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Fig.

16-96 This level is Quick to accommodate for the typical


two-hole alignment for the top dead center of the pipe. Also for
vertical and horizontal positioning of the flange. Location: Piping
System's Inc. McGraw-Hill Education/Mark A. Dierker, photographer
Fig. 16-94 Welding apprentice using an oxyacetylene hand cut-
ting torch to flame cut and bevel pipe. A great deal of field fabrica-
tion is cut with this method. Location: UA Local 400 McGraw-Hill
Education/Mark A. Dierker, photographer marking perfect circles, ellipses, and oblongs. The tool
can be used for work on pipe, tanks, boilers, cones, and
any other irregular, flat, or round surface.
The projector has a strong magnetic base to hold it in
position while the marking is being done. It has sliding
rods with a protractor and locking lever to adjust it for the
desired layout and a chalkholder for round or flat soap-
stone that will also receive a steel scribe or pencil.
The tool can be used on circles 112 to 18 inches in di-
ameter, and it can be adjusted from 0 to 70.

Fig. 16-95 Contour marker for marking off


pipe joints and structural angle cuts.

Figure 16-96 shows the level being used to


level a pipe flange. This ensures that flange
holes will be level and in alignment with top
dead center of pipe. It can be used on any size
flange based on the size of the two-step plugs
being used.
Circle-Ellipse Projector Figure 16-97 shows the
circle-ellipse projector marking out a header
to receive the branch. This tool is designed for Fig. 16-97 Circle-ellipse protractor for marking circles, ellipses, and oblongs.

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16515
Fig. 16-98 Center head equipped with a dial-
set level and center punch for locating the center Fig. 16-99 Wrap-A-Round for marking off square pipe ends.
line of pipe.

Centering Head Figure 16-98 shows the use of the cen- Miscellaneous Pipe Tools Thefollowing tools are also very
tering head to locate the center of the pipe. The tool de- useful to the pipe welder in the fabrication of pipe in the
termines the center line at any degree and measures the field:
degree of declivity. It has a dial-set level and center punch.
Fitter welder protractors determine branch angles.
Wrap-A-Round Figure 16-99 shows the Wrap-A-Round Pipe-flange aligners automatically align with the pipe
being used for marking around a pipe. It is also used as a axis and align pipe flanges quickly.
straightedge. This device ensures square-cut pipe ends. It Radius markers mark circles.
is made of flexible gasket material which is reasonably re- Magnetic protractor levels solve angle and setting
sistant to heat and cold. The Wrap-A-Round is available problems.
in sizes for pipe 1 to 10 inches in diameter. Multi-trammel heads make large circles.

CHAPTER 16 REVIEW

Multiple Choice 3. Today piping is made out of many materials such


Choose the letter of the correct answer. as . (Obj. 16-1)
a. Ferrous metals
1. There is a need for people with pipe-welding skills,
b. Nonferrous metals
and this need will continue in the years ahead.
c. Nonmetallic materials (plastics, fiberglass,
(Obj. 16-1)
and composites)
a. True
d. All of these
b. False
4. A power plant piping system may see pressures in
2. The big inch pipe is generally considered pipe
excess of 2,500 p.s.i. and temperatures exceeding
over what diameter? (Obj. 16-1)
1,000F. (Obj. 16-1)
a. 10 in.
a. True
b. 24 in.
b. False
c. 30 in.
d. All of these

516Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)
5. There are not many advantages to welding pipe ver- and shall require requalification of the welding
sus using threaded mechanical fasteners. (Obj.16-1) procedure specification. (Obj. 16-2)
a. True a. True
b. False b. False
6. A schedule 80 pipe has a thinner wall thickness than 15. A welder qualification test is to determine a weld-
a schedule 40 pipe. (Obj. 16-1) ers ability to deposit sound weld metal. (Obj.16-2)
a. True a. True
b. False b. False
7. The 116 clearance is used on socket joints to . 16. The larger the diameter of pipe, the more difficult it is
(Obj. 16-1) to weld because it takes so long to weld. (Obj. 16-2)
a. Get better penetration a. True
b. Make it easier to fit up b. False
c. Keep weld from cracking 17. Changing the welding direction from vertical-up to
d. It is really not needed vertical-down is not a major change, so it is not an
8. A typical pipe end prep bevel is 3712, which would essential variable for welder qualification. (Obj. 16-2)
make the groove angle 75. (Obj. 16-1) a. True
a. True b. False
b. False 18. Test specimens must be free of nicks or deep
9. A pipe welding fitting can be . (Obj. 16-1) scratches and all tool marks should run lengthwise
a. An elbow on the specimen. (Obj. 16-2)
b. A tee a. True
c. A flange b. False
d. All of these 19. The location of where the test specimens are taken
10. Which code-making organization is responsible for from the pipe is not important. You can take out the
boilers and pressure vessels? (Obj. 16-2) weld specimen where it looks the best. (Obj. 16-2)
a. ASME a. True
b. API b. False
c. AWWA 20. Visual inspection is a form of nondestructive
d. AWS testing. (Obj. 16-2)
11. Which standard-making organization is responsible a. True
for pipelines and related facilities? (Obj.16-2) b. False
a. ASME 21. Which of the following is not a destructive test?
b. API (Obj. 16-2)
c. AWWA a. Tensile test coupons
d. AWS b. Ultrasonic test coupons
12. Which code-making organization is responsible for c. Nick-break coupon
sanitary (hygienic) applications and structural pipe d. Bend test coupon
and tube? (Obj. 16-2) 22. When does a discontinuity become a defect?
a. ASME (Obj. 16-2)
b. API a. When the instructor does not like the way it looks
c. AWWA b. If you drop the weld coupon on the floor and it breaks
d. AWS c. When its size or location exceeds the acceptance
13. The purpose of a welding procedure is to make criteria
certain that welds made with it will have the appro- d. When it is transverse to the weld direction
priate properties. (Obj. 16-2) 23. A narrow groove butt joint for automatic welding on
a. Appearance heavy wall pipe may have a groove angle of .
b. Size (Obj. 16-3)
c. Length a. 5
d. Mechanical b. 10
14. Essential variables are those in which a change is c. 20
considered to affect the properties of the weldments d. 40

Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 16517
24. The normal groove angle for pipe welding is from 30. Branch or lateral connections can be lap joints with
. (Obj. 16-3) fillet and/or groove welds depending on the design
a. 15 to 30 and procedure used. (Obj. 16-4)
b. 30 to 3712 a. True
c. 40 to 60 b. False
d. 60 to 75
Review Questions
25. How far back from the edges of the joint should the
pipe be cleaned? (Obj. 16-3) Write the answers in your own words.
a. 1 in. 31. When welding a 6-inch schedule 40 pipe, how much
b. 4 in. undercut is allowable along the cover pass per the
c. Clean the whole pipe acceptance criteria from API 1104? (Obj.16-2)
d. Not necessary to clean since the heat of the arc 32. What is the acceptance criteria for melt-through on
will burn off all the contaminants pipe 238-inch outside diameter? (Obj. 16-2)
26. Different root opening and root faces are required 33. Define and describe porosity; how is it formed?
when doing vertical-up than when doing vertical- (Obj. 16-2)
down techniques on pipe. (Obj. 16-3) 34. List the stages in building a pipeline. (Obj. 16-1)
a. True
35. Name at least five materials used for pipe.
b. False
(Obj.16-1)
27. The electrode angle is not critical in pipe welding.
36. Name four of the various code authorities that are
(Obj. 16-3)
concerned with pipe welding. (Obj. 16-2)
a. True
b. False 37. Draw a simple sketch showing the welding proce-
dure used for the following pipe thicknesses and
28. Stripper passes are used to . (Obj. 16-3)
positions of welding: (Obj. 16-2)
a. Fill in where you need a bigger root pass
b. Build up weld areas when welding vertical-down a. Horizontal roll position, butt joint, 14- and 38-inch
usually in the 2 to 4 oclock and 8 to 10oclock wall
areas b. Horizontal fixed-position, butt joint, 38- and
c. Build up on the cover pass so there will be more
1
2-inch wall
reinforcement c. Vertical fixed-position, butt joint, 38- and 12-inch
d. Weld 2G position where additional fill is required wall
29. Branch and lateral connections are best done with 38. What is a hot pass? (Obj. 16-3)
manufactured fittings to reduce the amount of hand 39. Name at least six hand tools used by the pipe
fitting on the job site. (Obj. 16-4) welder. (Obj. 16-1)
a. True 40. Name at least seven different methods of testing of
b. False pipe welds. (Obj. 16-2)

INTERNET ACTIVITIES

Internet Activity A
Search the AWS Web page and list the titles and specification numbers for all
the standard welding procedures specification for welding pipe with the SMAW
process.
Internet Activity B
Using your favorite search engines check out how pipes are sized versus how tubes
are sized. Note inside or outside diameters, wall thickness, and if there are differ-
ences if it is welded or seamless. Also note the weight per foot.

518Chapter 16Pipe Welding and Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 16-J1J17 (Pipe)
Table 16-11 Job Outline: Shielded Metal Arc Welding Practice (Pipe)

Pipe Electrode
Type of Type of Welding Welding Specifications Specifications Text References AWS
Job No. Joint Weld Position Technique Dia. (in.) Weight Type 1
Size (in.) Polarity This Unit Other Jobs S.E.N.S.E.
16-J1 Pipe Surface Horizontal Surface stringer & 410 Schedule E6010 332, 18, & 532 EP 513 13-J4 & J5 NA
roll (1) weaved. 40 E7018
16-J2 Butt V-Groove Horizontal 1st pass stringer; 610 Schedule E6010 1P-18-6010 EP 513 14-J33 NA
roll (1G) 3passes weaved. 40 E7018 Others 532-6010
1
8-7018
16-J3 Butt V-Groove Vertical fixed 7 passes stringer. 610 Schedule E6010 1 to 3P-18-6010 EP 514 15-J51 Advanced
(2G) 40 E7018 4 to 7P-532-6010 level
2 to 7P-18-7018
16-J4 Butt V-Groove Vertical fixed 7 passes stringer, 610 Schedule E6010 1 to 3P-18-6010 EP 514 13-J24 Advanced
(2G) Cover pass weave. 40 E7018 4 to 7P-532-6010 level
Weave 532-6010
2 to 7P-18-7018
16-J5 Butt V-Groove Horizontal 1st pass stringer; 610 Schedule E6010 1P-18-6010 EP 515 15-J43 & Advanced
fixed (5G) 2 passes weaved; 40 E7018 2P-532-6010 J55 level
travel up. 3P-532-6010
2 to 3P-7018
16-J6 Butt V-Groove Horizontal 1st pass stringer; 610 Schedule E6010 1P-18 EP 518 15-J48 & Advanced
fixed (5G) 3 passes weaved; 40 2P-532 J55 level
travel down. 3-4P-316
16-JQT12 Butt with V-Groove 45 from Stringer passes. 68 Schedule E7018 332 or 18 EP 520 NA Advanced
backing horizontal M-1/P-1 group 80 all passes level
fixed (6G) 1 or 2
16-JQT23 Butt without V-Groove 45 from Stringer passes. 68 Schedule E6010 1P-18-6010 EP 521 NA Advanced
backing horizontal M-1/P-1 80 E7018 Subsequent level
fixed (6G) group passes
1 or 2 3
32-18-7018
16-JQT34 Butt without Bevel- 45 from Stringer passes. 12 Schedule E6010 1P-18-6010 EP 521 NA NA
backing Groove horizontal M-1/P-1 80 E7018 Subsequent
fixed with group passes
restricting 1 or 2 3
32-18-7018
(6GR)
16-J7 90 branch Groove Top (branch) Multipass 410 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 14-J33 Advanced
fillet stringer. Small to large. 40 13-J25 level
Size on size.
16-J8 90 branch Groove Horizontal Multipass: 410 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 15-J43 Advanced
fillet (branch) 1st pass stringer; Small to large. 40 14-J36 level
others weaved. Size on size.
519

16-J9 90 branch Groove Bottom Multipass: Last 410 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 15-J55 Advanced
fillet (branch) pass weaved. Small to large. 40 13-J24 level
(Continued)
520

Table 16-11(Concluded)

Pipe Electrode
Type of Type of Welding Welding Specifications Specifications Text References AWS
Job No. Joint Weld Position Technique Dia. (in.) Weight Type 1
Size (in.) Polarity This Unit Other Jobs S.E.N.S.E.
16-J10 45 branch Groove Top (branch) Multipass 410 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 14-J33 Advanced
fillet stringer. Small to large. 40 13-J25 level
Size on size.
16-J11 45 branch Groove Horizontal Multipass: 410 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 15-J43 Advanced
fillet (branch) 1st pass stringer; Small to large. 40 or 80 14-J36 level
others weaved. Size on size.
16-J12 45 branch Groove Bottom Multipass: 410 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 15-J55 Advanced
fillet (branch) Last pass laced. Small to large. 40 level
Size on size.
16-J13 45 L Groove Horizontal Multipass: 410 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 15-J43J55 Advanced
fillet fixed 1st pass stringer; 40 level
others weaved.
16-J14 90 L Groove Horizontal Multipass. 410 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 15-J43J55 Advanced
fillet fixed 1st pass stringer; 40 level
others weaved.
16-J15 Blunt pipe Groove Horizontal Multipass. 46 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 15-J43J55 Advanced
head fillet fixed 40 level
16-J16 Orange peel Groove Horizontal Multipass. 46 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 14-J33 Advanced
head fillet fixed 40 15-J43J55 level
16-J17 90 Y Groove Fixed Multipass. 46 Schedule E6010 18 & 532 EP 522 14-J33 Advanced
fillet 40 15-J43J55 level
Notes:
At this point the student should hand-cut, bevel, and weld several pipe joints in all three positions.
The student should be able to pass bend tests of pipe coupons cut from pipe welded in the horizontal fixed (5G) and vertical fixed positions (2G).
The student should be able to produce acceptable pipe test pieces by using manual and machine oxyacetylene and plasma arc cutting equipment in order to comply with the AWS S.E.N.S.E. advanced level.
At this point the student should repeat those jobs on which additional practice is necessary, using pipe of different diameters and wall thicknesses. The student is now ready to take the official API or ASME Code Certification.
Test for Carbon Steel Pipe. Welding is to be in the horizontal fixed (5G) and the vertical fixed positions (2G).
Students who qualify on standard carbon steel pipe for SMAW may take additional training in SMAW of heavy, extra heavy, and alloy pipe and in GTAW and GMAW of alloy and aluminum pipe.
E7010 electrodes should also be used for practice.
1

E6011 electrodes should be used with alternating current.


E7018, E9018, and E10018 electrodes should be used for low alloy steel pipe.
For additional information follow AWS WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1-1-208 for carbon steel pipe.
2

For additional information follow AWS WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1-1-201 for carbon steel pipe.
3

For additional information follow AWS WPS AWS3-SMAW-1.


4
U N I T
3

Arc Cutting and Gas


Tungsten Arc Welding

Chapter 17
Arc Cutting Principles and Arc Cutting
Practice: Jobs 17-J1J7
Chapter 18
Gas Tungsten Arc and Plasma
Arc Welding Principles
Chapter 19
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Practice: Jobs 19-J1J19 (Plate)
Chapter 20
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Practice: Jobs 20-J1J17 (Pipe)

521