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(Ques) What was the impact of the French revolution on France?

(Ans) The French Revolution is a milestone in the history of France.

The revolution marked the end of absolute monarchy and paved the way for a republican
government.

It laid the foundation of the most important democratic principles.

The slogans of equality, liberty and fraternity become the watchwords of freedom loving people all
over the world.

This revolution was introduced new reforms in education, administration and the judiciary.

(Ques) Explain, the growing middle class envisaged an end to privileged class.

(Ans) The 18th century witnessed the emergence of the social groups, termed the middle class, who
earned their wealth through trade and from the manufacture of goods such as woolen and silk
textiles that were either exported or bought by the rich members of society. This estate included
professionals such as lawyers, or administrative officials all of these were educated and believed a
society based on freedom and equal laws. All of they believed that no group in the society should be
privileged by birth. The philosopher and thinkers in France play a major role to protect the people of
the France against the system of privilege.

(Ques) Explain how the new political system worked in the France?

(Ans) The national assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791. The main objective was
to limit the powers of the monarch. Their powers were now separated and assigned to different
institutions: The Legislature, Executive, and Judiciary. The constitution of 1791 used the power to
make laws in the national assembly, which was indirectly elected. Not all citizens had the right to
choose the assembly but only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes were entitled to vote.

(Ques) Describe the role of the philosophers in the French revolution?

(Ans) The French philosophers provided revolutionary ideals and inspired people to fight for their
right. The great philosophers were, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquteu and Didrot.

Voltaire attacked the Catholic Church. His ideas motivated people to fight against the church.

Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that the government. Should be based on social contract.

Montesque believed separations of the powers and individual liberty.

(Ques) Explain role of live during the revolutionary years?

(Ans) During the revolutionary years women started their own political clubs & newspapers. Near
about sixty womens clubs emerged in different cities of France. The women struggle for equal
political rights however continued during the reign of terror because they wanted to enjoy same
rights as men i.e., right to vote, to be elected to the assembly and to hold political office. The French
women struggled for equal political rights during the nineteenth and early twenty century. Finally in
1946 French women won the right to vote.

(Ques) Which groups of the French society benefited from the revolution. Which sections of the
society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?

(Ans) The French revolution benefited the middle class of France. They were merchants,
manufacturers and professionals such as lawyers and administrative officials. The peasants and
workers, landless labors, servants were disappointed with the outcome of the revolution.

(Ques) Explain the democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French
Revolution?

(Ans) The democratic rights we are enjoying today, which could be traced to the French Revolution
are -

Right to freedom of speech.

Right to life.

Equality before law.

Right to vote.

(Ques) Who was Olympe de Gouges? What role did she play for women's rights?

(Ans) Olympe de Gouges was one of the most important of the politically active women in
revolutionary France. She protested against the constitution and the declaration of rights of man
and citizen. In 1791, she wrote a declaration of the rights of woman and citizen. In 1793 she
criticised the Jacobin government for forcibly closing down womens clubs. She was tried by the
National convention, soon after this she was executed.

(Ques) What was the impact of French revolution on the world?

(Ans) The French Revolution is one of the important events in the history of mankind. It inspired
revolutionary movements in almost every country of Europe and South America. It initiated social
and political changes that took place in the different parts of Europe.Thus, the greatest effect was
the starting of mass movements all over the world and the rise of a spirit of nationalism among the
people.
(Ques) What is the meaning of the following symbols The broken chain, sceptre, Blue-white-red,
the bundle of roads, the winged woman?

(Ans) The meanings of these symbols are: -

The broken chain: chains were used to fetter slaves. A broken chain stood for the act of becoming
free.

Sceptre: Symbol of royal powers.

Blue, White, red The national colours of France.

The bundle of roads: - One road can be easily broken but not an entire bundle. Strength lies in unity.

The winged woman: - Personification of the law.

(Ques) Explain the rise of Napoleon.

(Ans) The fall of Jacobins Government Led to the establishment of the Directory, an executive made
up of five member but the directors often clashed with legislative councils, who than sought to
dismiss them. The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator
Napoleon Bonaparte.

(Ques) Who was Rousseau? Name the famous works by him?

(Ans) Jean Jacques Rousseau was a great French philosopher; his famous work is the Social Contract.
Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of government based on a social contract
between people and their representatives.

(Ques) Name the three main social classes in France?

(Ans) The France society was divided in to the three classes called estates, the Ist Estate, IInd Estate,
& IIIrd Estate.

The members of the first and second estates, that are the clergy and the nobility, enjoyed certain
privileges by birth.

The third Estate members, were merchants, court officials, lawyers landless labors servants, etc.

(Ques) What were the causes for the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France?

(Ans) The following causes led to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.

Economic Causes - (a) An empty treasury(b) Expenditure on army(c) Cost of maintaining an


extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles. (d) Cost of running government offices or
universities. Due to the above causes the state had no other option except increasing taxes.
Social Causes (a) There was a feudal system consisting of three estates 1st Estates, 2nd Estate
and, 3rd Estate.(b) Special privileges of clergy and nobility who came under 1st and 2nd Estates
respectively (c) Taxes on IIIrd estate alone.

Increase in the population there was increase in the population from 23 million in 1715 to 28
million in 1789. Production of grains could not keep pace with the increased demand. There was no
increase in wages of most of the workers.

Role of Philosophers The ideas of philosophers played a great role. John Locke, Jean Jacques
Rousseau, and Montesquieu rejected the doctrine of the Divine. Their Philosophical views gave a
new perspective in understanding the so called Creation Theory.

Immediate Causes Under the above circumstances Louis XVI planned to impose further taxes. The
calling of the estates general in 1789 proved to be the immediate cause of the French Revolution.

(Ques) Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France?

(Ans) The following circumstances led to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.

Economic Circumstances - (a) An empty treasury(b) Expenditure on army(c) Cost of maintaining an


extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles. (d) Cost of running government offices or
universities. Due to above cause the state had no other option except to increase taxes.

Social Circumstances (a) There was feudal system consisting of three estates 1st Estates 2nd
Estate and, 3rd Estate.(b) Special privileges of clergy and nobility (c) Taxes on third estate alone.

Increase in population there was increase in population from 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in
1789. Production of grains could not keep pace with the increased demand. There was no increase in
wages of most of the workers.

Role of Philosophers The ideas of philosophers play a great role. John Locke, Jean Jacques
Rousseau, and Montesquieu rejected the doctrine of the divine Kingship.

Immediate Causes Under the above circumstances Louis XVI planned to impose further taxes. The
calling of the estates general in 1789 proved to be the immediate cause of the French Revolution.