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CYK\2010\PH405+PH213\Tutorial 5 Quantum Mechanics

1. Find allowed energies of the half harmonic oscillator


(
1 2 2
V (x) = 2 m x , x > 0,
, x < 0.

2. A charged particle (mass m, charge q ) is moving in a simple harmonic potential (frequency


/2 ). In addition, an external electric eld E0 is also present. Write down the hamiltonian
of this particle. Find the energy eigenvalues, eigenfunctions. Find the average position of
the particle, when it is in one of the stationary states.
3. Assume that the atoms in a CO molecule are held together by a spring. The spacing
between the lines of the spectrum of CO molecule is 2170 cm1 . Estimate the spring
constant.
4. If the hermite polynomials Hn (x) are dened using the generating function G(x, s) =
exp s2 + 2xs , that is

 X Hn (x) n
exp s2 + 2xs = s ,
n
n!

(a) Show that the Hermite polynomials obey the dierential equation
Hn00 (x) 2xHn0 (x) + 2nHn (x) = 0

and the recurrence relation


Hn+1 (x) = 2xHn (x) 2nHn1 (x).

(b) Derive Rodrigues' formula


2 dn x2
Hn (x) = (1)n ex e .
dxn
5. Let n be the nth stationary state of a particle in harmonic oscillator potential. Given
that the lowering operator is
1  
a = m X + iP .
2~m

and = m/~x,
p

(a) show that  


1 d
a = + .
2 d
(b) Show that
an () = nn1 ()

6. Let B = {n | n = 0, 1, . . .} be the set of energy eigenfunctions of the harmonic oscillator.


Find the matrix elements of X and P wrt to basis B
7. Suppose that a harmonic oscillator is in its nth stationary state.

1
(a) Compute uncertainties x and P in position and momentum. [Hint: To calculate
expectation values, rst write X and P in terms of the lowering operator a and its
adjoint.]
(b) Show that the average kinetic energy is equal to the average potential energy (Virial
Theorem).
8. A particle of mass m in the harmonic oscillator potential, starts out at t = 0, in the state
2
(x, 0) = A (1 2)2 e
where A is a constant and = m/~x.
p

(a) What is the average value of energy?


(b) After time T , the wave function is
2
(x, T ) = B (1 + 2)2 e
for some constant B . What is the smallest value of T ?
9. Let n be eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator. For a given complex number , let

|| X n
= e 2 n .
n=0 n!
Such states are called coherent states.
(a) Show that
a =
that is is an eigenstate of a.
(b) If the state of the oscillator is , then show that x p = ~/2.
(c) The state of the oscillator (t = 0) = , then show that
(t) = 0
where 0 = eit . That means, if the state of the system, at an instant is a coherent
state, then it is a coherent state at all times.
(d) Optional: If you choose the hilbert space to be L2 (R), then show that |(x, t)|2 is a
gaussian wave packet and the wave packet performs a harmonic oscillations without
changing the shape.

Solutions:
1. Since V (x) = for x 0, (x) = 0 for x 0. The Schrodinger time-independent
equation is then
~2 00 1
+ m 2 x2 = E x0
2m 2
(0) = 0
and must be square integrable. This problem is same as usual harmonic oscillator except
that we must choose only those eigenfunction which satisfy the bc of the half harmonic
oscillator, that is (0) = 0. If n (x) = Hn () exp( 2 /2), then we know that n satises
the above de and bc if n is odd. Thus, the energy eigenvalues of the half harmonic oscillator
are  
1
En = n+ ~ n = 1, 3, 5, . . .
2

2
2. The potential energy can be written as
1
V (x) = m 2 x2 qE0 x
2
qE0 2 q 2 E02
 
1 2
= m x
2 m 2 m 2

Let x0 = qE0 /m 2 and H0 = q 2 E02 /m 2 . Let x x0 = z and H1 = H H0 . Then the


hamiltonian 2
P 1
H1 = + m 2 z 2 .
2m 2
The eigenvalues of H1 are En = n + 21 ~ , then the eigenvalues of H are En + H0 . Note


H0 is just a number.

3. Then ~ = 2170 cm1 = 2170 1.24 104 eV. Calculate force constant K = m 2 .
4. See Arfken.
5. Prove this by using the recurrence relations given in problem 4.
6. Note
r
~  
X = a + a
2m
r
m~  
P = 1
i a a
2
The matrix elements are
D E
Xmn = m , Xn
r
~ D   E
= m , a + a n
2m
r
~

= m , nn1 + n + 1n+1
2m
r
~ 
= = nm,n1 + n + 1m,n+1
2m
Simillarly
D E
Pm,n = m , P n
r
m~ 
= (i) nm,n1 n + 1m,n+1
2

7. Note
r
~  
X = a + a
2m
r
m~  
P = 1
i a a .
2
Then D E
X = Xn,n = 0

and D E
P = Pn,n = 0.

3
Now
D E ~ D    E
X 2 = n , a + a a + a n
2m
~ D   E
= n , a2 + a2 + aa + a a n
2m
~ ~
= (0 + 0 + (n + 1) + n) = (2n + 1).
2m 2m
Simillarly D E ~m
P 2 = (2n + 1)
2
(a) Thus,  
1
X P = n + ~
2
(b) Note:
1 D 2 E ~ 1
hKi = P = (n + )
2m 2 2
and
1 D E ~ 1
hV i = m 2 X 2 = (n + )
2 2 2
8. Now,
1 
(x, 0) = 30 2 21 + 2 22
5
where n is the nth eigenfunction of energy operator.

(a) The average energy


1
hEi = (9E0 + 8E1 + 8E2 )
25
 
1 24
= + ~.
2 25

(b) After time T


2
(x, T ) = B 1 + 2 2 e


1  1 
30 eiT /2 2 21 ei3T /2 + 2 22 ei5T /2 = 30 + 2 21 + 2 22
5 5

Must nd T such that eiT /2 = ei5T /2 = 1 and ei3T /2 = 1. when, T = ,


exp (iT /2) = i
exp (i3T /2) = i
exp (iT /2) = i

This will do.

9. Given:
||2 X n
= e 2 n
n=0 n!

4
(a) Now


||2 X n
a = e 2 an
n=0 n!


||2 X n
= e 2 nn1
n=1 n!


||2 X n1
= e 2 p n1
n=1 (n 1)!
=

Interestingly, is not an eigenstate of a .


(b) First note:

2
X ()n m
h , i = e|| hn , m i
n=0 n! m!

2
X ()n m
= e|| m,n
n=0 n! m!

2
X ||2n
= e|| =1
n!
n=0

Then,
h , a i =
D E
, a = ha , i = .
q
Now, X = a + a ,
~

2m

D E r
~ D   E
, X = , a + a
2m
r r
~ 2~
= ( + ) = (Re)
2m m
 
And, X2 = a2 + a + 2a a + 1 , so
2 2
~
2m a + a = 2m
~

D E ~
X 2 2 + 2 + 2||2 + 1

=
2m
~  
= (2Re)2 + 1
2m
Finally,
~   2~
x2 = (2Re)2 + 1 (Re)2
2m m
~
=
2m

Now, simillary, p2 = ~2 m
and

2 ~

~
x p = .
2
Here the product of uncertainties is as minimum as it can get!

5
(c) If (0) = , then

X n

||21
(t) = e ei(n+ 2 )t n
2

n=0 n!
it n

||2 X e
it/2 2
= e e n
n=0 n!
= eit/2 0

where 0 = eit .
(d) Now if we write (x) in space represenetation, we need to substitute

1/2 1
 
2
n (x) = e /2 Hn ()
n
2 n!
1/2
(1)n 2 /2 dn 2


= = e e
2n n! dxn

using Rodrigue's formular for Hermite polynomials.


1/2 n
(1)n eit dn 2

||2
2 /2
X
it/2
(x, t) = e e 2 e e
2n n! n! dxn
n=0
 1/2
||2 2 2
= eit/2 e 2 e()


Use Taylor expansion for the last step and = || exp(i(t x))/ 2. Now
2 2 2 2
|(x, t)|2 = e|| + e() e()

(2|| cos(tArg))2
= e

This is a gaussian wave


p packet performing simple harmonic motion with frequency
and amplitude A = 2~/m|| . Now show that the average energy of this state is
1 1
E ~ = m 2 A2 .
2 2