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for fatigue of materials and structures

Rodrigue Desmorat

LMT-Cachan

ENS Cachan/Universit Paris 6/CNRS

61 avenue du prsident Wilson

F-94235 Cachan Cedex, France

desmorat@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

ABSTRACT. Application of damage mechanics to fatigue is addressed in the present paper. The

ability of Lemaitres damage law to describe low and high cycle fatigue failure of metals is illus-

trated. Its generalization into an evolution law modeling a damage rate governed by the main

dissipative mechanics applies to concrete, elastomers, rocks and to probably other materials.

The importance of rate written laws is emphasized.

RSUM. On dcrit dans le prsent article comment la mcanique de lendommagement permet

de modliser la fatigue des matriaux. La loi de Lemaitre permet de rendre compte de la fatigue

faibles et grands nombres de cycles des mtaux. Sa gnralisation en une loi dvolution

gouverne par le mcanisme dissipatif principal permet de lappliquer aux btons, lastomres,

roches et probablement dautres matriaux. Limportance dune criture en vitesse est souli-

gne.

KEYWORDS: damage, fatigue, metals, concrete, elastomers, rocks.

MOTS-CLS : endommagement, fatigue, mtaux, bton, lastomres, roche

850 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

1. Introduction

tion of materials, the stress softening encountered (and represented) leading to strain

localization and rupture. Many damage models exist for concrete (Mazars, 1984, Or-

tiz, 1985, Resende, 1987, Laborderie et al., 1990, Mazars et al., 1990, Oller et al.,

1990, Yazdani et al., 1990, Papa et al., 1996, Meschke et al., 1998, Murakami et

al., 1997, Halm et al., 1998, Fichant et al., 1999, Geers et al., 2000, Ragueneau et al.,

2000, Gatuingt et al., 2003), metals (Gurson, 1977, Lemaitre et al., 1978, Tvergaard et

al., 1984, Lemaitre et al., 1985, Chaboche et al., 1988, Lemaitre et al., 2000), maybe

less for elastomers (Simo, 1987, Godvindjee et al., 1991, Miehe et al., 2000, Can-

tournet et al., 2003) or rocks (Marigo, 1981, Homand-Etienne et al., 1998, Charlez,

1991, Chiarilli et al., 2003, Conil et al., 2004, Salari et al., 2004), and todays main

research efforts concern the numerical difficulties associated with these models:

avoiding the mesh dependency by regularization methods: nonlocal models

(Pijaudier-Cabot et al., 1987, Aifantis, 1987, Peerlings, 1997, Jirasek et al., 2001, Ji-

rasek, 2004), visco- or delay-damage (Dub, 1994, Ladevze, 1995), phenomenon of

obscuration of process zones (Denoual et al., 2002)...

ensuring the transition from continuous damage to discrete cracking: determi-

nation of the size and orientation of the mesocrack initiated (Mazars et al., 1996,

Lemaitre et al., 2005), discontinuity modeling, XFEM (Melenk et al., 1996, Mos et

al., 1999, Jirasek, 2002a, Jirasek, 2002b),

allowing the computational coupling with multi-scale and multi-timescale

physics, such as for thermo-chemo-hydro-mechanics problems,

making the computations robust and fast, such as by use of extensive parallelism.

Point probably less known, damage mechanics is also powerful for fatigue, even

if this topic is usually addressed with specific engineering rules modeling directly the

Whler (or Manson-Coffin) curves of materials (Manson et al., 1964, Aas-Jackobsen

et al., 1973, Tepfers et al., 1979, Ramakrishnan et al., 1992). A fatigue law for con-

crete can be a straight line in the periodic maximum applied stress Max vs the loga-

rithm of the number of cycles to rupture log NR diagram, generally parametrized by

the stress ratio R = min /Max (with min the minimum applied stress). Such a

reference curve is 1D so how to apply it to 3D states of varying amplitude stresses?

What is then a stress amplitude? How to define a stress ratio? Many difficulties arise

today due to the will of making Finite Element computations for which the state of

stress is far to remain uniaxial and the loading type is far to remain stress controlled,

even proportional and/or cyclic.

The present paper focus on the adavantages of considering CDM framework for

fatigue, more precisely of considering Lemaitres damage law and extending it to non

metallic materials as concrete, elastomers, rocks...

Damage and fatigue 851

A first, natural, kind of damage model for fatigue is simply written by relating the

damage, denoted D, to the number of cycles N . Setting for an experiment i leading

to a number of cycles to rupture NRi for a stress amplitude i ,

N

D= [1]

NRi

allows to recover Miners linear accumulation rule for multi-level loadings made of

blocks, each made of ni cycles of constant amplitude,

X X ni

Di = 1 =1 [2]

i i

NRi

D

This formulation also defines the damage increment per cycle N as 1/NR , damage

increment which can more generally be set as a function of the current damage D,

of the stress amplitude and of the stress ratio R (Lemaitre et al., 1984, Hua et al.,

1984, Chaboche et al., 1988),

D

= g(D) G (, R ) [3]

N

The R dependency models the effect of different mean stresses on Whler curves.

People initially thought that introducing a D dependency as in Equation [3] com-

bined with the definition of a critical damage Dc < 1 (such

P as NR = N (Dc )) would

recover a nonlinear (observed) damage accumulation ( NnRi i

6= 1). This is not the

case as one has for a constant amplitude loading:

D

= G (, R ) N [4]

g(D)

Dc

dD

Z

= G (, R ) NR [5]

0 g(D)

Dc

1 1

Z

NR = dD [6]

G (, R ) 0 g(D)

of stress ratio Ri , one has similarly

Di Dc

dD ni dD

Z Z

= G ( i , Ri ) ni = [7]

Di1 g(D) NRi 0 g(D)

852 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

where the damage at the end (resp. at the begining) of the block i is Di (resp. Di1 )

P R Di dD R D dD

and NRi is gained from Equation [6]. The sum i Di1 equals 0 c g(D) and

P nig(D)

Equation [7] unfortunately leads to linear Miner rule NRi = 1.

To obtain a non linear damage accumulation, a more complex modeling is nec-

essary, showing a first limitations (in 1D!) of stress amplitude laws. Other limi-

tations concern the extension of Equation [3] to strain controlled tests and to non

cyclic loadings encountered in random fatigue or in seismic applications. Note that

the link between a stress and a strain formulation is not clear for nonlinear materials at

least as long as no rate written damage model is defined (Lemaitre et al., 1985, Paas,

1990, Lemaitre, 1992, Paas et al., 1993, Peerlings, 1997, Bodin et al., 2002, Lemaitre

et al., 2005).

cycles N are not constitutive equations. They incorporate information on the load-

ing and must be theoretically recovered from real constitutive equations, written in

a rate form. This makes the modeling not as flexible as for the amplitude laws (the

direct introduction the stress ratio is lost) but this way to proceed allows for a natural

equivalence between stress and strain formulations and for a natural extension to 3D.

Lemaitres damage law models damage growth governed by plasticity (through the

accumulated plastic strain p) and enhanced by the stress level and triaxiality (through

the elastic energy density denoted here Y ). It is written in a rate form as:

s

Y

D = p [8]

S

and introduces 2 damage parameters: the damage strength S and the damage exponent

s. Noting that in tension Y = 2 /2E and making the (small) assumption || Max ,

the maximum stress, when damage occurs, allows to derive the damage increment per

cycle as:

2 s Z

D Max

Z

= D dt p dt [9]

N 1 cycle 2ES 1 cycle

or

2

s

D Max

= 2p [10]

N 2ES

Damage and fatigue 853

with p the plastic strain amplitude. A cyclic plasticity law p (), eventually

D

derived from the time integration of a kinematic hardening law, gives finally N as a

function of the stress amplitude. For the power law = Kcyc (p )1/q , it is:

D 2()2s+q

= q [11]

N (8ES)s Kcyc

with then a number of cycles to rupture

q

(8ES)s Kcyc Dc

NR = 2s+q

[12]

2()

where (2s + q) is the (negative) slope of the Whler curve in a log-log diagram.

The stress triaxiality effect of a damage growth enhanced by large hydrostatic

stresses H Max (compared to von Mises eq Max ) is also naturally derived as in 3D,

2 2

eq Max R

2 H

YMax = R = (1 + ) + 3(1 2) [13]

2E 3 eq

introducing the triaxiality function R (Lemaitre et al., 1985),

!s

2

D eq Max R

= 2p [14]

N 2ES

with p = p(eq ) the accumulated plastic strain increment over half a cycle. In

shear R = Rshear = 23 (1+), in tension-compression R = RTC = 1, in equi-biaxial

tension R = Rbiax = 2(1 ), leading to Rshear < RTC < Rbiax and to increasing

numbers of cycles to rupture as the stress triaxiality decreases,

NRbiax < NRTC < NRshear at identical von Mises stress [15]

with, still for a given applied maximum von Mises stress, the number of cycles to

rupture in multiaxial related to NRTC in uniaxial as:

NR = NRTC Rs [16]

Last but not the least, damage in fatigue of metals usually does not initiates instan-

taneously. In monotonic tension, the material can undergo plasticity up to a plastic

strain threshold p = pD of the order of 10 to 30% (i.e. often up to hardening satu-

ration). In fatigue, it can take a few hundreds of percent of accumulated plastic strain

before damage initiation (at the damage threshold p = pD ). Such a loading depen-

dency of the damage threshold pD can be represented by considering that damage

initiates when the energy density stored by hardening ws reaches the energetic dam-

age threshold wD , loading independent, which is the amount of energy needed for

the incubation of defects (Lemaitre et al., 2000, Lemaitre et al., 2005). According to

plasticity framework, the stored energy density is defined as the integral

Z t

ws = (eq y ) p dt [17]

0

854 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

with y the yield stress. For monotonic hardening, considering the stress saturated

at the value u , the ultimate stress, the relationship between plastic strain damage

threshold pD and stored energy damage threshold simply reads

Z pD

wD = (eq y ) dp (u y ) pD [18]

0

For fatigue, making the simplifying assumption eq eq Max during the plastic part

of the stress-strain cycle gives the damage threshold pD , loading dependent, as the

solution of:

Z pD

wD = (eq Max y ) dp = (eq Max y ) pD [19]

0

or:

u y

pD = pD [20]

eq Max y

m

u y

recently generalized into pD = pD with m a material parameter

eq Max y

(Lemaitre et al., 2005).

The number of cycles to rupture is then the sum of two terms, the number of cycles

to damage initiation ND = N (p = pD ) and the number of cycles during which takes

place the damage process (in fact the term NR of previous analysis with no damage

threshold). Equation [12] becomes then:

q

(8ES)s Kcyc Dc

NR = ND +

2()2s+q

m

q

[21]

pD Kcyc u y

pD

ND = =

2p 2()q

y

2

For two-level fatigue loading the consideration of a damage threshold leads to a bi-

linear damage accumulation diagram (Figure 1) more in accordance with experiments

(Desmorat, 2000, Lemaitre et al., 2005).

Lemaitres damage law also applies to monotonic, creep and creep-fatigue failures

(Lemaitre, 1992, Sermage et al., 2000, Lemaitre et al., 2005). For instance, the plastic

strain to rupture in tension is:

s

2ES

pR pD + Dc [22]

u2

age growth governed by the accumulated plastic strain has no sense. Two approaches

Damage and fatigue 855

n1

Miner rule

NR1

n2

NR 2

are presented next to overcome this difficulty and still in order to consider rate form

constitutive equations: Paas approach of a damage governed by an equivalent strain

rate, generalized Lemaitres approach of a damage governed by the main dissipative

mechanism of internal friction encountered in these materials.

Paas (Paas, 1990) proposed the following damage evolution law1 :

D = C D hi [23]

1995) and enhanced by:

the damage level through the term D with a material parameter (0 < 1),

the strain (and stress) level through the term with a material parameter,

directly related to the slope of the fatigue curve.

C is also a material (damage) parameter. A slightly different expression has been

proposed by Peerlings (Peerlings, 1997) to avoid the initial zero damage rate,

D = C eD hi [24]

856 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

The growth of damage and the fatigue life can be gained in closed form for the

situation of uniaxial loading between a zero minimum strain and a maximum strain

equal to the (constant) strain amplitude , with the assumption that there is no fatigue

limit. A first integration over one cycle (assuming D constant on a cycle) gives the

amplitude laws,

D ()+1

= C D for Paas law

N +1

[25]

D ()+1

= C eD for Peerlings law

N +1

relations which can then be integrated as done in section 2 yielding the number of

cycles to rupture NR as a function of the strain amplitude,

( + 1)Dc1

NR = for Paas law

C(1 )()+1

[26]

( + 1)(1 eDc )

NR = for Peerlings law

C()+1

fatigue diagram. Note that due to the multiplicative splitting between the damage

enhancing term CD or CeD and the strain enhancing term , a linear accumulation

is obtained for multi-level loading (Miner rule for two-level fatigue loading).

It is also tempting to apply Paas and Peerlings laws to monotonic loading, leading

then to:

Z Dc Z R

D dD = C d for Paas law

0 0

[27]

Z Dc Z R

D

e dD = C d for Peerlings law

0 0

1

( + 1)Dc1 +1

R = for Paas law

(1 )C

[28]

1

( + 1)(1 eDc ) +1

R = for Peerlings law

C

which is in general not found equal to the measured rupture strain if the fatigue values

of the material parameters C, , are considered. The Paas approach is then suitable

for fatigue, and will face difficulties to model failure due to severe overloads.

Damage and fatigue 857

The damage law [8] can be generalized as (stored energy damage threshold in-

cluded):

s

Y

D = as soon as ws = wD [29]

S

in order to describe damage growth governed by the main dissipative mechanism

(Cantournet et al., 2003, Lemaitre et al., 2005). It was plasticity (setting = p)

for metals, elastic strains in previous section, it is internal sliding and friction for most

materials (as concrete but as also filled elastomers!). It needs an adequate definition of

the cumulative measure of the internal sliding , definition which cannot be given here

as it is related to the chosen thermodynamics modeling for the material irreversibili-

ties, for example a model with internal sliding and friction for concrete (section 4.4),

Drucker-Prager plasticity model for rocks (see next section and also section 4.4).

Just to make a complete transition with Paas approach for fatigue, remark that

setting = hi altogether with Y = 21 E2 and wD = 0 makes Equation [29] become

2 s s

E E

D = hi = 2s hi [30]

2S 2S

which is the case C = (E/2S)s , = 0, = 2s of Paas and Peerlings laws.

such as by the classical Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager plasticity models leading

to a quite simple representation of dilatancy. Again, the definition of an equivalent

plastic strain is dependent on the plasticity model, but two somehow natural choices

for must be considered:

(a) the choice of damage governed by the equivalent shear plastic strain built from

the deviatoric (shear) plastic strain rate pD = p 31 tr p1 ,

Z r

p 2 pD pD

= : dt [31]

3

which is equal to the accumulated plastic strain p of von Mises plasticity.

(b) the choice of damage governed by the hydrostatic irreversible strain,

pv = tr p [32]

each choice leading to a different generalization of Lemaitres law:

s

Y

(a) D = p

S

s [33]

Y

(b) D = pv

Sv

858 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

It seems difficult to make one expression prevail instead of another. One could argue

that damage is mainly governed by dilatancy and enhanced by the micro-defects open-

ing (in accordance with damage law (b)) but by chance both laws will be found strictly

equivalent for Drucker-Prager plasticity (with S different from Sv , see section 4.4).

For most materials, compressive loadings are less critical than tensile ones, at least

as long as structural instabilities do not take place. This is due to the phenomenon of

micro-defects or micro-cracks closure when the material is compressed. The damage

rate in compression is then lower than the damage rate in tension. In fatigue, this

leads to the so called mean stress effect of the fatigue life reduction for a given stress

amplitude but for increasing mean stresses = (Max + min )/2. This is the stress

ratio effect of section 2 as = 21 Max (1 + R ) and as then an amplitude law function

of and R is equivalently function of Max and .

A damage law ensuring a damage rate smaller in compression than in tension (for

the same stress or strain level) will naturally model the mean stress effect. This will

then be the case with an adequate choice of equivalent strain or energy Y and of

exponents or s. A possibility is to consider the following strain energy release rate

density derived from thermodynamics assumptions2 (Ladevze et al., 1984, Lemaitre,

1992)

1 + h i+ : h

i+ i : h

h i

Y = + h

2E (1 D)2 (1 hD)2

[34]

htr i2 htr i2

+h

2E (1 D)2 (1 hD)2

introducing h the microdefects closure parameter (0 < h < 1) and rewritten in the

simple uniaxial case

hi2 hi2

Y = + h [35]

2E(1 D)2 2E(1 hD)2

so that for the same stress or strain level (in absolute value) it is around h times smaller

in compression than in tension. Considering Lemaitres damage evolution law [8]

gives a damage rate even smaller in compression as then:

Dcompression hs Dtension << Dtension [36]

For metals, the damage increment per cycle between min < 0 and Max > 0 is:

2s 2s

D 1 Max min

+ h p [37]

N (2ES)s (1 D)2 (1 hD)2

2. h.i+ (resp. h.i ) standing for the positive (resp. negative) part of a tensor in terms of principal

values.

Damage and fatigue 859

leading to:

D 1

R2s ()2s

1

Z

+ h dD = N p [38]

0 (1 D)2 (1 hD)2 (8ES)s

q Dc 1

(8ES)s Kcyc R2s

1

Z

NR = + h dD [39]

()2s+q 0 (1 D)2 (1 hD)2

For early design of mechanical components, the coupling of the strain behavior

with the damage may be neglected and a post-processing of damage evolution is pos-

sible after a classical structure analysis (Hayhurst et al., 1973). This approach is an

uncoupled analysis, it is based on a reference nonlinear computation allowing without

damage representation for a correct estimation of the strain energy density and of ei-

ther the accumulated plastic strain p or the cumulative measure of internal sliding .

This analysis is efficient for ductile materials as metals (Lemaitre, 1992) or elastomers

(Cantournet et al., 2003). It needs to be developed for other materials but note that it

probably wont easily apply to concrete for which damage itself is the main cause of

the stress-strain (softening) response so that the above reference calculation does not

exist! In last case (when the coupling between strains and damage is strong) and also

for accurate engineering applications a fully coupled analysis is necessary. The con-

stitutive equations of the full damage model (see section 4) need to be implemented

within a Finite Element computer code.

The post-processing consists in calculating the integral

Z t s

Y (t)

D= (t)dt [40]

tD S

posteriori time integration of the damage evolution law [8] or [29] or [33] where tD is

Rt

the time at damage initiation, for plastic materials solution of pD = 0 D p(t)dt, more

R tD

generally of wD = 0 ws (t)dt (see section 3.1).

The time histories of the measure of internal sliding (often p), which needs a

a priori definition or a constitutive modeling, and of the energy density release rate

Y are the necessary inputs for the damage post-processing. The time to mesocrack

initiation tR or, for cyclic loading, the corresponding number of cycles to mesocrack

initiation NR corresponds to the reach of the critical damage Dc at the structure most

loaded point.

Note that the post-processing may take place at one point only, if known: the

most loaded point, usually where Y is maximum. Rewritten Y = 2 /2E it is also

860 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

1/2

where the damage equivalent stress = eq R is maximum. The post-processing

may also take place at different (chosen) Gauss points of a structure. In any case,

the damage law being written in a rate form, the post-processing applies to complex

loading, not necessary 1D nor cyclic, nor even isothermal.

For fatigue loading periodic or periodic by blocks the previous calculations, step

by step in time, becomes prohibitive when the number of cycles becomes large (104 ,

106 , 108 ,. . . ). For that reason a simplified numerical method is needed which allows

to jump full blocks of N cycles. The time integration of Equation [40] or the 3D

Finite Element computation of a structure is performed over one cycle once in a while

and the computation time may be almost divided by N .

This jump in cycles procedure works as follows (Lemaitre et al., 1994).

1) Before any damage growth, i.e. up to the threshold ws = wD , run the com-

p

putation until a stabilized cycle Ns is reached and let (resp. ) be the

N Ns N Ns

accumulated internal sliding (resp. plastic strain) increment over this single cycle. As-

sume then that during the number N of the next cycles, or p remains linear versus

the number of cycles N and calculate the number of cycles to be jumped N cycles

as

p p

N = or N = [41]

p

N Ns N Ns

where p is a given value which determines the accuracy of the procedure. For plastic

materials, p pD /50 is a good compromise between accuracy and time cost.

The accumulated plastic strain is updated as:

(Ns + N ) = (Ns ) + p or p(Ns + N ) = p(Ns ) + p [42]

The stresses, strains, irreversible strains at the end of the cycle Ns and the cumulative

measure of internal sliding (Ns +N )) (resp. the accumulated plastic strain p(Ns +

N )) are then the initial values for the computation of the first time increment of the

cycle (Ns + N + 1).

Repeat the jumps up to the occurrence of damage.

2) Once damage occurs, run first the computation at constant damage until a new

stabilized cycle Ns is reached. Calculate

p

- the increment or

N Ns N Ns

D

- the damage increment

N Ns

Damage and fatigue 861

Assume again that during the number N of the next cycles or p and D remain

linear versus N and calculate the number of cycles to be jumped as

p D

N = min , [43]

p D

or

N Ns N Ns N Ns

where D is a given value which determines the accuracy on the damage. Here

again D

Dc /50 is a good compromise between accuracy and time cost and take

s

S

p = YM ax D with YMax the maximum value of the energy density Y over the

cycle Ns .

The accumulated internal sliding or plastic strain and the damage are finally up-

dated as

(Ns + N ) = (Ns ) + N

N Ns

or

p

p(Ns + N ) = p(Ns ) + N [44]

N Ns

and

D

D(Ns + N ) = D(Ns ) + N

N Ns

The stresses, strains, plastic strains, at the end of the cycle Ns , the accumulated inter-

nal sliding (Ns + N ) or plastic strain p(Ns + N ) and the damage D(Ns + N )

are then the initial values for the computation of the first time increment of the cycle

(Ns + N + 1).

The idea of an unified damage model for many materials is made possible by

the consideration of the generalized damage law [29], i.e. by assuming that dam-

age is governed by the main dissipative mechanism, often internal sliding and fric-

tion, through the cumulative measure . This kind of modeling applies to metals

(Lemaitre et al., 1985, Franois et al., 1993) for which internal slips are mainly due

to dislocations creation and evolution, but also to non metallic materials such as con-

crete and elastomers (Desmorat et al., 2001, Cantournet et al., 2003, Lemaitre et al.,

2005, Desmorat et al., 2006).

The present section is a synthetic thermodynamics presentation of in fact different

constitutive models. For more details on the general damage mechanics thermody-

namics framework refer to (Lemaitre et al., 1985) or (Lemaitre et al., 2005).

862 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

(see table 1). The physical meaning of these thermodynamics variables depends on

the type of material and of the physical dissipative mechanisms (see section 4.4). The

variable stands for the irreversible strains. The couples of variables (Q, q) and

x, a ) will represent hardening, isotropic and kinematic, of ductile materials, they will

(x

represent consolidations, also isotropic and kinematic, for quasi-brittle materials. D is

the damage variable and the energy density Y is the strain energy release rate density.

Observable Internal variables

Elasticity tensor

Internal tensor

sliding tensor a x

scalar q Q

Damage scalar D Y

Use the general form of the state potential (Helmholtz free energy):

where W1 and W2 define the strain energy density and ws = G(q) + 21 Cx a : a the

stored energy density (Cx is a material parameter), function of the scalar variable q

and of the tensorial variable a . The state laws are:

(W1 + W2 )

= = (1 D)

W2

= = (1 D)

ws

x= = = Cx a [46]

a

a a

a

ws

Q= = = G (q)

q q

Y = = W1 + W2

D

Damage and fatigue 863

,

They naturally define the effective stresses

terms of strains and of effective stresses does not depend explicitly upon D (strain

equivalence principle):

(W1 + W2 )

=

=

1D

[47]

W 2

=

=

1D

F = f + Fx + FD [48]

where:

f = k x k Q s < 0 defines the reversibility domain, k.k is a norm in

the stresses space (not necessary von Mises norm) and s is the reversibility limit,

the functions Fx = x : x and Q = Q(q) = G (q) model the internal sliding

2Cx

nonlinearity. Cx and are the kinematic hardening or consolidation parameters,

s+1

S Y

FD = is Lemaitres damage potential with S and s

(s + 1)(1 D) S

the damage parameters. Note that another classical choice, for instance for quasi-

brittle elasticity, is Marigo damage potential f = FD = Y (D) (Marigo, 1981).

But such a choice does not apply to fatigue.

The evolution laws derive from the dissipative potential through the normality rule,

F x

= =

xk

1 D k

F

q = =

Q

[49]

F F

a =

a = = (1 D) a q

x

x

s s

F Y Y

D = = =

Y 1D S S

with a Lagrange multiplier given by the consistency condition f = 0 and f = 0

for non viscous materials or given by a viscosity law such as generalized Nortons

law = hf /KN iN for viscous materials. The multiplier is equal to a norm of the

inelastic strain rate as first equation of [49] leads to:

q

= = k k [50]

1D 1D

This defines the expected cumulative measure of the internal sliding,

Z t

= k k dt [51]

0

864 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

Z t Z tr

2 p p

p= kp kvon Mises dt = : dt [52]

0 0 3

in von Mises plasticity.

The generalized damage evolution law derives from the last equation of [49]:

s

Y

D = if > D

S [53]

D = Dc mesocrack initiation

where D is the damage threshold, generally equal to zero for quasi-brittle materials.

Written D = (Y /S), it models a damage governed by the main dissipative mecha-

nism, here internal sliding and friction (through ), and enhanced by the value of the

strain energy density (through Y ). Written = (S/Y )D, it models the increasing

internal sliding due to damage accumulation. As the constitutive equations describing

both damage and internal sliding are fully coupled, the interpretation is of course a

combination of both points of view: each phenomenon, damage or internal sliding,

enhances the other one.

The generalized damage model satisfies the positivity of the intrinsic dissipation

D = : as

D = : Qq x : a

a + Y D

F F F F

[54]

= : +Q +x : +Y 0

Q x

x Y

its arguments , Q, x , Y with F (00, 0, 0 , 0; D) = 0 and where the damage D acts as

a parameter. Using the evolution laws, the intrinsic dissipation may also be rewritten:

D = s + v + x : x (1 D)k k + Y D 0 [55]

Cx

with v the viscous stress (vanishing for non viscous materials) such as f = v for

viscous internal sliding.

Damage and fatigue 865

16 4

3

12 1

t

F/So 8

(MPa)

0 1 2 3 4

Figure 2. Cyclic tensile curve of a filled SBR (model: solid line, experiment: dash

line)

Figure 3. Fatigue curve of a filled SBR for a mean elongation moy = 2.53

x = X the kinematic hardening, k.k is the von Mises norm (.)eq , is the plastic

strain p and the generalized damage law [53] recovers Lemaitre damage evolution

law [8] where equals the accumulated plastic strain p.

866 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

1966, Lambert-Diani et al., 1999), Q = 0, W2 is chosen quadratic (Desmorat et al.,

2001). The variable x stands for the residual micro-stresses due to internal sliding with

friction of the macro-molecular chains on themselves and on the black carbon filler

particules. The internal inelastic strain represents the homogeneized displacements

incompatibilities due to friction at microscale. Interesting feature, the parameter

of the nonlinear evolution law for x is responsible for the cyclic stress softening en-

countered in these materials (Mllins effect, Figure 2). An example of calculated

fatigue curve of the applied elongation amplitude (finite strain framework) versus

the number of cycles to rupture NR is given in figure 3. The measured elongation to

rupture in tension R = 7.2 is also reported on the diagram (it corresponds to 620%

of deformation), so that such a modeling applies for monotonic and fatigue failures.

For quasi-britlle materials such as concrete, take W1 and W2 quadratic, neglect

for fatigue applications the isotropic consolidation (Q = 0). The model represents

then the stress-strain response as well as the hysteresis of concrete (Figure 4), not

perfectly for the hysteresis loops because of the simple modeling of the consolidations

(Q = 0, x linear) but well enough to envisage structural applications (Desmorat et al.,

2006, Ragueneau, 2006), even in earthquake engineering.

The proposed model allows for the step by step computation of the material fa-

tigue curves. An example of calculated curve is given in Figure 5 as the normalized

stress Max /fc vs number of cycles to rupture NR (with fc the compressive strength).

The model corresponds to the dot lines, black for the symmetric loading, grey for an

min = 0 loading. The results for min = 0 give a lower bound of the experimen-

tal data for concrete tested in fatigue with a zero stress ratio R (Grzybowski et al.,

Damage and fatigue 867

1993, Paskova et al., 1997) and seem to be conservative. The computations give the

same tendencies than the simple Aas-Jakobsen formula (Aas-Jackobsen et al., 1973)

function of the stress ratio R = min /Max and taking then into account the mean

stress effect,

Max

= 1 (1 R ) log NR [56]

fc

The material parameter set to 0.1 allows to recover the fatigue curves for both stress

ratios (stress ratio taken in the formula simply as R = 1 for the symmteric loading,

to zero for the min = 0 case). As the damage model does not represent the material

behavior dissymmetry, the analysis is mainly qualitative. One can nevertheless notice

that a mean stress effect is reproduced and that the value obtained from the compu-

tations is found of the order of magnitude of the usual value = 0.0685 for light

concrete (Destrebecq, 2005).

compressive loading

with no load reversal

Model

Figure 5. Normalized fatigue curves Comparison between model (dot lines), exper-

iments (marks) and Aas-Jakobsen formula (straight lines)

For rocks, the modeling depends mainly on the ductility observed. Brittle mate-

rials need a W1 term, when to consider a more classical plasticity model for ductile

ones is often sufficient. The main difficulty concerns the choice of the norm k.k in

the yield function f , choice directly related to the modeling of dilatancy, i.e. of posi-

tive permanent hydrostatic stresses (dilatancy) in compression (with the convention of

positive stresses or strains in tension). As an example, let us derive next the damage

model for Drucker-Prager plasticity (case W1 = 0). Taking W2 quadratic , = p as

plastic strain and setting Cx = 23 C as often for deviatoric kinematic hardening gives

E is Hookes tensor):

(E

868 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

=

= E : ( p )

1D

2

x = Ca

3

[57]

Q = G (q)

2

1 eq R

Y = ( p ) : E : ( p ) =

2 2E(1 D)2

with R = 23 (1 + ) + 3(1 2)( eqH 2

) the triaxiality function (Equation 13). Use

as criterion and dissipation functions ((.)eq is von Mises norm, angles and are

material parameters):

x )eq + tan tr

f = ( Q s

[58]

+ Fx + FD

F = f + (tan tan ) tr

gives the evolution laws of Drucker-Prager plasticity coupled with damage,

" #

p 3 D x

= + tan 1

D x )eq

2 (

q

=

1D

[59]

2

x = (1 D) C pD x

x

3

Y

D =

S

and to take the von Mises deviatoric norm of first equation of [59] gives as simply

the shear equivalent plastic strain,

Z r

p 2 pD pD

= = : dt [60]

3

To take the trace of first equation of [59] gives pv = tr p = 3 tan and:

pv

= [61]

3 tan

so that both generalizations (a) and (b) of Lemaitres law (Equation 33) are valid

altogether with S = S = Sv /(3 tan )1/s .

Last, let us detail the possibility to use damage models to represent high cycle fa-

tigue failure conditions, i.e. mainly fatigue in an elastic regime. In metals, plasticity

Damage and fatigue 869

STRUCTURE CALCULATION

AA

Plasticity and damage at microscale

p Thermo-elastic E, , =

AA

RVE

Plastic y = f , C

Thermo-elastic E, ,

AA

(Plastic , C Damage S, s, Dc

y )

ij (t) ij (t) ij (t) T(t) D(t)

e p

then does not occurs at the mesoscale of the Representative Volume Element (RVE)

of continuum mechanics but at a microscale, the defects scale. A two scale damage

model has been build based on this feature (Lemaitre et al., 1994). It is a locally

coupled analysis, eventually with initial plastic strain and damage, which can be per-

formed by post-processing an elastic computation. The jump-in cycles procedure of

section 3.6 can advantageously be used.

The two scales under consideration are represented in Figure 6. The mesoscopic

scale or mesoscale is the scale of the RVE of continuum mechanics, the microscopic

scale or microscale is the scale of the microdefects. At the mesoscale, the stresses are

denoted , the total, elastic and plastic strains , e , p . They are known from a thermo-

elastic Finite Element computation with usually for high cycle fatigue p 0. The

values at the microscale have an upper-script . Plasticity and damage are assumed

to occur at the microscale only, p 6= 0, D 0, where for simplicity the damage

variable at the microscale has no upper-script (D = D ).

In order to illustrate the naturally ability of continuous damage to deal with com-

plex loading, anisothermal conditions are assumed next so that the material parameters

are temperature dependent and the thermal expansion, omitted so far, has to be intro-

duced. The thermoelastic law for the RVE reads:

1+

= tr 1 + (T Tref ) 1 [62]

E E

with E the Young modulus, the Poisson ratio, the thermal expansion coefficient

and Tref the reference temperature. The temperature field in the structure is usu-

ally determined from an initial heat transfer computation. A law of thermo-elasto-

plasticity coupled with damage is considered at microscale. The elasticity law reads

then (recall that -upper-script stands for variable at microscale):

1 + tr

e = 1 + (T Tref )11 [63]

E 1D E 1D

870 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

where the thermal expansion coefficient is taken next equal to the meso coefficient

. In the yield criterion, the hardening X is kinematic, linear, and the yield stress is

the asymptotic fatigue limit of the material, denoted f ,

X )eq f

f = ( [64]

= /(1 D) is the effective stress and where f < 0 elasticity.

where

A linear kinematic hardening X is considered at microscale (Fx = 0). The set of

constitutive equations at microscale is then:

= e + p

1+

e = tr

1 + (T Tref )11

E E

= 1D

D X

p = 3

p

2( X )eq

[65]

d X 2

= p (1 D)

dt Cy 3

s

Y

D = p if p > pD

S

D = D crack initiation

c

with the plastic modulus Cy , the damage strength S, the damage exponent s and the

critical damage Dc as material parameters. The damage evolution (last equation of

previous set) is lower in tension than in compression due to the consideration of the

micro-defects closure parameter h within Y as usually for metals h 0.2 (Lemaitre,

1992) and:

i+ i : h

i

1 + h i+ : h h

Y = + h

2E (1 D)2 (1 hD)2

[66]

htr i2 htr i2

+h

2E (1 D)2 (1 hD)2

p is the accumulated plastic strain at microscale and pD the damage threshold (for

loading dependent threshold see section 3.1 and refer to (Lemaitre et al., 2005)). The

plastic multiplier = p (1D) is determined from the consistency condition f = 0,

f = 0.

The scale transition meso micro can be governed by different laws, the simplest

being Lin-Taylor law of a strain at microscale identical to the strain at mesoscale

(hypothesis used in initial two scale damage model and DAMAGE-90 post-processor):

= [67]

For isothermal loading, Eshelby-Krner loacalization law, based on Eshelby analysis

of the spherical inclusion, is preferred (Eshelby, 1957, Krner, 1961),

= + b(p p ) [68]

Damage and fatigue 871

Eshelbys analysis which leads, when damage and temperature coupling are taken

into account, to the modified (anisothermal) Eshelby-Krner localization law (Seyedi

et al., 2004):

1

D =

D

+ b ((1 D)p p )

1 bD

[69]

1

H = [H + a ((1 D) ) (T Tref )]

1 aD

now used in DAMAGE-2005 post-processor, where H = 13 tr and H = 31 tr

are the hydrostatic strains, respectively at mesososcale and at microscale, and where

a and b are the Eshelby parameters for a spherical inclusion,

1+ 2 4 5

a= , b= [70]

3(1 ) 15 1

350

300

TMax

250

200 2 3 4 5 6 7

10 10 10 10 10 10

NR

The two scale damage model allows for the calculation of Wlher curves at dif-

ferent mean stresses (Sermage et al., 1999, Desmorat, 2000, Lemaitre et al., 2005).

It also represents thermal fatigue, for example (Figure 7) of a 1D bar blocked at its

two extremities and uniformly heated and cooled between a minimum value Tmin

and a maximum value TMax . The numbers of cycles to rupture are gained by use of

DAMAGE-2005 post-processor, and still corresponds to NR = N (D = Dc ). They

are plotted in Figure 7 which is then is the computed thermal fatigue curve of the

considered steel, TMax vs NR . Written in a rate form, the model allows to deal with

complex thermo-mechanical loading, where both the meso-strains or stresses and the

temperatue vary. As an illustration, Figure 7 represents the thermal fatigue response

of a pipe subject to both temperature T (t) and internal pressure P (t) variations. The

cylinder is assumed thin, the temperature uniform. The stresses due to the thermal

loading and to the mechanical loading are of the same order of magnitude.

Different pressure loadings are considered: 0) constant P = PMax , 1) in phase

with the temperature (case 1): P = 0 for T = Tmin , P = PMax for T = TMax , and

872 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

case 1

case 2

Internal pressure er

P(t)

out of phase

in phase

Uniform temperature field T(t)

P, case 1 T P, case 2

1), out of phase (case 2) loadings

for T = Tmin . The results are given in Figure 8 where T = TMax Tmin is the

temperature apmlitude. A strong effect of temperature-pressure out of phase loading

on the number of cycles to rupture is obtained, comforting us in the idea that one must

develop adequate tools for anisothermal thermomechanical cases.

The same two scale damage modeling still must be developped for high cycle

fatigue of quasi-brittle materials. There are conceptually no difficulty but practically

things are different:

a new localization law must be derived, i.e. also justified for the microstructure

and the degradation mechanisms encountered in the considered material,

a 3D (single scale) damage model must have proven efficient for those materials.

The dilatancy must be correctly represented, the dissymmetry tension compression

must have been correctly reproduced (Desmorat et al., 2006). This will be the damage

model at microscale,

the number of material parameters must be low ! the identification fast !

Damage and fatigue 873

6. Conclusion

Lemaitres damage law has proven efficient for fatigue of metals. It can be gen-

eralized into D = (Y /S)s of damage governed by the main dissipative mechanism

in order to apply to other materials, as concrete, elastomers or rocks. A few dam-

age parameters are introduced, 2 for damage, the damage strength S and the damage

exponent s, eventually 1 for a damage growth lower in tension than in compression,

the micro-defects closure parameter h. Stress or strain amplitude laws as well as the

Whler curve of materials are calculated from the the time integration of the damage

law. The stress triaxiality effect is taken into account, the mean stress effect recovered,

qualitatively for quasi-brittle materials.

A unified damage model, coupling plastic or internal sliding irreversibilities with

damage, can then be build to recover the generalized damage law. It allows for the

representation of both the hysteretic and the fatigue responses of materials. Also writ-

ten in a rate form, it applies to the case of complex loading as non cyclic (seismic,

random fatigue...), non isothermal, non proportional loadings. High temperature dam-

age behavior can also be addressed, as creep in the pioneering works of Kachanov

(1958) and Rabotnov (1969) and creep-fatigue. More detailed application examples

can be found in (Lemaitre et al., 2005) or in present volume (Ragueneau, 2006) for

structures.

A lot of nice results have been obtained so far, applications are now needed to

acquire engineering experience for designing structures with continuum damage me-

chanics.

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