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Damage and fatigue

Continuum damage mechanics modeling


for fatigue of materials and structures

Rodrigue Desmorat
LMT-Cachan
ENS Cachan/Universit Paris 6/CNRS
61 avenue du prsident Wilson
F-94235 Cachan Cedex, France
desmorat@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

ABSTRACT. Application of damage mechanics to fatigue is addressed in the present paper. The
ability of Lemaitres damage law to describe low and high cycle fatigue failure of metals is illus-
trated. Its generalization into an evolution law modeling a damage rate governed by the main
dissipative mechanics applies to concrete, elastomers, rocks and to probably other materials.
The importance of rate written laws is emphasized.
RSUM. On dcrit dans le prsent article comment la mcanique de lendommagement permet
de modliser la fatigue des matriaux. La loi de Lemaitre permet de rendre compte de la fatigue
faibles et grands nombres de cycles des mtaux. Sa gnralisation en une loi dvolution
gouverne par le mcanisme dissipatif principal permet de lappliquer aux btons, lastomres,
roches et probablement dautres matriaux. Limportance dune criture en vitesse est souli-
gne.
KEYWORDS: damage, fatigue, metals, concrete, elastomers, rocks.
MOTS-CLS : endommagement, fatigue, mtaux, bton, lastomres, roche

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850 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

1. Introduction

Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) is a powerful tool to model the degrada-


tion of materials, the stress softening encountered (and represented) leading to strain
localization and rupture. Many damage models exist for concrete (Mazars, 1984, Or-
tiz, 1985, Resende, 1987, Laborderie et al., 1990, Mazars et al., 1990, Oller et al.,
1990, Yazdani et al., 1990, Papa et al., 1996, Meschke et al., 1998, Murakami et
al., 1997, Halm et al., 1998, Fichant et al., 1999, Geers et al., 2000, Ragueneau et al.,
2000, Gatuingt et al., 2003), metals (Gurson, 1977, Lemaitre et al., 1978, Tvergaard et
al., 1984, Lemaitre et al., 1985, Chaboche et al., 1988, Lemaitre et al., 2000), maybe
less for elastomers (Simo, 1987, Godvindjee et al., 1991, Miehe et al., 2000, Can-
tournet et al., 2003) or rocks (Marigo, 1981, Homand-Etienne et al., 1998, Charlez,
1991, Chiarilli et al., 2003, Conil et al., 2004, Salari et al., 2004), and todays main
research efforts concern the numerical difficulties associated with these models:
avoiding the mesh dependency by regularization methods: nonlocal models
(Pijaudier-Cabot et al., 1987, Aifantis, 1987, Peerlings, 1997, Jirasek et al., 2001, Ji-
rasek, 2004), visco- or delay-damage (Dub, 1994, Ladevze, 1995), phenomenon of
obscuration of process zones (Denoual et al., 2002)...
ensuring the transition from continuous damage to discrete cracking: determi-
nation of the size and orientation of the mesocrack initiated (Mazars et al., 1996,
Lemaitre et al., 2005), discontinuity modeling, XFEM (Melenk et al., 1996, Mos et
al., 1999, Jirasek, 2002a, Jirasek, 2002b),
allowing the computational coupling with multi-scale and multi-timescale
physics, such as for thermo-chemo-hydro-mechanics problems,
making the computations robust and fast, such as by use of extensive parallelism.
Point probably less known, damage mechanics is also powerful for fatigue, even
if this topic is usually addressed with specific engineering rules modeling directly the
Whler (or Manson-Coffin) curves of materials (Manson et al., 1964, Aas-Jackobsen
et al., 1973, Tepfers et al., 1979, Ramakrishnan et al., 1992). A fatigue law for con-
crete can be a straight line in the periodic maximum applied stress Max vs the loga-
rithm of the number of cycles to rupture log NR diagram, generally parametrized by
the stress ratio R = min /Max (with min the minimum applied stress). Such a
reference curve is 1D so how to apply it to 3D states of varying amplitude stresses?
What is then a stress amplitude? How to define a stress ratio? Many difficulties arise
today due to the will of making Finite Element computations for which the state of
stress is far to remain uniaxial and the loading type is far to remain stress controlled,
even proportional and/or cyclic.
The present paper focus on the adavantages of considering CDM framework for
fatigue, more precisely of considering Lemaitres damage law and extending it to non
metallic materials as concrete, elastomers, rocks...
Damage and fatigue 851

2. Amplitude damage laws

A first, natural, kind of damage model for fatigue is simply written by relating the
damage, denoted D, to the number of cycles N . Setting for an experiment i leading
to a number of cycles to rupture NRi for a stress amplitude i ,
N
D= [1]
NRi
allows to recover Miners linear accumulation rule for multi-level loadings made of
blocks, each made of ni cycles of constant amplitude,
X X ni
Di = 1 =1 [2]
i i
NRi

D
This formulation also defines the damage increment per cycle N as 1/NR , damage
increment which can more generally be set as a function of the current damage D,
of the stress amplitude and of the stress ratio R (Lemaitre et al., 1984, Hua et al.,
1984, Chaboche et al., 1988),
D
= g(D) G (, R ) [3]
N
The R dependency models the effect of different mean stresses on Whler curves.
People initially thought that introducing a D dependency as in Equation [3] com-
bined with the definition of a critical damage Dc < 1 (such
P as NR = N (Dc )) would
recover a nonlinear (observed) damage accumulation ( NnRi i
6= 1). This is not the
case as one has for a constant amplitude loading:

D
= G (, R ) N [4]
g(D)

which gives by integration,


Dc
dD
Z
= G (, R ) NR [5]
0 g(D)

so that the Whler curve is gained as:


Dc
1 1
Z
NR = dD [6]
G (, R ) 0 g(D)

For a block i (made of ni cycles) of a multi-level loading, each of amplitude i and


of stress ratio Ri , one has similarly
Di Dc
dD ni dD
Z Z
= G ( i , Ri ) ni = [7]
Di1 g(D) NRi 0 g(D)
852 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

where the damage at the end (resp. at the begining) of the block i is Di (resp. Di1 )
P R Di dD R D dD
and NRi is gained from Equation [6]. The sum i Di1 equals 0 c g(D) and
P nig(D)
Equation [7] unfortunately leads to linear Miner rule NRi = 1.
To obtain a non linear damage accumulation, a more complex modeling is nec-
essary, showing a first limitations (in 1D!) of stress amplitude laws. Other limi-
tations concern the extension of Equation [3] to strain controlled tests and to non
cyclic loadings encountered in random fatigue or in seismic applications. Note that
the link between a stress and a strain formulation is not clear for nonlinear materials at
least as long as no rate written damage model is defined (Lemaitre et al., 1985, Paas,
1990, Lemaitre, 1992, Paas et al., 1993, Peerlings, 1997, Bodin et al., 2002, Lemaitre
et al., 2005).

3. Damage evolution laws for fatigue

From a thermodynamics point of view, laws function of the current number of


cycles N are not constitutive equations. They incorporate information on the load-
ing and must be theoretically recovered from real constitutive equations, written in
a rate form. This makes the modeling not as flexible as for the amplitude laws (the
direct introduction the stress ratio is lost) but this way to proceed allows for a natural
equivalence between stress and strain formulations and for a natural extension to 3D.

3.1. Lemaitres damage law

Lemaitres damage law models damage growth governed by plasticity (through the
accumulated plastic strain p) and enhanced by the stress level and triaxiality (through
the elastic energy density denoted here Y ). It is written in a rate form as:
 s
Y
D = p [8]
S

and introduces 2 damage parameters: the damage strength S and the damage exponent
s. Noting that in tension Y = 2 /2E and making the (small) assumption || Max ,
the maximum stress, when damage occurs, allows to derive the damage increment per
cycle as:
 2 s Z
D Max
Z
= D dt p dt [9]
N 1 cycle 2ES 1 cycle

or
 2
s
D Max
= 2p [10]
N 2ES
Damage and fatigue 853

with p the plastic strain amplitude. A cyclic plasticity law p (), eventually
D
derived from the time integration of a kinematic hardening law, gives finally N as a
function of the stress amplitude. For the power law = Kcyc (p )1/q , it is:
D 2()2s+q
= q [11]
N (8ES)s Kcyc
with then a number of cycles to rupture
q
(8ES)s Kcyc Dc
NR = 2s+q
[12]
2()
where (2s + q) is the (negative) slope of the Whler curve in a log-log diagram.
The stress triaxiality effect of a damage growth enhanced by large hydrostatic
stresses H Max (compared to von Mises eq Max ) is also naturally derived as in 3D,
2 2
eq Max R

2 H
YMax = R = (1 + ) + 3(1 2) [13]
2E 3 eq
introducing the triaxiality function R (Lemaitre et al., 1985),
!s
2
D eq Max R
= 2p [14]
N 2ES

with p = p(eq ) the accumulated plastic strain increment over half a cycle. In
shear R = Rshear = 23 (1+), in tension-compression R = RTC = 1, in equi-biaxial
tension R = Rbiax = 2(1 ), leading to Rshear < RTC < Rbiax and to increasing
numbers of cycles to rupture as the stress triaxiality decreases,
NRbiax < NRTC < NRshear at identical von Mises stress [15]
with, still for a given applied maximum von Mises stress, the number of cycles to
rupture in multiaxial related to NRTC in uniaxial as:
NR = NRTC Rs [16]

Last but not the least, damage in fatigue of metals usually does not initiates instan-
taneously. In monotonic tension, the material can undergo plasticity up to a plastic
strain threshold p = pD of the order of 10 to 30% (i.e. often up to hardening satu-
ration). In fatigue, it can take a few hundreds of percent of accumulated plastic strain
before damage initiation (at the damage threshold p = pD ). Such a loading depen-
dency of the damage threshold pD can be represented by considering that damage
initiates when the energy density stored by hardening ws reaches the energetic dam-
age threshold wD , loading independent, which is the amount of energy needed for
the incubation of defects (Lemaitre et al., 2000, Lemaitre et al., 2005). According to
plasticity framework, the stored energy density is defined as the integral
Z t
ws = (eq y ) p dt [17]
0
854 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

with y the yield stress. For monotonic hardening, considering the stress saturated
at the value u , the ultimate stress, the relationship between plastic strain damage
threshold pD and stored energy damage threshold simply reads
Z pD
wD = (eq y ) dp (u y ) pD [18]
0

For fatigue, making the simplifying assumption eq eq Max during the plastic part
of the stress-strain cycle gives the damage threshold pD , loading dependent, as the
solution of:
Z pD
wD = (eq Max y ) dp = (eq Max y ) pD [19]
0
or:
 
u y
pD = pD [20]
eq Max y
 m
u y
recently generalized into pD = pD with m a material parameter
eq Max y
(Lemaitre et al., 2005).
The number of cycles to rupture is then the sum of two terms, the number of cycles
to damage initiation ND = N (p = pD ) and the number of cycles during which takes
place the damage process (in fact the term NR of previous analysis with no damage
threshold). Equation [12] becomes then:
q
(8ES)s Kcyc Dc
NR = ND +
2()2s+q
m
q
[21]
pD Kcyc u y
pD
ND = =
2p 2()q

y
2
For two-level fatigue loading the consideration of a damage threshold leads to a bi-
linear damage accumulation diagram (Figure 1) more in accordance with experiments
(Desmorat, 2000, Lemaitre et al., 2005).
Lemaitres damage law also applies to monotonic, creep and creep-fatigue failures
(Lemaitre, 1992, Sermage et al., 2000, Lemaitre et al., 2005). For instance, the plastic
strain to rupture in tension is:
 s
2ES
pR pD + Dc [22]
u2

3.2. Quasi-brittle materials

For quasi-brittle materials plasticity is often meaningless so that to consider dam-


age growth governed by the accumulated plastic strain has no sense. Two approaches
Damage and fatigue 855

n1
Miner rule
NR1

n2
NR 2

Figure 1. Calculated damage accumulation diagram for two-level fatigue

are presented next to overcome this difficulty and still in order to consider rate form
constitutive equations: Paas approach of a damage governed by an equivalent strain
rate, generalized Lemaitres approach of a damage governed by the main dissipative
mechanism of internal friction encountered in these materials.

3.2.1. Paas approach for fatigue


Paas (Paas, 1990) proposed the following damage evolution law1 :

D = C D hi [23]

of a damage governed by an equivalent strain rate (Mazars, 1984, de Vree et al.,


1995) and enhanced by:
the damage level through the term D with a material parameter (0 < 1),
the strain (and stress) level through the term with a material parameter,
directly related to the slope of the fatigue curve.
C is also a material (damage) parameter. A slightly different expression has been
proposed by Peerlings (Peerlings, 1997) to avoid the initial zero damage rate,

D = C eD hi [24]

1. h.i denotes the positive part of a scalar.


856 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

The growth of damage and the fatigue life can be gained in closed form for the
situation of uniaxial loading between a zero minimum strain and a maximum strain
equal to the (constant) strain amplitude , with the assumption that there is no fatigue
limit. A first integration over one cycle (assuming D constant on a cycle) gives the
amplitude laws,

D ()+1
= C D for Paas law
N +1
[25]
D ()+1
= C eD for Peerlings law
N +1
relations which can then be integrated as done in section 2 yielding the number of
cycles to rupture NR as a function of the strain amplitude,

( + 1)Dc1
NR = for Paas law
C(1 )()+1
[26]
( + 1)(1 eDc )
NR = for Peerlings law
C()+1

which is in both cases a straight line of slope ( + 1) in the log vs log NR


fatigue diagram. Note that due to the multiplicative splitting between the damage
enhancing term CD or CeD and the strain enhancing term , a linear accumulation
is obtained for multi-level loading (Miner rule for two-level fatigue loading).
It is also tempting to apply Paas and Peerlings laws to monotonic loading, leading
then to:
Z Dc Z R
D dD = C d for Paas law
0 0
[27]
Z Dc Z R
D
e dD = C d for Peerlings law
0 0

and to the rupture strain corresponding to D = Dc ,


 1
( + 1)Dc1 +1

R = for Paas law
(1 )C
[28]
  1
( + 1)(1 eDc ) +1
R = for Peerlings law
C

which is in general not found equal to the measured rupture strain if the fatigue values
of the material parameters C, , are considered. The Paas approach is then suitable
for fatigue, and will face difficulties to model failure due to severe overloads.
Damage and fatigue 857

3.2.2. Generalized damage law


The damage law [8] can be generalized as (stored energy damage threshold in-
cluded):
 s
Y
D = as soon as ws = wD [29]
S
in order to describe damage growth governed by the main dissipative mechanism
(Cantournet et al., 2003, Lemaitre et al., 2005). It was plasticity (setting = p)
for metals, elastic strains in previous section, it is internal sliding and friction for most
materials (as concrete but as also filled elastomers!). It needs an adequate definition of
the cumulative measure of the internal sliding , definition which cannot be given here
as it is related to the chosen thermodynamics modeling for the material irreversibili-
ties, for example a model with internal sliding and friction for concrete (section 4.4),
Drucker-Prager plasticity model for rocks (see next section and also section 4.4).
Just to make a complete transition with Paas approach for fatigue, remark that
setting = hi altogether with Y = 21 E2 and wD = 0 makes Equation [29] become
 2 s  s
E E
D = hi = 2s hi [30]
2S 2S
which is the case C = (E/2S)s , = 0, = 2s of Paas and Peerlings laws.

3.3. Application to rocks

Mechanical behavior of rocks is often modeled by use of non associated plasticity


such as by the classical Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager plasticity models leading
to a quite simple representation of dilatancy. Again, the definition of an equivalent
plastic strain is dependent on the plasticity model, but two somehow natural choices
for must be considered:
(a) the choice of damage governed by the equivalent shear plastic strain built from
the deviatoric (shear) plastic strain rate pD = p 31 tr p1 ,
Z r
p 2 pD pD
= : dt [31]
3
which is equal to the accumulated plastic strain p of von Mises plasticity.
(b) the choice of damage governed by the hydrostatic irreversible strain,
pv = tr p [32]
each choice leading to a different generalization of Lemaitres law:
 s
Y
(a) D = p
S
 s [33]
Y
(b) D = pv
Sv
858 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

It seems difficult to make one expression prevail instead of another. One could argue
that damage is mainly governed by dilatancy and enhanced by the micro-defects open-
ing (in accordance with damage law (b)) but by chance both laws will be found strictly
equivalent for Drucker-Prager plasticity (with S different from Sv , see section 4.4).

3.4. Micro-defects closure effect Mean stress effect

For most materials, compressive loadings are less critical than tensile ones, at least
as long as structural instabilities do not take place. This is due to the phenomenon of
micro-defects or micro-cracks closure when the material is compressed. The damage
rate in compression is then lower than the damage rate in tension. In fatigue, this
leads to the so called mean stress effect of the fatigue life reduction for a given stress
amplitude but for increasing mean stresses = (Max + min )/2. This is the stress
ratio effect of section 2 as = 21 Max (1 + R ) and as then an amplitude law function
of and R is equivalently function of Max and .
A damage law ensuring a damage rate smaller in compression than in tension (for
the same stress or strain level) will naturally model the mean stress effect. This will
then be the case with an adequate choice of equivalent strain or energy Y and of
exponents or s. A possibility is to consider the following strain energy release rate
density derived from thermodynamics assumptions2 (Ladevze et al., 1984, Lemaitre,
1992)
 
1 + h i+ : h
i+ i : h
h i
Y = + h
2E (1 D)2 (1 hD)2
[34]
htr i2 htr i2
 

+h
2E (1 D)2 (1 hD)2
introducing h the microdefects closure parameter (0 < h < 1) and rewritten in the
simple uniaxial case
hi2 hi2
Y = + h [35]
2E(1 D)2 2E(1 hD)2
so that for the same stress or strain level (in absolute value) it is around h times smaller
in compression than in tension. Considering Lemaitres damage evolution law [8]
gives a damage rate even smaller in compression as then:
Dcompression hs Dtension << Dtension [36]
For metals, the damage increment per cycle between min < 0 and Max > 0 is:
 2s 2s

D 1 Max min
+ h p [37]
N (2ES)s (1 D)2 (1 hD)2

2. h.i+ (resp. h.i ) standing for the positive (resp. negative) part of a tensor in terms of principal
values.
Damage and fatigue 859

leading to:
D 1
R2s ()2s

1
Z
+ h dD = N p [38]
0 (1 D)2 (1 hD)2 (8ES)s

and to the representation of the mean stress effect in fatigue as:


q Dc 1
(8ES)s Kcyc R2s

1
Z
NR = + h dD [39]
()2s+q 0 (1 D)2 (1 hD)2

3.5. Damage post-processing

For early design of mechanical components, the coupling of the strain behavior
with the damage may be neglected and a post-processing of damage evolution is pos-
sible after a classical structure analysis (Hayhurst et al., 1973). This approach is an
uncoupled analysis, it is based on a reference nonlinear computation allowing without
damage representation for a correct estimation of the strain energy density and of ei-
ther the accumulated plastic strain p or the cumulative measure of internal sliding .
This analysis is efficient for ductile materials as metals (Lemaitre, 1992) or elastomers
(Cantournet et al., 2003). It needs to be developed for other materials but note that it
probably wont easily apply to concrete for which damage itself is the main cause of
the stress-strain (softening) response so that the above reference calculation does not
exist! In last case (when the coupling between strains and damage is strong) and also
for accurate engineering applications a fully coupled analysis is necessary. The con-
stitutive equations of the full damage model (see section 4) need to be implemented
within a Finite Element computer code.
The post-processing consists in calculating the integral
Z t s
Y (t)
D= (t)dt [40]
tD S

from results of classical computations made without damage; it corresponds to the a


posteriori time integration of the damage evolution law [8] or [29] or [33] where tD is
Rt
the time at damage initiation, for plastic materials solution of pD = 0 D p(t)dt, more
R tD
generally of wD = 0 ws (t)dt (see section 3.1).
The time histories of the measure of internal sliding (often p), which needs a
a priori definition or a constitutive modeling, and of the energy density release rate
Y are the necessary inputs for the damage post-processing. The time to mesocrack
initiation tR or, for cyclic loading, the corresponding number of cycles to mesocrack
initiation NR corresponds to the reach of the critical damage Dc at the structure most
loaded point.
Note that the post-processing may take place at one point only, if known: the
most loaded point, usually where Y is maximum. Rewritten Y = 2 /2E it is also
860 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

1/2
where the damage equivalent stress = eq R is maximum. The post-processing
may also take place at different (chosen) Gauss points of a structure. In any case,
the damage law being written in a rate form, the post-processing applies to complex
loading, not necessary 1D nor cyclic, nor even isothermal.

3.6. Jump-in-cycles procedure

For fatigue loading periodic or periodic by blocks the previous calculations, step
by step in time, becomes prohibitive when the number of cycles becomes large (104 ,
106 , 108 ,. . . ). For that reason a simplified numerical method is needed which allows
to jump full blocks of N cycles. The time integration of Equation [40] or the 3D
Finite Element computation of a structure is performed over one cycle once in a while
and the computation time may be almost divided by N .
This jump in cycles procedure works as follows (Lemaitre et al., 1994).
1) Before any damage growth, i.e. up to the threshold ws = wD , run the com-
p
putation until a stabilized cycle Ns is reached and let (resp. ) be the
N Ns N Ns
accumulated internal sliding (resp. plastic strain) increment over this single cycle. As-
sume then that during the number N of the next cycles, or p remains linear versus
the number of cycles N and calculate the number of cycles to be jumped N cycles
as
p p
N = or N = [41]
p
N Ns N Ns

where p is a given value which determines the accuracy of the procedure. For plastic
materials, p pD /50 is a good compromise between accuracy and time cost.
The accumulated plastic strain is updated as:
(Ns + N ) = (Ns ) + p or p(Ns + N ) = p(Ns ) + p [42]
The stresses, strains, irreversible strains at the end of the cycle Ns and the cumulative
measure of internal sliding (Ns +N )) (resp. the accumulated plastic strain p(Ns +
N )) are then the initial values for the computation of the first time increment of the
cycle (Ns + N + 1).
Repeat the jumps up to the occurrence of damage.
2) Once damage occurs, run first the computation at constant damage until a new
stabilized cycle Ns is reached. Calculate

p
- the increment or
N Ns N Ns

D
- the damage increment
N Ns
Damage and fatigue 861

Assume again that during the number N of the next cycles or p and D remain
linear versus N and calculate the number of cycles to be jumped as

p D
N = min , [43]

p D


or
N Ns N Ns N Ns

where D is a given value which determines the accuracy on the damage. Here
again D
  Dc /50 is a good compromise between accuracy and time cost and take
s
S
p = YM ax D with YMax the maximum value of the energy density Y over the
cycle Ns .
The accumulated internal sliding or plastic strain and the damage are finally up-
dated as


(Ns + N ) = (Ns ) + N
N Ns

or

p
p(Ns + N ) = p(Ns ) + N [44]
N Ns
and

D
D(Ns + N ) = D(Ns ) + N
N Ns
The stresses, strains, plastic strains, at the end of the cycle Ns , the accumulated inter-
nal sliding (Ns + N ) or plastic strain p(Ns + N ) and the damage D(Ns + N )
are then the initial values for the computation of the first time increment of the cycle
(Ns + N + 1).

4. Toward an unified modeling for damage and fatigue ?

The idea of an unified damage model for many materials is made possible by
the consideration of the generalized damage law [29], i.e. by assuming that dam-
age is governed by the main dissipative mechanism, often internal sliding and fric-
tion, through the cumulative measure . This kind of modeling applies to metals
(Lemaitre et al., 1985, Franois et al., 1993) for which internal slips are mainly due
to dislocations creation and evolution, but also to non metallic materials such as con-
crete and elastomers (Desmorat et al., 2001, Cantournet et al., 2003, Lemaitre et al.,
2005, Desmorat et al., 2006).
The present section is a synthetic thermodynamics presentation of in fact different
constitutive models. For more details on the general damage mechanics thermody-
namics framework refer to (Lemaitre et al., 1985) or (Lemaitre et al., 2005).
862 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

4.1. Thermodynamics Variables

Define , a , q and D as internal variables associated with , x , Q and Y


(see table 1). The physical meaning of these thermodynamics variables depends on
the type of material and of the physical dissipative mechanisms (see section 4.4). The
variable stands for the irreversible strains. The couples of variables (Q, q) and
x, a ) will represent hardening, isotropic and kinematic, of ductile materials, they will
(x
represent consolidations, also isotropic and kinematic, for quasi-brittle materials. D is
the damage variable and the energy density Y is the strain energy release rate density.

Table 1. State and associated variables

Mechanisms Type State variables Associated


Observable Internal variables
Elasticity tensor
Internal tensor
sliding tensor a x
scalar q Q
Damage scalar D Y

4.2. State and evolution laws: generalized damage model

Use the general form of the state potential (Helmholtz free energy):

= (1 D) [W1 () + W2 ( )] + ws (q, a ) [45]

where W1 and W2 define the strain energy density and ws = G(q) + 21 Cx a : a the
stored energy density (Cx is a material parameter), function of the scalar variable q
and of the tensorial variable a . The state laws are:
(W1 + W2 )
= = (1 D)

W2
= = (1 D)

ws
x= = = Cx a [46]
a
a a
a
ws
Q= = = G (q)
q q

Y = = W1 + W2
D
Damage and fatigue 863

such as the elasticity law written in


,
They naturally define the effective stresses
terms of strains and of effective stresses does not depend explicitly upon D (strain
equivalence principle):
(W1 + W2 )
=
=
1D

[47]
W 2
=
=
1D

Use as dissipative potential:


F = f + Fx + FD [48]
where:
f = k x k Q s < 0 defines the reversibility domain, k.k is a norm in
the stresses space (not necessary von Mises norm) and s is the reversibility limit,

the functions Fx = x : x and Q = Q(q) = G (q) model the internal sliding
2Cx
nonlinearity. Cx and are the kinematic hardening or consolidation parameters,
 s+1
S Y
FD = is Lemaitres damage potential with S and s
(s + 1)(1 D) S
the damage parameters. Note that another classical choice, for instance for quasi-
brittle elasticity, is Marigo damage potential f = FD = Y (D) (Marigo, 1981).
But such a choice does not apply to fatigue.
The evolution laws derive from the dissipative potential through the normality rule,
F x

= =

xk
1 D k
F
q = =
Q
[49]
F F
a =
a = = (1 D) a q
x
x

 s  s
F Y Y
D = = =
Y 1D S S
with a Lagrange multiplier given by the consistency condition f = 0 and f = 0
for non viscous materials or given by a viscosity law such as generalized Nortons
law = hf /KN iN for viscous materials. The multiplier is equal to a norm of the
inelastic strain rate as first equation of [49] leads to:
q
= = k k [50]
1D 1D
This defines the expected cumulative measure of the internal sliding,
Z t
= k k dt [51]
0
864 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

which gives back the accumulated plastic strain as


Z t Z tr
2 p p
p= kp kvon Mises dt = : dt [52]
0 0 3
in von Mises plasticity.
The generalized damage evolution law derives from the last equation of [49]:
 s
Y
D = if > D
S [53]
D = Dc mesocrack initiation

where D is the damage threshold, generally equal to zero for quasi-brittle materials.
Written D = (Y /S), it models a damage governed by the main dissipative mecha-
nism, here internal sliding and friction (through ), and enhanced by the value of the
strain energy density (through Y ). Written = (S/Y )D, it models the increasing
internal sliding due to damage accumulation. As the constitutive equations describing
both damage and internal sliding are fully coupled, the interpretation is of course a
combination of both points of view: each phenomenon, damage or internal sliding,
enhances the other one.

4.3. Positivity of the intrinsic dissipation

The generalized damage model satisfies the positivity of the intrinsic dissipation
D = : as

D = : Qq x : a
a + Y D

F F F F
 [54]

= : +Q +x : +Y 0
Q x
x Y

when the dissipation potential F ( , Q, x , Y ; D) is a non negative convex function of



its arguments , Q, x , Y with F (00, 0, 0 , 0; D) = 0 and where the damage D acts as
a parameter. Using the evolution laws, the intrinsic dissipation may also be rewritten:
 

D = s + v + x : x (1 D)k k + Y D 0 [55]
Cx

with v the viscous stress (vanishing for non viscous materials) such as f = v for
viscous internal sliding.
Damage and fatigue 865

16 4
3
12 1
t
F/So 8
(MPa)

0 1 2 3 4

Figure 2. Cyclic tensile curve of a filled SBR (model: solid line, experiment: dash
line)

Figure 3. Fatigue curve of a filled SBR for a mean elongation moy = 2.53

4.4. Application to metals, elastomers, quasi-brittle materials and rocks

For metals, W1 = 0, W2 is quadratic, Q(q) = R(r) is the isotropic hardening,


x = X the kinematic hardening, k.k is the von Mises norm (.)eq , is the plastic
strain p and the generalized damage law [53] recovers Lemaitre damage evolution
law [8] where equals the accumulated plastic strain p.
866 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

For filled elastomers, W1 is an hyperelasticity density (Mooney, 1940, Hart-Smith,


1966, Lambert-Diani et al., 1999), Q = 0, W2 is chosen quadratic (Desmorat et al.,
2001). The variable x stands for the residual micro-stresses due to internal sliding with
friction of the macro-molecular chains on themselves and on the black carbon filler
particules. The internal inelastic strain represents the homogeneized displacements
incompatibilities due to friction at microscale. Interesting feature, the parameter
of the nonlinear evolution law for x is responsible for the cyclic stress softening en-
countered in these materials (Mllins effect, Figure 2). An example of calculated
fatigue curve of the applied elongation amplitude (finite strain framework) versus
the number of cycles to rupture NR is given in figure 3. The measured elongation to
rupture in tension R = 7.2 is also reported on the diagram (it corresponds to 620%
of deformation), so that such a modeling applies for monotonic and fatigue failures.
For quasi-britlle materials such as concrete, take W1 and W2 quadratic, neglect
for fatigue applications the isotropic consolidation (Q = 0). The model represents
then the stress-strain response as well as the hysteresis of concrete (Figure 4), not
perfectly for the hysteresis loops because of the simple modeling of the consolidations
(Q = 0, x linear) but well enough to envisage structural applications (Desmorat et al.,
2006, Ragueneau, 2006), even in earthquake engineering.

Figure 4. Hysteretic response of concrete in compression

The proposed model allows for the step by step computation of the material fa-
tigue curves. An example of calculated curve is given in Figure 5 as the normalized
stress Max /fc vs number of cycles to rupture NR (with fc the compressive strength).
The model corresponds to the dot lines, black for the symmetric loading, grey for an
min = 0 loading. The results for min = 0 give a lower bound of the experimen-
tal data for concrete tested in fatigue with a zero stress ratio R (Grzybowski et al.,
Damage and fatigue 867

1993, Paskova et al., 1997) and seem to be conservative. The computations give the
same tendencies than the simple Aas-Jakobsen formula (Aas-Jackobsen et al., 1973)
function of the stress ratio R = min /Max and taking then into account the mean
stress effect,
Max
= 1 (1 R ) log NR [56]
fc
The material parameter set to 0.1 allows to recover the fatigue curves for both stress
ratios (stress ratio taken in the formula simply as R = 1 for the symmteric loading,
to zero for the min = 0 case). As the damage model does not represent the material
behavior dissymmetry, the analysis is mainly qualitative. One can nevertheless notice
that a mean stress effect is reproduced and that the value obtained from the compu-
tations is found of the order of magnitude of the usual value = 0.0685 for light
concrete (Destrebecq, 2005).

compressive loading
with no load reversal

Model

Aas-Jackobsen symmetric loading

Figure 5. Normalized fatigue curves Comparison between model (dot lines), exper-
iments (marks) and Aas-Jakobsen formula (straight lines)

For rocks, the modeling depends mainly on the ductility observed. Brittle mate-
rials need a W1 term, when to consider a more classical plasticity model for ductile
ones is often sufficient. The main difficulty concerns the choice of the norm k.k in
the yield function f , choice directly related to the modeling of dilatancy, i.e. of posi-
tive permanent hydrostatic stresses (dilatancy) in compression (with the convention of
positive stresses or strains in tension). As an example, let us derive next the damage
model for Drucker-Prager plasticity (case W1 = 0). Taking W2 quadratic , = p as
plastic strain and setting Cx = 23 C as often for deviatoric kinematic hardening gives
E is Hookes tensor):
(E
868 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production


=
= E : ( p )
1D
2
x = Ca
3
[57]
Q = G (q)
2
1 eq R
Y = ( p ) : E : ( p ) =
2 2E(1 D)2
with R = 23 (1 + ) + 3(1 2)( eqH 2
) the triaxiality function (Equation 13). Use
as criterion and dissipation functions ((.)eq is von Mises norm, angles and are
material parameters):
x )eq + tan tr
f = ( Q s
[58]
+ Fx + FD
F = f + (tan tan ) tr
gives the evolution laws of Drucker-Prager plasticity coupled with damage,
" #
p 3 D x
= + tan 1
D x )eq
2 (
q
=
1D
  [59]
2
x = (1 D) C pD x
x
3
 
Y
D =
S
and to take the von Mises deviatoric norm of first equation of [59] gives as simply
the shear equivalent plastic strain,
Z r
p 2 pD pD
= = : dt [60]
3
To take the trace of first equation of [59] gives pv = tr p = 3 tan and:
pv
= [61]
3 tan
so that both generalizations (a) and (b) of Lemaitres law (Equation 33) are valid
altogether with S = S = Sv /(3 tan )1/s .

5. High cycle fatigue from damage analysis

Last, let us detail the possibility to use damage models to represent high cycle fa-
tigue failure conditions, i.e. mainly fatigue in an elastic regime. In metals, plasticity
Damage and fatigue 869

STRUCTURE CALCULATION

AA
Plasticity and damage at microscale

ij (t), ij (t), T( t), ( ij (t ))


p Thermo-elastic E, , =

AA
RVE
Plastic y = f , C
Thermo-elastic E, ,

AA
(Plastic , C Damage S, s, Dc
y )

ij (t) ij (t) ij (t) T(t) D(t)
e p

MESO Localization law micro

Figure 6. Micro-element embedded in a thermoelastic RVE

then does not occurs at the mesoscale of the Representative Volume Element (RVE)
of continuum mechanics but at a microscale, the defects scale. A two scale damage
model has been build based on this feature (Lemaitre et al., 1994). It is a locally
coupled analysis, eventually with initial plastic strain and damage, which can be per-
formed by post-processing an elastic computation. The jump-in cycles procedure of
section 3.6 can advantageously be used.

5.1. Two scale damage model for metals

The two scales under consideration are represented in Figure 6. The mesoscopic
scale or mesoscale is the scale of the RVE of continuum mechanics, the microscopic
scale or microscale is the scale of the microdefects. At the mesoscale, the stresses are
denoted , the total, elastic and plastic strains , e , p . They are known from a thermo-
elastic Finite Element computation with usually for high cycle fatigue p 0. The
values at the microscale have an upper-script . Plasticity and damage are assumed
to occur at the microscale only, p 6= 0, D 0, where for simplicity the damage
variable at the microscale has no upper-script (D = D ).
In order to illustrate the naturally ability of continuous damage to deal with com-
plex loading, anisothermal conditions are assumed next so that the material parameters
are temperature dependent and the thermal expansion, omitted so far, has to be intro-
duced. The thermoelastic law for the RVE reads:
1+
= tr 1 + (T Tref ) 1 [62]
E E
with E the Young modulus, the Poisson ratio, the thermal expansion coefficient
and Tref the reference temperature. The temperature field in the structure is usu-
ally determined from an initial heat transfer computation. A law of thermo-elasto-
plasticity coupled with damage is considered at microscale. The elasticity law reads
then (recall that -upper-script stands for variable at microscale):
1 + tr
e = 1 + (T Tref )11 [63]
E 1D E 1D
870 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

where the thermal expansion coefficient is taken next equal to the meso coefficient
. In the yield criterion, the hardening X is kinematic, linear, and the yield stress is
the asymptotic fatigue limit of the material, denoted f ,
X )eq f
f = ( [64]
= /(1 D) is the effective stress and where f < 0 elasticity.
where
A linear kinematic hardening X is considered at microscale (Fx = 0). The set of
constitutive equations at microscale is then:


= e + p
1+


e = tr
1 + (T Tref )11




E E

= 1D






D X

p = 3


p
 2( X )eq
 [65]
d X 2
= p (1 D)



dt  Cy  3



s
Y



D = p if p > pD


S





D = D crack initiation
c

with the plastic modulus Cy , the damage strength S, the damage exponent s and the
critical damage Dc as material parameters. The damage evolution (last equation of
previous set) is lower in tension than in compression due to the consideration of the
micro-defects closure parameter h within Y as usually for metals h 0.2 (Lemaitre,
1992) and:

i+ i : h
i

1 + h i+ : h h
Y = + h
2E (1 D)2 (1 hD)2
[66]
htr i2 htr i2
 

+h
2E (1 D)2 (1 hD)2
p is the accumulated plastic strain at microscale and pD the damage threshold (for
loading dependent threshold see section 3.1 and refer to (Lemaitre et al., 2005)). The
plastic multiplier = p (1D) is determined from the consistency condition f = 0,
f = 0.
The scale transition meso micro can be governed by different laws, the simplest
being Lin-Taylor law of a strain at microscale identical to the strain at mesoscale
(hypothesis used in initial two scale damage model and DAMAGE-90 post-processor):
= [67]
For isothermal loading, Eshelby-Krner loacalization law, based on Eshelby analysis
of the spherical inclusion, is preferred (Eshelby, 1957, Krner, 1961),
= + b(p p ) [68]
Damage and fatigue 871

Eshelbys analysis which leads, when damage and temperature coupling are taken
into account, to the modified (anisothermal) Eshelby-Krner localization law (Seyedi
et al., 2004):
1
D =
 D
+ b ((1 D)p p )

1 bD
[69]
1
H = [H + a ((1 D) ) (T Tref )]
1 aD
now used in DAMAGE-2005 post-processor, where H = 13 tr and H = 31 tr
are the hydrostatic strains, respectively at mesososcale and at microscale, and where
a and b are the Eshelby parameters for a spherical inclusion,
1+ 2 4 5
a= , b= [70]
3(1 ) 15 1

350

300

TMax
250

200 2 3 4 5 6 7
10 10 10 10 10 10
NR

Figure 7. Computed thermal fatigue curve


The two scale damage model allows for the calculation of Wlher curves at dif-
ferent mean stresses (Sermage et al., 1999, Desmorat, 2000, Lemaitre et al., 2005).
It also represents thermal fatigue, for example (Figure 7) of a 1D bar blocked at its
two extremities and uniformly heated and cooled between a minimum value Tmin
and a maximum value TMax . The numbers of cycles to rupture are gained by use of
DAMAGE-2005 post-processor, and still corresponds to NR = N (D = Dc ). They
are plotted in Figure 7 which is then is the computed thermal fatigue curve of the
considered steel, TMax vs NR . Written in a rate form, the model allows to deal with
complex thermo-mechanical loading, where both the meso-strains or stresses and the
temperatue vary. As an illustration, Figure 7 represents the thermal fatigue response
of a pipe subject to both temperature T (t) and internal pressure P (t) variations. The
cylinder is assumed thin, the temperature uniform. The stresses due to the thermal
loading and to the mechanical loading are of the same order of magnitude.
Different pressure loadings are considered: 0) constant P = PMax , 1) in phase
with the temperature (case 1): P = 0 for T = Tmin , P = PMax for T = TMax , and
872 REGC 10/2006. Geomechanics in energy production

case 1
case 2
Internal pressure er
P(t)
out of phase

in phase
Uniform temperature field T(t)

P, case 1 T P, case 2

Figure 8. Thermomechanical fatigue of a pipe with internal pressure in phase (case


1), out of phase (case 2) loadings

2) out of phase with the temperature (case 2) : P = 0 for T = TMax , P = PMax


for T = Tmin . The results are given in Figure 8 where T = TMax Tmin is the
temperature apmlitude. A strong effect of temperature-pressure out of phase loading
on the number of cycles to rupture is obtained, comforting us in the idea that one must
develop adequate tools for anisothermal thermomechanical cases.

5.2. Toward a two scale damage model for quasi-brittle materials

The same two scale damage modeling still must be developped for high cycle
fatigue of quasi-brittle materials. There are conceptually no difficulty but practically
things are different:
a new localization law must be derived, i.e. also justified for the microstructure
and the degradation mechanisms encountered in the considered material,
a 3D (single scale) damage model must have proven efficient for those materials.
The dilatancy must be correctly represented, the dissymmetry tension compression
must have been correctly reproduced (Desmorat et al., 2006). This will be the damage
model at microscale,
the number of material parameters must be low ! the identification fast !
Damage and fatigue 873

6. Conclusion

Lemaitres damage law has proven efficient for fatigue of metals. It can be gen-
eralized into D = (Y /S)s of damage governed by the main dissipative mechanism
in order to apply to other materials, as concrete, elastomers or rocks. A few dam-
age parameters are introduced, 2 for damage, the damage strength S and the damage
exponent s, eventually 1 for a damage growth lower in tension than in compression,
the micro-defects closure parameter h. Stress or strain amplitude laws as well as the
Whler curve of materials are calculated from the the time integration of the damage
law. The stress triaxiality effect is taken into account, the mean stress effect recovered,
qualitatively for quasi-brittle materials.
A unified damage model, coupling plastic or internal sliding irreversibilities with
damage, can then be build to recover the generalized damage law. It allows for the
representation of both the hysteretic and the fatigue responses of materials. Also writ-
ten in a rate form, it applies to the case of complex loading as non cyclic (seismic,
random fatigue...), non isothermal, non proportional loadings. High temperature dam-
age behavior can also be addressed, as creep in the pioneering works of Kachanov
(1958) and Rabotnov (1969) and creep-fatigue. More detailed application examples
can be found in (Lemaitre et al., 2005) or in present volume (Ragueneau, 2006) for
structures.
A lot of nice results have been obtained so far, applications are now needed to
acquire engineering experience for designing structures with continuum damage me-
chanics.

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