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# UEME3112

Fluid Mechanics II

## Chapter 3 Laminar Boundary Layers

Fluid Mechanics II 1
Laminar Air Hood

Fluid Mechanics II 2
Laminar Flow in Life

Fluid Mechanics II 3
Outline
 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow
 Fully Developed Laminar Flow
 Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries
 General Characteristics of External Flow
 Boundary Layer Concepts/Characteristics
 Boundary Layer Thicknesses
 Boundary Layer Equations/Blasius Solution
 Von Krmn Momentum Integral Equation
 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent

Fluid Mechanics II 4
Pipe Flow

## General Characteristics of Pipe Flow

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Fluid Mechanics II 5
Internal Flows
 Flows completely bounded by solid surfaces are called
INTERNAL FLOWS which include flows through pipes
(round cross section), ducts (NOT round cross section),
nozzles, diffusers, sudden contractions and expansions, valves,
and fittings.
 The flow regime (laminar or turbulent) of internal flows is
primarily a function of the Reynolds number.
 Laminar flow: Can be solved analytically.
 Turbulent flow: Rely heavily on semi-empirical theories
and experimental data.

Fluid Mechanics II 6
Internal flows
through pipes,
elbows, tees,
valves, etc., as in
this oil refinery,
are found in
nearly every
industry.
Fluid Mechanics II 7
Pipe Flow vs. Open Channel Flow
 Pipe flow: Flows completely filling the pipe, Figure (a)
The pressure gradient along the pipe is main driving force.
 Open channel flow: Flows without completely filling the
pipe, Figure (b)
The gravity alone is the driving force.

Fluid Mechanics II 8
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
 The flow of a fluid in a pipe may be laminar or
turbulent.
 Laminar flow: It is a well-ordered pattern of flow,
in which fluid motion occurs in layers, one layer
gliding smoothly over the adjacent layer, without
mixing each other. Any tendency towards instability
is damped out by viscous forces, that also resist
 Turbulent flow: It is an irregular pattern of flow in
which the fluid particles move in an disorderly and
random fashion. The fluid particles intermix with
each other and in the process interchange their
momentum.

## 8.1 Turbulent jet

Fluid Mechanics II 9
Reynolds Experiment
 Osborne Reynolds was the first to distinguish the difference between these
classification of flow by using a simple apparatus as shown.

 For small enough Q the dye streak will remain as a well-defined line
as it flows along, with only slight blurring due to molecular diffusion of
the dye into the surrounding water.
 For a somewhat larger intermediate Q the dye fluctuates in time and
space, and intermittent bursts of irregular behavior appear along the
streak.
 For large enough Q the dye streak almost immediately become
blurred and spreads across the entire pipe in a random fashion.
8.2 Laminar/turbulent pipe flow
Fluid Mechanics II 10
At large Re, the inertial forces, which are
Reynolds Number (Re) proportional to the fluid density and the
The transition from laminar to turbulent square of the fluid velocity, are large
flow depends on the geometry, surface relative to the viscous forces, and thus the
roughness, flow velocity, surface viscous forces cannot prevent the random
temperature, and type of fluid. and rapid fluctuations of the fluid
The flow regime depends mainly on the (turbulent).
ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces At small or moderate Re, the viscous forces
(Reynolds number). are large enough to suppress these
fluctuations and to keep the fluid in line
(laminar).
Critical Reynolds number, Recr: The
Reynolds number at which the flow
becomes turbulent.
The value of the Recr is different for
different geometries and flow conditions.
For flow in a circular pipe:
Some use 2100

Fluid Mechanics II 11
Fluid Mechanics II 12
Example: Laminar or Turbulent Flow
Water at a temperature of 10C flows
through a pipe of diameter D = 1.85 cm
and into a glass.
(a) Determine the minimum time taken to
fill a 0.355 L glass with water if the flow
in the pipe is to be laminar. Repeat the
calculation if the water temperature is
60C.
(b) Determine the maximum time taken to
fill the glass if the flow is to be turbulent.
Repeat the calculation if the water
temperature is 60C.

Fluid Mechanics II 13
Solution1/2
 (a) If the flow in the pipe is to maintain laminar, the minimum
time to fill the glass will occur if the Reynolds number is the
maximum allowed for laminar flow, typically Re = 2100.
Thus
V = 2100 / D = 0.148 m/s

V V
t= = 2
= 8.92 s
Q ( / 4) D V
 Similarly, V = 0.054 m/s, t = 24.4 s at 60C. To maintain
laminar flow, the less viscous hot water requires a lower flow
rate than the cold water.

Fluid Mechanics II 14
Solution2/2
 (b) If the flow in the pipe is to maintain turbulent, the
maximum time to fill the glass will occur if the Reynolds
number is the minimum allowed for turbulent flow, typically
Re = 4000.
 Thus, V = 0.282 m/s, t = 4.67 s at 10C, while V = 0.102 m/s, t
= 13 s at 60C.

Fluid Mechanics II 15
Hydraulic Diameter (Dh)

## For flow through noncircular pipes, Re is

based on the hydraulic diameter

Fluid Mechanics II 16
Laminar Flow in Pipes
We consider steady, laminar, incompressible flow of a fluid with constant properties in
the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe.
In fully developed laminar flow, each fluid particle moves at a constant axial velocity
along a streamline and the velocity profile u(r) remains unchanged in the flow
direction. There is no motion in the radial direction, and thus the velocity component in
the direction normal to the pipe axis is everywhere zero. There is no acceleration since
the flow is steady and fully developed.

Fluid Mechanics II 17
Boundary conditions

Average velocity

Velocity profile

Maximum velocity at
centerline

Fluid Mechanics II 18
Not function of r Independent of r
2 w r
p
=
2 ? = Cr =
l r B.C. r = 0, = 0
D
Not function of r r = D/2, = w (wall shear stress)

## The pressure drop and wall shear stress are related by

=
2 w r p
=
2 4 l w
D l r
p =
D

Fluid Mechanics II 19

A pressure drop due to viscous effects represents an irreversible pressure loss, and
it is called pressure loss PL.
Pressure loss for all types
Circular pipe,
of fully developed internal
laminar
flows
Darcy
friction
pressure loss
factor

In laminar flow, the friction factor is a function of the Re number only and is
independent of the roughness of the pipe surface.
The head loss represents the additional height that the fluid needs to be raised
by a pump in order to overcome the frictional losses
Fluid Mechanics II in the pipe. 20
Horizontal
pipe
Poiseuilles
law
For a specified flow rate, the pressure drop and thus
the required pumping power is proportional to the
length of the pipe and the viscosity of the fluid, but it
is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the
diameter of the pipe.

## The relation for pressure loss (and head

loss) is one of the most general relations
in fluid mechanics, and it is valid for
laminar or turbulent flows, circular or The pumping power requirement for
noncircular pipes, and pipes with smooth a laminar-flow piping system can be
or rough surfaces. Fluid Mechanics II reduced by a factor of 16 by 21
doubling the pipe diameter.
The pressure drop P equals the pressure loss PL in the case of a
horizontal pipe, but this is not the case for inclined pipes or pipes with
variable cross-sectional area.
This can be demonstrated by writing the energy equation for steady,
incompressible one-dimensional flow in terms of heads as

Fluid Mechanics II 22
Effect of Gravity on Velocity and Flow Rate in Laminar Flow

Fluid Mechanics II 23
Fluid Mechanics II 24
Example: Laminar Pipe Flow
 An oil with a viscosity of = 0.40 Ns/m2 and density = 900 kg/m3
flows in a pipe of diameter D = 0.20 m .

## (a) What pressure drop, p1 p2, is needed to produce a flow rate of

Q = 2.010-5 m3/s if the pipe is horizontal with x1 = 0 and x2 = 10 m?

(b) How steep a hill, , must the pipe be on if the oil is to flow
through the pipe at the same rate as in part (a), but with p1 = p2?

(c) For the conditions of part (b), if p1 = 200 kPa, what is the
pressure at section, x3 = 5 m, where x is measured along the pipe?

Fluid Mechanics II 25
Solution1/2

## (a) Re = VD / = 2.87 < 2100

Q
V = = 0.0637 m/s
A
So, the flow is laminar flow
128lQ
p = p1 p2 = 4
= ... = 20.4 kPa
D
(b) If the pipe is on the hill of angle with p = 0

128Q
sin = 4
= ... = 13.34
gD

Fluid Mechanics II 26
Solution2/2

(c) With p1 = p2 the length of the pipe, l, does not appear in the
flow rate equation. So, the pressure is constant all along the pipe
(if the pipe lie on a hill of constant slope).

p = 0 for all l

p1 = p2 = p3 = 200 kPa

Fluid Mechanics II 27
4 cm

Fluid Mechanics II 28
Fluid Mechanics II 29
Fluid Mechanics II 30
Fluid Mechanics II 31
Fluid Mechanics II 32
Fluid Mechanics II 33
Entrance Region
Velocity boundary layer: The region of the flow in which the effects of the viscous
shearing forces caused by fluid viscosity are felt.
Boundary layer region: The viscous effects and the velocity changes are significant.
Irrotational (core) flow region: The frictional effects are negligible and the velocity
remains essentially constant in the radial direction.

Fluid Mechanics II 34
Entrance region: The region from the pipe inlet to the point at which the boundary
layer merges at the centerline.
Entry length Lh: The length of this region.
Developing flow: Flow in the entrance region. This is the region where the velocity
profile develops.
Fully developed region: The region beyond the entrance region in which the velocity
profile is fully developed and remains unchanged.
Fully developed: When both the velocity profile and the normalized temperature
profile remain unchanged.
Hydrodynamically fully developed

## In the fully developed flow region

of a pipe, the velocity profile does
not change downstream, and thus
the wall shear stress remains
constant as well.

Fluid Mechanics II 35
Entry Lengths
The entry length is usually taken to be the distance from the pipe entrance to where
the wall shear stress (and thus the friction factor) reaches within about 2 percent of
the fully developed value.
The pipes used in practice are
Lh , laminar usually several times the length
= 0.06 Re D of the entrance region, and thus
D the flow through the pipes is
often assumed to be fully
Lh , turbulent 1 / 6 developed for the entire length of
= 4.4 Re D the pipe.
D

Fluid Mechanics II 36
Wall Shear Stress The pressure drop is higher in the entrance regions of a
pipe, and the effect of the entrance region is always to
along Pipe increase the average friction factor for the entire pipe.

Fluid Mechanics II 37
Laminar Flow between
Solid Boundaries

Fluid Mechanics II 38
Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries
 Steady laminar flow in circular pipes: the Hagen-Poiseuille
flow

Fluid Mechanics II 39
Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries

##  Steady laminar flow through an axisymmetric annulus

1 p 2 2 ri2 ro2 r ro
vz = r ro + ln Q = v z (2r )dr
4 z ln(ro / ri ) ro ri

Fluid Mechanics II 40
Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries
 Steady laminar flow between two fixed parallel plates: the
plane Poiseuille flow

h
q = udy
h

Fluid Mechanics II 41
Laminar Flow between Solid Boundaries
 Steady laminar flow between two parallel plates, one of which
is moving: Couette flow

b
q = udy
0

Fluid Mechanics II 42
External Flow

## General Characteristics of External Flow

Boundary Layer Concepts/Characteristics
Boundary Layer Thicknesses

Fluid Mechanics II 43
External Flows
 Objects are completely surrounded by the fluid and the flows
are termed external flows.
 Examples include the flow of air around airplane, automobiles,
and falling snowflakes, or the flow of water around
submarines and fish.
 External flows involving air are often termed aerodynamics in
response to the important external flows produced when an
object such as an airplane flies through the atmosphere.

Fluid Mechanics II 44
General Characteristics
 A body immersed in a moving fluid experiences a resultant
force due to the interacting between the body and the fluid
surrounding:
 The body is stationary and the fluid flows past the body
with free stream velocity U.
 The fluid far from the body is stationary and the body
moves through the fluid with free stream velocity U.
 For a given-shaped object, the characteristics of the flow
depend very strongly on various parameters such as turbulence
in ambient flow, surface roughness, pressure gradient, plate
curvature and temperature difference between fluid and
boundary.
 Boundary layer is formed whenever there is relative motion
between the boundary and the real fluid.

Fluid Mechanics II 45
Flow Past an Flat Plate 1/2
 With Re 0.1, are felt far from the object in all directions.

Fluid Mechanics II 46
Flow Past an Flat Plate 2/2
 With Re = 10, the region in which viscous
effects are important become smaller in all
directions except downstream. The
streamlines are displaced from their original
uniform upstream conditions, but the
displacement is not as great as for the Re =
0.1 situation.
 With Re = 107 , the flow is dominated by
inertial effects and the viscous effects are
negligible everywhere except in a region
very close to the plate and in the
relatively thin wake region behind the
plate. The streamline of the flow outside
of the boundary layer are nearly parallel
to the plate.

Fluid Mechanics II 47
Flow over an infinitesimally thin flat plate of
length L. CFD calculations are reported for
ReL ranging from 10-1 to 105.

Fluid Mechanics II 48
Fluid Mechanics II 49
Flow Past an Circular Cylinder 1/3
 When Re 0.1, the viscous effects are important in any direction
from the cylinder. A somewhat surprising characteristic of this flow
is that the streamlines are essentially symmetric about the center of
the cylinder, i.e., the streamline pattern is the same in front of the
cylinder as it is behind the cylinder.

Fluid Mechanics II 50
Flow Past an Circular Cylinder 2/3
 As Re is increased (Re = 50), the region ahead of the cylinder in
which viscous effect are important becomes smaller, with the
viscous region extending only a short distance ahead of the cylinder.
 The flow separates from the body at the separation point.
 With the increase in Re, the fluid inertia becomes more important
and at some points on the body, denoted the separation location, the
fluids inertia is such that it cannot follow the curved path around to
the rear of the body.
Some of the fluid
is actually flowing
upstream, against
the direction of
the upstream flow.

Fluid Mechanics II 51
Flow Past an Circular Cylinder 3/3
 With larger Reynolds numbers (Re = 105), the area affected by the
viscous forces is forced farther downstream. An irregular, unsteady
wake region extends far downstream of the cylinder.
 The velocity gradients within the boundary layer and wake regions
are much larger than those in the remainder of the flow field.

## 9.2 Streamlined & Blunt body

Fluid Mechanics II 52
Boundary Layer Concepts

##  Introduced by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904.

 Many viscous flows can be analyzed by dividing the flow into two
regions.
 Only in the thin region adjacent to a solid boundary (the boundary layer), the
effect of viscosity is important.
 In the region outside of the boundary layer, the effect of viscosity is
negligible and the fluid may be treated as inviscid.

##  The boundary layer concept permitted the solution of viscous flow

problems that would have been impossible through application of the
Navier-Stokes equations to the complete flow field.

Fluid Mechanics II 53
Boundary layer approximation
Divides the flow into two regions:
an outer flow region that is inviscid
and/or irrotational, and
an inner flow region called a
boundary layera very thin region
of flow near a solid wall where
viscous forces and rotationality
cannot be ignored

## (a) A huge gap exists between the Euler equation

(which allows slip at walls) and the NavierStokes
equation (which supports the no-slip condition); (b)
the boundary layer approximation bridges that gap.

Fluid Mechanics II 54
Boundary Layer Concepts
 The flow past an object can be treated as a combination of
viscous flow in the boundary layer and inviscid flow
elsewhere.
 Inside the boundary layer, the friction is significant and across
the width (BL thickness) of which the velocity increases
rapidly from zero (at the surface) to the value predicted by
inviscid flow theory.
 Outside the boundary layer, the velocity gradients normal to
the flow are relatively small, and the fluids acts as if it were
inviscid, even though the viscosity is not zero.

Fluid Mechanics II 55
Boundary Layer on Solid Surface
 Consider the flow over a flat plate as shown, the boundary layer is laminar
for a short distance downstream from the leading edge; transition occurs
over a region of the plate rather than at a single line across the plate.
 The transition region extends downstream to the location where the
boundary layer flow becomes completely turbulent.

## 9.4 Laminar/turbulent transition

9.3 Laminar BL Fluid Mechanics II 56
Boundary Layer Thickness
a) Standard boundary layer thickness,
b) Boundary layer displacement thickness, *
c) Boundary layer momentum thickness,

Fluid Mechanics II 57
( )
Standard Boundary Layer Thickness (
 The standard boundary layer thickness is the distance normal
to the plate where the velocity differs 1% from the free stream
velocity U.

y = where u = 99% of U

Fluid Mechanics II 58
(*)
Boundary Layer Displacement Thickness (
 The boundary layer retards the fluid, so that the mass flux () and
momentum flux () are both less than they would be in the absence of
the boundary layer.
 The displacement thickness is the thickness of the body that must be
increased, so that the fictitious uniform inviscid flow has the same mass
flowrate properties as the actual viscous flow.
The loss due to the boundary layer

* Uw = 0 (U u )wdy

u
* = 0 1 dy

U
 Its use can be found in the
design of wind tunnels,
air intakes for airplane jet engines, etc

Fluid Mechanics II 59
The boundary layer affects the Displacement
irrotational outer flow in such a thickness is the
way that the wall appears to imaginary increase
take the shape of the in thickness of the
displacement thickness. The wall, as seen by
apparent U(x) differs from the the outer flow, due
original approximation because to the effect of the
of the thicker wall.
growing boundary
layer.

The effect of boundary layer growth on flow entering a two-dimensional channel: the irrotational
flow accelerates as indicated by (a) actual velocity profiles, and (b) change in apparent core
flow due to the displacement thickness of the boundary layer.

Fluid Mechanics II 60
Example: Boundary Layer Displacement Thickness
 Air flowing into a 0.6-m-square duct with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s
forms a boundary layer on the walls. The fluid within the core region
(outside the boundary layers) flows as if it were inviscid. From
advanced calculations it is determined that for this flow the boundary
layer displacement thickness is given by
* = 0.004 x1/ 2
3m/s
where * and x are in feet.
Determine the velocity U =
U(x) of the air within the 0.6-m-square
duct bout outside of the
boundary layer.

Fluid Mechanics II 61
Solution1/2
The volume flow rate across any section of the duct is equal to
that at the entrance (i.e., Q1= Q2). That is
U1 A1 = 3 m/s (0.6 m) 2 = 1.08 m 3 /s = udA
( 2)

## According to the definition of the displacement thickness, the

flow rate across section (2) is the same as that for a uniform
flow with velocity U through a duct whose walls have been
moved inward by *.
1.08 = udA = U (0.6 2 * ) 2 = U (0.6 0.008 x1/ 2 ) 2
( 2)

1.08
U = 1/ 2 2
m/s
(0.6 008 x )

Fluid Mechanics II 62
Solution2/2
The viscous effects that cause the fluid to stick to the walls of
the duct reduce the effective size of the duct, thereby (from
conservation of mass) causing the fluid to accelerate.
The pressure drop necessary to do this can be obtained by using
the Bernoulli equation along the inviscid streamlines from
sections (1) to (2). So,
p1 + 12 U12 = p + 12 U 2
1
(
p = U12 U 2
2
)
1.17
p = 0.6 9 1/ 2 4
= 2 .12 N / m 2

( 0 .6 0 .008 x )

Fluid Mechanics II 63
Fluid Mechanics II 64
Fluid Mechanics II 65
()
Boundary Layer Momentum Thickness (
 The momentum thickness is the distance normal to the
boundary (wall) by which it is to be shifted, such that the
momentum flux through this distance is equivalent to the loss
in the momentum flux caused due to the formation of the
boundary layer.
The loss of momentum due to the boundary layer

wU = wu(U u )dy
2
0

u u
= 1 dy
0 U U
 Its use can be found in evaluating the drag and the shear
stress on an objection.

Fluid Mechanics II 66
Comparison between , * and

## < * < << x

Fluid Mechanics II 67
Characteristics of Boundary Layer
 The boundary layer grows thicker in the downstream direction.
 The boundary layer grows thicker when kinematic viscosity increases.
 The boundary layer results in thinner in a higher free stream velocity.
 As the boundary layer grows thicker, the wall shear stress decreases
in the direction of flow [w = (U/ )]. However, when boundary layer
becomes turbulent, it shows a sudden increase and then decreases in the
downstream direction.
 If U increases in the downstream direction, i.e., P/x is negative,
boundary layer growth is reduced.
 If U decreases in the downstream direction, i.e., P/x is positive, flow near
the boundary is further retarded, boundary layer growth is faster and boundary
layer is susceptible to separate.

Fluid Mechanics II 68
Characteristics of Boundary Layer

## Velocity distribution in laminar boundary layer follows

parabolic law, while that in turbulent boundary layer follows
logarithmic law or power law.

Fluid Mechanics II 69
How to Solve Boundary Layer Problems
 Blasius solution
Limited to laminar boundary layer only, and for a flat plate
only (no pressure variations).
 Von Krmn momentum integral equation
Used to obtain approximate information on boundary layer
growth for the general case ( laminar or turbulent boundary
layers, with or without a pressure gradient).

Fluid Mechanics II 70
Boundary Layer Equations/Blasius Solution
Prandtl used boundary layer concept and imposed
approximation (valid for large Reynolds number flows) to
simplify the governing Navier-Stokes equations. Blasius, one
of Prandtls students, solved these simplified equations.

Ludwig Prandtl(1875-1953)
Fluid Mechanics II 71
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 1/12
 The details of viscous incompressible flow past any object can be
obtained by solving the governing Navier-Stokes equations.
 For steady, two dimensional, incompressible laminar flow with
negligible gravitational effects, these equations reduce to the following
u u 1 p 2u 2 u
u +v = + 2 + 2
x y x x y
v v 1 p 2v 2v
u +v = + 2 + 2
x y y x y
 In addition, the continuity equation:

u v
+ =0
x y

Fluid Mechanics II 72
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 2/12
 To simplify.
Since the boundary layer is thin, it is expected that the
component of velocity normal to the plate (v) is much smaller
than the parallel to the plate (u) and that the rate of change of
any parameter across the boundary layer should be much
greater than that along the flow direction. That is
2
u u u
v << u and << u +v = 2
x y x y y
B.C.: at y = 0, u = v = 0 u v
+ =0
at y = . u = U x y
Boundary Layer Equations

Fluid Mechanics II 73
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 3/12
 The following assumptions are made in solving the above
equations:
1. The boundary layer theory is essentially developed for flows
at high Re. This means that the boundary layer thickness is too
small in comparison to any characteristic dimension of
boundary surface.
2. The viscosity and density of the fluid are assumed to remain
constant and the isothermal conditions prevail in the flow.
3. The boundary surface is streamlined, so that the flow pattern
and pressure determined by ideal fluid theory are accurate.

Fluid Mechanics II 74
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 4/12
 The above assumptions result in the following approximations:
1. The pressure does not change across any given section of
boundary layer. So, the pressure determined by the ideal fluid
theory at the edge of the boundary layer holds within the
boundary layer also.
2. The flow in the boundary layer is essentially parallel and
viscous (shear) stresses are determined by Newtons law of
viscosity. The turbulent shear stresses are negligible as the
velocity fluctuations die out near the boundary surface.
3. The curvature of the boundary layer is gentle.

Fluid Mechanics II 75
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 5/12
 The following boundary conditions should be satisfied to solve
the above equations:
1. The condition of no-slip at the boundary, i.e., at y = 0, u =
0, and v = 0.
2. The velocity u approaches the free stream velocity U and
velocity gradient is zero at the outer edge of the boundary
layer.
3. The application of Bernoullis equation to the flow in the
boundary layer yields
p + U2 = constant

Fluid Mechanics II 76
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 6/12
Prandtls boundary layer equations
The equations are reduced to
u u 2u u v
u + v = 2 + =0
x y y x y
and p
p
=0
y The continuity equation is not affected.

## The pressure in the boundary layer does not vary in the

normal direction.

Fluid Mechanics II 77
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 7/12
Assume that both viscous and inertia forces will be of the same
order of magnitude at the edge of boundary layer.
The viscous forces per unit volume
2u u U
fv = = 2 = 2
y y y y
The inertia forces per unit volume
2
du U
f i = a x = u =
x x
U U 2 k

2
=
x
x
=
Re x

Fluid Mechanics II 78
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 8/12
 Blasius solved the boundary layer equations for 2-D flows
developing over a flat plate placed at zero incidence.
 The pressure gradient normal to the flow in normal direction was
assumed to be zero.
 He assumed that the velocity profiles through the boundary layer
remained geometrically similar along the whole length of the
laminar section.
u y
= f ' = f ' ( )
U
The boundary layer thickness
x grows as the square root of x
But and inversely proportional to
U the square root of U.
y U
Therefore = =y
x
Fluid Mechanics II 79
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 9/12
 Blasius reduced the partial differential equations to an ordinary differential
equation by introducing stream function and obtained the solution of these
equations in the form of power series expansion. Recall that the continuity
equation is identically satisfied when giving the velocity field in terms of
stream function. Then we introduce the two new variables
U ( x, y )
=y and F ( ) =
x xU
 The Blasius Equation is 2 F + FF = 0
 The values of u/U versus y/ have been tabulated.
 According to the definition of , u = 0.99U at the edge of the boundary layer.
The value of y/ corresponds to u/U = 0.99 is found to be equal to 4.91.
U
y = 4.91 at y =
x

4.91 5.0
Rearranging the terms = = (more popular)
x Re x x Re x

Fluid Mechanics II 80
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 10/12

Fluid Mechanics II 81
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 11/12

## Blasius boundary layer profile: (a) boundary layer profile in dimensionless

form using the similarity variable . (b) similar boundary layer profiles at
different locations along the flat plate.

Fluid Mechanics II 82
Prandtl/Blasius Solution 12/12
*
5 1.721 0.664
= ; = ; =
x Re x x Re x x Re x
0.664 1.328
w = 0.332U 3/2
Cf = , C Df =
x Re x Re x

## Wall shear stress Local drag/skin/friction Average/Friction drag

coefficient
coefficient
Frictional force =
w F / BL L
Cf = C Df = F = b w dx
2
U / 2 U 2 / 2 0

Fluid Mechanics II 83
Types of Velocity Profiles

Fluid Mechanics II 84
Laminar Boundary Layer = 0: f()= 0, f() = 0; = , f/() =
1

Re x Cf Re x C Df Re x
Profile u/U = f(y/) = f() x
= 2 c 2 /c 1 = 2c 1 c 2 = 8c 1 c 2

## Blasius Exact 5.0 0.664 1.328

3.46 0.578 1.156
Linear
(-31%) (-13%) (-13%)
5.48 0.730 1.460
Parabolic 2 - 2
(9.6%) (10%) (10%)
4.64 0.646 1.292
Cubic 1.5 -0.5 3
(-7.2%) (-2.7%) (-2.7%)
5.83 0.686 1.371
4th-order 2 -2 3+ 4
(16.6%) (3.2%) (3.2%)
4.79 0.655 1.310
Sine wave sin( /2)
(4.2%) (-1.4%) (-1.4%)

Fluid Mechanics II 85
Von K
Krm
rmn Momentum Integral Equation
Used to obtain approximate information
on boundary layer growth

## Von Karman 1921

Fluid Mechanics II (1881-1963) 86
Momentum Integral Equation 1/7
 We need approximate methods that would quickly lead to an answer even
if the accuracy is somewhat less.
 Krmn and Pohlhausen devised a simplified method by satisfying only the
boundary conditions of the boundary layer flow rather than satisfying
Prandtls differential equations for each and every particle within the
boundary layer.
 Consider incompressible, steady, two-dimensional flow over a solid surface.

Fluid Mechanics II 87
Momentum Integral Equation 2/7
 Assume that the pressure is constant throughout the flow field.
 x-component of the momentum equation to the steady flow of
fluid within this control volume
r r r r
Fx = uV ndA + uV ndA
(1) (2)

## For a plate of width b,

F x = D = w dA = b
plate plate
w dx
where D is the drag that the plate exerts on the fluid.

Fluid Mechanics II 88
Momentum Integral Equation 3/7
 Since the plate is solid and the upper surface of the control
volume is a streamline, there is no flow through these areas.
Thus
D = U ( U )dA + u 2 dA
(1) ( 2)

D = U bh b u 2 dy
2
0
 The conservation of mass Drag on a flat plate is related
to momentum deficit within
Uh = udy
0 the boundary layer

U bh = b Uudy
2
0

Fluid Mechanics II 89
Momentum Integral Equation 4/7
A balance between shear drag
and a decrease in the momentum
D = b u (U u )dy of the fluid
0

##  As x increases, increases and the drag

increases.
 The thickening of the boundary layer is
necessary to overcome the drag of the
viscous shear stress on the plate. (This is
contrary to horizontal fully developed
pipe flow in which the momentum of the
fluid remains constant and the shear force
is overcome by the pressure gradient
along the pipe)

Fluid Mechanics II 90
Momentum Integral Equation 5/7
 By T. von Krmn (1881-1963)

D = b u (U u )dy
0
2
u u D = bU
= 1 dy Valid for laminar or turbulent flows
0 U U
dD 2 d dD
= bU dD = wbdx = b w
dx dx dx
d 2 Momentum integral equation for the
w = U boundary layer flow on a flat plate
dx

Fluid Mechanics II 91
Momentum Integral Equation 6/7
The momentum integral equation in terms of displacement and
momentum thicknesses:
w d 2 dU Flat plate equation dU/dx = 0
= (U ) + U *
dx dx

or
w 1 d dU *
2
= Cf = + (2 + H ) , where H =
U 2 dx U dx

Cf d d
= or w = U 2
2 dx dx

Fluid Mechanics II 92
Momentum Integral Equation 7/7
D 2 u u 2
C Df =1 2
= (1 )dy C Df =
2 U bL L 1U U4
0
4424 3 L
= momentum thickness

D
x
b w dx 2 D = b u (U u )dy
0 0
C Df =1 2
= 2
=
2 U A 2 U bL
1
L
x w
2
dx = 2
2 U
0 1

1 w d
1 =
2
2 2 U dx
Cf d
= Momentum integral relation for flat plate boundary layer
2 dx

Fluid Mechanics II 93
Example: Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation

##  Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a

flat plate at y = 0. The boundary layer velocity profile is
approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y and u = U for y .
Determine the shear stress by using the momentum integral
equation. Compare these results with the Blasius results given
by
w = 0.332U 3 / 2
x

Fluid Mechanics II 94
Solution
The shear stress is given by
u
2 d
For laminar flow w =
w = U y
dx y =0
U
For the assumed velocity profile w =

u u y y
= 1 dy = ... = 1 dy =
0 U U 0 6
U U 2 d 6
= d = dx
6 dx U
d U x
w = U 2
w = = = 3.46
dx 6 U

w = 0.289U 3 / 2
x

Fluid Mechanics II 95
The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers
In many practical engineering applications, we do not need to know all the details inside
the boundary layer; rather we seek reasonable estimates of gross features of the boundary
layer such as boundary layer thickness and skin friction coefficient.
The momentum integral technique utilizes a control volume approach to obtain such
quantitative approximations of boundary layer properties along surfaces with zero or
It is valid for both laminar and turbulent boundary layers.

## Control volume (thick dashed

black line) used in derivation of
the momentum integral equation.

Fluid Mechanics II 96
Mass flow balance on the control
volume of Fig. 10127.

Fluid Mechanics II 97
The product rule is utilized in reverse in the derivation of
the momentum integral equation.

Fluid Mechanics II 98
Fluid Mechanics II 99
Integration of a known
(or assumed) velocity
profile is required
when using the
Krmn integral
equation.

## Fluid Mechanics II 100

Transition from Laminar to
Turbulent

## Fluid Mechanics II 101

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent 1/2
 On a flat plate with a sharp leading edge in a typical air-stream,
the transition takes place at a distance x from the leading edge
105 is used.
given by Rex, cr = 2105 to 3106. Rex, cr = 5
 The actual transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer
flow may occur over a region of the plate, not a specific single
location.
 Typical, the transition begins at random location on the plate
in the vicinity of Rex = Rex, cr.

## 9.5 Transition on flat plate Fluid Mechanics II 102

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent 2/2
 Transition from laminar to
turbulent flow involves a
noticeable change in the shape of
the boundary layer velocity
profiles. Flatter
 The turbulent profiles are flatter,
have a large velocity gradient at
the wall, and produce a larger
boundary layer thickness than do
the laminar profiles.
boundary layer velocity profiles
on a flat plate for laminar,
transitional, and turbulent flow.