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Fluid Mechanics II

Fluid Mechanics II 1

Laminar Air Hood

Fluid Mechanics II 2

Laminar Flow in Life

Fluid Mechanics II 3

Outline

General Characteristics of Pipe Flow

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries

General Characteristics of External Flow

Boundary Layer Concepts/Characteristics

Boundary Layer Thicknesses

Boundary Layer Equations/Blasius Solution

Von Krmn Momentum Integral Equation

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent

Fluid Mechanics II 4

Pipe Flow

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Fluid Mechanics II 5

Internal Flows

Flows completely bounded by solid surfaces are called

INTERNAL FLOWS which include flows through pipes

(round cross section), ducts (NOT round cross section),

nozzles, diffusers, sudden contractions and expansions, valves,

and fittings.

The flow regime (laminar or turbulent) of internal flows is

primarily a function of the Reynolds number.

Laminar flow: Can be solved analytically.

Turbulent flow: Rely heavily on semi-empirical theories

and experimental data.

Fluid Mechanics II 6

Internal flows

through pipes,

elbows, tees,

valves, etc., as in

this oil refinery,

are found in

nearly every

industry.

Fluid Mechanics II 7

Pipe Flow vs. Open Channel Flow

Pipe flow: Flows completely filling the pipe, Figure (a)

The pressure gradient along the pipe is main driving force.

Open channel flow: Flows without completely filling the

pipe, Figure (b)

The gravity alone is the driving force.

Fluid Mechanics II 8

Laminar and Turbulent Flow

The flow of a fluid in a pipe may be laminar or

turbulent.

Laminar flow: It is a well-ordered pattern of flow,

in which fluid motion occurs in layers, one layer

gliding smoothly over the adjacent layer, without

mixing each other. Any tendency towards instability

is damped out by viscous forces, that also resist

relative motion of adjacent layers.

Turbulent flow: It is an irregular pattern of flow in

which the fluid particles move in an disorderly and

random fashion. The fluid particles intermix with

each other and in the process interchange their

momentum.

Fluid Mechanics II 9

Reynolds Experiment

Osborne Reynolds was the first to distinguish the difference between these

classification of flow by using a simple apparatus as shown.

For small enough Q the dye streak will remain as a well-defined line

as it flows along, with only slight blurring due to molecular diffusion of

the dye into the surrounding water.

For a somewhat larger intermediate Q the dye fluctuates in time and

space, and intermittent bursts of irregular behavior appear along the

streak.

For large enough Q the dye streak almost immediately become

blurred and spreads across the entire pipe in a random fashion.

8.2 Laminar/turbulent pipe flow

Fluid Mechanics II 10

At large Re, the inertial forces, which are

Reynolds Number (Re) proportional to the fluid density and the

The transition from laminar to turbulent square of the fluid velocity, are large

flow depends on the geometry, surface relative to the viscous forces, and thus the

roughness, flow velocity, surface viscous forces cannot prevent the random

temperature, and type of fluid. and rapid fluctuations of the fluid

The flow regime depends mainly on the (turbulent).

ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces At small or moderate Re, the viscous forces

(Reynolds number). are large enough to suppress these

fluctuations and to keep the fluid in line

(laminar).

Critical Reynolds number, Recr: The

Reynolds number at which the flow

becomes turbulent.

The value of the Recr is different for

different geometries and flow conditions.

For flow in a circular pipe:

Some use 2100

Fluid Mechanics II 11

Fluid Mechanics II 12

Example: Laminar or Turbulent Flow

Water at a temperature of 10C flows

through a pipe of diameter D = 1.85 cm

and into a glass.

(a) Determine the minimum time taken to

fill a 0.355 L glass with water if the flow

in the pipe is to be laminar. Repeat the

calculation if the water temperature is

60C.

(b) Determine the maximum time taken to

fill the glass if the flow is to be turbulent.

Repeat the calculation if the water

temperature is 60C.

Fluid Mechanics II 13

Solution1/2

(a) If the flow in the pipe is to maintain laminar, the minimum

time to fill the glass will occur if the Reynolds number is the

maximum allowed for laminar flow, typically Re = 2100.

Thus

V = 2100 / D = 0.148 m/s

V V

t= = 2

= 8.92 s

Q ( / 4) D V

Similarly, V = 0.054 m/s, t = 24.4 s at 60C. To maintain

laminar flow, the less viscous hot water requires a lower flow

rate than the cold water.

Fluid Mechanics II 14

Solution2/2

(b) If the flow in the pipe is to maintain turbulent, the

maximum time to fill the glass will occur if the Reynolds

number is the minimum allowed for turbulent flow, typically

Re = 4000.

Thus, V = 0.282 m/s, t = 4.67 s at 10C, while V = 0.102 m/s, t

= 13 s at 60C.

Fluid Mechanics II 15

Hydraulic Diameter (Dh)

based on the hydraulic diameter

Fluid Mechanics II 16

Laminar Flow in Pipes

We consider steady, laminar, incompressible flow of a fluid with constant properties in

the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe.

In fully developed laminar flow, each fluid particle moves at a constant axial velocity

along a streamline and the velocity profile u(r) remains unchanged in the flow

direction. There is no motion in the radial direction, and thus the velocity component in

the direction normal to the pipe axis is everywhere zero. There is no acceleration since

the flow is steady and fully developed.

Fluid Mechanics II 17

Boundary conditions

Average velocity

Velocity profile

Maximum velocity at

centerline

Fluid Mechanics II 18

Not function of r Independent of r

2 w r

p

=

2 ? = Cr =

l r B.C. r = 0, = 0

D

Not function of r r = D/2, = w (wall shear stress)

=

2 w r p

=

2 4 l w

D l r

p =

D

Fluid Mechanics II 19

Pressure Drop and Head Loss

A pressure drop due to viscous effects represents an irreversible pressure loss, and

it is called pressure loss PL.

Pressure loss for all types

Circular pipe,

of fully developed internal

laminar

flows

Darcy

Dynamic Head

friction

pressure loss

factor

In laminar flow, the friction factor is a function of the Re number only and is

independent of the roughness of the pipe surface.

The head loss represents the additional height that the fluid needs to be raised

by a pump in order to overcome the frictional losses

Fluid Mechanics II in the pipe. 20

Horizontal

pipe

Poiseuilles

law

For a specified flow rate, the pressure drop and thus

the required pumping power is proportional to the

length of the pipe and the viscosity of the fluid, but it

is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the

diameter of the pipe.

loss) is one of the most general relations

in fluid mechanics, and it is valid for

laminar or turbulent flows, circular or The pumping power requirement for

noncircular pipes, and pipes with smooth a laminar-flow piping system can be

or rough surfaces. Fluid Mechanics II reduced by a factor of 16 by 21

doubling the pipe diameter.

The pressure drop P equals the pressure loss PL in the case of a

horizontal pipe, but this is not the case for inclined pipes or pipes with

variable cross-sectional area.

This can be demonstrated by writing the energy equation for steady,

incompressible one-dimensional flow in terms of heads as

Fluid Mechanics II 22

Effect of Gravity on Velocity and Flow Rate in Laminar Flow

Fluid Mechanics II 23

Fluid Mechanics II 24

Example: Laminar Pipe Flow

An oil with a viscosity of = 0.40 Ns/m2 and density = 900 kg/m3

flows in a pipe of diameter D = 0.20 m .

Q = 2.010-5 m3/s if the pipe is horizontal with x1 = 0 and x2 = 10 m?

(b) How steep a hill, , must the pipe be on if the oil is to flow

through the pipe at the same rate as in part (a), but with p1 = p2?

(c) For the conditions of part (b), if p1 = 200 kPa, what is the

pressure at section, x3 = 5 m, where x is measured along the pipe?

Fluid Mechanics II 25

Solution1/2

Q

V = = 0.0637 m/s

A

So, the flow is laminar flow

128lQ

p = p1 p2 = 4

= ... = 20.4 kPa

D

(b) If the pipe is on the hill of angle with p = 0

128Q

sin = 4

= ... = 13.34

gD

Fluid Mechanics II 26

Solution2/2

(c) With p1 = p2 the length of the pipe, l, does not appear in the

flow rate equation. So, the pressure is constant all along the pipe

(if the pipe lie on a hill of constant slope).

p = 0 for all l

p1 = p2 = p3 = 200 kPa

Fluid Mechanics II 27

4 cm

Fluid Mechanics II 28

Fluid Mechanics II 29

Fluid Mechanics II 30

Fluid Mechanics II 31

Fluid Mechanics II 32

Fluid Mechanics II 33

Entrance Region

Velocity boundary layer: The region of the flow in which the effects of the viscous

shearing forces caused by fluid viscosity are felt.

Boundary layer region: The viscous effects and the velocity changes are significant.

Irrotational (core) flow region: The frictional effects are negligible and the velocity

remains essentially constant in the radial direction.

Fluid Mechanics II 34

Entrance region: The region from the pipe inlet to the point at which the boundary

layer merges at the centerline.

Entry length Lh: The length of this region.

Developing flow: Flow in the entrance region. This is the region where the velocity

profile develops.

Fully developed region: The region beyond the entrance region in which the velocity

profile is fully developed and remains unchanged.

Fully developed: When both the velocity profile and the normalized temperature

profile remain unchanged.

Hydrodynamically fully developed

of a pipe, the velocity profile does

not change downstream, and thus

the wall shear stress remains

constant as well.

Fluid Mechanics II 35

Entry Lengths

The entry length is usually taken to be the distance from the pipe entrance to where

the wall shear stress (and thus the friction factor) reaches within about 2 percent of

the fully developed value.

The pipes used in practice are

Lh , laminar usually several times the length

= 0.06 Re D of the entrance region, and thus

D the flow through the pipes is

often assumed to be fully

Lh , turbulent 1 / 6 developed for the entire length of

= 4.4 Re D the pipe.

D

Fluid Mechanics II 36

Wall Shear Stress The pressure drop is higher in the entrance regions of a

pipe, and the effect of the entrance region is always to

along Pipe increase the average friction factor for the entire pipe.

Fluid Mechanics II 37

Laminar Flow between

Solid Boundaries

Fluid Mechanics II 38

Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries

Steady laminar flow in circular pipes: the Hagen-Poiseuille

flow

Fluid Mechanics II 39

Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries

1 p 2 2 ri2 ro2 r ro

vz = r ro + ln Q = v z (2r )dr

4 z ln(ro / ri ) ro ri

Fluid Mechanics II 40

Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries

Steady laminar flow between two fixed parallel plates: the

plane Poiseuille flow

h

q = udy

h

Fluid Mechanics II 41

Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries

Steady laminar flow between two parallel plates, one of which

is moving: Couette flow

b

q = udy

0

Fluid Mechanics II 42

External Flow

Boundary Layer Concepts/Characteristics

Boundary Layer Thicknesses

Fluid Mechanics II 43

External Flows

Objects are completely surrounded by the fluid and the flows

are termed external flows.

Examples include the flow of air around airplane, automobiles,

and falling snowflakes, or the flow of water around

submarines and fish.

External flows involving air are often termed aerodynamics in

response to the important external flows produced when an

object such as an airplane flies through the atmosphere.

Fluid Mechanics II 44

General Characteristics

A body immersed in a moving fluid experiences a resultant

force due to the interacting between the body and the fluid

surrounding:

The body is stationary and the fluid flows past the body

with free stream velocity U.

The fluid far from the body is stationary and the body

moves through the fluid with free stream velocity U.

For a given-shaped object, the characteristics of the flow

depend very strongly on various parameters such as turbulence

in ambient flow, surface roughness, pressure gradient, plate

curvature and temperature difference between fluid and

boundary.

Boundary layer is formed whenever there is relative motion

between the boundary and the real fluid.

Fluid Mechanics II 45

Flow Past an Flat Plate 1/2

With Re 0.1, are felt far from the object in all directions.

Fluid Mechanics II 46

Flow Past an Flat Plate 2/2

With Re = 10, the region in which viscous

effects are important become smaller in all

directions except downstream. The

streamlines are displaced from their original

uniform upstream conditions, but the

displacement is not as great as for the Re =

0.1 situation.

With Re = 107 , the flow is dominated by

inertial effects and the viscous effects are

negligible everywhere except in a region

very close to the plate and in the

relatively thin wake region behind the

plate. The streamline of the flow outside

of the boundary layer are nearly parallel

to the plate.

Fluid Mechanics II 47

Flow over an infinitesimally thin flat plate of

length L. CFD calculations are reported for

ReL ranging from 10-1 to 105.

Fluid Mechanics II 48

Fluid Mechanics II 49

Flow Past an Circular Cylinder 1/3

When Re 0.1, the viscous effects are important in any direction

from the cylinder. A somewhat surprising characteristic of this flow

is that the streamlines are essentially symmetric about the center of

the cylinder, i.e., the streamline pattern is the same in front of the

cylinder as it is behind the cylinder.

Fluid Mechanics II 50

Flow Past an Circular Cylinder 2/3

As Re is increased (Re = 50), the region ahead of the cylinder in

which viscous effect are important becomes smaller, with the

viscous region extending only a short distance ahead of the cylinder.

The flow separates from the body at the separation point.

With the increase in Re, the fluid inertia becomes more important

and at some points on the body, denoted the separation location, the

fluids inertia is such that it cannot follow the curved path around to

the rear of the body.

Some of the fluid

is actually flowing

upstream, against

the direction of

the upstream flow.

Fluid Mechanics II 51

Flow Past an Circular Cylinder 3/3

With larger Reynolds numbers (Re = 105), the area affected by the

viscous forces is forced farther downstream. An irregular, unsteady

wake region extends far downstream of the cylinder.

The velocity gradients within the boundary layer and wake regions

are much larger than those in the remainder of the flow field.

Fluid Mechanics II 52

Boundary Layer Concepts

Many viscous flows can be analyzed by dividing the flow into two

regions.

Only in the thin region adjacent to a solid boundary (the boundary layer), the

effect of viscosity is important.

In the region outside of the boundary layer, the effect of viscosity is

negligible and the fluid may be treated as inviscid.

problems that would have been impossible through application of the

Navier-Stokes equations to the complete flow field.

Fluid Mechanics II 53

Boundary layer approximation

Divides the flow into two regions:

an outer flow region that is inviscid

and/or irrotational, and

an inner flow region called a

boundary layera very thin region

of flow near a solid wall where

viscous forces and rotationality

cannot be ignored

(which allows slip at walls) and the NavierStokes

equation (which supports the no-slip condition); (b)

the boundary layer approximation bridges that gap.

Fluid Mechanics II 54

Boundary Layer Concepts

The flow past an object can be treated as a combination of

viscous flow in the boundary layer and inviscid flow

elsewhere.

Inside the boundary layer, the friction is significant and across

the width (BL thickness) of which the velocity increases

rapidly from zero (at the surface) to the value predicted by

inviscid flow theory.

Outside the boundary layer, the velocity gradients normal to

the flow are relatively small, and the fluids acts as if it were

inviscid, even though the viscosity is not zero.

Fluid Mechanics II 55

Boundary Layer on Solid Surface

Consider the flow over a flat plate as shown, the boundary layer is laminar

for a short distance downstream from the leading edge; transition occurs

over a region of the plate rather than at a single line across the plate.

The transition region extends downstream to the location where the

boundary layer flow becomes completely turbulent.

9.3 Laminar BL Fluid Mechanics II 56

Boundary Layer Thickness

a) Standard boundary layer thickness,

b) Boundary layer displacement thickness, *

c) Boundary layer momentum thickness,

Fluid Mechanics II 57

( )

Standard Boundary Layer Thickness (

The standard boundary layer thickness is the distance normal

to the plate where the velocity differs 1% from the free stream

velocity U.

y = where u = 99% of U

Fluid Mechanics II 58

(*)

Boundary Layer Displacement Thickness (

The boundary layer retards the fluid, so that the mass flux () and

momentum flux () are both less than they would be in the absence of

the boundary layer.

The displacement thickness is the thickness of the body that must be

increased, so that the fictitious uniform inviscid flow has the same mass

flowrate properties as the actual viscous flow.

The loss due to the boundary layer

* Uw = 0 (U u )wdy

u

* = 0 1 dy

U

Its use can be found in the

design of wind tunnels,

air intakes for airplane jet engines, etc

Fluid Mechanics II 59

The boundary layer affects the Displacement

irrotational outer flow in such a thickness is the

way that the wall appears to imaginary increase

take the shape of the in thickness of the

displacement thickness. The wall, as seen by

apparent U(x) differs from the the outer flow, due

original approximation because to the effect of the

of the thicker wall.

growing boundary

layer.

The effect of boundary layer growth on flow entering a two-dimensional channel: the irrotational

flow accelerates as indicated by (a) actual velocity profiles, and (b) change in apparent core

flow due to the displacement thickness of the boundary layer.

Fluid Mechanics II 60

Example: Boundary Layer Displacement Thickness

Air flowing into a 0.6-m-square duct with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s

forms a boundary layer on the walls. The fluid within the core region

(outside the boundary layers) flows as if it were inviscid. From

advanced calculations it is determined that for this flow the boundary

layer displacement thickness is given by

* = 0.004 x1/ 2

3m/s

where * and x are in feet.

Determine the velocity U =

U(x) of the air within the 0.6-m-square

duct bout outside of the

boundary layer.

Fluid Mechanics II 61

Solution1/2

The volume flow rate across any section of the duct is equal to

that at the entrance (i.e., Q1= Q2). That is

U1 A1 = 3 m/s (0.6 m) 2 = 1.08 m 3 /s = udA

( 2)

flow rate across section (2) is the same as that for a uniform

flow with velocity U through a duct whose walls have been

moved inward by *.

1.08 = udA = U (0.6 2 * ) 2 = U (0.6 0.008 x1/ 2 ) 2

( 2)

1.08

U = 1/ 2 2

m/s

(0.6 008 x )

Fluid Mechanics II 62

Solution2/2

The viscous effects that cause the fluid to stick to the walls of

the duct reduce the effective size of the duct, thereby (from

conservation of mass) causing the fluid to accelerate.

The pressure drop necessary to do this can be obtained by using

the Bernoulli equation along the inviscid streamlines from

sections (1) to (2). So,

p1 + 12 U12 = p + 12 U 2

1

(

p = U12 U 2

2

)

1.17

p = 0.6 9 1/ 2 4

= 2 .12 N / m 2

( 0 .6 0 .008 x )

Fluid Mechanics II 63

Fluid Mechanics II 64

Fluid Mechanics II 65

()

Boundary Layer Momentum Thickness (

The momentum thickness is the distance normal to the

boundary (wall) by which it is to be shifted, such that the

momentum flux through this distance is equivalent to the loss

in the momentum flux caused due to the formation of the

boundary layer.

The loss of momentum due to the boundary layer

wU = wu(U u )dy

2

0

u u

= 1 dy

0 U U

Its use can be found in evaluating the drag and the shear

stress on an objection.

Fluid Mechanics II 66

Comparison between , * and

Fluid Mechanics II 67

Characteristics of Boundary Layer

The boundary layer grows thicker in the downstream direction.

The boundary layer grows thicker when kinematic viscosity increases.

The boundary layer results in thinner in a higher free stream velocity.

As the boundary layer grows thicker, the wall shear stress decreases

in the direction of flow [w = (U/ )]. However, when boundary layer

becomes turbulent, it shows a sudden increase and then decreases in the

downstream direction.

If U increases in the downstream direction, i.e., P/x is negative,

boundary layer growth is reduced.

If U decreases in the downstream direction, i.e., P/x is positive, flow near

the boundary is further retarded, boundary layer growth is faster and boundary

layer is susceptible to separate.

Fluid Mechanics II 68

Characteristics of Boundary Layer

parabolic law, while that in turbulent boundary layer follows

logarithmic law or power law.

Fluid Mechanics II 69

How to Solve Boundary Layer Problems

Blasius solution

Limited to laminar boundary layer only, and for a flat plate

only (no pressure variations).

Von Krmn momentum integral equation

Used to obtain approximate information on boundary layer

growth for the general case ( laminar or turbulent boundary

layers, with or without a pressure gradient).

Fluid Mechanics II 70

Boundary Layer Equations/Blasius Solution

Prandtl used boundary layer concept and imposed

approximation (valid for large Reynolds number flows) to

simplify the governing Navier-Stokes equations. Blasius, one

of Prandtls students, solved these simplified equations.

Ludwig Prandtl(1875-1953)

Fluid Mechanics II 71

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 1/12

The details of viscous incompressible flow past any object can be

obtained by solving the governing Navier-Stokes equations.

For steady, two dimensional, incompressible laminar flow with

negligible gravitational effects, these equations reduce to the following

u u 1 p 2u 2 u

u +v = + 2 + 2

x y x x y

v v 1 p 2v 2v

u +v = + 2 + 2

x y y x y

In addition, the continuity equation:

u v

+ =0

x y

Fluid Mechanics II 72

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 2/12

To simplify.

Since the boundary layer is thin, it is expected that the

component of velocity normal to the plate (v) is much smaller

than the parallel to the plate (u) and that the rate of change of

any parameter across the boundary layer should be much

greater than that along the flow direction. That is

2

u u u

v << u and << u +v = 2

x y x y y

B.C.: at y = 0, u = v = 0 u v

+ =0

at y = . u = U x y

Boundary Layer Equations

Fluid Mechanics II 73

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 3/12

The following assumptions are made in solving the above

equations:

1. The boundary layer theory is essentially developed for flows

at high Re. This means that the boundary layer thickness is too

small in comparison to any characteristic dimension of

boundary surface.

2. The viscosity and density of the fluid are assumed to remain

constant and the isothermal conditions prevail in the flow.

3. The boundary surface is streamlined, so that the flow pattern

and pressure determined by ideal fluid theory are accurate.

Fluid Mechanics II 74

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 4/12

The above assumptions result in the following approximations:

1. The pressure does not change across any given section of

boundary layer. So, the pressure determined by the ideal fluid

theory at the edge of the boundary layer holds within the

boundary layer also.

2. The flow in the boundary layer is essentially parallel and

viscous (shear) stresses are determined by Newtons law of

viscosity. The turbulent shear stresses are negligible as the

velocity fluctuations die out near the boundary surface.

3. The curvature of the boundary layer is gentle.

Fluid Mechanics II 75

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 5/12

The following boundary conditions should be satisfied to solve

the above equations:

1. The condition of no-slip at the boundary, i.e., at y = 0, u =

0, and v = 0.

2. The velocity u approaches the free stream velocity U and

velocity gradient is zero at the outer edge of the boundary

layer.

3. The application of Bernoullis equation to the flow in the

boundary layer yields

p + U2 = constant

Fluid Mechanics II 76

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 6/12

Prandtls boundary layer equations

The equations are reduced to

u u 2u u v

u + v = 2 + =0

x y y x y

and p

p

=0

y The continuity equation is not affected.

normal direction.

Fluid Mechanics II 77

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 7/12

Assume that both viscous and inertia forces will be of the same

order of magnitude at the edge of boundary layer.

The viscous forces per unit volume

2u u U

fv = = 2 = 2

y y y y

The inertia forces per unit volume

2

du U

f i = a x = u =

x x

U U 2 k

2

=

x

x

=

Re x

Fluid Mechanics II 78

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 8/12

Blasius solved the boundary layer equations for 2-D flows

developing over a flat plate placed at zero incidence.

The pressure gradient normal to the flow in normal direction was

assumed to be zero.

He assumed that the velocity profiles through the boundary layer

remained geometrically similar along the whole length of the

laminar section.

u y

= f ' = f ' ( )

U

The boundary layer thickness

x grows as the square root of x

But and inversely proportional to

U the square root of U.

y U

Therefore = =y

x

Fluid Mechanics II 79

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 9/12

Blasius reduced the partial differential equations to an ordinary differential

equation by introducing stream function and obtained the solution of these

equations in the form of power series expansion. Recall that the continuity

equation is identically satisfied when giving the velocity field in terms of

stream function. Then we introduce the two new variables

U ( x, y )

=y and F ( ) =

x xU

The Blasius Equation is 2 F + FF = 0

The values of u/U versus y/ have been tabulated.

According to the definition of , u = 0.99U at the edge of the boundary layer.

The value of y/ corresponds to u/U = 0.99 is found to be equal to 4.91.

U

y = 4.91 at y =

x

4.91 5.0

Rearranging the terms = = (more popular)

x Re x x Re x

Fluid Mechanics II 80

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 10/12

Fluid Mechanics II 81

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 11/12

form using the similarity variable . (b) similar boundary layer profiles at

different locations along the flat plate.

Fluid Mechanics II 82

Prandtl/Blasius Solution 12/12

*

5 1.721 0.664

= ; = ; =

x Re x x Re x x Re x

0.664 1.328

w = 0.332U 3/2

Cf = , C Df =

x Re x Re x

coefficient

coefficient

Frictional force =

w F / BL L

Cf = C Df = F = b w dx

2

U / 2 U 2 / 2 0

Fluid Mechanics II 83

Types of Velocity Profiles

Fluid Mechanics II 84

Laminar Boundary Layer = 0: f()= 0, f() = 0; = , f/() =

1

Re x Cf Re x C Df Re x

Profile u/U = f(y/) = f() x

= 2 c 2 /c 1 = 2c 1 c 2 = 8c 1 c 2

3.46 0.578 1.156

Linear

(-31%) (-13%) (-13%)

5.48 0.730 1.460

Parabolic 2 - 2

(9.6%) (10%) (10%)

4.64 0.646 1.292

Cubic 1.5 -0.5 3

(-7.2%) (-2.7%) (-2.7%)

5.83 0.686 1.371

4th-order 2 -2 3+ 4

(16.6%) (3.2%) (3.2%)

4.79 0.655 1.310

Sine wave sin( /2)

(4.2%) (-1.4%) (-1.4%)

Fluid Mechanics II 85

Von K

Krm

rmn Momentum Integral Equation

Used to obtain approximate information

on boundary layer growth

Fluid Mechanics II (1881-1963) 86

Momentum Integral Equation 1/7

We need approximate methods that would quickly lead to an answer even

if the accuracy is somewhat less.

Krmn and Pohlhausen devised a simplified method by satisfying only the

boundary conditions of the boundary layer flow rather than satisfying

Prandtls differential equations for each and every particle within the

boundary layer.

Consider incompressible, steady, two-dimensional flow over a solid surface.

Fluid Mechanics II 87

Momentum Integral Equation 2/7

Assume that the pressure is constant throughout the flow field.

x-component of the momentum equation to the steady flow of

fluid within this control volume

r r r r

Fx = uV ndA + uV ndA

(1) (2)

F x = D = w dA = b

plate plate

w dx

where D is the drag that the plate exerts on the fluid.

Fluid Mechanics II 88

Momentum Integral Equation 3/7

Since the plate is solid and the upper surface of the control

volume is a streamline, there is no flow through these areas.

Thus

D = U ( U )dA + u 2 dA

(1) ( 2)

D = U bh b u 2 dy

2

0

The conservation of mass Drag on a flat plate is related

to momentum deficit within

Uh = udy

0 the boundary layer

U bh = b Uudy

2

0

Fluid Mechanics II 89

Momentum Integral Equation 4/7

A balance between shear drag

and a decrease in the momentum

D = b u (U u )dy of the fluid

0

increases.

The thickening of the boundary layer is

necessary to overcome the drag of the

viscous shear stress on the plate. (This is

contrary to horizontal fully developed

pipe flow in which the momentum of the

fluid remains constant and the shear force

is overcome by the pressure gradient

along the pipe)

Fluid Mechanics II 90

Momentum Integral Equation 5/7

By T. von Krmn (1881-1963)

D = b u (U u )dy

0

2

u u D = bU

= 1 dy Valid for laminar or turbulent flows

0 U U

dD 2 d dD

= bU dD = wbdx = b w

dx dx dx

d 2 Momentum integral equation for the

w = U boundary layer flow on a flat plate

dx

Fluid Mechanics II 91

Momentum Integral Equation 6/7

The momentum integral equation in terms of displacement and

momentum thicknesses:

w d 2 dU Flat plate equation dU/dx = 0

= (U ) + U *

dx dx

or

w 1 d dU *

2

= Cf = + (2 + H ) , where H =

U 2 dx U dx

Cf d d

= or w = U 2

2 dx dx

Fluid Mechanics II 92

Momentum Integral Equation 7/7

D 2 u u 2

C Df =1 2

= (1 )dy C Df =

2 U bL L 1U U4

0

4424 3 L

= momentum thickness

D

x

b w dx 2 D = b u (U u )dy

0 0

C Df =1 2

= 2

=

2 U A 2 U bL

1

L

x w

2

dx = 2

2 U

0 1

1 w d

1 =

2

2 2 U dx

Cf d

= Momentum integral relation for flat plate boundary layer

2 dx

Fluid Mechanics II 93

Example: Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation

flat plate at y = 0. The boundary layer velocity profile is

approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y and u = U for y .

Determine the shear stress by using the momentum integral

equation. Compare these results with the Blasius results given

by

w = 0.332U 3 / 2

x

Fluid Mechanics II 94

Solution

The shear stress is given by

u

2 d

For laminar flow w =

w = U y

dx y =0

U

For the assumed velocity profile w =

u u y y

= 1 dy = ... = 1 dy =

0 U U 0 6

U U 2 d 6

= d = dx

6 dx U

d U x

w = U 2

w = = = 3.46

dx 6 U

w = 0.289U 3 / 2

x

Fluid Mechanics II 95

The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers

In many practical engineering applications, we do not need to know all the details inside

the boundary layer; rather we seek reasonable estimates of gross features of the boundary

layer such as boundary layer thickness and skin friction coefficient.

The momentum integral technique utilizes a control volume approach to obtain such

quantitative approximations of boundary layer properties along surfaces with zero or

nonzero pressure gradients.

It is valid for both laminar and turbulent boundary layers.

black line) used in derivation of

the momentum integral equation.

Fluid Mechanics II 96

Mass flow balance on the control

volume of Fig. 10127.

Fluid Mechanics II 97

The product rule is utilized in reverse in the derivation of

the momentum integral equation.

Fluid Mechanics II 98

Fluid Mechanics II 99

Integration of a known

(or assumed) velocity

profile is required

when using the

Krmn integral

equation.

Transition from Laminar to

Turbulent

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent 1/2

On a flat plate with a sharp leading edge in a typical air-stream,

the transition takes place at a distance x from the leading edge

105 is used.

given by Rex, cr = 2105 to 3106. Rex, cr = 5

The actual transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer

flow may occur over a region of the plate, not a specific single

location.

Typical, the transition begins at random location on the plate

in the vicinity of Rex = Rex, cr.

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent 2/2

Transition from laminar to

turbulent flow involves a

noticeable change in the shape of

the boundary layer velocity

profiles. Flatter

The turbulent profiles are flatter,

have a large velocity gradient at

the wall, and produce a larger

boundary layer thickness than do

the laminar profiles.

boundary layer velocity profiles

on a flat plate for laminar,

transitional, and turbulent flow.

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