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General

Symbols and Notations




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= Equal 0 = 0
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, , ,

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0
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< < 0 <
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0
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> > 0 >
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0
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23 = 6
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2 3 = 2 3 = 6

It would be wise not to use * for multiplication going forward as it has different meanings in more advanced math courses.
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2 3 = 6
Best Practice:
Try to use only parentheses when performing multiplication as ,, may be confused with the incorrect symbol or meaning.
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2 3 = 6
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2 3 = 6
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2 3 !!! 3 2
= 6 ! 1 = 6
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=
= =
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. .
= !
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!

! = ! + ! + !
!!!
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= = 45
4
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= ! +
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= ! +
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, & , = ! +
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,
<
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,
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!
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!
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=0 =
=
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= 0, =
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(, ) ,

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[, ] ,
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, / 0,
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, / , 0
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, 1,3,5,7
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, 0 0,
= {| < 0, > 0}
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1,2,3 3,4,5 = 3
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! , !! ! , = ! ,
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,
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Algebra
Axioms

Substitution Principle If = , then can be substituted for

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Commutative Addition + = +

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Commutative Multiplication =

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Associativity Addition + + = + +

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Associativity Multiplication =

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Reflexive =

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Symmetric If = then =

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Transitive If = and = then =

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Distribution Property + = + and + = +

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Cancellation Property =

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Identity Addition + 0 = and 0 + =

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Additive Inverse + = 0 and + = 0

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Identity Multiplication 1 = and 1 =

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Multiplicative Property Zero 0 = 0 and 0 = 0

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Multiplicative Property for -1 1 = and 1 =

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Multiplicative Inverse !! = 1 and !! = 1

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Zero Property If = 0 then = 0 or = 0

Arithmetic


= = 10 6 = 2 5 2 3 = 2 5 3 = 5 3 2
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1 1
= 2 = 2 = 1 1 = 1 = 1
3 3 2 3 23 6
1
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1 3 1423 46
= = =
2 4 24 8
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1 2 (1 + 2) 2 1
= = =
3 4 (3 + 4) 4 3
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+ 12 16 12 16
= + , 0 = =34
4 4 4
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16 4 4 4
= = =4
5 5 5
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2
2 2 4 8
= = = 1 = =
1 3 3 1 3 3
4 4
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12 16 12 16
= =
5 5 5
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1
= = 2 = 1 4 = 4 = 2
3 2 3 6 3
4
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= 0 = 2 = 0 = 2

Exponents


! = 2 = 2!
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2! 2
! = 1 2! = 2!!! = ! = = 1
2 2
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1 1 1
!! = 2 !!
= =
! 2! 4
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1 !
1
= = 2! = 4
!! 2!!
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! ! = !!! 2! 2! = 2!!! = 2!
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! !!!
2!
!
= !
= 2!!! = 2! = 2
2
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! ! 2 ! 2! 4
= ! = ! =
3 3 9
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!! !! ! 1 !! 1!! 2!
= !! = ! = !! = = 4
2 2 1
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! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
! ! = ! = ! 2! ! = 2! = 2!
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! ! = !" = !" = ! ! 2! ! = 2!! = 2 !! = 2! !

Radicals


! ! ! ! !
!
= = ! = ! 4 = 4 = 4! = 4! = 2
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!
! ! !
! ! ! !
! ! !" !
!
= = !" 64 = 64 = 64 ! = 64! = 64
! !
= 2! ! = 2! = 2! = 2
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! ! ! !
! = , 27 = 3! = 3! = 3
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! ! !
! = , 2 ! = 2 ! = 2 = 2 = 2

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!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
! = ! 64 = 8! = 8! = 8! = 2! = 2! = 4
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! ! ! ! !
! !
! ! ! ! 8 8 2! ! 2! ! 2! !
= = ! = = = ! = ! =
!
64 !
64 4 2! !
! 4! !
! !
2! ! 1 ! 1
= ! = ! =
2 2 2


Complex Numbers

=

Complex numbers are rarely used in undergraduate Calculus as Calculus generally works with real
numbers. Remember: if you have the following occur that it is probably not of any use.

= , > ! = 4 = 4 = 2

Adding and Subtracting Fractions

1 3 1 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 + (2)(3) 10 5
= + = (1) + (1) = + = =
2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 8 4

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! + 1 ! ! + 1 2 !
= =
2 2
! !
2 + 2
=
2

Logarithmic

Log Base Notation

Note: log = log!" or it may be log = ln = log ! ; log x is the general notation for ln x but in
some books or calculators log x = log!" x and vice-versa.

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ln ln 3
= log ! = log ! 3
ln ln 5
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= log ! = ! 2 = log ! 25 25 = 5!
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1 1 1 1
= 2.718281828 = + + + +
0! 1! 2! 3!
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ln 5
log ! = 1 log ! 5 = = 1
ln 5
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ln 1 0
log ! 1 = 0 log ! 1 = = = 0
ln 5 5
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ln 4
log ! ! = log ! 4! = 5 log ! 4 = 5 = 5
ln 4
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ln 5 ln 5
log ! = ln log ! 5 = = = ln 5
ln 1
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log ! ! = log ! log ! 27 = log ! 3! = 3 log ! 3
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log ! = log ! + log ! log ! 24 = log ! 3 8 = log ! 3 + log ! 8
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8
log ! = log ! log ! log ! = log ! 8 log ! 3
3
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Log Natural Notation

*It is unlikely that the notation involving log will be used throughout the course; you may see it in
the beginning of the course, as a review of some sort but that should be about all youll see. The ln
notation will be the standard as it is easier to manipulate.

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ln ln 3
log ! = log ! 3 =
ln ln 5
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= ln = ! 5 = ln 3 3 = !
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= ! = ln 3 = ! 5 = ln 3
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!
1 1 1 1 1 1
= = + + + +
! 0! 1! 2! 3! !
!!!
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ln = undefined, 0 ln 5 =
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ln 1 = 0 x!"#$ intercept at 1,0
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ln ! = !" ! = ln ! = ln = 1 =
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ln ! = 1 !" ! = 1 ln = ln ! = 1 ln = 1 1 = 1
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! 1
ln ! = ln ln = ln ! = ln
2
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ln = ln + ln ln 15 = ln 3 5 = ln 3 + ln 5
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! !"
ln ! = ln ln ln 5 = ln !
= ln 15 ln 3

*Example 1

Solve for y


ln() = ln + ln[5( ! )]


Expand

ln + ln = ln ln + ln 5 + ln

Collect like terms

ln + ln ln = ln ln + ln 5

2 ln ln = ln 5

Factor

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ln 2 = ln 5

Divide

ln 5
ln =
2

Use exponent and log rules

!" ! ! !
!" ! !!!
= !!! = = 5!!!

!
= 5!!!

Note:

The log operations will work the same with functions

i. e.

! !
ln = ln

ln = ln + ln


ln = ln ln



*Example 2

Expand the following

e!" tan!
ln
! + 2 !!!!

= ln !! tan! ln ! + 2 (!!!!)

= ln !! + ln (tan! ) (8 + 2) ln( ! + 2)

= 2 + 2 ln (tan ) 8 + 2 ln ! + 2

= 2 + 2 ln tan 8 ln ! + 2 2 ln( ! + 2)

There will be a point in calculus where one is asked to take the derivative of a function of this nature, just remember to rewrite in this fashion.

Note

In some online homework programs or classes ln ! may be considered to be equal to ln(),
however this is not correct, in general

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(because)

ln ! = ln ln ! = ln ! = ln! ()

e. g.

ln(4) = ln(2! ) = 2 ln(2)

and

! !
ln 2 = ln = ln! (2) = ln ln

If your teacher assigns something of this nature be sure to ask what he or she would prefer, as the universal standard for notation may be
changed on a class-to-class basis per the instructors discretion.


*Factoring


*Factoring will be a huge part of Calculus! Make sure youre a pro before you start the course but
mainly focus on polynomials of degree 4 or less and factoring functions.

Here are some common formulas but they are not very useful unless you memorize them so you
should focus more on applying them. Rather than showing basic examples we will focus on
application going forward.

! + ! = ! 1 + !!! = ! !!! + 1

! ! = +

! + 2 + ! = + !

! + + + = ( + )( + )

! + 3 ! + 3! + ! = + !

! 3 ! + 3! ! = !

! + ! = ( + )( ! + ! )

! ! = ! + + !

! ! = ! !

*Example 1:

*Common mistake students make when solving for x:

11
! = 0 ! = = 1

The solution of = 0 was lost, thus:

!
=0 1 = 0 = 0 = 1


*Example 2:

*Notice that you should always solve by factoring in order to prevent losing a solution. In other words,
always leave everything on one side of the equation.

1 1
=0 = ! = 1 = 1


Not that the answer is incorrect but something very important was left out and that was to identify
that 0. In calculus there is something called a critical number and this critical number is often
what makes the derivative undefined. From now on, solve an equation like the previous one, in the
following fashion.

!
1 1
=0 =0 = 1 & 0


!
The reason for this is because the original question would have been asking for = !, find the

values that make = 0 and or = .



Complete The Square


= ! + + = ! + +

!
!
= ! + + +
2 2

! ! !
!
= ! + + + = + +
2 2 2 4!

! !
! !
= + + = + +
2 4 2 4


Example 1: Solving for x (Formula 1)

0
! + = 0 ! + = ! + + 0 = 0

12
! ! !
!
! + + =0 ! + + =
2 2 2 2

!
! !
+ = + = =
2 4! 2 4! 2 2


=0 or =



Solving for x (numerically)

2 ! + 5 = 0

You wouldnt need to complete the square to solve for x for this equation because you can simply
factor x i.e.

2 + 5 = 0

5
= 0 or 5 2 = 0 =
2

This gives the same result as the previous formula


Example 2: Solving for x (Formula 2)

! !
0 !
! !
+ + = 0 + + = + + +
2 2
= 0

! ! ! ! 4
! + + = ! ! + =
2 2 2 4!

! 4 ! 4
+ = =
2 2 2 2

! 4
=
2
Solving for x (numerically)

As should be noticeable, this is in fact, the quadratic formula. See section covering the quadratic
formula for numerical examples.


Example 3: (Real Application)

Suppose you are given a problem that looks like

13
1
=
5 ! 3 + 4

Dont worry about what this will be used for at the moment, just take a second to recognize that
something like this can be put into this form

1
=
! !

This resembles the Pythagorean theorem and it can actually be considered as referencing a right
triangle, which is why this is important for calculus. There will be examples in the calculus portion of
this book.

Let us complete the square under the radical

Extract the function and follow the formula for completing the square but keep it equal to some
function i.e.

= 5 ! 3 + 4

3 3 9 9
= 5 ! + 4 = 5 ! + + 4
5 5 100 100

3 ! 9 3 ! 9
= 5 5 +4 = 5 +4
10 100 10 20

3 ! 4 20 9 3 ! 71
= 5 + = 5 +
10 20 10 20


Now that we have completed the square we can put it back into:

1 1 1 1
= = = =
5 ! 3 + 4 3 ! 71 !
5 10 + 20 3 ! 71
5 10 + 20

Making

3 71
= 5 & =
10 20


In mathematics, is generally reserved to be a function. The reason being is it is just easier to write
instead of () multiple times.

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Other Valuable Information

Composition

=

Example 1


= ! + 1 & = + 2

=

= + 2 ! + 1

= ! + 4 + 4 + 1

= ! + 4 + 5

Example 2


= sin , = !, = ln , =
2


= = ln
2 2

!
= !" ! = = sin = 1
2 2
*Example 3

Given:

= ln sin !

Identify each composition i.e. find

, , , , =

From (), we can see that the functions ln , , sin , ! are in the composition, therefore:

= !

= = ! = sin !

= ( = sin ! = sin !

15
= = sin ! = ln sin !

*Make sure that composition is fully understood as it arises frequently throughout Calculus and dont
forget the following properties.

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The remaining three scenarios for addition, multiplication and division:


= = + 2, = 2
= + 2 ( 2)
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= = + 2, = 2
!
= + 2 2 = 4
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!
= = !, = = =




Distance Formula

Given

! , ! & ! , !

Distance Formula

, = ! ! ! + ! ! !

Example


Find the distance between 1,2 and (2,1)

, = 2 1 + 1 2 = 1 ! + 1 ! = 1 + 1 = 2
! !



Midpoint Formula

Given

! , ! & ! , !

Midpoint Formula

16
! + ! ! + !
, = ,
2 2

Example

Find the midpoint between 1,2 and (2,1)

2+1 1+2 3 3
, = , = ,
2 2 2 2


Quadratic Formula


!
! 4
+ + = 0 =
2




! + + = 0

! !
!
0 !

+ + = + + + = 0
2 2

! !
!
! ! 4
+ + = ! ! + =
2 2 2 4!

! 4 ! 4
+ = =
2 2 2 2

! 4
=
2

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Discriminant

i) Two real solutions if ! 4 > 0

ii) Repeated solutions if ! 4 = 0

iii) Two complex solutions ! 4 < 0

Example 1: Two real solutions


! 4 > 0, 3 ! 4 + 1 = 0

17
4 4 ! 4 3 1 4 16 12 4 4 4 2
= = = =
2 3 6 6 6

4+2 42 2 1
= =1 = = =
6 6 6 3

Example 2: Repeated solutions


! 4 = 0, ! + 2 + 1 = 0

2 2 !4 1 1 1 4 4 1 0
= = =
2 1 2 2

1
=
2

Example 3: Two complex solutions


! 4 < 0, Solve: ! + 2 + 5 = 0

1 2 ! 4 1 5 1 4 20 1 16
= = =
2 1 2 2
1 1 16
=
2

1 1 16 1 4 1 4 1
= = = = 2
2 2 2 2 2

1 1
= + 2 = 2
2 2


Graphing a Line

From the form = + you can easily graph a line by identifying two points and then
connecting them.

! !
The equation will more generally appear as = ! + where = !, is the rise and
is the run ( always goes up and goes either left or right.)

The first point is ! 0,

The second point is ! (, + )

Plot these two points and connect a line through them.

18
Example

Using the previous method

2 2
= +3 = + 3
3 3

1 Point ! 0,3
st


2 Point ! 3, 3 + 2 = ! (3, 5)
nd


Plot these two points and connect them with an infinite line.




Note: When something has a zero in the subscript i.e. ! it is called initial when accompanied with an e.g. " and initial
is and ! in physics it is generally called naught i.e. ! is x naught. It is common to see ! and ! or ! and ! there are
reasons for each case but it is mostly personal preference.

Point Slope Form


! = !


= =


! !
= = = ! = !
! !

! = ( ! )

Slope Intercept Form


= +

! !
= = = = =
! !
! = !

19
! = ! = ! + !
= + ! !

= + ! ! , setting = ! !

= +

Note: When asked to find an equation of the tangent line use the point-slope form and then solve for to put it into the
slope-intercept form, this will be the equation of the tangent line at ! , ! .

*Domain Restrictions

*Understanding the domains of functions is very important when solving Calculus problems.

For the following, , , are assumed to be continuous for all real numbers.
Polynomial


= ! ! ! !!! ! !!! ! !!! No restrictions

Fraction


= 0


Radical, if n is even

!
= () 0

Radical, if n is odd

!
= No Restrictions

Fraction with Radical in denominator


=! If n is even

> 0 if n is odd 0

Natural Log

= ln > 0

Exponential


! !
() = No Restrictions

20
*Example

Find the domain:

! !
2 3
= + ln
! 9

First Factor (if possible.)

+ 1 3
= ! + ln
+3 3

Identify that you can eliminate 3 but also remember that 3 because it would make the
original function undefined.

Next, identify that 3 either because that would make the function undefined; in this case a
denominator of 0.

! is defined for all numbers so we can ignore this.

ln is only defined for values not equaling zero, remember that the domain restriction for the
logarithmic function is that the function being operated on must be greater than zero, in this case it is
always positive so only is undefined for = 0

Therefore

Interval Notation

: , 3 3,0 0,3 3,

Set Notation

: {| 3, 0}

Inverse Functions

= = !! = !!

If is one-to-one it has an inverse

The domain of is the range of !!

The range of is the domain of !!

For a non-trigonometry upper division mathematics course you will not be required to know or apply
very complicated inverse situations, if any at all.

Example

Find the inverse of

21
1 1
= = +1 =1 + = 1
+1 +1

1
= 1 1 = 1 =
1

1
!! =
1


1 1
= !! =
+1 1




Notice that the graphs are symmetric about the line =

There is a lot more to inverse functions and certain situations such as bounded graphs but for a non-
trigonometry calculus course, the previous example is about as difficult as it should get. If you need a
more intense understanding, visit JJtheTutor.com

Asymptotes, Holes and Graphs

An asymptote occurs where the function is getting infinitely close to a line on the graph but never
touches the line. Horizontal asymptotes may cross the line from time-to-time; it is the end behavior we
are concerned with.

There are three types of asymptotes: Horizontal, Vertical and Oblique.

Oblique asymptotes, will most likely, not be used in your calculus course but vertical and horizontal
will be used frequently in order to graph functions.

Hole in a Graph

A hole in a graph occurs when there is a function that can have a portion that has terms that cancel out
and the solution to that term makes the graph undefined e.g.

22
! 4 2 +2 0
= = =+2 2 2 =
2 2 0

This is called removable discontinuity and at 2,4 there is a hole in the graph.



Case for Calculus

Whenever I ask a student where vertical asymptotes occur, they respond, when the denominator
equals zero. As you can see that is only in certain situations, reference the hole in graph scenario or
look at this example.

= ln 1

We will save the process for calculus but the graph is approaching negative infinity as x goes to zero
i.e.

ln 1



Therefore, there is a vertical asymptote when = 1

General Case for Vertical Asymptotes

In general

23

= , : = = &


Do not rely on determining vertical asymptotes by this case. This is the general situation that you see
in Precalculus courses. A vertical asymptote occurs at the value of that the graph gets as close as
possible to but never touches i.e. where the graph is undefined and . Let us look at the general
case first and then the Calculus case.

2
= !
4


2 2 1 1
= ! = = , : 2, , : = 2
4 2 +2 +2 4




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Example

+2
= !
16


! !
= 16 16 = 0 = 2 : = 2 & = 2

= + 2, = 16 = 4 ! + 4 = 2 + 2 ! + 4
! !


+2 1
= = ,
2 + 2 ! + 4 2 ! + 4
1
: = 2 & : 2,
32

The Oblique or Slant Asymptote

An oblique or slant asymptote is an asymptote that is represented by and equation of a line found
from doing long division.

24

! + ! 4 + 1
=
! 2 1

From


= = + : =


! + ! 4 + 1 3 + 4
= +3 + ! , : = + 3
! 2 1 2 1




From this graph and the other graphs it can be seen that the graph can cross a horizontal or an
oblique asymptote but never a vertical asymptote.

The Three General Cases for Horizontal Asymptotes

Since there are so many conditions and situations for asymptotes and the methods learned in algebra are
so minimal to what is used in calculus, we will come back to this later.


Case 1:


! + !!! +
= ! , > : = 0
+ !!! +

Case 2:


! + !!! +
= ! , < :
+ !!! +

Case 3:

25

a ! + !!! +
= , = : =
b ! + !!! +

Example 1: at = 0


! + + 1
= ! , : = 0, : = 2
+ ! + + 1



Example 2: No HA Asymptote


! + ! + + 1
= , , : =
! + + 1



Example 3: HA at = /


3 ! + 3 1
= , : = , : =!
2 ! + 1 2 2

26



Common Graphs

The techniques of graphing in Calculus are superior and once learned, most techniques from Algebra
will be disregarded. The following basic graphs are good to memorize but you will use them so often
in Calculus that they will become instinctive.


!
= = !


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1
= =


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= ! = ln

27


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! + ! = 1 ! ! = 1


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! !
=1 = ! 1












28





























Cheat Sheet
Arithmetic

Fractions


+ = =
=+ = =




=

=

=

=



Exponents

! ! = !!! ! !
= ! !
!
= ! ! ! = 1


! 1 ! ! !! !
= !!! !! = = =
! ! ! !

29

Radical

! !
! ! ! !
!
= = ! ! = ! = !"

!
! ! !
= ! ! = , ! = ,


Absolute Value

= , 0 = , < 0 0


= = =


Factoring

! + ! = ! 1 + !!! = ! !!! + 1 ! ! = +

! + 2 + ! = + ! ! + + + = ( + )( + )

! + 3 ! + 3! + ! = + ! ! 3 ! + 3! ! = !

! + ! = ( + )( ! + ! ) ! ! = ! !

! ! = ! + + ! ! + ! = ! + !


Complex Numbers

!
= 1 = 1 = , 0

Logarithms

Base Logarithms

= log ! = ! log = log!" log = log ! = ln = 2.718281828

log ! = 1 log ! 1 = 0 log ! ! = log ! = ln


log ! ! = log ! log ! = log ! + log ! log ! = log ! log !


Natural Logarithms

!
! !
1
= ln = = = ln = ln 1 = 0
!
!!!

ln = , 0 ln ! = !" ! = ln ! = 1 !" ! = 1

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ln ! = ln ln = ln + ln ln = ln ln


Quadratic Formula

! 4
! + + = 0 =
2

Discriminant

Two Real Solutions ! 4 > 0

Repeated Solution ! 4 = 0

Complex Solution = if ! 4 < 0


Complete the Square

!
!
= ! + + = + +
2 4

Other Formulas

Distance Formula
= ! ! + ! !

Midpoint Formula
+ ! + !
= ,
2 2


Equation of a Line = +

! ! ! ! = ! !
= =
! !
+ =

Equation of Parabola !
= + +

Vertex: , = ! +

Equation of Circle + ! = !
!


Center: ,
Radius:
! !
Equation of Ellipse
+ = 1
! !

31
Right Point: + ,
Left Point: ,
Top Point: , +

Bottom Point: ,

! !
Equation of Hyperbola
= 1
! !
Center: ,
!
Slope:
!
!
Asymptotes: = ! +
Vertices: + , , ,

! !
Equation of Hyperbola
= 1
! !
Center: ,
!
Slope:
!
!
Asymptotes: = ! +
Vertices: , + , ,



Areas

Square: = ! = ! Rectangle: = Circle: = !

! !
Ellipse: = Triangle: = ! Trapezoid: = ! +

!"
Parallelogram: Rhombus: = ! , and are the diagonals

Surface Areas

Cube: ! = 6! = 6 ! Box: ! = 2( + + ) Sphere: ! = 4 !

Cone: ! = + ! + ! Cylinder: 2 + 2 !

Volumes

!
Cube: = ! = ! Box: = Sphere: = ! !

! !
Cone: = ! ! Ellipsoid: = , , , are the radii
!

Domain Restrictions


= , 0 = , 0 = ln , > 0


32
!
= ! , none = none if is odd, 0 if is even

Right Triangle



! + ! = ! = ! + !

Infinite Limits

1
lim ! = , > 0 lim = 0, > 0 lim ! = 0, < 0
! ! ! !


1 1
lim = , < 0 lim ! = lim = 0
! ! ! ! !


1
lim !! = 0 lim = lim ln =
! ! !! !


1 1
lim =0 lim ln !! = lim = 0
! ln ! ! ln !!


! + ! !!! + + !
lim = 0, >
! ! + ! !!! + + !

! + ! !!! + + !
lim = , <
! ! + ! !!! + + !

! + ! !!! + + !
lim = , =
! ! + ! !!! + + !

Limit Definition of a Derivative

+ +
! = lim = lim
!! !"!

+
! = lim = lim
!! !!
33

= = ! = ! ! =

Derivative Formulas (operator)


: = +



d
: =
dx !


: = = = !


! !
= = !!! = !!!


! ! 1
= ! !
= ! !
! ln =


! ! !
ln = = ! ln !
= ! !
! ln


Derivative Formulas (prime)

= , = ! = ! , ! = !

: ! = ! + !

! ! !
: =
!

: ! = !

!
! ! = ! ! ln ! = ! ! = ! ! ln


Tangent Lines

There are many ways to write the notations. The following are essentially the same for the question:
Find the equation of the tangent line for = when ! = = ! .

! ! = ! !

!
! ! = ! !
34


! = lim
!!

Best practice: Find tangent line at = for =

!
! = + ,

Critical Numbers

Critical numbers occur when = ! = 0 or ! = and is defined

Antiderivatives

Fundamental Theorems

and are functions of , and are constants

!
) = ! = ! !
!

!
= ! = ! ! = ! 0 = !
!

!
= ! = ! ! = 0 ! = !
!

Limit Definition of a Definite Integral

!
!
) lim (! ) = () =
! !
!!!


= , ! = +


Common Antiderivatives or Integrals

1 1
= + = + = ! + ! = ! +
2 3

1 1
! = !!! + , 1 !! = = ln || +
+1

1 !" 1 !"!!
! = ! + !" = + !"!! = +


1 1 1
= ln + 1 + = ln + +
+1 +

35
!
= + ! = ! + = ln +



Business Calculus Functions

Cost Function

Revenue Function

Profit Function =

Marginal Cost Function !

Marginal Revenue Function !

Marginal Profit Function ! = ! = !

Average Cost Function


=


Average Revenue Function


=


Average Profit Function


= =



















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