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TUTORIAL ACTIVITY : 1 (1.1.1- 1.1.5)

CLO : CLO 1 explain the concept of operating system,

memory, process and file management. (C2, PLO1)


Instruction(s): Answer all questions.

Activity 1A
Activity outcome : The basic function of operating system:

a) Referring to the diagram above, explain 5 (five) function of operating system?

(5 Marks)
1) perform basic tasks
2) Ensure all programs running at a time without interfering each other
3) Provide software platform on top of which other program
4) Manage the compute resources
5) Booting the computer
Activity 1B
Activity outcome : The various type of operating system structure

a) Describe the various type of operating system below: (16 Marks)

i) Monolithic:
Monolithic architecture is the most common and earliest architecture. Every
component of Operating System contained the kernel and it can directly
communicate with any other. It's also efficient in a way of can intercommunication
between components.

ii) Layered:
It designed to overcome issues of monolithic architecture by grouping components
that have similar function. Its lower layer called lower level and it provide service
to higher level service. Each component of hides how it works and present a
standard interface that other component can use. In a layer approach a user
processs request need to pass through many layer before it is services.

iii) Microkernel:
Microkernel is aimed at migrating services of an Operating System out of
Monolithic kernel into user level process. It divide OS into several process, which
implements single set of services. It allows to build a number of different OS all
using the same microkernel. Thus, the transfer efficiency of the transfer from user
to kernel mode and back must be high.

iv) Networked/distributed:
It is a software program that control other software and hardware that runs on a
network. It allows multiple computers to communicate with one main computer
and each other. A computer network can consist of a wireless network, local area
network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), or even two or three computer
networks. It designed to work on a network servers and often have multiple
processors and fault-tolerance built into them.
Monolithic Microkernal

Figure 2: MicroKernal base Operating System

Figure 1: Monolithic Kernel base
Operating System.

b) Referring to the diagram above , what is differences between Monolithic and

(10 Marks)

Monolithic Microkernal

1)Monolithic is a single large processes 1)Microkernel is broken down into separate

running entirely in a single address space. process, known as servers.
2)It is large program, which contains 2)It contains different modules which linked
different modules and they can interact with together.
each other. 3)It also can communicate with those
3)New modules can be dynamically linked modules, which are linked with it.
in it. 4)We have to link it with other modules to
4)Do not need to reboot the system. whom it has to communicate.
5)Example of monolithic architecture are 5)Example of microkernel architecture are
Linux, and UNIX. mac OS, Windows NT.
Activity 1C
Activity outcome : The various architecture of operating systems used in different platforms.

a) Discuss architecture of operating systems used in different platforms below. (9 Marks)

i) Single-processor systems

Single processor system executes one process at a time. It has single CPU and
no more than one running process. If there are more process, the rest will have
to wait until the CPU becomes free. Its also known as uniprocessor system
which is defines as a computer system that having a single CPU to execute
computer tasks.

ii) Multiprocessor systems

Multiprocessor system is a usage of two or more CPU within a single computer

system. The multiple CPUs are in close communication sharing with computer
bus, memory and other peripheral devices. These are also referred as tightly
coupled systems.

iii) Clustered system

Clustered system consists a set of loosely connected or tightly connected
computers that work together so that in many respects they can be viewed as
single system. Each component of clustered system are connected each other
through LAN, with each no running its own instance of OS.
Activity 1D
Activity outcome : The various product of operating system.

a) What is differences between Closed Source system and Open Source System.
(10 Marks)

Closed Source Open Source

1)Closed source model source code is not 1)Open source OS use code that is freely-
released to public. distributed and available to anyone to use.

2)It uses code that is proprietary and kept 2)Examples of Open source code is Linux,
secret to prevent its use by other entities. Free BSD, Open Solaris

3)It includes Microsoft Windows, Solaris,

Unix, DSX




TUTORIAL ACTIVITY : 1 (1.1.6 - 1.1.10)

CLO : CLO 1 explain the concept of operating system,

memory, process and file management. (C2, PLO1)


Instruction(s):Answer all questions.

Activity 1E

Activity Outcome: Describe the following concepts in relation to operating system:

Multitasking, Multiprogramming, time sharing, buffering, spooling, caching.

1. What is the purpose of multiprogramming?

Multiprogramming is a rudimentary form of parallel processing in which several programs
are run at the same time on a uniprocessor. Since there is only one processor, there can
be no true simultaneous execution of different programs.

2. Why the buffer was invented in operating system development?

A temporary storage area, usually in RAM. The purpose of most buffers is to act as a
holding area, enabling the CPU to manipulate data before transferring it to a device.

3. What is the technique used to handles two users to print their documents using 1
shared printer?
Activity 1F

Activity Outcome: Describe the following concepts in relation to operating system:

Multitasking, Multiprogramming, time sharing, buffering, spooling, caching.

Instruction: Match all the given concepts with the correct definitions:

Concepts Definitions

Multitasking The sharing of a computing resource

among many users by means of
multiprogramming and multi-tasking.

Multiprogramming Send data that is intended for printing or

processing on a peripheral device to an
intermediate store

Time sharing The concept of loading many programs at

one time to share a single CPU.

Buffering Is a process where a part of RAM used for

temporary storage of data that is waiting to
be sent to a device;

when transferring data between devices or

programs operating at different speeds

Spooling The ability of a computer system to time

share its (at least one) CPU with more
than one program at once.

Caching Is a process where the component

transparently stores data so that future
requests for that data can be served
Activity 1G
Activity Outcome: Describe the components of operating system: Kernel, Shell and File
Instruction: Answer all questions.

1. What is the function of Kernel?

Kernel represents the OSs basic functions such as management of memory,
processes, and files.
2. What do you understand of shell?
It allows OS to communicate via a control language, letting the user control the
peripherals without knowing the characteristics of the peripherals of the hardware
used, management of physical addresses.
3. What happened if no file system technique implemented in any Operating system?
User will be felt difficult to access any files. Because it doesnt have a structured

Activity 1H
Activity Outcome: Describe the interaction by using graphical representation between
applications and the operating system using Application Programming Interfaces (API).

Instruction: Describe by using graphical representation the interaction between application

and the operating system. Label the diagram.



Hardware Layer


Activity 1I

Activity Outcome: Identify the different interfaces of operating systems: Command line, voice
actuated, and graphical user interface (GUI) and web form.

Instruction: Complete the table given.

Operating system How it works? Example


User provides the input by typing a

command string with the computer
a) Command line Command Prompt
keyboard and system provides by printing
text on computer monitor.

Voice user interfaces, which accept input

and provide output by generating voice
prompts. The input made by pressing keys
or buttons, or responding verbally with the
b) Voice actuated SIRI,GPS Drive Through

Accepts input via devices such as computer

keyboard and mouse. Provides articulated
c) Graphical User graphical output.
SKYPE, Windows

Accepts input and provide output by

generating web pages which are transmitted

d) Web Form via the internet using a web browser. User Student Registration Form
can fill in a required particular form.
Activity 1J

Instruction: Answer all questions.

1. How can PowerPoint application interact with Windows OS?

A user cannot run an application program on the computer without an operating

system, unless the application is self booting

2. What is the input device use in command line interface?

Keyboard and Mouse

3. How the voice actuated interface works?

It involves a voice command device where the device is controlled by the human

4. Give an example of web form interface in your real life.

Signing up an account in online