercenary fighters from Chad and Sudan.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry. In Depth: The Seleka Rebellion. and foreign interventions. Over the following months. Retrieved on http://www. 3 Christian Panika. Chad and Sudan. The conflict arose after rebels accused the government of President François Bozizé of failing to abide by peace agreements signed in 2007 and 2011.

quickly transformed into criminal organisations driven by greed and profit.” The New York Times. looting was always extremely violent and targeted the Muslim community.10 Supporting Seleka. 9 Lydia Polgreen.not a cause of conflict. Retrieved on http://www. Entire Muslim communities have been pillaged to the ground. Residents Flee Capital of Central African Republic.. However. Sudan would also expand its sphere of influence in the region through an indebted partner. “Central African Republic: An Ongoing Civil War. culture. secondly..com/2013/01/01/world/africa/residents-flee-bangui-capital-of-central- africa-republic. 6 . The socio-economic paradigm quickly stretched and took the shape of a religious conflict.. nationality) usually surpasses common sense. 5 Plundering of the Muslim population was common for the anti-Balaka and was one of the main sources of income. 8 Ibid.7 This spiral of hatred and violence in a civil war is immense. attacks were present even when there was nothing left to take. with its security interests and shifting support of the groups. 10 Ibid. Sudanese interests in CAR are focused on supporting Seleka and eventually securing their place in society thus securing an important ally in CAR. This would not only 5 Igor Pejic. Chad. Greed and the socio-economic frustration were fully expressed at this point. Sudan’s role in supporting Séléka. which were motivated by self-defense at the start.org/central- african-republic-an-ongoing-civil-war/.html 06 February 2017. Economic and political incentives are motivating internal and external actors. 22. 6 Ibid. 22. 06 February 2017. the influence of neighboring countries is rather strong and is shaping the conflict in more ways than one can imagine.6 Notable trends can be observed in the anti-Balaka violence towards Muslims: firstly. 7 Ibid. "Fearing Fighting.41. 9 Séléka and the Sudanese government share many common interests and ideological attitudes. but also women and children of Muslim origin of various social backgrounds who suffered the desolation of this conflict.” retrieved on https://southfront. and Cameroon’s security interests and interests in natural resources also play a significant role in the conflict. Violence committed by the anti-Balaka group has left a deep scar in the social structure which makes the reconciliation process rather difficult. The targets were not only combatants of Seleka.8 In the CAR civil war. The need to destroy an opposite ethnic group which inhabited the same country (sharing the same land. Armed groups in eastern DRC. the main threat of the anti- Balaka group is the possibility of evolving into something similar of those armed groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).nytimes. Socio-economic frustration towards the Muslim population is deeply rooted in CAR.57.

7 .11 *Séléka is an alliance of rebel militia factions that overthrew the Central African Republic (CAR) government. **Anti-Balaka are Christian militias formed in the Central African Republic in 2013. gold and diamonds would be much easier to exploit by the Sudanese state and non-state actors. but also in the economic sphere. Benefits of natural resources like oil.. Some members have forcibly converted Muslims to Christianity 11 Ibid.benefit Sudan in the security sector.

Global Conflict Tracker: Ongoing Central African Republic War. Seleka set up state of rule-by-terror to ensure no dissident against this coup. This new group fought back against Seleka and launched reprisal killings against Muslims civilians. CAR Leader Appeals for Help to Halt Rebel Advance. Seleka-- coalition of armed-primarily Muslim groups.14 However.15 Anti-balaka forces managed to expand their power and brutally commit attacks against mostly Muslim civilians in September 2013. Since 2012. 2017 13 Al Jazeera. This coup resulted in tragic bloodshed with rebels slaughtering civilians from other communities.dailystar. and eventually expelling Muslim communities entirely in the region. the capital city of Central African Republic and declared a coup in March 2013 installing Michel Djotodia in power. situation got worsened off as new crisis arose involving Central African Republic government. http://www. 2017 15 Vox.lb/News/International/2012/Dec-28/200123-car-leader-appeals-for-help-to-halt-rebel- advance.ashx accessed February 1st.vox. 2017 8 . insisting his national interest was only to protect French people in the CAR. Consequently. 2017 14 The Daily Star.12 As the country plunged into deep conflict. and the Anti-Balaka groups. http://www. ECCAS members used their already present MICOPAX (Peace Consolidation Mission in the Central African Republic) for this campaign. http://www.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/conflict/violence-in-the-central-african-republic accessed February 1st. French President. thus his troops were only deployed to do so. CAR Human Rights Explainer. armed fighters- predominantly Christian adherents. 13 But Bozize received support from fellow African leaders after Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) Multinational Force of Central Africa secured a number of CAR regions.com.cfr. This subsequently displaced thousands of people to the north where Seleka consolidating their power.com/2014/10/29/7078285/car-human-rights-explainer accessed February 1st. Seleka then successfully captured Bangui. http://www. these massive killings sparked sectarian tension as members of the old regime security forces and Christian fighters formed the Anti-Balaka groups.Historical Background and Significant Timeline The stability of Central African Republic has been being disrupted for decades of violence and conflict inheriting post-independence problems. This initiative was rejected by Francois Hollande. Council on Foreign Relations 12 Council on Foreign Relations. This insurgency has led to severe country’s security and increased sectarian and ethnic tensions as Seleka rebels attacked CAR government in the end of 2012. Central African Rebel Advances on Capital.com/news/africa/2012/12/20121226235056434187.aljazeera. President Bozizé asked international assistance of France and the United States to help stabilizing CAR.html accessed February 1st.

org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/conflict/violence-in-the-central-african-republic accessed February 1st.cfr. plunging CAR into a chaotic state of violence and ensuing a humanitarian crisis. This crisis complication has led the UN Security Council to establish a peacekeeping force that incorporated African Union and French forces in 2014. fought alongside with Seleka groups and drove situation horribly. Global Conflict Tracker: Ongoing Central African Republic War.. 17 16 Council on Foreign Relations. some reports said African Union forces. African Union with its foreign peacekeepers have had difficult challenges that prevented them to solve and stabilize region.com The international community has attempted several initiatives to invite fighting parties to put on the table together. 2017 17 Ibid. http://www. but many ex-Seleka members started committing counterattacks. 9 .reported Seleka forces were disbanded by the government shortly after revenge attacks began. 16 Source: Vox. Following reports by human rights groups and UN agencies mentioned that atrocities committed by both ex-Seleka forces and anti-balaka groups. such as from Chad. The UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic was established with a strength of ten thousand troops and a mandate to protect civilians. Even.

as it further discusses the agenda of post-conflict reconstruction and development of the country.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/minusca/ accessed on February 3rd 2017.peaceau.htm accessed on February 3rd 2017.Past International Actions European Union Force RCA Mission (2014)18 European Union Force RCA (EUFOR RCA) is an EU military operation in Bangui. 20African Union Peace and Security.eeas. support justice and the rule of law. EUFOR CAR. http://www. Under the UN Security Council Resolution 2134. this mission is mandated to stabilize and secure the environment in Central African Republic as resulted from the political unrests and internal conflicts happening in the country. 18 European External Action Service. 19 United Nations. The continuation of Central African Republic civil war has resulted in the extension of MINUSCA mandate until November 2017. African Solidarity Conference for the Central African Republic (2017)20 Recently. The force is consisted of 700 troops in total and lasted for nearly a year. reintegration and repatriation. on February 1st 2017. This mission has been closed in March 2015.eu/archives/csdp/missions-and- operations/eufor-rca/index_en. UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilisation Mission in the Central African Republic (2014)19 UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilisation Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) is deployed by the UN Security Council in 2014. http://www. promote and protect human rights.europa.org/en/article/african-solidarity-conference-for-the-central-african-republic accessed on February 5th 2017. Central African Republic established in February 2014. http://www. support the transition process in the CAD. The main task of this force is to protect the populations at risk and provide humanitarian aid to the people.un. The implementation of Recovery and Peacebuilding Plan 2017 – 2021 was also being one of the most important matters in the conference. 10 . African Solidarity Conference for the Central African Republic. Its utmost priority lies in the protection of civilians and it is tasked to facilitate humanitarian assistance. demobilization. The Commission of the African Union and the the government of the CAR held African Solidarity Conference for the Central African Republic. United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilisation Mission in the Central African Republic. and be involved in the process of disarmament. This conference is a form of support from African Union member states to the CAR.

they’re relations have been strained.d.000 of these refugees are located in the eastern region. where the border between the two nations lies. retrieved from http://www. Department of State). in 1960. (n. Agency for International Development did not till today (U. Embassy has been forced to evacuate from CAR several times (U. Cameroon shares a lot of cultural and social dynamics with CAR.000 21 CAR Emergency. the CAR maintains relations with several neighboring and international countries.unhcr. United States of America The United States of America initiated relations with the nation shortly after their independence from France. Because of the country’s history of military coupes and instability. They reopened the following year however the Peace Corps and U.. Chad currently has over 67. it also plays the role of a very important commerce partner. 22 Ibid.000 refugees from CAR.) UNCHR. helping to maintain sovereignty in the troubled nation.S.org/car-emergency.000 (UNHCR). Sudan.html. Sudan There are mixed relations between CAR and Sudan due to skirmishes over grazing land and waters amongst pastoralist groups. 11 . Since it is bordering the waters. the embassy was forced to close due to an increase in internal military deployment. which makes it a hotspot for refugees. Accessed on February 7th 2017. the U. however.S. Seeing as it is a landlocked country.S. northeast of CAR. especially from the West.‐Saharan States.S.21 Cameroon Located to the east of CAR. From 1996-‐97. they’re a bordering nation. 22 185. it needs to maintain good relations with several of its neighboring countries that have access to a port. However. Chad To the north. Cameroon is currently hosting over 259. The troubled nation is also no stranger to international donations. Regardless.Bloc Positions This issue does not hold too many stern bloc positions. Chad was a very strong ally of Bozize and helped him rise to power however with all the shifts in power. this amounts to around 55% of CAR’s total 467.. was also a part of the peacekeeping force in the coalition called the Community of Sahel. Department of State).

Another large sum of more than $15 million goes to food provisions and emergency humanitarian relief as a response to the immediate damage caused. The European nation also remains to be a very strong and important ally of CAR because they are their biggest donor and have consistently provided humanitarian aid and troops. Commerce and trade have also heavily suffered between France and CAR due to the crisis. 12 .23 France France has been supportive of CAR’s attempts to get out of this crisis and has played a role in initiating and maintaining dialogues among different authoritative forces. which currently left around 2.refugees from CAR and this accounts for about 16 percent of the total refugee count (UNHCR).. however it still remains the biggest investor in the country 23 Ibid. France has proclaimed over $70 million to help alleviate the crisis in CAR (France and the Central African Republic).7 million people “in dire need” (Crisis Watch Database). About $45 million has gone to the “recovery and then development assistance” and this has been distributed and executed primarily by the French Development Agency in order to counter the long term harm caused by the crisis(France and the Central African Republic).

Questions a Resolution Must Answer (QARMAs) 1. How should peacebuilding process be done? Is it necessary for UNSC to deploy peacekeeping force in the peacebuilding process of CAR civil war? 3. What mechanism should UNSC use to approach the sectarian divide in the civil war? How can UNSC resolve the tensions between Seleka and Anti-Balaka groups? 2. How can UNSC prevent further damages of the conflict? How should UNSC protect the civilians and give better humanitarian aid to the victim of the conflicts within its mandate and power? 13 .

Christian Panika.cfr. http://www. Uppsala Conflict Data Program Encyclopedia. The Daily Star. Vox.com. 06 February 2017. Al Jazeera.35.eeas. Retrieved on http://www. http://www. (n. 2017. "Fearing Fighting. CAR Human Rights Explainer.org/car-emergency. retrieved on http://www.org/central-african-republic-an-ongoing-civil-war/.” retrieved on https://southfront.html.lb/News/International/2012/Dec-28/200123-car-leader-appeals-for-help-to- halt-rebel-advance.eu/archives/csdp/missions- and-operations/eufor-rca/index_en.” The New York Times.) UNCHR." The Daily Star.nytimes.html accessed February 1st.htm accessed on February 3rd 2017. CAR Emergency.com/news/africa/2012/12/20121226235056434187.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/conflict/violence-in-the-central-african- republic accessed February 1st. 22.europa.un. In Depth: The Seleka Rebellion. 2017. Accessed on February 7th 2017. http://www.com/2013/01/01/world/africa/residents-flee-bangui- capital-of-central-africa-republic. 14 .html 06 February 2017. United Nations. http://www. EUFOR CAR. http://www. European External Action Service.com/2014/10/29/7078285/car-human-rights- explainer accessed February 1st.unhcr. CAR Leader Appeals for Help to Halt Rebel Advance. 06 February 2017. Retrieved on http://www.Bibliography African Union Peace and Security.dailystar. Global Conflict Tracker: Ongoing Central African Republic War. Council on Foreign Relations. Residents Flee Capital of Central African Republic.d.com.ucdp.cfr. United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilisation Mission in the Central African Republic.lb/News/International/2012/Dec-28/200123-car-leader-appeals-for-help-to- halt-rebel-advance.ashx accessed February 1st. http://www.org/en/article/african-solidarity-conference-for-the-central-african-republic accessed on February 5th 2017. 2017.peaceau. “Central African Republic: An Ongoing Civil War.php? id=31&regionSelect=2-Southern_Africa# 05 February 2016. http://www.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/conflict/violence-in-the-central-african- republic accessed February 1st. 2017. Global Conflict Tracker: Ongoing Central African Republic War. Igor Pejic.dailystar.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/minusca/ accessed on February 3rd 2017. Lydia Polgreen. African Solidarity Conference for the Central African Republic. Central African Rebel Advances on Capital.ashx. "CAR leader appeals for help to halt rebel advance. retrieved from http://www. http://www. Central African Republic Section.uu. Council on Foreign Relations.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.vox.aljazeera. 2017.