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Chapter 5: The Network Layer

o What is the difference between connection-oriented (virtual circuits) and connectionless (datagrams)?
There is a table in the Network Layer 1 slides.
o What criteria can be used to weight routing paths?
o Describe the optimality principle.
o Describe Dijkstras shortest path algorithm for creating a sink tree.
o What is flooding? Give an example of where it is used.
o How does the count to infinity problem occur?
o What is the advantage of link state routing over distance vector routing?
o What is the advantage of Hierarchical routing?
o Give an example of reactive/preventative congestion control.
o Whats is problem that can occur in traffic aware routing?
o How does a host know when to use traffic throttling?
o What is the best type of load shedding? Why?
o What is quality of service? When is it mainly used?
o Interpret the leaky bucket problem. Why is this a good model for traffic shaping?
o Describe weighted fair queueing. How can this be used in an unethical way?
o How is admission control different from traffic shaping?
o What do integrated services take advantage of? When should they be used?
o What do differentiated services allow for?
o What are the two types of packet fragmentation? Pros and cons
o What is the main work horse of the internet?
o What is the goal of aggregation of IP prefixes?
o What was useful about the classful addressing of IP addresses?
o Why are NATs so useful?
o What is missing in the header from IPv4 to IPv6?
o Local ethernet networks do not communicate using IP. How is IP used in conjuncture with the ethernet
ID?
o Where do Ethernet IDs come from?
o How are IP addresses typically assigned?

Chapter 6: The Transport Layer


o Where does the majority of the transport layer reside?
o In the transport layer we have UDP and TCP, which is connection oriented?
o What is a Berkeley socket? How can they multiplex incoming messages?
o Describe the client side and server side flow differences when sending/receiving a datagram.
o Describe the two situations that lead to sequence numbers being in the forbidden zone.
o Describe the three-way handshake in detail.
o Given specific failure points in the three-way handshake, describe what will happen.
o What is the two-army problem and how does it pertain to communication?
o What do we do to circumvent the two-army problem?
o Describe what messages are being sent back and forth when a buffer fills and empties for flow control.
o Is congestion control handled by the transport layer alone?
o How does max-min fairness allocate bandwidth? Given a network complete the allocation.
o Why do we want quick convergence when traffic changes?
o Describe the AIMD (additive increase multiplicative decrease) control law.
o What makes congestion control difficult in wireless systems?
o Is there error detection in UDP?
o What is RPC? Why is it such a powerful tool?
o Can UDP be used for streaming video? How?

Chapter 7: The Application Layer


o What does DNS accomplish?
o Where can you store extra information within DNS?
o Why do DNS services have to be distributed?