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Design and Fabrication of an

automatic shoe polishing machine

Submitted by

Muhammad Bilal 327-FET/BSME/F13


Asif Mahmood 330-FET/BSME/F13
Muhammad Gulsher 335-FET/BSME/F13

Supervisor Engr. Muhammad Rizwan

Co-supervisor Engr. Noor Rahman

Department of Mechanical Engineering


International Islamic University
Islamabad, Pakistan
2017

i
Design and Fabrication of an
automatic shoe polishing machine

Submitted by

Muhammad Bilal 327-FET/BSME/F13


Asif Mahmood 330-FET/BSME/F13
Muhammad Gulsher 335-FET/BSME/F13

A Thesis

Presented in International Islamic University, Islamabad

In partial fulfillment for degree requirement of

Bachelor in Science

in

Mechanical Engineering

2017

Islamabad, Pakistan

ii
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
It is certified that we have checked the project presented and demonstrated by
Muhammad Bilal (327-FET/BSME/F13), Asif Mahmood (330-FET/BSME/F13),
Muhammad Gulsher (335-FET/BSME/F13) and approve their project.

Supervisor co-supervisor
Engr. Muhammad Rizwan Engr. Noor Rahman

Dr. Saeed Badshah


Head of Department
Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Technology

i
Declaration
We hereby declare that this project, neither whole nor as a part has been copied
out from any source. It is further declared that we have developed this project
and accompanied report entirely on the basis of our personal efforts. If any part of
this project is proved to be copied out from any source or found to be
reproduction of some other.

We will stand by the consequences. No Portion of the work presented has been
submitted of any application for any other degree or qualification of this or any
other university or institute of learning.

Muhammad Bilal
(327-FET/BSME/F13)

Asif Mahmood
(330-FET/BSME/F13)

Muhammad Gulsher
(335-FET/BSME/F13)

i
Dedication
This thesis is dedicated to our parents for their love, endless support and
encouragement.

ii
Acknowledgement
In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Beneficent. It is with the
deepest senses gratitude of the almighty that gives strength and ability to
complete this thesis successfully.

First and foremost, we have to thank our parents for their love and support
throughout our life. Thank you both for giving us strength to reach stars and our
dreams.

We would like to sincerely thank our supervisor Engr. Muhammad Rizwan for his
guidance and support throughout this project. We would like to sincerely thank
our co-supervisor Engr. Noor Rahman for his guidance in this project.

iii
Abstract
In this work an attempt has been made to design and fabricate an automatic shoe
polishing Machine which makes the shoe polishing process easy and time
saving. This project focuses on automation of the shoe Polishing and shining
process without any human involvement in the process. The main purpose to
design the automatic shoe polishing machine is to reduce human effort to zero.
The machine consists of three main units transportation, polishing operation
section and control unit which controls the whole operation according to given
instructions.

iv
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction ........................................................................................vi
1.1 Overview...................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Problem Statement ...................................................................................... 2
1.3 Objective Statement .................................................................................... 2
1.4 Working Principle ......................................................................................... 2
Chapter 2 Literature Review ............................................................................... 4
Chapter 3 Design and Specifications .................................................................. 7
3.1 Microcontroller ............................................................................................. 8
3.2 Arduino ..................................................................................................... 10
3.3 Arduino UNO ............................................................................................ 10
3.4 Stepper motor ............................................................................................ 11
3.5 Photoelectric sensor .................................................................................. 12
3.5.1 IR sensor ............................................................................................. 13
3.6 Flat conveyor Belt ...................................................................................... 14
3.7 Design & Calculation of Flat Conveyor Belt .............................................. 15
3.8 DC Motors ................................................................................................. 25
3.9 DC Pump ................................................................................................... 26
3.10 Worm Gear .............................................................................................. 27
3.11 Rack and Pinion ...................................................................................... 28
Chapter 4 Methodology..................................................................................... 30
4.1 Hardware ................................................................................................... 30
4.2 Electronics ................................................................................................. 30
4.3 Arduino Programming ................................................................................ 30
Chapter 5 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 39
Chapter 6 Recommendations ........................................................................... 40
References ......................................................................................................... 41

v
Table of Figures
Figure 2-1 (machine designed by Sreenivas and Shankar) ................................. 4
Figure 3-1 (Cup type Brush) ............................................................................... 7
Figure 3-2 (Cylindrical Brush) .............................................................................. 8
Figure 3-3 (Model Designed on PRO E) .............................................................. 8
Figure 3-4 (Ardiuno UNO) ................................................................................. 11
Figure 3-5 (IR Sensor) ....................................................................................... 14
Figure 3-6 (Fabricated Machine FV) .................................................................. 24
Figure 3-7 (Fabricated Machine TV) ................................................................. 24
Figure 3-8 (Fabricated Machine) ........................................................................ 25
Figure 3-9 (DC Motor) ........................................................................................ 26
Figure 3-10 (DC Pump)..................................................................................... 27
Figure 3-11 (worm Gear and Worm Wheel) ....................................................... 28
Figure 3-12 (Rack and Pinion) .......................................................................... 29

vi
Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Overview

As all the persons want to wear a shoe in every place which is clean. This
machine help in reducing the difficulty of existing product available in the market
at the same time increase the use of this product in offices, institution etc. The
Fully automatic shoe polishing machine has been designed considering all the
requirement and need of users. It has a sensing device which sense the object
which is shoe depending on that it start working. It is portable. The problems
which arise in the manual operation have been reduced in this machine. Each
and every person thinks that their shoe should be clean and shiny. Taking all
these into account we have designed this product which reduces the burden of
manual operation at the same time increases the use of modern techniques. This
project is to provide an apparatus for shining shoes which overcome the problem
encountered in the conventional one. It obtains a desired shoe shining effect
greater than a manual one. [1], [2]

The Fully automatic shoe polishing machine is used to polish your shoe within a
short interval of time which reduces human strength and effort. The selection of
shoe nowadays become much difficult all of them want that their shoes should
give an attractive look and much better long lasting but forget to follow the steps
that needed, therefore reminding all these difficulties we have developed this
machine which give your shoes desired look everyday with better shine. Such a
places like hospitals, preserved laboratories and highly sensisitive research
laboratories like computer labs, instrumentation labs, operational theatre and
various production assembly sites in chemical, pharmaceutical industries which
are required to be free from dust and dirt which would be carried through the
shoe of the concern persons to the work area, unclean shoes causing
uncomfortable environment and also sometimes hazardous to the working
environment. Every person whether child(student) which goes to school or

1
university or gentleman which goes to office or his working place wants to wear
clean and neat shoes. Therefore it is necessary to design such a machine which
reduces human effort and saves the time. During early times, there is no concept
of shoe polishing machine. Shoe is polished through cloth or rug. Later on when
technology is evolved, then shoe polishing machines started to design. All
existing shoe polishing machines till now which are required human effort to
orient the shoe according to brushes during polishing. [3]

Simply put the shoe on conveyor, through beam sensor detects shoe. Then
sensor transmits the input to Microcontroller which actuates stepper motor
mounted on conveyor driver roller for certain steps according to instructions. As
soon as stepper motor completes certain revolution, then shoe reached operation
station. Then polishing brushes starts to rotate at certain rpm. After certain time
brushes stop to rotate, then stepper motor rotates for certain revolution to put
shoe outside according to instructions given to Microcontroller. [4]

1.2 Problem Statement

The main problem to design and fabricate of automatic shoe polishing machine is
involvement of human. While polishing shoe manually human involvement is
must. There is also shoe polishing machines exist, but there is also human
involvement is must to orient the shoe according to brush. It consumes more time
to complete the operation.

1.3 Objective Statement

The main objective is to reduce human effort. There are some other objectives
such as to minimize operation time and improve the shiny of shoe.

1.4 Working Principle

The proposed design consists of three major parts. One is Conveyor belt that
moves the shoe. Second are motors. And the third one is its Electronics
assembly which contains Microcontroller, Sensor and Electronic Circuit. The shoe
is placed on conveyor belt using a gripper that facilitates shoe to be held firmly.
As soon as sensor detects shoe, then sensor transmits a signal to Microcontroller
which actuates the conveyor belt. Stepper motor which is mounted on conveyor
driver roller completes certain revolution according to instructions which is given

2
to microcontroller. As soon as shoe reach at the position where polishing
operation is performed. Then Microcontroller actuates DC motor on which
polishing brushes mounted. Sides brushes and upper brush rotate at higher rpm
to polish the shoe effectively. After certain time, brushes stop and then
Microcontroller again actuates the stepper motor to put off the shoe from
conveyor.

3
Chapter 2

Literature Review

Till the mid of 19th century shoe cleaned or polished manually using a rag,
cloth or brush. At that time people used a waxy product to shine or polish shoe.
That waxy product was made from natural wax, oil, soda ash and tallow. There
was no concept of shoe polishing machine at that time.

In January 15, 1974 William A. Beck and River Hills were designed a coin
operated shoe polishing machine which contained two brushes, a motor and a
coin sensing device. Sensing device used to actuate the motor as soon as sense
the coin. As soon as coin put in box where sensing device was mounted, motor
started and brushes rotated at higher rpm, then shoe oriented according to
polishing brushes. [1]

In September 2013, Asst. Professor Sreenivas H T in Department of


Mechanical Engineering, VVIT and Shankar Gouda who was Student in
Department of Mechanical Engineering, EPCET, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
were designed a shoe polishing Machine. It consisted of four brushes mounted
on three shafts which were rotated by a motor. Two brushes mounted on sides to
left and right side of shoe, one used to clean the sole of shoe and fourth one was
mounted on a shaft which used to polish rear and upper part of shoe. In fourth
one brush shoe oriented according to brush to polish rear and upper surface of
shoe. In this design shoe polish applied on shoe surface manually during
operation. [5]

Figure 2-1 (machine designed by Sreenivas and Shankar)


4
In April 2015, Chauhan Vipul M., Swami Harsh R. Daiya Pradip R and
Chauhan Vishwas S. were designed a shoe polishing machine under the
supervision of Prof. Rajeshkumar. It consisted on four brushes in which two
brushes sliding alongside surfaces of shoe by scotch yoke mechanism. It
converts the rotary motion into sliding motion. One brush rotated by a motor
which used to clean or polish rear surface of shoe. Fourth one brush is able to
moves in up and down direction because it is further attached with flexible joint
which give them motion in two directions. It is used to clean or polish front upper
periphery of shoe. There is water pump which is used for dispensing of fluid to
the surface of the shoe.

In April 2016, Animesh Kujur, Digvijay Murmu, Ashok Kumar Law, Amardeep
Kumar, Kunal and Anup Ojha were published a research paper in an
International conference of Engineering and Technology in which they designed a
Coin operated shoe polishing machine. It contained two brushes one is for
cleaning purpose and other to polish the shoe which both mounted on same shaft
rotated by a motor. As soon as metal sensing device detects coin then motor
started to move. In this machine shoe is oriented according to brush during
polishing operation. [6]

In 2016, Amogh A.N., Chirag V.R., Denver Martis, Gagan K.N. (These all are
UG scholars, NMAM Institute of Technology, Karkala Taluk, Udupi Dist.
Karnataka State, India) designed an Automatic Shoe Polishing Machine under
the supervision of Grynal DMello (Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg.,
NMAMIT, Nitte, Karkala Taluk, Udupi Dist. Karnataka State, India). It consisted of
two wax roll, two roller brushes and a carriage on which a gripper mounted to grip
the shoe firmly. The shoe is gripped on the carriage using a gripper that facilitates
shoes of different sizes to be placed firmly. By pushing the start button on the
console will provide input to the microcontroller(Arduino UNO ATMEGA-328)
which actuates the lead screw. Thus the carriage (conveyor) starts moving in
the forward direction. Simultaneously the wax roll comes in contact with the roller
brush and hence a layer of polish is applied to the shoe surface. When the
carriage(conveyor) moves to the extreme end in the forward direction and
actuates a push button switch, the direction of lead screw will be reversed
5
thus moving the carriage in opposite direction. Simultaneously wax roll gets
detached and the roller brush rotates at a higher rpm in the opposite
direction performing buffing action in order to provide the necessary shiny
effect. [7]

6
Chapter 3

Design and Specifications

Model of project designed on Pro E is shown below whose specifications are


following

Flat conveyor belt:


Length 900mm
Width 150mm
Micro controller:
Arduino UNO
Proximity sensor:
IR sensor
Brushes:
Nylon cylindrical brushes
Cuptype brush diameter = 100mm
Cylindrical brush diameter = 150mm

Figure 3-1 (Cup type Brush)

7
Figure 3-2 (Cylindrical Brush)

Figure 3-3 (Model Designed on PRO E)

3.1 Microcontroller

Microcontroller is the integration of a microprocessor with memory and


input/output interfaces, and other peripherals such as timers, on a single chip. It

8
is an integrated electronic computing and logic device. It uses many functions in
order to control machines and automation processes which are following. [8]

logic
sequencing
timing
counting
arithmetic

It is basically a single integrated circuit or a small computer. It is a system on


chip. It is a small and low-cost computer built for performing specific tasks, such
as displaying information in a microwave LED or receiving information from a
televisions remote control. Microcontrollers are mainly used in products that
require a degree of control to be exerted by the user. It may contain one or more
CPUs. It also has memory and programmable inputs and outputs phase or
peripherals. These are designed for many embedded applications.
Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices like
remote controls, office machines, appliances, toys and power tools.
Microcontroller is more efficient in size and cost compared to a design that
consists of a separate microprocessor, storage, and input/output devices,
microcontrollers make such a design economical to digitally control even more
devices and processes. Microcontrollers usually contain from several to dozens
of general purpose input/output pins. General purpose input/output pins are
assigned as either an input or an output state according to software configuration.
When these pins are configured to an input state, they are used to read input
devices such as sensors or external signals. Configured to the output state, GPIO
pins can drive external devices such as LEDs or motors, often indirectly, through
external power electronics. So in shoe polishing machine we have to control the
sensor and motors with microcontroller. We have to get input from the sensor and
also give output to the motors. [8]

9
3.2 Arduino

There are a lot of microcontrollers like Altera, Atmel, Cypress semiconductor,


PLC, Maxim Integrated, Arduino, Fujitsu, Holtek Intel etc. But we are using
Arduino in Automatic shoe polishing machine because it is easy to handle
arduino in terms of Hardware or Software. It has low cost. It is connected with a
computer through serial connection or ports. It can be powered from computer or
DC power supply. It can work with both Digital and Analog electronic signals.
Sensors and Actuators are Portable. It is user friendly. Its Programming is easy. It
is basically open-source electronics platform. That is based on easy-to-use
software and hardware. Arduino boards are capable or used to read the input and
with the help of input instructions it activate light on a sensor and finger on a
button and also convert it into an output. Outputs are in the form of activate a
motor and turn on a Light Emitting Diode etc. Arduino Software (IDE) is used to
send a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. [9]

3.3 Arduino UNO

The Arduino UNO is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. It has 14


digital input/output pins ,6 analog inputs, a USB connection, a power jack, a 16
MHz crystal oscillator, an ICSP header, and a reset button. In Automatic shoe
polishing machine we have photoelectric sensor input and outputs for motors, so
the inputs and outputs are in the limited range thats why we dont need any other
type of Arduino like Arduino Mega that has a large number of inputs and outputs.
If we look at its technical specifications. It has 5v operating voltage. And input
voltage is 7-12v. It has 14 Digital I/O pins and 6 Analog input pins. It has 32KB
Flash memory and 16MHZ clock speed. Its length is 68.6mm, width is 53.4mm
and weight is 25g. [9], [10]

10
Figure 3-4 (Ardiuno UNO)

3.4 Stepper motor

The stepper motor rotates in steps. Each step moves 1.8 degree of 360 degree.
Stepper motor consists of multiple coils that are organized in groups called
"phases". By energizing each coil in sequence, on each coil energized the
stepper motor will rotate one step which means 1.8 degree at a time. Through
controller we can move stepper motor for certain steps and control the speed. For
this reason, the stepper motors are selected or chose for many precision motion
control applications such as process automation and robotics. [11]

Positioning: Since steppers move in precise repeatable steps, stepper motor is


used in such applications which are required precise positioning such as 3D
printers, CNC, Camera platforms and X, Y Plotters. Some disk drives also use
stepper motors to position the read/write head. [12]

11
Speed Control: The applications such as process automation and robotics
where we have required precise increment movement, stepper motor provides
precise speed control. [12]

Low Speed Torque: DC motors have not high torque, but stepper motor have
high torque at low speed. Commonly we have required high torque at precise low
speed in robotics in such applications stepper motor is better. [12]

Low Efficiency: Unlike DC motors, efficiency of stepper motor is low. Stepper


motor consumes high current when there is no load. It consume less current
when it is in working condition. [12]

Limited High Speed Torque: As we know that motors have low torque at high
speed and high torque at low speed. Some stepper motors are optimized for
better high-speed performance, but they have required to be paired with an
appropriate driver to achieve that performance. [12]

No Feedback: Servo motors provide feedback but stepper motors do not provide
feedback. Although great precision can be achieved running open loop. Limit
switches or home detectors are typically required for safety and/or to establish a
reference position. [12]

There are three main reasons to select a stepper motor, first we have required a
control motion for this, stepper motor is best because it divides a full rotation into
a number of equal steps. Most stepper motors move 1.8 per step or has 200
steps for one complete revolution. Second, there is no tuning required while in
servo motor, there is tuning required to meet performance criteria for current,
velocity, and position in control loop. The most important reason is cost which is
usually lower than a servo motors because there is no position feedback sensor.
In servo motor there is position feedback sensor which require more wiring. [12]

3.5 Photoelectric sensor

Photoelectric sensor is a type of sensor which uses infrared light to detect the
object. It detects the object in three different sensing modes which are following

12
Retro-reflective mode
Diffused Mode
Thru-beam mode

In Retro-reflective mode, both receiver and transmitter are enclosed in a single


housing, transmitter transmits a beam and receiver receives reflected beam
which is reflected when target is present in path of beam with different
characteristics as emitted from transmitter. One additional component which is
used in this mode is reflector. It is different from other mode due to its unique
property, because it allows longer sensing ranges than diffused mode due to the
increased efficiency of the reflector compared with the reflectivity of most targets.
[13]

In Diffused Mode, the transmitter and receiver are in the same housing. Light
beam which is emitted from the transmitter strikes the target which reflects light at
arbitrary angles. Some beam is diffused in target and remaining reflected light
beam returns to the receiver, and then target is detected. [13]

In Thru-beam mode, this mode uses two separate housings, for the transmitter
and receiver. One of them is mounted on either side and other is mounted on
side of target. when light beam emitted from the transmitter is not reached at the
receiver due to target, the output on the receiver is activated. It is the most
efficient of the three modes, due to the longest possible sensing ranges. [13]

Through beam sensing made applications are Stack heights, Conveyors package
detection, Parts counting and Part presence etc. [13]

3.5.1 IR sensor

There are many reasons for using IR sensor but main two reasons for choosing
IR sensor which are following

Cost
The most important question which is asked by anyone about project is cost. We
select such a sensor which is cost effective. Therefore we selected IR sensor
whose cost is 150 rupees.

13
Availability
Second important thing during selecting any component is its availability in
market easily. Therefore we selected IR sensor which is easily available in
market.

Figure 3-5 (IR Sensor)

3.6 Flat conveyor Belt

There are two main reasons to select a flat conveyor belt than other conveyor
belts which are following

Cost
The main reasons to select flat conveyor belt is the cost. Because its complete
assembly consists of two rollers, belt and a motor to actuate the conveyor.

Power
The second main reason is that flat conveyor belt is required less power to
convey the items as compared to other conveyors.

14
3.7 Design & Calculation of Flat Conveyor Belt [14]

Belt width (B) 130 mm

Length between centers (L) 750mm

Pulley diameter (D) 76mm [15], [16]

Belt speed (V) 2.5 m/s [15], [16]

Mass of Shoe (m) 0.5Kg

Effective pull (Te) is given by

Te= m g

Coefficient of friction = = 0.35

Putting values in given equation

Then

Te = 1.71675N

Belt Tension

From Eulers law of friction drive, considering no slip between belt and pulley

T1
T2 e (3.1)

Where

T1 Belt tension at tight side


T2 Belt tension at slack side
Wrap angle in radian radian
Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley 0.35

T1 T2 Te 3.2
T1 T2 1.71675

15
Putting value of wrap angle and coefficient of friction

T1
e0.35*3.14
T2
T1 T2 *3.0011

Putting value of T1 in above equation


Then

T2 0.8579 N
T1 2.5746 N

PA Absorbed Power which is required to derive pulley after taking loss into account
PA PDP ( RW RB )V (3.3)

Where
R B is Pulley bearing resistance for drive pulley

RW is wrapping resistance between belt and pulley, generally calculated from formula
TAV t
RW 9 B[140 0.01 ] (3.4)
B D
Where
B = Belt width
t = Belt thickness = 2mm
D = Pulley diameter
T T
TAV 1 2 (3.5)
2
Putting values in above relation, then
RW = 4.3145N
RB is negligible. [14]

Putting values in absorbed power formula, then


PA = 15.0782W
16
1hp = 746watt
PA = 0.0202hp

We have to calculate motor output power. As we know that motor power is

PA
PM (3.6)

Where
PA Absorbed power
Overall efficiency 0.90

Putting values in above relation to find motor power


PM = 0.0224hp
The rpm of drive roller is calculated by using the formula,

*D* N
V (3.7)
60
60*V
N
*D
Where
V Belt speed
N Output rpm
D pulley diameter
putting values in above relation to output rpm (N)
N 628rpm

As we know that the torque is calculated by using the following formula


2* * N * T
PA (3.8)
60
P *60
T A
2* * N
Putting values to calculate Torque
T 0.2282 Nm

T 1 = Carrying side belt tension

17
T1 = 2.5746N

T 2 = Return side belt tension

T2 = 0.8579N

W = weight of the drive pulley

W = 2.5kg = 2.5*9.81 = 24.525N

Resolving horizontal and vertical components

FH = 2.5746 + 0.8579

FH = 3.4325N

FV = 24.525N

Horizontal loading

Point load acting at C,

RCH = FH /2 = 1.7162 N

Point load acting at D,

RDH = FH /2 = 1.7162 N

Taking moment at point A, as we know that

M AH 0 (3.9)

(RCH x 0.015) + (RDH x (0.015+ 0.130)) (RBH x 0.160) = 0

18
(1.7162 x 0.015) + (1.7162 x 0.145) (RBH x 0.160) = 0

RBH = 12.2625 N

Similarly, we can calculate RAH

RAH =12.2625 N

Horizontal moments

Taking the moment at point C,

M CH = RCH x .015 = 1.7162 x 0.015

M CH = 0.0257N-m

Taking moment at point D,

M DH = RDH x 0.35 = 1.7162 x 0.015

M DH = 0.0257N-m

Vertical loading

By considering the vertical loads

Point load acting at C,

RCV = FV/2 = 12.2625N

Point load acting at D,

RDV = FV/2 = 12.2625N

19
Taking moment at point A,

As we know that,

M AV 0 (3.10)

(R CV x 0.015) +(R DV x (0.015+0.130))(R BV x0.160) = 0

(5.886 x 0.015) + (5.886 x 0.145) (R BV x 0.160) = 0

R BV = 5.886N

Similarly, we can also calculate RAV

R AV = 5.886N

Vertical moments

Taking moment at C,

MCV = RCV x 0.015

MCV = 5.886 x 0.015

MCV = 0.0882N-m

Taking moment at D,

MDV = RDV x 0.015

MDV = 5.886 x 0.015

MDV = 0.0882N-m

Resultant moment at C is given by

Resultant moment at C (M CV )2 ( M CH )2 (3.11)

Putting values

Resultant moment at C = 0.1839Nm

20
Resultant moment at D (M DV )2 (M DH )2 (3.12)

Putting values

Resultant moment at D = 0.1839Nm

Shaft subjected to combined bending and twisting moment: [17]

When shaft is subjected to combined twisting moment and bending moment, in


such condition there are two theories exist which are following

Maximum shear stress or Guests theory which deals with ductile material
such as mild steel.
Maximum normal stress or Rankines theory which deals with brittle
material such as cost iron.

We have selected mild steel which is ductile material.

According to Guests theory

1
Max b 2 4 2 (3.13)
2
32M
b (3.14)
d3
16T
3 (3.15)
d

Putting equations (3.14) and (3.15) in equation (3.13). Then we get


16
Max M 2 T2
d3
or
d3
* Max M 2 T 2
16
The exp ression M 2 T 2 is called Equivalent Twisting Moment
and is written in equation form as
Te M 2 T 2 (3.16)
d3
Te Max (3.17)
16
where
d diameter of shaft

21
Now according to maximum normal stress Theory, we know that

1 1
b max b b 2 4 2 (3.18)
2 2
putting values of b and in equation (3.18), then
we get
2 2
1 32 M 1 32 M 16T
b max 3
4 3
2 d 3
2 d d
1
b max d 3 M M 2 T 2
32 2
1
The term M M 2 T 2 is called Equivalent
2
Bending Moment. It is written in equation form as
1
M e M M 2 T 2 (3.19)
2

Based on Equivalent torque

We know

T= 0.2282 Nm

M = MCR = MDR = 0.1839N-m

Equivalent Torque TEq (M * Kb )2 (T * Kt )2 (3.20)

Where

K b (bending service factor) = 1.5 [8]

K t (torque service factor) = 1.25 [8]

Putting values

Teq = 0.3987 Nm

22
16
Allowable Shear stress ( S ) *T (3.21)
* d 3 Eq
16* TEq
d 3
S *
putting values to calculate shaft diameter
Shaft diameter 8.2289mm
Based on Equivalent moment

Equivalent moment is calculated by formula

1
M Eq [( M * K b ) TEq ] (3.22)
2
1
M Eq [( M * K b ) ( M * K b ) 2 (T * K t ) 2 (3.23)
2
Putting values
M Eq 0.2176 Nm
32
Allowable Bending Stress ( b ) * M Eq (3.24)
*d3
32* M Eq
d 3
b *
putting values
Shaft diameter d 6.9096mm

We have selected the diameter of shaft which is 12mm.

23
Figure 3-6 (Fabricated Machine FV)

Figure 3-7 (Fabricated Machine TV)

24
Figure 3-8 (Fabricated Machine)

3.8 DC Motors

In this project, we have used three DC motors to rotate nylon brushes at high
Rpm. The specifications of Dc motors are many but our concern is its rpm which
is 2300. [14]

25
Figure 3-9 (DC Motor)

3.9 DC Pump

We have required a pump to spray liquid polish on shoe during polishing


operation. Therefore we have selected a DC pump of 12 volts to spray liquid
polish during polishing operation.

26
Figure 3-10 (DC Pump)
3.10 Worm Gear

We have worm gear mechanism because we have required to meet our design.
We have required low speed and high torque. The main purpose of worm gear is
to reduce speed and increase torque. Worm gear is self locking. Rotation is given
through worm or worm gear and load is mounted on worm wheel. Worm wheel
cannot rotate due to load. [18]

27
Figure 3-11 (worm Gear and Worm Wheel)

3.11 Rack and Pinion

Rack and pinion mechanism converts rotatory motion into linear or translatory
motion. We have to grip the shoe for polishing operation, here we have used the
rack and pinion mechanism for gripping the shoe.

28
Figure 3-12 (Rack and Pinion)

29
Chapter 4

Methodology

The project is basically consist of three parts which are following

Hardware

Electronics

Arduino programming

4.1 Hardware

It consists of flat conveyor belt, worm gear, Rack and pinion mechanism and
cylindrical brushes mounted on dc motors. Flat conveyor belt is used to transfer
or convey shoe from initial point to operation section. Worm gear is used lock one
motion while cylindrical brush like pendulum motion moving in forward direction it
locks backward motion. Rack and pinion mechanism is used to grip the shoe
while it reached in operation section and ungrip after completing polishing
operation.

4.2 Electronics

Second part of project is electronics which consists of circuit board, wires and
power supply. Dc motors and stepper motors are connected to Arduino through
drivers because high current and voltage required actuating these motors. We
cannot give high current and voltage directly. Therefore we required drivers to
actuate these motors.

4.3 Arduino Programming

We programmed arduino according to our desired sequence. As soon as shoe is


put on conveyor, IR proximity sensor detects the shoe then sensor sends a signal
to ardiuno to actuate stepper motor for certain steps (revolution) according to
given instructions. The shoe is reached operation section where polishing of shoe
is done according to given instructions. Then ardiuno actuates second stepper
motor for certain steps to grip shoe. Polishing process starts and during polishing

30
ardiuno actuates pump for 2 seconds to spray liquid polish. After finishing of
shoe, ardiuno actuates the stepper motor for certain steps according to given
instructions to ungrip the shoe. Then Arduino actuates the conveyor belt stepper
motor to unload the finished or polished shoe.

The Program uploaded in the arduino is given bellow [12], [13]


int s1_1=2;

int s1_2=3;

int s1_3=4;

int s1_4=5;

int s2_1=6;

int s2_2=7;

int s2_3=8;

int s2_4=9;

int s3_1=10;

int s3_2=11;

int s3_3=12;

int s3_4=13;

int b1=A5;

int b2=A4;

int b3=A3;

void stepper1 (int a);

void stepper2_up (int a);

void stepper3_up (int a);

void stepper2_down (int a);

31
void stepper3_down (int a);

void wait (void);

void setup ( ) {

pinMode(s1_1,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s1_2,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s1_3,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s1_4,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s2_1,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s2_2,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s2_3,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s2_4,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s3_1,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s3_2,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s3_3,OUTPUT);

pinMode(s3_4,OUTPUT);

pinMode(b1,OUTPUT);

pinMode(b2,OUTPUT);

pinMode(b3,OUTPUT);

digitalWrite(s1_1,LOW);

digitalWrite(s1_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s1_3,LOW);

digitalWrite(s1_4,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);

32
digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW);

digitalWrite(b1,LOW);

digitalWrite(b2,LOW);

digitalWrite(b3,LOW);

void loop() {

int s1=analogRead(A0);

if(s1<512){

digitalWrite(b1,LOW);digitalWrite(b2,LOW); stepper1(80);

digitalWrite(b1,HIGH);digitalWrite(b2,HIGH);stepper1(80);

delay(500);

stepper3_down(100);

delay(500);

stepper2_down(700);

delay(500);

stepper2_up(700);

delay(500);

33
digitalWrite(b3,HIGH);delay(4000);digitalWrite(b3,LOW);

stepper2_down(700);

delay(500);

stepper2_up(700);

delay(500);

stepper3_up(100);

delay(1000);

digitalWrite(b1,LOW);digitalWrite(b2,LOW);

stepper1(200);

delay(500);

void wait(void)

{delay(3);}

void stepper1(int a)

{int b;

for (b=0;b<=a;b++)

digitalWrite(s1_1,HIGH);digitalWrite(s1_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s1_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s1_4,LOW);

wait( );

digitalWrite(s1_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s1_2,HIGH);

digitalWrite(s1_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s1_4,LOW);

34
wait( );

digitalWrite(s1_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s1_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s1_3,HIGH);digitalWrite(s1_4,LOW);

wait( );

digitalWrite(s1_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s1_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s1_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s1_4,HIGH);

wait( );

digitalWrite(s1_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s1_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s1_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s1_4,LOW);

wait( );

void stepper2_up(int a)

{int b;

for (b=0;b<=a;b++)

digitalWrite(s2_1,HIGH);digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

wait();

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_2,HIGH);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

wait();

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

35
digitalWrite(s2_3,HIGH);digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

wait();

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_4,HIGH);

wait();

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

wait();

void stepper3_down(int a)

{int b;

for (b=0;b<=a;b++)

digitalWrite(s3_1,HIGH);digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW);

wait();

digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_2,HIGH);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW);

wait();

digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,HIGH);digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW);

wait();

36
digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_4,HIGH);

wait();

digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW);

wait();

void stepper2_down(int a)

{int b;

for (b=0;b<=a;b++)

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_4,HIGH);

wait( );

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_3,HIGH);digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

wait( );

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_2,HIGH);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

wait( );

digitalWrite(s2_1,HIGH);digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

37
wait( ); }

digitalWrite(s2_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s2_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s2_4,LOW);

wait( ); }

void stepper3_up(int a)

{int b;

for (b=0;b<=a;b++)

digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_4,HIGH);

wait ( );

digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,HIGH);digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW);

wait ( );

digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_2,HIGH);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW);

wait ( );

digitalWrite(s3_1,HIGH);digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW;

wait ( ); }

digitalWrite(s3_1,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_2,LOW);

digitalWrite(s3_3,LOW);digitalWrite(s3_4,LOW);

wait ( ); }

38
Chapter 5

Conclusion

In this project report we conclude that this project can be further enhanced by
doing some modifications as discussed in recommendations.

The main objective to design an automatic shoe polishing is save the time by
reducing human effort. We have succeeded to design such a project but our
design is restricted for standard shoes. The machine polishes the pair of shoe in
just a short interval of 100 seconds. We are succeeded to design an automatic
shoe polishing machine in which there is zero human effort.

39
Chapter 6

Recommendations

We suggest that design a flexible automatic shoe polishing machine which can
polish shoe any kind whether black or brown or any size. For such design, we
have to design to operation section, one for brown shoe and other for black shoe.
We have to design a flexible gripping system which can grip any size of shoe and
also design a color detection system which can shoe color whether black or
brown. But our project designed for standard black shoe and liquid polish used.

We suggest designing such a machine, put shoe on machine whether black or


brown or standard or small sizes, then polished shoe according to shoe color
properly come out from machine. There is no concern whether shoe black or
brown, but machine is concerned to polish the shoe.

40
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41
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42