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thought-out negative claims by one of its own very 4 Leucht C, Huhn M, Leucht S. Amitriptyline versus placebo for major
depressive disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 12: CD009138.
vigorously. 5 Leucht, S Hierl S, Kissling W, Dold M, Davis JM. Putting the ecacy of
psychiatric and general medicine medication into perspective: review of
meta-analyses. Br J Psychiatry 2012; 200: 97106.
*David J Nutt, Guy M Goodwin, Dinesh Bhugra, Seena Fazel, 6 Geddes J, Carney S, Davies C, et al. Relapse prevention with antidepressant
Stephen Lawrie drug treatment in depressive disorders: a systematic review. Lancet 2003;
361: 65361.
Imperial College London, London, UK (DJN); University of Oxford,
7 Oce for National Statistics. Suicide rates in the United Kingdom, 2012
Oxford, UK (GMG, SF); Kings College London, London, UK (DB); Registrations. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/subnational-health4/
and University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK (SL) suicides-in-the-united-kingdom/2012/stb-uk-suicides-2012.html
(accessed May 20, 2014).
8 Fazel S, Grann M, Ahlner J, Goodwin G. Suicides by violent means in
DJN has received grants and personal fees from Lundbeck and GSK; and personal individuals taking SSRIs and other antidepressants: a post-mortem study in
fees from Lilly, BMS, Otsuka, Servier, and Pzer. GMG has received grants and Sweden, 19922004. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2007; 27: 5036.
personal fees from Servier and Lundbeck; personal fees from Teva, Otsuka, 9 Isacsson G, Holmgren A, Osby U, Ahlner J. Decrease in suicides among the
Takeda, Eli Lilly, Merck, GSK, and AstraZeneca; and grants from P1vital. DJN and individuals treated with antidepressants: a controlled study of
GMG have a small number of stocks in P1vital, a CNS experimental medicine antidepressants in suicide in Sweden 19952005. Acta Psychiatr Scand
research consultancy company. SL has received research funding from Abbvie, 2009; 120: 3744.
Roche, and Pzer in connection with genetic, brain imaging, and therapeutic 10 Nutt DJ, Sharpe M. Uncritical positive regard? Issues in the safety and
studies of people with schizophrenia. He has also been paid by Janssen and Roche ecacy of psychotherapy. J Psychopharmacol 2008; 22: 36.
to speak at or chair educational meetings about schizophrenia, as well as to 11 Bridge J A, Barbe R P, Birmaher B, et al. Emergent suicidality in a clinical
contribute to advisory boards about new antipsychotic treatments. The other psychotherapy trial for adolescent depression. Am J Psychiatry 2005;
authors declare no competing interests. 162: 217375.
12 Stone A. Suicide precipitated by psychotherapy. Am J Psychotherapy 1971;
1 Wittchen HU, Jacobi F, Rehm J, et al. The size and burden of mental 25: 1828.
disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.
13 Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, McMurdo M,
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21: 65579.
Mead GE. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;
2 Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of 9: CD004366.
disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 2006; 3: e442.
3 Anderson IM, Ferrier IN, Baldwin RC, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for
treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the
2000 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines.
J Psychopharmacol 2008; 22: 34396.

Why I think antidepressants cause more harm than good

In The Lancet Psychiatry, David Nutt and colleagues1 a variety of diseases that had both masked and non-
stated that headlines such as Antidepressants do more masked outcome assessors, and which had mostly used
harm than good plumb a new nadir in irrational subjective outcomes, found that the treatment eect
polemic. I disagree and describe here the evidence that was exaggerated by 36% on average (measured as odds
supports my argument so that readers can judge for ratio) when non-masked observers rather than masked
themselves what they think about the defence of these ones assessed the eect. The eect of antidepressants
drugs by Nutt and colleagues. is assessed on highly subjective scales (eg, the
With regard to the benets of antidepressants, in its Hamilton scale), and if we assume that the blinding is
large meta-analysis of 100 000 patients, half of whom broken for all patients in the trials and adjust for the
were depressed, the US Food and Drug Administration bias, we will nd that antidepressants have no eect
(FDA) noted that 10% more patients responded on (odds ratio 102).4
antidepressants than did those on placebo,2 and the However, I do not believe that the blinding is always
Cochrane review of depressed patients reported similar broken, only that the reported eect is highly likely to
results3 (ie, one patient might benet for every ten have been exaggerated. Many years ago, adequately
patients treated). blinded trials of tricyclic antidepressants were done,
I believe those results were exaggerated, however, in which the placebo contained atropine, which
for several reasons.4 Most importantly, the trials causes dryness in the mouth like the active drugs do.
were not eectively blinded. Antidepressants have These trials reported very small, clinically insignicant
conspicuous side-eects and many patients and their eects of tricyclic antidepressants compared with
doctors will therefore know whether the blinded drug placebo (standardised mean dierence 017, 95% CI
is active or placebo. A systematic review of 21 trials5 in 000034).6

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Another worrying nding in randomised trials is that than this. Suicides and suicide attempts were vastly
as many patients stop treatment on SSRIs as on placebo underreported in the FDAs analysis for various reasons.4
for any reason.7 After only 2 months, half the patients For example, only ve deaths by suicide were recorded
have stopped taking the drug.8 This nding suggests in 52 960 patients on antidepressants in the 2006 FDA
that, overall, considering benets and harms together, analysis2 whereas ve deaths by suicide were recorded
the patients nd the drugs useless. More importantly, in 2963 patients on paroxetine alone in a meta-analysis
no research shows whether these drugs work for the from 1993.17
outcomes that really matter, such as saving relationships SSRIs are particularly harmful for elderly patients.
and getting people back to work. Results from a carefully controlled cohort study18 of
With respect to the harms of antidepressants, most people older than 65 years of age with depression
patients who take these drugs will experience side- showed that SSRIs led to falls more often than did older
eects. The package inserts list many common side- antidepressants or if the depression was left untreated.
eects, of which one of the most frequent is sexual For every 28 elderly people treated for 1 year with an
problems. In a study9 designed to assess this side- SSRI, there was one additional death, compared with no
eect, sexual problems developed in 604 (59%) of treatment.18 SSRIs have also stimulant eects and might
1022 patients who all reported no problems with sexual precipitate conversion to bipolar disorder in about 10% of
function before they started using an antidepressant. children aged 1014 years under the care of mental health
The symptoms include decreased libido (50% of patients services .19
on uoxetine), delayed orgasm or ejaculation (also SSRIs are very poor drugs and I doubt they are safe at
50%), no orgasm or ejaculation (39%), and erectile any age. The rst SSRI was uoxetine, which the German
dysfunction or decreased vaginal lubrication (22% for drug regulator deemed totally unsuitable for the
both combined). treatment of depression.14,20 I, and others,4,21 have written
Even when tapering o them slowly, half the patients about the controversy surrounding this drug and the
have diculty stopping the drugs because of withdrawal process by which it nevertheless came to be approved and
eects, which can be severe10 and long-lasting.4 We noted widely used.
that withdrawal symptoms were described in similar I have written previously4 that there has been heavy
terms for benzodiazepines and SSRIs and were very marketing and widespread crime committed by drug
similar for 37 of 42 identied symptoms.11 However, companies, including fraud, illegal promotion, and
they were not described as dependence for SSRIs.11 To corruption of psychiatrists. In the USA, psychiatrists
dene similar problems as dependence in the case of receive more money from the drug industry than any
benzodiazepines and as withdrawal reactions in the other specialty.4,22 As a result, enough antidepressants are
case of SSRIs is irrational. For patients, the symptoms are prescribed every year in Denmark to provide treatment
just the same; it can be very hard for them to stop either for every person in the country for 6 years of their lives.4
type of drug. I believe this situation is not sound and that it also partly
Psychiatrists often argue, as did Nutt and colleagues,1 portrays the fact that many patients cannot stop these
that antidepressants protect against suicide. However, drugs because of intolerable withdrawal symptoms.
I believe that no good evidence in support of this SSRIs have been shown to have minimal or non-
idea exists. Good observational studies have refuted existent benet in patients with mild or moderate
it,12 and results from randomised trials13 have shown depression23 and I think they might not even work for
that antidepressants are associated with increased severe depression.4 They should be used very sparingly, if
risk of suicide attempts (56 more suicide attempts at all, and always with a clear plan for tapering o them.
per 1000 patient-years of SSRI exposure compared The so-called maintenance studies, in which patients
with placebo). Antidepressants have not only been after successful treatment get randomly assigned
associated with suicide but also with homicide.4,1416 to continue with the drug or a placebo, cannot be
The FDAs analysis2 showed that suicidal behaviour is interpreted as showing that the patients still need the
increased with antidepressants until about the age drug because withdrawal symptoms, which can include
of 40 yearsbut in fact, the situation is much worse depression, are inicted on the placebo group.

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Nutt and two of his co-authors, Guy M Goodwin and 8 Serna MC, Cruz I, Real J, et al. Duration and adherence of antidepressant
treatment (2003 to 2007) based on prescription database. Eur Psychiatry
Stephen Lawrie, have between them declared 22 conicts 2010; 25: 20613.
of interest in relation to drug companies.1 I wonder 9 Montejo A, Llorca G, Izquierdo J, et al. Incidence of sexual dysfunction
associated with antidepressant agents: a prospective multicenter study of
whether this declaration explains their dismissal of 1022 outpatients. Spanish Working Group for the study of psychotropic-
related sexual dysfunction. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62 (suppl 3): 1021.
psychotherapy (although it is eective and recommended
10 Fava GA, Bernardi M, Tomba E, et al. Eects of gradual discontinuation of
by NICE) and their description of my evidence-based views selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in panic disorder with agoraphobia.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2007; 10: 83538.
as a somewhat irrational polemic that is insulting to the 11 Nielsen M, Hansen EH, Gtzsche PC. What is the dierence between
discipline of psychiatry and is reinforcing stigma against dependence and withdrawal reactions? A comparison of benzodiazepines
and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Addiction 2012; 107: 90008.
mental illnesses. They also talk about anti-psychiatry, anti- 12 Zahl PH, De Leo D, Ekeberg , et al. The relationship between sales of SSRI,
capitalism, and a conspiracy theory. This is the language of TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries. BMC Psychiatry 2010; 10: 62.
13 Fergusson D, Doucette S, Glass KC, et al. Association between suicide
people who are short of arguments. attempts and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: systematic review of
randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2005; 330: 396.
14 Healy D. Let Them Eat Prozac. New York: New York University Press; 2004.
Peter C Gtzsche 15 Moore TJ, Glenmullen J, Furberg CD. Prescription drugs associated with
Nordic Cochrane Centre, Dept 7811 Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, reports of violence towards others. PLoS One 2010; 5: e15337.
Denmark 16 Lucire Y, Crotty C. Antidepressant-induced akathisia-related homicides
associated with diminishing mutations in metabolizing genes of the
pcg@cochrane.dk CYP450 family. Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2011; 4: 6581.
I declare no competing interests. 17 Montgomery SA, Dunner DL, Dunbar GC. Reduction of suicidal thoughts
with paroxetine in comparison with reference antidepressants and placebo.
1 Nutt DJ, Goodwin GM, Bhugra D, Fazel S, Lawrie S. Attacks on antidepressants: Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1995; 5: 513.
signs of deep-seated stigma? Lancet Psychiatry 2014 ; 1: 10304.
18 Coupland C, Dhiman P, Morriss R, et al. Antidepressant use and risk of
2 Laughren TP. Overview for December 13 Meeting of psychopharmacologic adverse outcomes in older people: population based cohort study. BMJ
drugs advisory committee (PDAC). 2006 Nov 16. http://www.fda.gov/ 2011; 343: d4551.
19 Martin A, Young C, Leckman JF, et al. Age eects on antidepressant-induced
(accessed Oct 22, 2012).
manic conversion. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158: 77380.
3 Arroll B, Elley CR, Fishman T, et al. Antidepressants versus placebo for
20 Internal Eli Lilly memo. Bad Homburg. 1984 May 25 (available on request).
depression in primary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 3: CD007954.
21 Virapen J. Side eects: death. College Station: Virtualbookworm.com
4 Gtzsche PC. Deadly medicines and organised crime: how big pharma has
Publishing, 2010.
corrupted health care. London: Radclie Publishing, 2013.
22 Insel TR. Psychiatrists relationships with pharmaceutical companies: part
5 Hrbjartsson A, Thomsen AS, Emanuelsson F, et al. Observer bias in
of the problem or part of the solution? JAMA 2010; 303: 119293.
randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes: systematic review of trials
with both blinded and non-blinded outcome assessors. BMJ 2012; 344: e1119. 23 Fournier JC, DeRubeis RJ, Hollon SD, et al. Antidepressant drug effects
and depression severity: a patient-level meta-analysis. JAMA 2010;
6 Moncrie J, Wessely S, Hardy R. Active placebos versus antidepressants for
303: 4753.
depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 1: CD003012.
7 Barbui C, Furukawa TA, Cipriani A. Eectiveness of paroxetine in the
treatment of acute major depression in adults: a systematic re-
examination of published and unpublished data from randomized trials.
CMAJ 2008; 178: 296305.

Mental health services provision in Somaliland

Somaliland in northern Somalia has one of the highest KingsTHET Somaliland Mental Health Group programme
prevalences of mental illness worldwide, with two out of linking Somaliland and the Kings College London Global
every ve people estimated to be living with severe mental Health Center (London, UK)5 in mental health service
health disorders.1 People with mental disorders are highly provision and training. Through this programme, several
marginalised in the Somali community and are often junior doctors5 were recruited who are now involved in
isolated at home with chains, abused, and sometimes teaching and in the provision of limited mental health
even kept in prison for many years. Very few have access services in hospitals and in the community.6 More recently,
to modern treatment because of stigma, an insucient the Somali diaspora have become involved in building
number of people trained in mental health care, and the acute mental health clinics in some cities in Somaliland
huge shortage of health-care providers2 following two and providing nancial support to existing ones.
decades of civil war in Somalia. Abuse of the stimulant khat Here, we describe a pilot project introducing a
is prevalent, which exacerbates existing mental illness.3 community-based mental health service in Borama,
Training in psychiatry was rst introduced to the medical Somaliland. This community has 20 000 inhabitants
curriculum in Somaliland universities in 20074 through a living in poor conditions, mostly people displaced

106 www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 1 July 2014