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Chapter

4
Cementing Additives
Although some additives used in HPHT cementing must be bulk-blended with
cement and shipped to the rig, most additives either are available in liquid form
or can be easily prehydrated on location. Liquid additives are particularly useful
in the North Sea area because Halliburtons Liquid Additive System can propor-
tion appropriate additives to build required slurry properties. If the design
criteria should change just before the cement job, the design can be easily
modified without the need for time-consuming and costly reblending.

Cement additives such as retarders, dispersants, and certain fluid-loss additives


are available as aqueous solutions. Cellulose-based fluid-loss additives such as
HALAD-22A and HALAD-344 can be formulated as liquids in the form of
oil-based suspensions because of their viscosifying properties.

Note Aqueous solutions will not viscosify cement while oil suspen-
sions will. Oil suspensions will gel in the presence of small
amounts of water. Try to avoid water contamination at all
costs.

Strength Stabilizing Additives


SSA-1
SSA-1 is a fine silica flour that can be added to oilwell cement to provide
strength stability and maintain low permeability at static temperatures from 230
to 700F. SSA-1 is preferred for use over SSA-2 in salt-saturated cement.

SSA-2
SSA-2 is a coarse silica that can be used to provide strength stability to oilwell
cements while maintaining good permeability characteristics above 230F. Since
SSA-2 is a fairly course grade of silica and has little to no water requirement, it
commonly replaces SSA-1 in heavyweight cement designs. Where applicable
oth SSA-1 and SSA-2 should be bulk-blended with the cement.

April 1996 Cementing Additives 4-1


Heavyweight Additives
High temperatures and pressures in deep wells often require the addition of a
weighting material to increase slurry density, restrain high formation pressures,
and improve mud displacement.

HI-DENSE No. 3
The most common material for weighting cement is hematite. One source of
hematite is Halliburtons HI-DENSE No. 3 weight additive.

HI-DENSE No. 3 is an inert, nonradioactive, nonmagnetic, fine, reddish granu-


lar material with a specific gravity of 5.0. This product produces a minimal
effect on other additives in the slurry, produces only a slight effect on thickening
time, and does not significantly reduce the compressive strength of set cement.

The amount of water required to fluidize HI-DENSE No. 3 by itself is about


18% (2.2 gal water per 100 lb material), resulting in a slurry weight of 26 lb/gal
with an effective specific gravity of 3.15. This percentage of water should be the
maximum water ratio used for HI-DENSE No. 3. This ratio is not recommended
for slurries that also contain any of the various dispersing additives because
excessive settling could occur. HI-DENSE No. 3 must be dry-blended with the
cement.

HI-DENSE No. 4
HI-DENSE No. 4 is hematite that has been graded to a smaller average particle
size than HI-DENSE No. 3. This material was developed for use in cementing
slurries to help counter settling problems that result from thermal thinning at
high temperatures.

With the exception of the variation in particle size, HI-DENSE No. 4 is physi-
cally and chemically the same as HI-DENSE No. 3. HI-DENSE No. 4 requires
20% water (2.4 gal water per 100 lb material) to fluidize, resulting in a slurry
weight of 25 lb/gal and a specific gravity of 3.0. HI-DENSE No. 4 also must be
dry-blended with the cement.

MICROMAX
MICROMAX, a hausmannite ore, can be used successfully as a weighting
material. MICROMAX is a fine, reddish-brown powder that has a specific
gravity of 4.9 and is nonradioactive and nonmagnetic. Approximately 35% of
this material is composed of particles less than 1.2 microns in size. This unusual
fineness can affect cement slurries. Higher concentrations of most retarders may
be required to achieve the same thickening times obtained with other types of
weighting additives. Slurries containing MICROMAX also may require dispers-
ants so the slurry can be mixed at the designed weight.

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The water requirement for MICROMAX by itself is about 40% (4.8 gal water
per 100 lb material). MICROMAX is unique among weighting materials in that
it can be added directly to the mixing water and will remain in suspension.

SSA-2
SSA-2 can be effectively used to create moderate-weight slurries because of its
extremely low water requirements. While not as effective as HI-DENSE No. 3,
SSA-2 can be used as a substitute to create cement slurries of approximately 17
lb/gal.

Dispersants
CFR-2
Halliburtons CFR-2 cement friction reducer can be used in a wide range of
cement slurry compositions prepared with all classes of cements. CFR-2 can be
used in salt slurries up to 18% and can be used to improve flow properties. It is
an excellent densifying agent that greatly reduces the quantity of weighting
material required to obtain a specific slurry weight. This additive has no appar-
ent temperature limitation and can be used to cement casing at circulating
temperatures above 450F. CFR-2 can be added to the mix water and is available
as a 33% active solution.

CFR-3
While CFR-2 can be used in salt slurries up to 18%, CFR-3 dispersant can be
used in fresh water and in any salt slurry from trace level through saturation.
CFR-3 also improves flow properties. It is an excellent densifying agent that
reduces the quantity of weighting material required to obtain a specific slurry
weight. This additive also has no apparent temperature limitation and can be
used to cement casing at circulating temperatures above 450F. CFR-3 can be
added to the mix water and is available as a 33% active solution.

April 1996 Cementing Additives 4-3


Suspension Additives
SA-541
SA-541 was developed to provide solids suspension properties for both fresh
water and KCl-containing cement slurries up to about 400F. SA-541 imparts
little surface viscosity to the cement slurries, yet it provides viscosity at elevated
temperatures to compensate for the thermal thinning experienced by the slurry. It
is often used when other suspending aids cause surface mixing problems.
Because SA-541 is a powdered material, it is routinely dry-blended with the
cement.

Silicalite 97L/Microblock
Silicalite 97L and Microblock cement additives are liquid products that provide
early pozzolanic-type reactions during cement hydration. The physical and
chemical properties of these materials make them useful in a variety of cement-
ing applications. Because these products have high surface areas, they can
promote a measure of thixotropy that can be used in deep well cementing to
provide excellent suspension properties and free-water control. Depending on
the slurry design and the degree of thixotropy developed, these additives also can
help prevent gas migration. They have been known to impart a small degree of
fluid-loss control as well. Silicalite 97L and Microblock are each available as a
50% active aqueous suspension.

GasCon 469
GasCon 469 is a new liquid lightweight cement additive that has been developed
for a variety of well conditions. Advantages include:

increased slurry stability by reducing settling tendencies and acting as a


free-water control additive, better strengths at low temperature with high
water ratio slurries
use as an extender in lightweight slurries and compatible with HALAD
fluid-loss additives
use in preventing gas migration through unset cement

Thixotropic tendencies have been noted in some slurries, resulting in excellent


10-minute gel strength buildup. This material is 15% active by weight and can
be added through the LAP system.

LATEX 2000
LATEX 2000 can act as a suspension aid without greatly increasing the cement
slurrys viscosity. Latex has been used in oilwell cement for many years. Formu-
lations containing latex yield set cement with low permeability, decreased drying
shrinkage, and reduced susceptibility to cracking. These properties help to resist
chemical attack and help to improve mechanical integrity. These benefits result
from the comatrix structure of the set product, which are caused by the way

4-4 High Pressure/High Temperature Cementing April 1996


LATEX 2000 cement sets. The cement particles initially hydrate and develop the
structure typical of hydrated cement. As water is removed, the latex particles
coalesce to form a continuous hydrocarbon phase that coats the hydrated cement
particles, forming particle-to-particle bridges that occupy the porosity of the set
cement.

Retarders
HR-4
HR-4 is a lignosulfonate cement retarder recommended for use in wells where
temperatures are too high for Class G or H cements or regular POZMIX
cement. A small amount of HR-4 retarder added to the cement provides safer
pumping times with a minimum reduction in the 24-hour compressive strength.

HR-5
HR-5 is an improved cement retarder that has been developed for use in cement-
ing operations involving circulating temperatures of 210F or less. HR-5, a
chemically modified lignosulfonate, is compatible with all cements. HR-5
shows improved performance in providing a uniform increase in thickening time
for each increase in retarder concentration. HR-5 behaves more similarly in a
wide variety of cement slurries.

HR-12
HR-12 liquid retarder is an organic compound that can be used to retard cement-
ing compositions at circulating temperatures ranging from 170 to 340F. This
product is available as a 40% active liquid solution.

HR-15
HR-15 powered cement retarder is a high-temperature retarder that has been
developed for use in cementing operations involving circulating temperatures of
248 to 380F. HR-15 is available in a 40% active solution as HR -13L.

HR-20
HR-20 cement retarder is a mixture of HR-12 and Component R and is used to
retard cementing compositions at circulating temperatures ranging from 300 to
550F. Below 400F, HR-20 may exhibit a large threshold effect (the thickening
time can be extremely sensitive to the concentration of HR-20 used). Sometimes
this effect can be improved by varying the HR-12/Component R ratio.

HR-25
HR-25 is a cement retarder primarily used to intensify common retarders such as
SCR-100. This product is used at circulating temperatures from 220 to 400F.
Because it is highly soluble in water, HR-25 can be added to the mixing water

April 1996 Cementing Additives 4-5


or dry-blended. This increased solubility results in more uniform response in the
laboratory and less influence on compressive strength development, especially at
the top of long columns of cement.

CAHT-1
CAHT-1 is a conditioning aid used to prevent or reduce excessive or premature
gelation of some cements. Properly used, CAHT-1 will allow high-gelling, low-
quality cements to perform with most cement additives for applications associ-
ated with oilwell cementing. CAHT-1 is compatible with all retarders and fluid-
loss additives. Normal concentrations range from 0.4 to 1% (BWOC) and is
applicable from 200F to +350F.

SCR-100
SCR-100 is a new synthetic polymer cement retarder that permits good 24-hour
strength development at the cooler temperatures encountered by the slurry in the
upper sections of the cemented wellbore. This feature is particularly beneficial
when cementing long liners. In deep hot wells, SCR-100 is commonly used with
HR-25 to provide predictable retarder response at temperatures exceeding 240F.
When SCR-100 is used in cement designs containing high concentrations of salt,
a retarder intensifier often is not needed. SCR-100 is available in a powder form
or in a 40% active liquid solution.

Fluid Loss Additives


HALAD-22A
HALAD-22A is a fluid-loss additive recommended for high-temperature control
of filtration in fresh water or 18% salt-cement slurries. It is compatible with
other additives used in deep well cementing, such as CFR-2, salt, HR

-12, silica flour, and HI-DENSE products.

HALAD -344
HALAD-344 fluid-loss additive solves the problems caused by fluid-loss
additives that produce excessive retardation at low temperatures in lightweight
cement compositions. HALAD-344 additive does not exhibit retarding proper-
ties at low temperatures. A low concentration of HALAD-344 gives excellent
fluid-loss control and is relatively salt-tolerant. It is effective with up to 18% salt
in a variety of different cement compositions. The nonretarding property in
HALAD-344 is beneficial in lightweight compositions, which often have long

4-6 High Pressure/High Temperature Cementing April 1996


thickening times, especially when used with some of the more widely used
fluid-loss additives.

HALAD-361 A
HALAD-361 A fluid-loss additive is a nonretarding product that is designed for
use in saturated salt and seawater cement slurries. HALAD-361 A also is
effective in a wide variety of other applications such as low to high temperatures
and fresh water. Unlike most fluid-loss additives, HALAD-361 A is
nonviscosifyingan important feature for high-temperature cement slurries,
which frequently contain a variety of additives.

HALAD-413
HALAD-413 fluid-loss additive is a unique high-temperature additive that is
commonly used for densified cement slurries or slurries mixed with high salt
concentrations. This additive can provide excellent fluid-loss values at tempera-
tures from 180 to 400F in a variety of cement compositions.

Cement slurries that traditionally exhibit surface mixing difficulty have re-
sponded especially well to HALAD-413 because it does not increase the viscos-
ity of the slurry. In many instances, HALAD-413 acts as a mild dispersant. This
feature enhances cement placement by reducing the pumping rate required to
achieve turbulent flow. HALAD-413 is available in powder form or as a 25%
active solution.

HALAD-600LE+
HALAD-600LE+ is a cementing fluid-loss additive for operations that require
an environmentally acceptable material. HALAD-600LE+ is a nonviscosifying,
slightly retarding additive that can be used up to 300F. It can be used with
either fresh water or seawater. HALAD-600LE+ is not compatible with high
concentrations of salt.

LATEX 2000
LATEX 2000 can be used at bottomhole circulating temperatures (BHCT) as
high as 380F. However, recent case histories show that this system has been
used successfully to prepare high density slurries up to 430F. A high tempera-
ture stabilizing agent, Suspend HT, was added, and the slurries were retarded
with a combination of SCR-100 and HR-25 retarders.

Special Gas Migration Additives


GasStop
GasStop additive is designed to delay static gel development, permitting the
cement slurry to transmit hydrostatic pressure for a much longer time than
conventional cement slurry designs. When combined with other high-tempera-

April 1996 Cementing Additives 4-7


ture fluid-loss additives, GasStop slurries can be effective up to 250F and
possibly higher. This product is relatively salt-tolerant and can be used in cement
designs containing up to 18% salt. GasStop is available in powder form (which
can be dissolved in the mix water) or as a 33% active nonaqueous suspension.

SUPER CBL
SUPER CBL cement blend is a gas-generating expansive additive that is used to
compensate for plastic-state shrinkage under downhole conditions at tempera-
tures from 150 to 400F and possibly higher. The amount of gas generation
generated should slightly exceed the volume lost from the cement slurry. Gas
generation normally starts shortly before measurable chemical hydration of the
cement slurry and continues past initial set. For normal operations, dry-blending
with cement is the recommended and preferred means of handling SUPER CBL.

GAS-CHEK
Like SUPER CBL, GAS-CHEK cement also is a gas-generating expansive
additive that compensates for plastic-state shrinkage at downhole temperatures
exceeding 400F. When extremely severe gas migration potentials are calculated,
serious consideration should be given to the use of GAS-CHEK above all other
gas migration additives. The gas-generation reaction of GAS-CHEK cement can
be designed to occur precisely as the cement is being placed in the annulus by
using a liquid inhibitor. GAS-CHEK is available only as a nonaqueous suspen-
sion.

Note To prevent gas migration in wells that have a gas flow


potential of 8 or higher, a compressible cement system such
as SUPER CBL or GAS-CHEK is usually recommended.
When these products are used, batch mixing procedures
cannot be used because a premature reaction could occur,
generating hydrogen gas in surface holding tanks even when
holding times are kept at a minimum.

MicroBond
MicroBond is an additive for oilwell cements to promote dimensional expansion
during the final part of the plastic-state phase and during early strength develop-
ment. MicroBond can be used with any type or class of Portland cement or
pozzolan cement blends. It is also compatible with all fluid-loss control addi-
tives, dispersants, and accelerators. The application temperature range for
MicroBond is 32 to 175F. Normal dosages are 8 to 24% by weight of cement
for free, linear, water-immersed expansion of 0.15 to 0.5%. Above 100F, the
final expansion decreases as the temperature increases.

4-8 High Pressure/High Temperature Cementing April 1996


MicroBond M
MicroBond M cement expansive additive was developed specifically for moder-
ate temperatures and provides excellent expansive properties at temperatures
ranging from 130 to 210F. MicroBond M yields significant expansion between
130 and 170F without requiring large dosages or imposing design difficulties.
At temperatures of 170 to 210F, MicroBond M will yield good expansion in 3
days, eliminating any need to wait for significant expansion to occur in the
slurry. At dosage levels of only 5%, MicroBond M will provide good expansive
properties in virtually any cement system. It has been tested in slurries contain-
ing 12 to 37% salt and has performed well.

MicroBond HT
MicroBond HT cement expanding additive is used at temperatures above 170F.
Cement expansion additives previously were limited by either the type of
cement in which they could be used or by the maximum effective temperature.
MicroBond HT additive not only provides expansion up to 500F but also is
functional in all API cement classifications. MicroBond HT can provide from 1
to 3% unrestrained linear expansion from dosages ranging from approximately 3
to 5% (by weight of cement). Microbond HT should perform well in areas
troubled by suspected microchanneling problems with minimal design and job
execution problems.

Anti-Foam Agents
NF-4
NF-4 defoamer was developed to function over a wide range of slurry types.
This additive is useful with slurries that exhibit strong foaming tendencies or
with slurries that have high yield points that cause air entrainment.

Although this additive can prevent or alleviate foaming problems caused by the
presence of salt, fluid-loss additives, and retarders, it cannot successfully
alleviate foaming problems caused by surfactants.

D-AIR 3
D-AIR 3 defoamer must be used to prevent or alleviate foaming caused by
surfactants. This product is commonly used when DUAL SPACER is being
designed with surfactants to displace an oil-based drilling fluid. D-AIR 3 is also
needed in LATEX 2000 cement systems because the system also uses a surfac-
tant in its formulation.

NF-5
NF-5 defoamer is an environmentally acceptable, cost-effective defoamer. NF-5
can be used as a nonfoaming agent or a defoaming agent.

April 1996 Cementing Additives 4-9


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