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sion algorithm for simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) for a quadrotor

micro aerial vehicle (MAV). Proposed algorithm is based on an extended Kalman

filter that uses a platform specific dynamic model to integrate information from

an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a monocular camera on board the MAV.

MAV dynamic model exploits the unique characteristics of the quadrotor, making

it possible to generate relatively accurate motion predictions. This, together with

an undelayed feature initialisation strategy based on inverse depth parametrisation

enables more effective feature tracking and reliable visual SLAM with a small num-

ber of features even during rapid manoeuvres. Experimental results are presented to

demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

1 Introduction

aerial platform in the robotics community due to its simple construction. In the

simplest form, a quadrotor MAV consists of two counter-rotating fixed pitch pro-

peller pairs rigidly attached to a cross-like frame along with the electronics required

to control the speed of each propeller. Like most other MAVs, quadrotors are under-

actuated and exhibit non-linear, coupled dynamics that should be stabilized with a

control system, which in-turn requires fast and accurate state estimates.

All MAVs, inherently, have a limited payload capacity and power budget. These

limitations make the task of obtaining fast and accurate state estimates a difficult

one. Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) have been successfully used to obtain a

drift free estimate of the roll and pitch angles of quadrotor MAVs [1]. However,

Centre Autonomous Systems (CAS), University of Technology, Sydney e-mail: fisrt-

name.lastname@uts.edu.au

1

2 Dinuka Abeywardena and Gamini Dissanayake

if the aim is to make MAVs truly autonomous then other important states such as

yaw angle, velocity and position need to be estimated. Though absolute positioning

systems such as GPS facilitate the estimation of these states, such sensing modalities

are not available in most of the environments that MAVs are expected to operate in.

Recent advances in sensing technology have resulted in three main alternatives to

absolute positioning systems. These, namely laser range finders [2], depth cameras

[3] and RGB cameras [4], have already been evaluated in the context of quadrotor

state estimation.

However, none of the above sensing modalities alone provide a suitable solution

for the MAV state estimation problem. In many cases, a combination of sensors

is required for a successful field deployment. The focus of this paper is on one

such combination that has emerged as promising possibility - the fusion of visual

information from a monocular camera and inertial information from a triad of body

mounted accelerometers and gyroscopes - for quadrotor MAV state estimation.

Two basic forms of Visual-Inertial Fusion (VIF) can be found in the robotics

literature. The most common is what is called the loosely-coupled formulation,

in which the algorithm processing the visual information is independent of the in-

ertial measurements. Typically, a sequence of images from a monocular camera is

processed using a Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM) algo-

rithm to produce estimates for position (up-to-a-scale) and orientation of a robotics

platform. Measurements from the inertial sensors are then fused together with the

estimated produced by VSLAM in a separate filter, typically an Extended Kalman

Filter (EKF). Techniques for VSLAM are well established but they are likely to pro-

duce inaccurate estimates in situations where the camera motion is fast and where

the number of distinctive environmental features tracked is small. Increasing the

number of features leads to higher computational costs and is not desirable for a

MAV with limited no-board computing. Furthermore, given the basic motion mod-

els that are employed by VSLAM algorithms, and fast dynamics of lightweight

MAV platforms, tracking features from one frame to another requires search over a

large image region, again leading to higher computational costs.

These shortcomings of loosely-coupled implementations can be overcome by

tightly-coupling visual and inertial measurements. In this form, the direct visual

measurements - pixel positions of tracked features - are combined with inertial mea-

surements within a single estimator, typically an EKF. Inertial aiding can increase

the robustness of the visual feature tracking while at the same time reducing com-

putational cost by making it possible to search only a small target region of the

image during feature extraction. Thus a tightly-coupled VIF has the potential to

outperform the loosely-coupled counterpart in most scenarios that involve fast ma-

noeuvring MAVs.

Despite the advantages, examples of tightly-coupled VIF estimators are rare in

the robotics literature, mainly due to their implementation complexities as compared

to the loosely-coupled versions. The key contribution of this paper is to present the

results of a tightly coupled VIF estimator for a quadrotor MAV flying aggressively

in an indoor environment with only a handful of tracked features. The formulation

in this paper also makes use of the special dynamic characteristics of the quadrotor

Tightly-Coupled Model Aided Visual-Inertial Fusion for Quadrotor Micro Air Vehicles 3

MAV to further improve the VIF algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is

the first time where such a formulation, specifically designed for quadrotor MAVs,

has been presented and evaluated using experiments. Our algorithm also makes use

of the Inverse-Depth (ID) parametrization for environmental features. We high-

light the advantages of using ID parametrization in this context where accurate and

undelayed initialization is the key to a effective SLAM algorithm with smaller num-

ber of features. Challenges associated with incorporating the inertial measurements

and MAV dynamics to the ID parametrization of VSLAM are discussed and it is

demonstrated how these challenges can be overcome in practice.

2 Related Work

Loosely-coupled VIF has received a significant attention in the recent past with

the advent of black-box VSLAM algorithms such as PTAM [6]. In [5], images

from a camera were processed using a variation of PTAM and then combined with

accelerometer and gyroscope measurements in an EKF to estimate the pose of a

quadrotor MAV. A similar setup is presented in [7] but with the addition of an air

pressure sensor. Neither of the above approaches make use of the specific dynamic

characteristics of the quadrotor to aid the estimation process. The approach followed

by [8] is similar to the above in that it also makes use of a PTAM to estimate camera

pose. They however, make use of the quadrotor motion equations to derive met-

ric scale velocity estimates using inertial measurements, and then proceed to derive

the scale of the PTAM velocity estimates by employing a maximum likelihood es-

timator. The PTAM position estimates, in metric scale, are then fused again with

inertial measurements within an EKF. A similar approach is followed in [9], where

measurements from a downward facing sonar is combined with PTAM altitude es-

timates to derive metric scale motion estimates. In our previous work on loosely

coupled VIF [10], we unified this approach by estimating the scale within the same

EKF that fuses VSLAM estimates with inertial sensor measurements while also in-

corporating the quadrotor specific motion equations. Instead of PTAM, we made

use of a more generic bearing only SLAM formulation based on the inverse-depth

feature parametrization. While both [8] and [9] claim accuracies in the order of a

few centimetres, it is important to note that their experiments only consider a hover-

ing quadrotor MAV, which is the ideal operating scenario for PTAM. Instead, here

we analyse the estimation results for a flight sequence more closer to real indoor

flights with frequent linear accelerations on the order of a few gs and rotational

rates on the order of few tens of degrees per second. Indeed in section 6 we show

that PTAM like VSLAM algorithms which rely on constant velocity motion models

will fail catastrophically when attempting to produce pose estimate using the image

sequence used for the experiments detailed here.

As mentioned before, tightly-coupled VIF implementations are less common in

literature because of their increased complexity. In [11], an iterated EKF is used

to fuse visual and inertial measurements in an attempt to estimate the inter-sensor

4 Dinuka Abeywardena and Gamini Dissanayake

calibration parameters and camera pose. A similar approach that makes use of an

unscented Kalman filter can be found in [12]. However, in both these approaches,

the focus is on estimating the calibration parameters. Therefore, the motion of the

camera is restricted such that it observes a specific set of environmental features in

all images. A similar formulation can be found in [13], but with experimental results

that span long indoor and outdoor trajectories. However, there the algorithms were

not developed with the resource constraints of MAVs in mind. A tightly-coupled

VIF employing the ID parametrization for environmental features is presented in

[14]. In the experimental results included there, the camera motion is largely one

dimensional thus limiting the usefulness of the analysis. In addition, the lack of ac-

curate ground truth in the last two approaches mentioned above inhibits a thorough

evaluation of the estimation accuracy. In [4], a tightly-coupled implementation of

bearing only inertial SLAM is used to estimate the pose of fixed wing aerial vehicle

along with the position of a set of artificial landmarks placed on the ground. This

work is close in spirit to the work presented here although it uses delayed feature

initialisation.

The tightly-coupled VIF implementation presented here makes use of the ID fea-

ture parametrization for monocular SLAM, introduced in [15]. In this parametriza-

tion, the 3D position of environmental features are represented by a six parameter

vector as opposed to the more conventional three parameters. These six parameters

encode the feature location by a vector, originating from the camera optical centre

and terminating in the feature position. This vector is represented by the position of

the camera optical centre, the elevation and bearing to the feature and the inverse

of the length of the vector. The key idea here is that this parametrization reduces

the non-linearities in measurement equations of an EKF based monocular SLAM

algorithm and thus improves the consistency and accuracy of the filter. Another the

main advantage of this strategy is that information from tracked environmental fea-

tures can be exploited without waiting for a sufficient baseline. To conserve space,

we refrain from discussing the ID parametrization in detail here. More information

about an open source implementation of an EKF based monocular SLAM algorithm

using ID feature parametrization can be found in [16].

The platform under consideration is a quadrotor MAV affixed with an IMU (con-

sisting of a triad of orthogonal accelerometers and gyroscopes) and a monocular

camera. Without loss of generality, we assume that the IMU is located at the cen-

tre of mass of the quadrotor and that the camera and IMU coordinate frames are

aligned. We name this the body coordinate frame {B} and also define an earth fixed

inertial coordinate frame {E}, which is defined by the position and heading of {B}

Tightly-Coupled Model Aided Visual-Inertial Fusion for Quadrotor Micro Air Vehicles 5

at the start of the VSLAM estimator but with its vertical axis aligned with gravity

(see Fig. 1). Throughout the paper we use boldface letters to denote vectors and

leading superscripts to denote coordinate frame in which the vector is expressed. A

trailing subscript denotes individual components of the vector.

The states we wish to estimate are: the position of the origin of {B} expressed

in {E}, e p; velocity of the origin of {B} measured in {E}, but expressed in {B},

b v ; orientation of {B} with respect to {E} expressed as a quaternion, q; angular

velocity of {B} with respect to {E}, expressed in {B}, b ; gyroscope bias g and

accelerometer bias a . The states evolve according to:

e

pp b

R bv 0 31

k1 vx + vx 0

b vv T g b

R k1 vy + vy 0

az + az 1 b

qq = + 041 az (1)

0.5qq b

b

031

031

a a

g g 031

gravity vector in {E}, R is the rotation matrix that transforms a vector from {B}

to {E}, denotes the quaternion multiplication and b a = {b ax ,b ay ,b az } are the

accelerometer measurements. Also, vx , vy , az , , a and g are zero mean

White Gaussian Noise (WGN) terms denoting uncertainties in process equations.

The accelerometer measurement along b z axis is considered as a control input to

1 In the current formulation k1 has to be estimated offline. Refer to [17] for details.

6 Dinuka Abeywardena and Gamini Dissanayake

the system. The equation for b vv of equation (1) which describes the relationship

between the orientation and the translational motion is unique to a quadrotor MAV.

More details on this equation along with experimental validation can be found in

[17].

In addition to the above mentioned ego-motion states, the VIF algorithm also

estimates the location of a number of environmental features. All features are ini-

tialized in the filter using the ID parametrization and later converted to Euclidean

when sufficient information about feature depth has been acquired through repeated

observations. A Euclidean feature is introduced to the filter by augmenting the state

vector with the 3-D position of the feature {E}.

x i = Xi Yi Zi (2)

vector:

y i = xi yi zi i i i (3)

which models a 3-D point located at Xi Yi Zi as:

Xi xi

1

x i = Yi = yi + m (i , i )

(4)

Zi zi

T

m (i , i ) = cos i sin i sin i cos i cos i

T

where xi yi zi is the location of the camera when the feature was first observed,

m (i , i ) denotes the unit vector from that location to the feature and i is the inverse

of the depth to the feature along that unit vector. Further details on the ID feature

parametrization for monocular SLAM can be found in [15].

Body mounted gyroscopes measure the instantaneous rotational rate of {B} with

respect to {E}. They are assumed to be corrupted by a slow-varying bias and zero-

mean WGN.

hg = b + g + g (5)

Accelerometers measure a combination of static and dynamic acceleration pro-

jected onto their sensing axes and therefore their measurements depend on the dy-

namics of the platform to which they are attached. For the case of a quadrotor MAV,

accelerometer measurements can be easily derived from equation (1).

b

k1 b vx + ax + ax

ax

ha = b = (6)

ay k1 b vy + ay + ay

Tightly-Coupled Model Aided Visual-Inertial Fusion for Quadrotor Micro Air Vehicles 7

Measurements to the currently tracked set of features are made in each cam-

era image. To express these measurements mathematically,

the position of the fea-

ture

first needs to be expressed in {B}: h c = hx hy h z . For a Euclidean features at

Xi Yi Zi :

Xi

h c = RT Yi e p (7)

Zi

For ID features:

xi

h c = RT i yi e p + m (i , i ) (8)

zi

For both Euclidean and ID features, the actual measurements are the projection of

the features onto the image plane assuming a pin hole camera. After the application

of camera calibration, we arrive at:

" fh

#

u0 hxy

u

h= = (9)

v v0 fhhxz

where f is the camera focal length and u0 , v0 is the cameras principal point.

4 Filter Implementation

The open source implementation of the EKF monocular SLAM with inverse depth

parametrization [16] was used as the basis for implementing the tightly coupled

VIF algorithm detailed in the previous section. The inclusion of quadrotor specific

dynamic model described by equation (1), the addition of accelerometer and gyro-

scope bias states and the incorporation of inertial measurement equations (5) and (6)

are the main contributions of the work proposed in this paper. This section discusses

some of the important aspects of that implementation.

In an EKF based monocular SLAM implementation, the initialization and re-

moval of features from the state vector needs special attention. Parameters involved

in these processes had to be tuned somewhat to achieve a proper balance between the

estimation accuracy and computational time. For the experiments presented here,

the filter attempts to track at least 10 environmental features in each image. A fea-

ture active in the filter is only deleted when it fails a certain number of data asso-

ciation attempts. An upper limit of thirty was placed on the total number of active

features in the filter at any point of time. For ease of implementation, when this

limit is exceeded, the features are deleted in a FIFO manner although more sophis-

ticated strategies exist. Also of importance is the method used for feature extraction

and matching. The original implementation of the ID monocular SLAM detailed in

[16] extracted FAST features [18] from each image along with a small image patch

8 Dinuka Abeywardena and Gamini Dissanayake

around the feature location as the descriptor. For each feature, a Region of Inter-

est (RoI) is defined in each subsequent image based on the current best estimate

of the camera pose and feature location. A correlation based matching within that

RoI using the stored image patch establishes correspondences. While other more

sophisticated feature extraction algorithms such as SIFT [19] are attractive for their

robustness, we decided to proceed with FAST features and RoI based search for the

computational simplicity of that approach.

One major advantage of the ID parametrization for monocular SLAM is the abil-

ity to perform un-delayed initialization of environmental features. At the first obser-

vation, each feature is incorporated into the state vector using the 6 parameter vector

yi with an mean inverse depth of i0 and a variance in inverse depth i0 . Several rule

of thumb guidelines on how to select values for both i0 and i0 can be found in

[16]. The idea is to set i0 such that the range of depths from the minimum expected

depth to infinite depth is covered within the 2i0 bound. While these rules gener-

ally provided good results for vision only experiments, some difficulties were faced

when fusion with inertial information was attempted. In that case, we observed that

the features that are considerably further away than the closest feature tend to end

up behind the camera after the first EKF update step, especially when the camera

is moving toward the features. Other authors have noted the same behaviour when

attempting to incorporate metric scale information to EKF based monocular SLAM

algorithms using ID parametrization [20]. To overcome this issue, we resorted to

initializing the features at approximately the mean depth of features in the image

rather than at the depth of the closest feature. With just a simple visual inspection

of the environment, we were able to set an approximate value to the initial feature

depth that would perform satisfactorily. We have also realized that, when consid-

ering the consistency of the filter, it is safer to initialize features further away than

close by.

Another difficulty faced during the implementation of the tightly-coupled VIF

algorithm was the tuning of filter noise parameters. The final EKF implementation

had nineteen states and three different types of measurements resulting in a total of

twenty two different noise parameters that had to be tuned. This proved an increas-

ingly difficult task, unless a methodical approach to filter tuning was followed. The

method followed in this work is to first focus on a reduced number of filter states

and measurements. In our previous work [17], we have shown that it is possible to

design a drift free velocity and attitude estimator for quadrotor MAVs using only

accelerometer and gyroscope measurements. With that experience, we initiated the

filter tuning process by turning off vision measurement updates and concentrating

on only obtaining drift free velocity and attitude estimates. For this however, we

had to provide the filter with an estimate of accelerometer biases, as it is not possi-

ble to estimate that using only inertial sensors. This tuning step involved only four

states and four measurements, and was rather easy to achieve. In the next step vi-

sion measurements was turned on and we focused on obtaining accelerometer bias

estimates and on reducing the drift in position estimates. Even though this still re-

quired a number of trial and error steps, it proved to be easier and more reliable than

attempting to tune all noise parameters at once.

Tightly-Coupled Model Aided Visual-Inertial Fusion for Quadrotor Micro Air Vehicles 9

(a) (b)

Fig. 2: (a) AR Drone I, (b) Vicon motion capture environment. Inset - one of the

Vicon IR cameras.

5 Experiments

Experiments presented here were performed using a real world flight dataset con-

sisting rapid linear and angular manoeuvres, obtained with a quadrotor MAV flying

in a Vicon motion capture environment approximately of size 4 4 3(m). The

quadrotor platform used was the Parrot AR Drone I with a total flight weight of

420g (see Fig. 2). The AR Drone comes pre-equipped with one front facing and one

downward facing cameras, along with a triad of accelerometers and gyroscopes. The

front facing camera is equipped with a 930 wide-angle lens and has a resolution of

320 240 pixels. Images from this camera, captured at approximately 7Hz along

with accelerometer and gyroscope measurements (at 200Hz) were timestamped on-

board the MAV and wirelessly transmitted to a ground station computer. All esti-

mation tasks were performed off-board and off-line. Vicon real-time state estimates

captured at 120Hz were treated as ground truth in evaluating the VIF estimates.

Position, velocity and orientation estimates along with ground truth for the collected

dataset are presented respectively in Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. Note that the quater-

nion attitude estimate of the VIF was converted to the familiar Z-Y-X Euler angles

for the purpose of illustration.

These figures clearly illustrates that the filter is producing consistent, metric scale

estimates. Note how the errors in e pz axis for position and b vz axis for velocity are

considerably higher than the other axes. This increased error stems from the lack of

a dynamic relationship in the filter constraining the quadrotor motion in b vz axis, as

is the case for b vx and b vy axes. A similar trend can be seen in yaw angle estimate

when compared to the roll and pitch estimates. Thus it is reasonable to assume that

the position, velocity and attitude estimation errors would increase considerably, if

not for the incorporation of the quadrotor dynamic model in the VIF algorithm.

10 Dinuka Abeywardena and Gamini Dissanayake

2

0.4

1 0.2

position (m)

0

0

0.2

1 0.4

VIF estimate 0.6

ground truth

2 0.8

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

time (s) time (s)

(a) (d)

2

VIF estimate

ground truth 0.4

1 0.2

position (m)

0

0

0.2

1 0.4

0.6

2 0.8

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

time (s) time (s)

(b) (e)

2

0.4

1 0.2

position (m)

0

0

0.2

1 0.4

VIF estimate 0.6

ground truth

2 0.8

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

time (s) time (s)

(c) (f)

Fig. 3: VIF position estimates: x - (a), y - (b), z - (c) and respective position estima-

tion errors (d) - (f)

6 A Comparison

we compare its estimation accuracy and execution time with two other state estima-

tors using the same dataset. First is a vision only formulation and we consider two

variations of a typical VSLAM estimator; a vanilla ID based monocular SLAM for-

mulation that make use of a constant velocity motion model to track features across

images and an SIFT based extension of the same that does not rely on a motion

model for feature tracking. For ease of reference we name the first NID (native ID)

and the second SbID (SIFT based ID). The underlying filtering mechanics for both

these variations are detailed in [16]. Second type of estimator that we wish to com-

pare against is a loosely-coupled VIF formulation where the loose coupling of the

vision and inertial information is the only difference between that and the present

work. Again for ease of reference we name the these as LC-VIF(loosely-coupled

VIF) and TC-VIF (tightly-coupled VIF). Note that the vision estimates required for

LC-VIF were derived from SbID. More details of LC-VIF can be found in [10].

Tightly-Coupled Model Aided Visual-Inertial Fusion for Quadrotor Micro Air Vehicles 11

1.5

VIF estimate

2

ground truth 1

velocity (m/s)

1 0.5

0

0 0.5

1

1

1.5

2 2

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

time (s) time (s)

(a) (d)

1.5 1.5

VIF estimate

1 ground truth 1

velocity (m/s)

0.5 0.5

0

0

0.5

0.5

1

1

1.5

1.5 2

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

time(s) time (s)

(b) (e)

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5

velocity (m/s)

0.5

0

0

0.5

0.5

1

1 VIF estimate 1.5

ground truth

1.5 2

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

time (s) time (s)

(c) (f)

Fig. 4: VIF velocity estimates: x - (a), y - (b), z - (c) and respective velocity estima-

tion errors (d) - (f)

Fast camera movements and the close proximity of features make the gathered

dataset an extremely difficult one for the conventional VSLAM algorithms that

are based on constant angular and linear velocity models. Attempts to process the

dataset using the open source implementation of the EKF based ID monocular

SLAM algorithm [16] failed repeatedly despite meticulous tuning of the filter noise

parameters, because of the inability of the process model to predict camera mo-

tion with sufficient accuracy that would enable successful feature tracking between

images. Thus, we conclude that NID estimators are unable to produce meaningful

results when the camera motion exhibits fast dynamics. We also remark that native

PTAM algorithms fall into the same category as the NID in the sense that they also

rely heavily on constant velocity motion model for feature tracking.

It is possibly to forego the tracking step altogether by employing a high quality

feature descriptors. In such an implementation, salient features and their descriptors

are extracted throughout each new image and matched with the descriptors of the

features currently in the map to establish initial correspondences. We modified the

ID monocular SLAM implementation by Civera et al. so that it extracts SIFT fea-

tures in each image, descriptors of which were then used for data association. Again

12 Dinuka Abeywardena and Gamini Dissanayake

10

15

VIF estimate

ground truth

10 5

angle (degrees)

5

0

0

5

5

10

10 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 time (s)

time (s)

(a) (d)

10

15

10

5

angle (degrees)

0

0

5

5

10

VIF estimate

ground truth 10

15 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 time (s)

time (s)

(b) (e)

10

40

30

5

angle (degrees)

20

10 0

0

5

10 VIF estimate

ground truth

20

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 10

time (s) 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

time (s)

(c) (f)

Fig. 5: VIF attitude estimates: roll - (a), pitch - (b), yaw - (c) and respective attitude

estimation errors (d) - (f)

1 1

x x

y y

position error (m)

0.5 z 0.5 z

0 0

0.5 0.5

1 1

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 200 210 220 230 240 250 260

tme (s) time (s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 6: (a) VSLAM only position estimation error from SbID, (b) LC-VIF position

estimation error.

due to the fast camera motions in the present dataset, we had to extract more than

a hundred SIFT features in each image to ensure sufficient feature overlap between

images. This (and the fact that the algorithms were implemented in Matlab) resulted

in extremely slow processing of images - about four seconds for each image. The

resulting VSLAM position estimation errors, calculated after manually scaling the

position estimates, are presented in Fig. 6a.

Tightly-Coupled Model Aided Visual-Inertial Fusion for Quadrotor Micro Air Vehicles 13

As detailed in [10], the goal of the LC-VIF design was to produce metric scale

estimates by combining VSLAM estimates of arbitrary scale and biased inertial

measurements. To achieve this the SbID estimates were fused with the accelerom-

eter and gyroscope measurement in an EKF that was based on the dynamic motion

equations of the quadrotor MAV. Position estimation errors of the LC-VIF presented

in Fig. 6b. Comparing Fig.6b with Fig. 6a, it is possible to see that the even a loose

coupling of visual and inertial information help reduce the estimation errors. Also

note how the estimation errors in LC-VIF change in proportion to the errors in SbID

estimates. Thus we remark that the improvement of accuracy due to VIF is minimal

due to the presence of considerable errors in the SbID estimate.

A summary of the performance of each estimator is presented in Table 1. Note

the improvement brought about by the tightly-coupled VIF, both in accuracy and

in execution time. This clearly illustrates the advantages of the filter formulation

presented here.

Structure x y z per image

NID NA NA NA NA

SbID 0.29 0.35 0.41 4

LC-VIF 0.24 0.24 0.30 4

TC-VIF 0.06 0.13 0.19 0.3

7 Conclusion

This paper presents the details on the implementation of a tightly-coupled VIF for

the state estimation of quadrotor MAVs that also makes use of the platform specific

dynamics to aid the estimation process. The experiments conducted clearly demon-

strate the ability of the proposed design to derive reasonably accurate state estimates

while attempting to minimize the computational expense by tracking only a handful

of environmental features. Even though the current implementation is off-line and

off-board, we believe it to be an important step toward real-time on-board MAV

state estimation. Future extensions of this work will attempt to bridge this gap by

further refining the proposed design.

14 Dinuka Abeywardena and Gamini Dissanayake

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