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The Gandhian Era (1917-47)

Facts about Gandhi


Birth : October 2, 1869 at Porbandar, Gujarat. [Note: UNO declared October. 2 as
International Non-violence Day (Antarrashtriy Ahimsa Diswas)]
Father : Karamchand Gandhi,
Mother: Putali Bai,
Political Guru: Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Private Secretary: Mahadev Desai.
Literary Influence on Gandhi: John Ruskins Unto the Last, Emerson, Thoreau, Leo
Tolstoy, the Bible and the Gita.
Literary Works : Hind Swaraj (1909), My Experiments with Truth (Autobiography, 1927)-
reveals events of Gandhis life upto 1922.
As an Editor : Indian Opinion: 190315 (in English & Gujarati, for a short period in Hindi
& Tamil), Harijan: 1919-31 (in English, Gujarati and Hindi),
Young India: 193342 (in English gujarati-named Navjeevan).
Other Names : Mahatma (Saint) - by Rabindranath Tagore, 1917; Malang Baba/Nanga
Faqir (Naked Saint) - by Kabailis of Noth-West Frontier, 1930; Indian Faqir/Traitor Faqir-by
Winston Churchill, 1931; Half-naked Saint by- Franq Mores, 1931; Rashtrapita (the Father of
the Nation)- by Subhash Chandra Bose, 1944.
In South Africa (1893-1914)
1893 Departure of Gandhi to South Africa.
1894 Foundation of Natal Indian Congress.
1899 Foundation of Indian Ambulance Core during Boer Wars.
1904 Foundation of Indian Opinion (magazine) and Phoenix Farm, at Phoenix, near Durban.
1906 First Civil Disobedience Movement (Satyagaraha) against Asiatic Ordiannce in Transvaal.
1907 Satyagraha against Compulsory Registration and Passes for Asians (The Black Act) in Transvaal.
1908 Trial and imprisonment-Johanesburg Jail (First Jail Term).
1910 Foundation of Tolstoy Farm (Later-Gandhi Ashrama), near Johannesburg.
1913 Satyagraha against derecognition of non-Christian marraiges in Cape Town.
1914 Awarded Kaisar-i-Hind for raising an Indian Ambulance Core during Boer wars
Arrived in Bombay (India) on 9 January 1915; Foundation of Satyagraha Ashrama at Kocharab near
1915
Ashrama shifted at the banks of Sabarmati;
Abstain from active politics (though he attended Lucknow session of INC held in 2630 December, 1
1916
cultivator from Bihar, requested him to come to Champaran.)
Gandhi entered active politics with Champaran campaign to redress grievances of the cultivators op
1917
1917). Champaran Satyagraha was his first Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
cooperation Movement. In Febuary 1918, Gandhi launched the struggle in Ahmedabad which involv
1918 weapon was used for the first time by Gandhi during Ahmedabad struggle. In March 1918, Gandhi w
who were facing difficulties in paying the rent owing to failure of crops. Kheda Satyagraha was his fi
Gandhi gave a call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act on April 6, 1919 and took the command o
1919 time (First all-India Political Movement), Gandhi returns Kaisar-i-Hind gold medal as a protest again
1919; The All India Khilafat Conference elected Gandhi as its president (November 1919, Delhi).
Gandhi leads the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement (August 1,
1920-22 1920Febuary 1922), Gandhi calls off Movement (Feb. 12, 1922), after the violent incident at Chaur
operation Movement was the First mass based politics under Gandhi.
1924 Belgaum (Karnataka) session of INCfor the first and the last time Gandhi was elected the presiden
Gandhi retires from active politics for the first time and devotes himself to constructive programme
192527
politics in 1927.
Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his Dandhi march/Salt Satyagraha (First Ph
193034 Gandhi-Irwin Pact: March 5, 1931; Gandhi attends the Second Round Table Conference in London
September 7-December. 1, 1931; Second Phase: January 3, 1932-April 17, 1934).
193439 Sets up Sevagram (Vardha Ashram).
194041 Gandhi launches Individual Satyagraha Movement.
Call to Quit India Movement for which Gandhi raised the slogan, Do or Die (Either free India or die
1942
leaders arrested (August 9, 1942).
Gandhi kept in detention at the Aga Khan Palace, near Pune (August 9, 1942-May, 1944). Gandhi lo
194244
and private secretary Mahadev Desai; this was Gandhis last prison term.
Deeply distressed by theory of communal violence, as a result Muslim Leagues Direct Action call, G
1946
Bengal-now Bangladesh) and later on to Calcutta to restore communal peace.
Gandhi, deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan/Partition Plan (June 3, 1947), while staying in C
1947
observes complete silence on the dawn of Indias Independence (August, 15, 1947). Gandhi returns
Gandhi was shot dead by Nathu Ram Godse, a member of RSS, while on his way to the evening pr
1948
(January 30, 1948).