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German Type VII submarine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Type VII U-boats were the most common type of German World War II U-boat. U-
boat stands for Unterseeboot, which means submarine in German.

Contents
1 Conception and production
2 Type VIIA
2.1 List of Type VIIA submarines
3 Type VIIB U-995 Type VIIC/41 at the Laboe Naval Memorial
3.1 List of Type VIIB submarines
near Kiel
4 Type VIIC
4.1 U-flak "Flak Traps" Class overview
4.2 List of Type VIIC submarines
5 Type VIIC/41 Name: Type VII
5.1 List of Type VIIC/41 submarines Builders: Neptun Werft, Rostock
6 Views Deschimag, Bremen
7 Type VIIC/42
Germaniawerft, Kiel
8 Type VIID
8.1 List of Type VIID submarines Flender Werke, Lbeck
9 Type VIIF Danziger Werft, Danzig
10 Specifications Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
11 Notes Kriegsmarinewerft,
12 References Wilhelmshaven
13 Bibliography
Nordseewerke, Emden
Schichau-Werke, Danzig,[1]
Howaldtswerke AG, Kiel
Conception and production
Operators: Kriegsmarine
The Type VII was based on earlier German submarine designs going back to the Soviet Navy [Note 1]
World War I Type UB III and especially the cancelled Type UG, designed through Royal Norwegian Navy
the Dutch dummy company Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw Den Haag (I.v.S) [Note 2]
which was set up by Germany after World War I in order to maintain and develop
German submarine technology and to circumvent the limitations set by the Treaty of Royal Navy [Note 3]
Versailles, and was built by shipyards around the world. The Finnish Vetehinen class French Navy [Note 4]
and Spanish Type E-1 also provided some of the basis for the Type VII design. Spanish Navy[Note 5]
These designs led to the Type VII along with Type I, the latter being built in AG
Cost: 4,189,000 Reichmarks[2][3]
Weser shipyard in Bremen, Germany. The production of Type I was cut down only
after two boats; the reasons for this are not certain and range from political In commission: 1936 1970 (G-7)
decisions to faults of the type. The design of the Type I was further used in the Completed: 703
development of the Type VII and Type IX. Type VII submarines were the most
widely used U-boats of the war and were the most produced submarine class in General characteristics (Type VIIC)
history, with 703 built.[6] The type had several modifications. Displacement: 769 tonnes (757 long tons)
surfaced
The Type VII was the most numerous U-boat type to be involved in the Battle of the
Atlantic. 871 t (857 long tons)
submerged[4]
Type VIIA Length: 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a[1]
50.50 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure
Type VIIA U-boats were designed in 193334 as the first series of a new generation hull[1]
of attack U-boats.[7] Most Type VIIA U-boats were constructed at Deschimag AG
Beam: 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) (o/a)[1]
Weser in Bremen with the exception of U-33 through U-36, which were built at
Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft, Kiel. Despite the highly cramped living quarters, 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) (pressure
type VIIA U-boats were generally popular with their crews because of their fast hull)[1]
crash dive speed, which was thought to give them more protection from enemy
Height: 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)[1]
attacks than bigger, more sluggish types. Also, the smaller boat's lower endurance
meant patrols were shorter. They were much more powerful than the smaller Type II Draft: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)[1]
U-boats they replaced, with four bow and one external stern torpedo tubes. Usually
Propulsion: 2 supercharged 6-cylinder 4-stroke
carrying 11 torpedoes on board, they were very agile on the surface and mounted the
diesel engines totalling 2,800
8.8 centimetres (3.5 in) quick-firing deck gun with about 220 rounds.[7]
Ten Type VIIA boats were built between 1935 and 1937. All but two Type VIIA U- 3,200 PS (2,1002,400 kW; 2,800
boats were sunk during World War II (famous Otto Schuhart U-29 and U-30 which 3,200 shp). Max rpm: 470490[1]
is the first submarine to sink a ship in World War II, both scuttled in Kupfermhlen
Speed: 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h;
Bay on 4 May 1945).[7]
20.4 mph) surfaced[1]
The boat was powered on the surface by two MAN AG, 6 cylinder 4-stroke M6V 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h;
40/46 diesel engines giving a total of 2,100 to 2,310 brake horsepower (1,570 to 8.7 mph) submerged[1]
1,720 kW) at 470 to 485 rpm. When submerged it was propelled by two Brown,
Boveri & Cie (BBC) GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors giving a total of Range: 8,500 nmi (15,700 km;
750 horsepower (560 kW) at 322 rpm.[7] 9,800 mi) at 10 knots
(19 km/h; 12 mph)
List of Type VIIA submarines surfaced[1]
80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4
Type VIIA submarines knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph)
Name of Date Ships sunk submerged[1]
Date launched Fate
U-boat commissioned or damaged
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)[1]
Sunk
24 June 1936 U-27[8] 12 August 1936 2[9] September Calculated crush depth: 250
1939 295 m (820968 ft)[1]
sunk in training Complement: 44-52 officers & ratings[1]
14 July 1936 U-28[10] 12 September 1936 15[11] accident 1944
Armament: 5 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo
29 August 1936 U-29[12] 16 November 1936 13[13] scuttled 1945
tubes (4 bow, 1 stern)[1]
4 August 1936 U-30[14] 8 October 1936 19[15] 14 torpedoes or 26 TMA or
25 September 1936 U-31[16] 28 December 1936 14[17] 39 TMB mines
1 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval
25 February 1937 U-32[18] 15 April 1937 25[19]
gun[5] with 220 rounds
11 June 1936 U-33[20] 25 July 1936 11[21] Various antiaircraft weaponry
17 July 1936 U-34[22] 12 September 1936 24[23]
24 September 1936 U-35[24] 3 November 1936 5[25]
4 November 1936 U-36[26] 16 December 1936 3[27]

Type VIIB
The VIIA had limited fuel capacity, so 24 Type VIIB boats were built between 1936 and 1940 with an additional 33 tonnes of fuel in
external saddle tanks which added another 2,500 nautical miles (4,600 km; 2,900 mi) of range at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)
surfaced.[28] More powerful engines made them slightly faster than the VIIA. They had two rudders for greater agility. The torpedo
armament was improved by moving the aft tube to the inside of the boat. Now an additional aft torpedo could be carried below the deck
plating of the aft torpedo room (which also served as the electric motor room) and two watertight compartments under the upper deck
could hold two additional torpedoes giving it a total of 14 torpedoes. The only exception was U-83, which lacked a stern tube and
carried only 12 torpedoes.[28]

Type VIIBs included many of the most famous U-boats of World War II, including
U-48 (the most successful), Prien's U-47, Kretschmer's U-99, and Schepke's U-
100.[28]

On the surface the boat was powered by two supercharged MAN, 6 cylinder 4-
Prien's VIIB U-47 (model) stroke M6V 40/46 diesels (except for U-45 to U-50, U-83, U-85, U-87, U-99, U-
100, and U-102 which were powered by two supercharged Germaniawerft 6-
cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesels) giving a total of 2,8003,200 metric horsepower
(2,1002,400 kW) at 470 to 490 rpm. When submerged, the boat was powered by
two AEG GU 460/8-276 (except in U-45, U-46, U-49, U-51, U-52, U-54, U-73 to
Prien's U-47 (model) U-76, U-99 and U-100 which retained the BBC motor of the VIIA) electric motors
giving a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW) at 295 rpm.[28]

List of Type VIIB submarines


Type VIIB submarines
Name of U-boat Date launched Date commissioned Ships sunk or damaged
U-45[29] 27 April 1938 25 June 1938 2[30]
U-46[31] 10 September 1938 2 November 1938 27[32]
U-47[33] 29 October 1938 17 December 1938 39[34]
U-48[35] 8 March 1939 22 April 1939 55[36]
U-49[37] 24 June 1939 12 August 1939 1[38]
U-50[39] 1 November 1939 12 December 1939 4[40]
U-51[41] 11 June 1938 6 August 1938 6[42]
U-52[43] 21 December 1938 4 February 1939 13[44]
U-53[45] 6 May 1939 24 June 1939 8[46]
U-54[47] 15 August 1939 23 September 1939 0
U-55[48] 19 October 1939 21 November 1939 6[49]
U-73[50] 27 July 1940 30 September 1940 15[51]
U-74[52] 31 August 1940 31 October 1940 7[53]
U-75[54] 18 October 1940 19 December 1940 9[55]
U-76[56] 3 October 1940 3 December 1940 2[57]
U-83[58] 9 December 1940 8 February 1941 8[59]
U-84[60] 26 February 1941 29 April 1941 7[61]
U-85[62] 10 April 1941 7 June 1941 3[63]
U-86[64] 10 May 1941 8 July 1941 4[65]
U-87[66] 21 June 1941 19 August 1941 5[67]
U-99[68] 12 March 1940 18 April 1940 44[69]
U-100[70] 10 April 1940 30 May 1940 30[71]
U-101[72] 13 January 1940 11 March 1940 25[73]
U-102[74] 21 March 1940 27 April 1940 2[75]

Type VIIC
The Type VIIC was the workhorse of the German U-boat force, with 568
commissioned from 1940 to 1945.[76] The first VIIC boat commissioned was the U-
69 in 1940. The Type VIIC was an effective fighting machine and was seen almost
everywhere U-boats operated, although its range of only 8,500 nautical miles was
not as great as that of the larger Type IX (11,000 nautical miles), severely limiting
the time it could spend in the far reaches of the western and southern Atlantic
without refueling from a tender or U-boat tanker.[76] The VIIC came into service
toward the end of the "First Happy Time"[Note 6] near the beginning of the war and
was still the most numerous type in service when Allied anti-submarine efforts
finally defeated the U-boat campaign in late 1943 and 1944.[76] A cross-section of a Type VIIC U-boat.

Type VIIC differed from the VIIB only in the addition of an active sonar and a few
minor mechanical improvements, making it 2 feet longer and 8 tons heavier. Speed
and range were essentially the same. Many of these boats were fitted with snorkels
in 1944 and 1945.[76]

They had the same torpedo tube arrangement as their predecessors, except for U-72,
U-78, U-80, U-554, and U-555, which had only two bow tubes, and for U-203, U-
331, U-351, U-401, U-431, and U-651, which had no stern tube.[76]

On the surface the boats (except for U-88, U-90 and U-132 to U-136 which used Miniature model of a Type VIIC.
MAN M6V40/46s) were propelled by two supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder,
4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totaling 2,800 to 3,200 PS (2,100 to 2,400 kW; 2,800 to 3,200 shp) at 470 to 490 rpm.[76]
For submerged propulsion, several different electric motors were used. Early models used the VIIB configuration of two AEG GU
460/8-276 electric motors, totaling 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) with a max rpm of 296, while newer boats used two BBC GG UB 720/8,
Garbe, Lahmeyer & Co. RP 137/c or Siemens-Schuckert-Werke (SSW) GU 343/38-8 electric motors with the same power output as the
AEG motors.[76]

Perhaps the most famous VIIC boat was U-96, featured in the movie Das Boot.[76]

U-flak "Flak Traps"

The concept of the "U-flak" or "Flak Trap" originated the previous year, on 31 August 1942, when U-256 was seriously damaged by
aircraft. Rather than scrap the boat, it was decided to refit her as a heavily armed anti-aircraft boat intended to combat the losses being
inflicted by Allied aircraft in the Bay of Biscay. Two 20 mm quadruple Flakvierling mounts and an experimental 37 mm automatic gun
were installed on the U-flaks' decks. A battery of 86 mm line-carrying anti-aircraft rockets was tested (similar to a device used by the
British in the defense of airfields), but this idea proved unworkable. At times, two additional single 20 mm guns were also mounted.
The submarines' limited fuel capacities restricted them to operations only within the Bay of Biscay. Only five torpedoes were carried,
preloaded in the tubes, to free up space needed for additional gun crew.

Four VIIC boats were modified for use as surface escorts for U-boats departing and returning to French Atlantic bases. These "U-flak"
boats were U-441, U-256, U-621, and U-953. Conversion began on three others (U-211, U-263, and U-271) but none was completed
and they were eventually returned to duty as standard VIIC attack boats.

The modified boats became operational in June 1943 and at first appeared to be successful against a surprised Royal Air Force. Hoping
that the extra firepower might allow the boats to survive relentless British air attacks in the Bay of Biscay and reach their operational
areas, Donitz ordered the boats to cross the bay in groups at maximum speed. The effort earned the Germans about two more months of
relative freedom, until the RAF modified their tactics. When a pilot saw that a U-boat was going to fight on the surface, he held off
attacking and called in reinforcements. When several aircraft had arrived, they all attacked at once. If the U-boat dived, surface vessels
were called to the scene to scour the area with sonar and drop depth charges. The British also began equipping some aircraft with
rockets that could sink a U-boat with a single hit, finally making it too dangerous for a U-boat to attempt to fight it out on the surface
regardless of its armament.[77] In November 1943, less than six months after the experiment began, it was discontinued. All U-flaks
were converted back to standard attack boats and fitted with Turm 4, the standard anti-aircraft armament for U-boats at the time.
(According to German sources, only six aircraft had been shot down by the U-flaks in six missions, three by U-441, and one each by U-
256, U-621, and U-953.)

List of Type VIIC submarines

568 Type VIIC submarines were commissioned between 1940 to 1945.

Type VIIC/41
Type VIIC/41 was a slightly modified version of the VIIC and had the same armament and
engines. The difference was a stronger pressure hull giving them a deeper crush depth and
lighter machinery to compensate for the added steel in the hull, making them slightly lighter
than the VIIC. A total of 91 were built. All of them from U-1271 onwards lacked the fittings to
handle mines.

Today one Type VIIC/41 still exists: U-995 is on display at Laboe (north of Kiel), the only
surviving Type VII in the world.

List of Type VIIC/41 submarine s


Type VIIC/41 U-995. Laboe Naval
Memorial
There were 91 Type VIIC/41 submarines commissioned.

U-292 U-322 U-995 U-1010 U-1063


U-293 U-323 U-997 U-1013 U-1064
U-294 U-324 U-998 U-1014 U-1065
U-295 U-325 U-999 U-1015 U-1103
U-296 U-326 U-1000 U-1016 U-1104
U-297 U-327 U-1001 U-1017 U-1105
U-298 U-328 U-1002 U-1018 U-1106
U-299 U-407 U-1003 U-1019 U-1107
U-300 U-410 U-1004 U-1020 U-1108
U-317 U-455 U-1005 U-1021 U-1109
U-318 U-827 U-1006 U-1022 U-1110
U-319 U-828 U-1007 U-1023 U-1163
U-320 U-929 U-1008 U-1024 U-1164
U-321 U-930 U-1009 U-1025 U-1165
U-1166 U-1171 U-1274 U-1279 U-1305
U-1167 U-1172 U-1275 U-1301 U-1306
U-1168 U-1271 U-1276 U-1302 U-1307
U-1169 U-1272 U-1277 U-1303 U-1308
U-1170 U-1273 U-1278 U-1304

Views

VIIC submarine U 995 E-machine room, Control of E-machines Diesel engine room Pressure bulkhead
in Laboe behind the diesel engine behind the central
room

View of the central in Central, behind the bow Front area with the four Tower with 2 2 2-
the tower compartment torpedo tubes cm and 1 3.7-cm
antiaircraft gun

Type VIIC/42
The Type VIIC/42 was designed in 1942 and 1943 to replace the aging Type VIIC. It would have had a much stronger pressure hull,
with skin thickness up to 28 mm, and would have dived twice as deep as the previous VIICs. These boats would have been very similar
in external appearance to the VIIC/41 but with two periscopes in the tower and would have carried two more torpedoes.

Contracts were signed for 164 boats and a few boats were laid down, but all were cancelled on 30 September 1943 in favor of the new
Type XXI, and none was advanced enough in construction to be launched.

It was powered by the same engines as the VIIC.

Type VIID
The type VIID boats, designed in 1939 and 1940, were a lengthened - by 10 m (32 ft 10 in) - version of the VIIC for use as a minelayer.
The mines were carried in, and released from, three banks of five vertical tubes just aft of the conning tower.[78] The extended hull also
improved fuel and food storage.

On the surface the boat used two supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke F46 diesels delivering 3,200 bhp (2,400 kW) at
between 470 and 490 rpm. When submerged the boat used two AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors giving a total of 750 shp (560 kW)
at 285 rpm.[78]

Only one (U-218) managed to survive the war; the other five were sunk, killing all crew members.[78]

List of Type VIID submarines


Type VIID submarines
Date launched Name of U-boat Date commissioned Ships sunk or damaged
24 July 1941 U-213[79] 30 August 1941 0
18 September 1941 U-214[80] 1 November 1941 6[81]
9 October 1941 U-215[82] 22 November 1941 1[83]
23 October 1941 U-216[84] 15 December 1941 1[85]
15 November 1941 U-217[86] 31 January 1942 3[87]
5 December 1941 U-218[88] 24 January 1942 5[89]

Type VIIF
The Type VIIF boats were designed in 1941 as supply boats to rearm U-boats at sea once they had used up their torpedoes. This
required a lengthened hull and they were the largest and heaviest type VII boats built. They were armed identically with the other Type
VIIs except that they could have up to 39 torpedoes onboard and had no deck guns.[90]

Only four Type VIIFs were built. Two of them, U-1062 and U-1059, were sent to support the Monsun Gruppe in the Far East; U-1060
and U-1061 remained in the Atlantic. Type VIIF U-boats used the same engines as the Type VIID class.[90] Three were sunk during the
war, the last was scuttled after the war along with the majority of the surrendered U boats

List of Type VIIF submarines


Name of Date Date
Notes
U-boat launched commissioned
U-1059[91] 12 March 1943 1 May 1943 sunk by Allied aircraft on second supply patrol in support of Far East operations
completed six supply patrols to Norway before attacked and forced aground by British
U-1060[92] 8 March 1943 15 May 1943 carrier aircraft. Subsequently bombed by Allied aircraft.
U-1061[93] 22 April 1943 25 August 1943 completed five supply patrols to Norway and was surrendered at end of war
U-1062[94] 8 May 1943 19 June 1943 sunk by US escorts on return from first supply patrol to Far East

Specifications
Class VIIA[95] VIIB[95] VIIC[95] VIIC/41[95] VIIC/42[96] VIID[97] VIIF[98]
Displacement
626 tonnes 753 tonnes 769 tonnes 759 tonnes 999 tonnes 965 tonnes 1084 tonnes
surfaced
Displacement
745 tonnes 857 tonnes 871 tonnes 860 tonnes 1099 tonnes 1080 tonnes 1181 tonnes
submerged
Length 64.51 m (211 ft 66.5 m (218 ft 67.2 m (220 ft 67.2 m (220 ft 68.7 m (225 ft 76.9 m (252 ft 77.63 m (254 ft
overall 8 in) 2 in) 6 in) 6 in) 5 in) 4 in) 8 in)
Length 48.8 m (160 ft 50.50 m (165 ft 50.50 m (165 ft 59.8 m (196 ft 60.4 m (198 ft
44.5 m (146 ft) 50.9 m (167 ft)
pressure hull 1 in) 8 in) 8 in) 2 in) 2 in)
Beam 5.85 m (19 ft 6.20 m (20 ft 6.20 m (20 ft 6.20 m (20 ft 6.85 m (22 ft 6.28 m (20 ft 7.3 m (23 ft
overall 2 in) 4 in) 4 in) 4 in) 6 in) 7 in) 11 in)
Beam 4.70 m (15 ft 4.70 m (15 ft 4.70 m (15 ft 4.70 m (15 ft 4.70 m (15 ft 4.70 m (15 ft
5.0 m (16 ft 5 in)
pressure hull 5 in) 5 in) 5 in) 5 in) 5 in) 5 in)
4.37 m (14 ft 4.74 m (15 ft 4.74 m (15 ft 4.74 m (15 ft 5.01 m (16 ft 4.91 m (16 ft
Draft 5.0 m (16 ft 5 in)
4 in) 7 in) 7 in) 7 in) 5 in) 1 in)
Power
1,700 kW[Note 7] 2,400 kW[Note 8] 2,400 kW[Note 9] 2,400 kW[Note 10] 2,400 kW[Note 11] 2,400 kW[Note 12] 2,400 kW[Note 13]
surfaced
Power
560 kW[Note 14] 560 kW[Note 15] 560 kW[Note 16] 560 kW[Note 17] 560 kW[Note 18] 560 kW[Note 19] 560 kW[Note 20]
submerged
17 knots 17.9 knots 17.7 knots 17.7 knots 18.6 knots 16.7 knots 17.6 knots
Surface
(31 km/h; (33.2 km/h; (32.8 km/h; (32.8 km/h; (34.4 km/h; (30.9 km/h; (32.6 km/h;
speed
20 mph) 20.6 mph) 20.4 mph) 20.4 mph) 21.4 mph) 19.2 mph) 20.3 mph)
8 knots 8 knots 7.6 knots 7.6 knots 7.6 knots 7.3 knots 7.6 knots
Submerged
(15 km/h; (15 km/h; (14.1 km/h; (14.1 km/h; (14.1 km/h; (13.5 km/h; (14.1 km/h;
speed
9.2 mph) 9.2 mph) 8.7 mph) 8.7 mph) 8.7 mph) 8.4 mph) 8.7 mph)
Surface 6,200 nmi 8,700 nmi 8,500 nmi 8,500 nmi 12,600 nmi 11,200 nmi 14,700 nmi
range at 10 (11,500 km; (16,100 km; (15,700 km; (15,700 km; (23,300 km; (20,700 km; (27,200 km;
knots 7,100 mi) 10,000 mi) 9,800 mi) 9,800 mi) 14,500 mi) 12,900 mi) 16,900 mi)
Submerged 7494 nmi 90 nmi
80 nmi 80 nmi (150 km; 80 nmi (150 km; 69 nmi (128 km; 75 nmi (139 km;
range at 4 (137174 km; (170 km;
(150 km; 92 mi) 92 mi) 92 mi) 79 mi) 86 mi)
knots 85108 mi) 100 mi)
Maximum
operating 220 m (720 ft) 220 m (720 ft) 230 m (750 ft) 250 m (820 ft) 270 m (890 ft) 200 m (660 ft) 200 m (660 ft)
depth
230250 m 230250 m 250295 m 275325 m 350400 m 220240 m 220240 m
Crush depth
(750820 ft) (750820 ft) (820968 ft) (9021,066 ft) (1,1501,310 ft) (720790 ft) (720790 ft)
Complement 42 46 44 48 44 52 44 52 44 52 46 52 46 52
Deck gun 8.8 cm SK C35 naval gun, with 220 rounds none
Anti-aircraft 2 cm FlaK 30 Various 2 2 cm Flak 3.7 cm Flak,
guns C30 with 1,195
with 4,380 rounds
rounds 2 C30 20 mm,
with 4,380
rounds
Bow tubes 4 [Note 21]
Stern tubes 1 [Note 22]
Torpedoes
11 14 14 14 16 14 14 / 39 [Note 23]
(maximum)
Mines 22 TMA mines 26 TMA mines 15 SMA mines none
or 33 TMB in
mines vertical chutes
and
either 26 TMA
mines or
39 TMB mines
Number
10 24 568 91 0 [Note 24] 6 4
commissioned

Notes
1. post war; U-1057, U 1058, U 1064, U 1305 as respectively TS-14, S-81 S-84
2. post war - U-995 and two others
3. U-570 as HMS Graph (P715)
4. U-471/Le Mill (S 609), U-766/Laubie (S 610)
5. G-7/German submarine U-573
6. U-boat ace Otto Kretchmer took issue with use of the term "Happy ime."
T He didn't see howthe U-boat war could ever be characterized as having a
"Happy Time" when losses of U-boats and crews were running at 50%. (See interview onouTube.)
Y
7. 2 MAN, 6 cylinder 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,100 - 2,310bhp. Max rpm: 470-485.
8. 2 supercharged MAN, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470490.
9. 2 supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470490.
10. Same as VIIC
11. Same as VIIC
12. 2 supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke F46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470490.
13. Same as VIID.
14. 2 Brown, Boveri & CieGG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 322.
15. 2 AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 295.
16. Same as VIIA or VIIB, 2 Siemens-Schuckert-Werke GU 343/38-8 electric motors, totalling750shp and max rpm: 296 or 2Garbe Lahmeyer RP
137/c electric motors, totalling 750shp and max rpm: 296.
17. Same as VIIC
18. Same as VIIC
19. 2 AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 285
20. Same as VIID
21. A small number of VIIC boats were fitted with only two forward tubes
22. A small number of VIIC boats were fitted with no stern tube
23. 39 Torpedoes were carried in the transport role
24. None of the boats were ready by the end of the war

References
1. Helgason, Gumundur. "Type VIIC" (http://www.uboat.net/types/viic.htm). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
2. Grner, Erich (1990). German Warships 18151945. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 77.ISBN 0-87021-790-9.
3. Poirier, Michel Thomas, Commander, USN (20 October 1999)."Results of the German and American Submarine Campaigns of W orld War II" (http
s://web.archive.org/web/20080409000000/http://www.navy.mil/navydata/cno/n87/history/wwii-campaigns.html). Archived from the original (http://
www.navy.mil/navydata/cno/n87/history/wwii-campaigns.html)on 9 April 2008. The cost of a Type VII is estimated at US$2.25 million|US-
NGDPPC}}).
4. Mller, Eberhard; Brack, Werner (2004). The Encyclopedia of U-Boats. London: Chatham. pp. 6973.ISBN 1-85367-623-3.
5. Campbell, John (1985).Naval Weapons of World War Two. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 251.ISBN 0-87021-459-4.
6. "Type VII U-Boat" (http://www.uboataces.com/uboat-type-vii.shtml). German U-Boat. Uboataces.com. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
7. Helgason, Gumundur. "Type VIIA" (http://www.uboat.net/types/viia.htm). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
8. Helgason, Gumundur. "U-27" (http://www.uboat.net/boats/u27.htm). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
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41. Helgason, Gumundur. "U-51" (http://www.uboat.net/boats/u51.htm). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
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48. Helgason, Gumundur. "U-55" (http://www.uboat.net/boats/u55.htm). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
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50. Helgason, Gumundur. "U-73" (http://www.uboat.net/boats/u73.htm). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
51. Helgason, Gumundur. "Ships hit by U-73"(http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u73.html). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved
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53. Helgason, Gumundur. "Ships hit by U-74"(http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u74.html). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved
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54. Helgason, Gumundur. "U-75" (http://www.uboat.net/boats/u75.htm). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
55. Helgason, Gumundur. "Ships hit by U-75"(http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u75.html). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved
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56. Helgason, Gumundur. "U-76" (http://www.uboat.net/boats/u76.htm). U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
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95. Grner 1991, pp. 43-46.
96. Grner 1991, pp. 65-66.
97. Grner 1991, pp. 66-67.
98. Grner 1991, p. 67.

Bibliography
Grner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 18151945. 2.
Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
Rossler, Eberhard (1981). The U-Boat. Annapolis, Maryland (USA): Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-966-9.
Stern, Robert C. (1991). Type VII U-boats. Annapolis, Maryland (USA): Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-828-3.

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Categories: German Type VII submarines Submarine classes World War II submarines of Germany

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