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Universiti Malaysia Perlis

Manufacturing Engineering School

EPT 361

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL


ASSIGNMENT 2

NAME MARTIC NO.

Moussa Mahamat Djibrine 141050066-1


Abdulaziz Ali Mohammed 141050071-5
Ali Mohammed Hood 141050074-5

Abdulrahman Ali Ba Matraf 141050073-5

Dr. MOHD SAZLI SAAD


Table of contents

contents

Introduction

Explanation of the Heat Treatment process

List of sensors involved in the Heat Treatment process

Explain sensors functions on the Heat Treatment process

Principle of sensors operations

Sensor wiring diagrams

Troubleshooting method if Heat Treatment sensor faulty/problems


Conclusions

References
Introduction

Heat Treatment is the controlled heating and cooling of metals to adjust their
physical and mechanical properties without changing the item shape. Warm
treatment is once in a while done incidentally because of assembling
procedures that either warmth or cool the metal, for example, welding or
shaping.

Heat Treatment is frequently connected with expanding the quality of material,


yet it can likewise be utilized to change certain manufacturability goals, for
example, enhance machining, enhance formability, and reestablish pliability
after a chilly working operation. In this way it is an extremely empowering
fabricating process that can help other assembling process, as well as enhance
item execution by expanding quality or other attractive attributes.

Steels are particularly suitable for heat treatment, since they respond well to
heat treatment and the commercial use of steels exceeds that of any other
material.

It involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to


achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material
What Is Heat Treatment?

Engineering properties are modified by heat treatment(processes so that


structural components are) able withstand specified operating conditions and
have desired useful life.

Heat treatment is the heating and cooling of metals to(change their physical
and mechanical properties, without)letting it change its shape. Heat
treatment could be said to (be a method for strengthening materials but could
also be used to alter)some mechanical properties such as improving
formability, machining, etc. {The most common application is metallurgical
but heat treatment can also be used in manufacture of glass}, aluminum, steel
and many more materials. {The process of heat treatment involves the use of
heating or cooling, usually to extreme }temperatures to achieve the wanted
result. It is very important manufacturing processes that can not only help
manufacturing process but{ can also improve product, its performance, and its
characteristics in many ways}.
Heat Treatment Processes

Hardening
Solidifying includes heating of steel, keeping it at a fitting temperature until all
pearlite is changed into austenite, and after that extinguishing it quickly in
water or oil. The (temperature at which austentizing rapidly takes place
depends upon the )carbon content in the steel used. The heating time should
be increased ensuring that the core will also be fully transformed into
austenite. The microstructure of a }hardened steel part is ferrite, martensite,
or cementite.}

Tempering

:Tempering involves heating )steel that has been quenched and (hardened for
an adequate) period of time so that the metal can be equilibrated.) The
hardness and strength obtained} depend upon the temperature at which
tempering is carried out. Higher temperatures will result into high ductility, but
low strength and hardness. Low tempering temperatures will produce low
ductility, but high strength and hardness. In practice, appropriate tempering
temperatures are selected that will produce the desired level of hardness and
strength. This operation) is performed on all carbon steels that] have been
hardened, in order to reduce their brittleness, }so that they can be used
effectively in desired applications.}

Annealing
Annealing involves treating} steel up to a high temperature,(and then cooling
it very slowly) to room temperature, so that the resulting microstructure will
possess high ductility and toughness, but low hardness. {Annealing is
performed by heating} a component to the (appropriate temperature, soaking
it at that temperature, and )then shutting off the furnace while the piece is in it.
Steel is annealed (before being processed} by cold forming, to reduce the
requirements of )load and energy, and to enable the metal to undergo large
strains) without failure.
Normalizing
Normalizing( involves heating steel, and then keeping )it at that temperature
for a period of time, and then cooling it in air. The) resulting microstructure is
a mixture of ferrite} and cementite which has a) higher strength and hardness,
but lower ductility. Normalizing is performed on structures and structural
components that will be subjected to machining, because it )improves the
machinability of carbon) steels.

Carburization
It is a heat treatment }process in which steel or iron is heated to a
temperature, below the melting point, in the presence) of a liquid, solid, or
gaseous material which )decomposes so as to release carbon when heated
)to the temperature used. The outer {case or surface will have higher carbon
content than} the primary material. When the steel (or iron is rapidly cooled by
quenching, the higher) carbon content on {the outer surface becomes hard,
while }the core remains tough and soft.

Surface Hardening

In many building applications, it is important to have the surface of the segment


sufficiently hard to oppose wear and disintegration, while keeping up flexibility
and strength, to withstand effect and stun stacking. This can be accomplished
by neighborhood austentitizing and extinguishing, and dissemination of
solidifying components like carbon or nitrogen into the surface. Forms required
for this intention are known as fire solidifying, acceptance solidifying, nitriding
and carbonitriding.
List of sensors involved in the process.

In the warmth treating industry, temperature sensors must have the capacity
to deal with presentation to outrageous temperatures and conditions.
Thermometric produces thermocouples that meet heater affirmations, and in
addition Magnesium Oxide (MgO) thermocouples that can be framed to fit any
application.Thermocouples with insurance tubes are accessible for addition
inhigh temperature mechanical procedures.
What is a Thermocouple and How Does It Work?

A {thermocouple is a device used extensively for} measuring temperature.

A thermocouple }is comprised of at least two metals joined{ together to form


two junctions. (One is connected to the body whose temperature is to be
measured; this is the )hot or measuring junction. (The other junction is
connected to a body )of known temperature; this {is the cold or reference
junction.} Therefore the thermocouple measures unknown )temperature of
the body with reference to the known temperature of the other body.

Working Principle
The working principle of thermocouple is based on three effects discovered
by Seebeck, Peltier and Thomson. They are as follows:

1) Seebeck effect: {The Seebeck effect states that when two different or
unlike metals are joined together at )two junctions, an electromotive force
(emf) is generated at {the two junctions. The amount of emf generated is
different for different combinations) of the metals.
2) Peltier effect: {As per the Peltier effect, when two) dissimilar metals are
joined together) to form two junctions, emf is generated (within the circuit due
to the different) temperatures of the two junctions( of the circuit.

3) Thomson effect: As per the Thomson effect, when two unlike (metals are
joined together }forming two junctions, the {potential exists within the{ circuit
due to temperature} gradient along the entire( length of the conductors within
the circuit.
In most (of the cases the emf suggested by the) Thomson effect is very small
and it can be{ neglected by making proper selection }of the metals. The
Peltier effect{ plays a prominent role in the working} principle of the
thermocouple.
Diagrams

How it Works
The general (circuit for the working of thermocouple is) shown in the figure 1
above. It comprises of two dissimilar metals, A and B. These are joined
together to form two junctions, p and q, which are maintained (at the
temperatures T1 and) T2 respectively. Remember {that the thermocouple
cannot be formed} if there are not two junctions. {Since the two junctions are
maintained} at different temperatures {the Peltier emf is generated} within the
circuit and it is the {function of the temperatures} of two junctions.
If the temperature of both the junctions is same, equal and opposite emf will
be generated at both junctions and the net current) flowing through the
junction is zero. If the junctions are maintained at different( temperatures, the
emfs will not) become zero and there will be a net current flowing through
the circuit.) The total emf flowing {through this circuit depends on the metals
used within }the circuit as well as the temperature) of the two junctions. The
total emf )or the current flowing through the circuit }can be measured easily by
the{ suitable device.

The device for measuring the current or emf is connected within the circuit of
the thermocouple. It measures the amount of emf flowing through the circuit
due to the two junctions of the two dissimilar metals maintained at) different
temperatures. In figure 2 the }two junctions of the thermocouple and the
device used for measurement of emf (potentiometer) are shown.
Now, the temperature of the reference junctions is already known, while the
temperature of measuring junction is unknown. (The output obtained from the
thermocouple circuit is )calibrated directly against the unknown temperature.
Thus the voltage or current output obtained from thermocouple )circuit gives
the value of unknown )temperature directly.

Devices Used for Measuring EMF


The amount of emf developed within the thermocouple circuit is very small,
usually in millivolts, (therefore highly sensitive instruments )should be used for
measuring the emf )generated in the thermocouple circuit.) Two devices used
commonly are) the ordinary galvanometer (and voltage balancing
potentiometer. Of those two, a manually or automatically balancing
potentiometer is used) most often.

Figure 2 shows the (potentiometer connected in the thermocouple) circuit.


The junction p is connected to the body whose temperature is to be
measured. The junction{ q is the reference junction, whose} temperature can
be measured {by the thermometer. In some cases }the reference junctions
can also be} maintained at the ice temperature {by connecting it to the ice
bath (see figure 3). }This device can be calibrated in terms of the} input
temperature so that its scale can give the value directly in terms of
temperature.

Thermocouples sensor wiring diagrams

Thermocouples (T/Cs) are the most common type of sensor because they
dont (require an excitation signal. They consist) of two wires made of
dissimilar metals joined at {the point of measurement. Based on the} Seebeck
effect, T/Cs operate on the premise that each metal develops a voltage
differential across{ its length based on the type of metal and the }difference in
temperature (between the ends of the wire. By using two) metals, you get two
different >voltages V1 and V2. The difference (VT) represents} temperature.
Note that there is no} voltage across the thermocouple junction, shown as T
in Figure 1a, below.
That's a common mistake. You will often hear that {a thermocouple develops
a voltage across the} junction, which is incorrect. The voltage is developed
over the length of each wire.

Thermocouples are designated using letters. For example, a Type-J T/C has
iron and constantan }(a copper-nickel alloy) wires. Most thermocouple wire
is color coded.
Thermocouples require }that the far ends of the wire be at the same
temperature and that }temperature must be known (Figure 1b). Thus,
instruments that use{ thermocouples will have an isothermal block with) an
embedded sensor to measure (the temperature at that point. This is )called
cold-junction (compensation. With one end of the wires at )an equal and
known (temperature, a circuit can measure VT )and calculate the unknown
temperature.
Troubleshooting method if thermocouples sensor faulty/problems

SUSPICION OF A DEFECTIVE THERMOCOUPLE?

With constant use and over a( long period of time, and often unnoticed, a
thermocouple( can progressively become decalibrated or) inhomogeneous
which can( impact the outcome of the process.) The main reason for the
)decalibration is that the wires can become chemically attacked, which
effects the wire composition, mechanical properties of the {material and
ultimately the{ temperature readings. If you suspect that you have a} defective
thermocouple, the best} way to evaluate a used thermocouple is to {place a
new, or known good (thermocouple adjacent to the suspect one in order to
compare and )document readings between both.) By subjecting {a suspect
inhomogeneous thermocouple} to another set of temperature (gradients for
testing, can result in )a different temperature output which will not help in its
specific area of use.

COMPATABLE THERMOCOUPLE CALIBRATION TYPE?

Always double check to make certain that the thermocouple. that you have in
question is of the same( match, style and calibration type for the application /
equipment )that you are using. For (Example; a J type calibration
thermocouple cannot be used on a specific application calling for a K} type
thermocouple. If your {equipment calls for a J type, you will need} to replace
with a J type. {This goes for all calibrations. (J, K, E, T, R, S, B, N).
THERMOCOUPLE LEADS REVERSED?

If the Leads on your( thermocouple are reversed, the temperature) measured


will show to be varying in the opposite direction relative to ambient
temperature. (Use the chart below to make sure that the positive and
negative) connections are in the proper order. (The Red wire is generally the
negative (-) wire in thermocouples), harnesses, and cables. This is often not
realized and overlooked during troubleshooting.

THERMOCOUPLE INSPECTION?

Carefully complete a (thorough inspection of the thermocouple probe looking)


for any pin holes, cracks, and areas with discoloration indicating internal
contamination issues. (Light green color, on a type K thermocouple indicates)
the occurrence of aging and a change in the chemical composition known as
Green rot. An orange color from Iron Oxide on J and K types indicates
internal moisture leakage. (The wiring should also be inspected, as
contamination on the surface of the) wire can greatly reduce the accuracy of
the temperature.

TERMINAL CONNECTIONS?

Often the thermocouple connection points are overlooked, but are critical for
proper readings. Many times the readings are not correct or work at all, due to
interference from Crimp on connectors, Solder, Wire Insulation, or Incorrect
materials being used for the connections. Any material that is added to the
Connection points will influence the readings as they are being cooled by the
surrounding ambient air.

MULTIPAL CONNECTIONS?

Multiple Connections will (also yield an inaccurate reading, as the sensing


)end will be averaged with the connections in mid-stream, and will only
provide an average temperature rather than the actual temperature at the
sensing, or probe end. Multiple connections should be avoided in order to
improve accuracy.}

OPEN THERMOCOUPLE?

(You can check a Thermocouple with a standard volt )meter set to the Ohms
/Continuity function by {checking across the positive and negative leads, }in
order to determine{ if the probe circuit is open or not. (If finding that the
thermocouple )does not read, the problem (is most likely a bad connection,
broken )wiring, or open internally{ within the thermocouple probe circuit.

INACCURATE READINGS?

If the Thermocouple {wiring is bare, missing insulation and is }touching


together (anywhere between the sensing - probe end, )and the {connection
points, the thermocouple will read at} the area where the bare wiring is
touching together. Make sure that the wiring is protected with insulation and
is not damaged or broken anywhere in the curcuit.

PROPER THERMOCOUPLING MAINTENANCE, HANDLING AND


STORAGE:

In order to improve and understand the life cycle of each {thermocouple, it is


important to implement a} routine preventative {maintenance program to
include recording the life, }and cause of failure for each thermocouple.)
Thermocouples (INC)
(Thermocouples should always be stored at room temperature,) in a non-
humid (environment and sealed in a (Air Tight) bag in order) to prevent
moisture from causing (contamination, should long term storage be)
necessary.

Conclusions

The( aim of the heat treatments of metals and alloys is to get the) desired
mechanical properties in terms of ductility, hardness, toughness or strength
by justifying the (microstructure. These properties have a close relationship)
with materials microstructure. During a treatment processes the phase
transformations must (be controlled well. Because the different )cooling rated
result in different phases. Different phases result in the@different ductility,
hardness,( toughness and strength values. )Everything is in a chain order.

So we are able to see) how alloying elements and cooling rated affect) the
microstructure and how( the microstructure of a specimen affects the
hardness values.)When the rate of composition of the allotting element or)
cooling rate increases) the hardness also increases as a result we learned
that it we can control the) structure then we can achieve the desired)
mechanical properties by "using heat treatment processes."
References

1. Book: Mechanical Measurements by Thomas G. Beckwith and N.


Lewis Buck.
2. http://www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1013v1/css/h1013v1_24.htm.
3. "Thermocouple Theory". Capgo. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
4. BIPM "Techniques for Approximating the ITS-90" Chapter 9:
Platinum Thermocouples.
5. Jack Kendrick: Melonite Surface Treatment for Barrels, Bolts, and
Actions.
6. JFE Steel Corporation: Development of HITEN Ultra-High Steel Plate
with Resistance to Delayed Fracture.
7. Manufacturing technology: foundry, forming and welding By Rao - Tata
McGraw-Hill 1998 Page 55.
8. Process control Instrumentation Technology, Curtis D. Johnson,
Publisher: Pearson.
9. T.D. McGee (1988) Principles and Methods of Temperature
Measurement ISBN 0-471-62767-4.
10. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wMTFmIPex0c.