0 Votes +0 Votes -

10 vues16 pagesAuthors: George Gazetas & Nikos Gerolymos

Jul 29, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

Authors: George Gazetas & Nikos Gerolymos

© All Rights Reserved

10 vues

Authors: George Gazetas & Nikos Gerolymos

© All Rights Reserved

- 10-12-15 Rev I
- Methodology for Pile Foundation 08-09
- 1st Addenda Corrigendum Vol-III Road Bridge Works Schedule 2014
- Abstract
- Deep Foundations
- 2 8 16_caculation as Per IRC 112
- 3. Piled Foundation Report
- Piling
- Challenges and Recent Advance in Geotechnics for Foundation Engineering
- sept2009a-Apple pile capacity proof for auger cast piles.pdf
- Pile Group Stiffness for Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction
- Pile model
- ProtaStructure Suite 2016 Whats New
- PILE
- Pile Rate Analysis
- Piles
- 302797 Geotechnical Engineering 465
- Toprak Home Page
- variational.pdf
- (K530 2)Rectangular(Pile) Foundation

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223630289

caisson foundations in linear soil

DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2005.12.003

CITATIONS READS

47 271

2 authors:

National Technical University of Athens National Technical University of Athens

76 PUBLICATIONS 704 CITATIONS 283 PUBLICATIONS 5,971 CITATIONS

All content following this page was uploaded by George Gazetas on 22 December 2014.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the original document

and are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.

Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361

www.elsevier.com/locate/soildyn

Winkler model for lateral response of rigid caisson foundations in linear soil

Nikos Gerolymos, George Gazetas *

National Technical University, Athens, Greece

Accepted 3 December 2005

Abstract

A generalized spring multi-Winkler model is developed for the static and dynamic response of rigid caisson foundations of circular, square, or

rectangular plan, embedded in a homogeneous elastic. The model, referred to as a four-spring Winkler model, uses four types of springs to model

the interaction between soil and caisson: lateral translational springs distributed along the length of the caisson relating horizontal displacement at

a particular depth to lateral soil resistance (resultant of normal and shear tractions on the caisson periphery); similarly distributed rotational springs

relating rotation of the caisson to the moment increment developed by the vertical shear tractions on the caisson periphery; and concentrated

translational and rotational springs relating, respectively, resultant horizontal shear force with displacement, and overturning moment with

rotation, at the base of the caisson. For the dynamic problem each spring is accompanied by an associated dashpot in parallel. Utilising

elastodynamic theoretical available in the literature results for rigid embedded foundations, closed-form expressions are derived for the various

springs and dashpots of caissons with rectangular and circular plan shape. The response of a caisson to lateral static and dynamic loading at its top,

and to kinematically-induced loading arising from vertical seismic shear wave propagation, is then studied parametrically. Comparisons with

results from 3D finite element analysis and other available theoretical methods demonstrate the reliability of the model, the need for which arises

from its easy extension to multi-layered and nonlinear inelastic soil. Such an extension is presented in the companion papers by the authors

[Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Development of Winkler model for lateral static and dynamic response of caisson foundations with soil and interface

nonlinearities. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. Submitted companion paper; Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Static and dynamic response of massive caisson

foundations with soil and interface nonlinearitiesvalidation and results. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. Submitted companion paper.].

q 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Caisson; Winkler model; Elasticity; Lateral loading; Kinematic loading; Seismic loading

damage.

Caisson foundations deeply embedded in soft soil have been The lateral and seismic response of deep foundations has been

widely used to support major structures, especially bridges. of considerable interest for many years. A number of methods of

Monumental examples are the Tagus bridge in Portugal, varying degrees of accuracy, efficiency and sophistication have

supported on perhaps the tallest (88 m high) caisson in the been developed. However, only few of them are devoted to

world; the San-Francisco-Oakland bay bridge whose major caissons. Instead, the methods of solution developed for (rigid)

pier is founded on a 75 m high caisson; the Williamsburg and embedded foundation and for (flexible) piles have been

Verrazano Narrows bridges in New York; the Port island and frequently adapted to deal with the caisson problem. A partial

Nishinomiya-ko bridges in Japan, the massive caissons of list of such methods would include (in crudely-chronological

which played a major role in the survival of these bridges order): the analytical solution of Tajimi [4] for a cylindrical

during the Kobe 1995 earthquake [3]. Despite their large foundation embedded in a stratum and bearing on bedrock; the

dimensions, caisson foundations have been shown not to be versatile approximate analytical solutions of Novak and

immune to seismic loading as it was believed for many years. Beredugo [5]; the consistent-boundary finite element formu-

This was confirmed in the Kobe (1995) earthquake, which lations of Kausel and Roesset [6] for circular foundations in

layered deposits over bedrock; the boundary element solution for

rectangular foundations in a halfspace by Dominguez [7]; the

* Corresponding author. semi-numerical formulation of Tassoulas [8] applied to

E-mail address: gazetas@ath.forthnet.gr (G. Gazetas). embedded cylindrical foundations with variable sidewall heights;

0267-7261/$ - see front matter q 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. the time-domain boundary element method of Karabalis and

doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2005.12.003 Beskos [9]; the hybrid boundary-element and finite element

348 N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361

solution of Mita and Luco [10] for square foundations embedded (d) it treats both material (soil) inelasticity and geometric

in a halfspace; and the flexible-volume substructuring technique (interface) nonlinearities in an approximate but realistic

of Tajirian and Tabatabaie [11]. Harada [12] developed an fashion.

approximate analytical solution for cylindrical foundations

combining Tajimis and Novaks concepts. One of the most The present paper, the first in the sequence, develops an

comprehensive studies on the seismic response of flexible and elastic four-spring Winkler model and calibrates it with the

rigid caissons was conducted by Saitoh [13], who extended aforementioned elastodynamic solutions (in the form of

Tajimis 1969 approximation to account for caisson flexibility analytical expressions) of Ref. [18] for foundations embedded

and for soil and interface nonlinearities (separation and gapping in a homogeneous elastic halfspace. The prediction of the

of the caisson from the soil). He showed that Novaks plane strain model is satisfactorily compared with results from 3D-finite

approximation, logical as it may be, leads to inaccurate results. element analysis.

Most of the above methods refer to cylindrical foundations. The subsequent companion paper [1] addresses the issue of

A comprehensive series of studies on the static and dynamic soil and interface nonlinearities, and develops a versatile inelastic

response of embedded rigid foundations having various plan Winkler model in which each type of spring is described

shapes (ranging from rectangular of any aspect ratio to through a nonlinear differential equation of the Bouc-Wen type.

triangular) have been published by Gazetas, and co-workers The model is validated in the third companion paper [3]

[1417]. Utilizing an efficient boundary-element method, and against results from (a) load tests, and (b) 3D finite element

numerous results from the published literature, they developed analysis, and is then utilised in a parameter study that sheds

closed-form semi-analytical expressions and charts for light on the role of material and geometric nonlinearities.

stiffnesses and damping of horizontally and rotationally loaded It is noted that in addition to the previously mentioned

arbitrarily-shaped rigid foundations embedded in homo- research, Davidson et al. [20] had also developed a four-spring

geneous soil [18]. Incomplete contact between the foundation Winkler model for rigid caissons, and calibrated it with 3D-

vertical walls and the surrounding soil were taken into account finite element analysis, and static load tests. Also of related

in a crude way. Ample confirmation of the basic validity of interest is the work of Mylonakis [23] who introduced the

some of the main concepts and results in these publications Vlasov-Leontiev Winkler-with-shear-layer idealization to

were recently provided by Gadre and Dobry [19] through model: (a) the dynamic soil reaction against caissons, (b) the

centrifuge modeling. dynamic impedance of the caisson, and (c) the dynamic

However, the above-mentioned analytical expressions and interaction between two neighboring caissons. He derived

charts cannot directly apply to multi-layered soils. Further- explicit closed-form solutions for a flexible large-diameter

more, it would be impossible to even crudely extend them for cylindrical shaft embedded in a homogeneous soil resting on a

use with nonlinearly behaving soils, or to model realistically rigid base, for various boundary conditions.

phenomena such as separation (gapping) and uplifting that may

take place under strong static and seismic excitation. On the

other hand, the widely available commercial finite-element and 2. The physics of the problem and a Winkler model

finite-difference computer codes, while in principle capable of

treating soil nonlinearities, are not yet an easy solution when Our study deals with rigid caisson foundations. Their depth

rectangular caissons are studied (requiring a 3D mesh), to width ratio is in the range of 0.53, depending on soil

embedded in deep soil deposits and subjected to seismic deformability. By contrast to piles, which are slender

shaking (both requiring special and very distant boundaries), structures, with caisson foundations the lateral soil reaction is

and undergoing strong oscillations with the aforementioned not the sole resisting mechanism. The shear tractions at the

interface nonlinearities (requiring special interface elements). circumference of the caisson are also of considerable

In an effort to bridge this apparent gap in the available importance and must not be ignored in foundation response

methods and tools for analysis of lateral loaded caisson analysis. On the other hand, caissons differ from the usual

foundations, this paper along with the two companion papers embedded foundations (characterized by a depth to width ratio

by the present authors [1,2] develops a generalized Winkler smaller than 1), the base of which provides most of, or even the

type method described by four types of springs (and associated only resistance to loading. Fig. 1 shows a crude classification

dashpots). Our aim is to provide, a sound engineering solution according only to their geometry, ignoring the influence of soil

to the problem, with a method that has the following attributes: stiffness, which is an equally important parameter.

Caissonsoil interaction is strongly related to the complex

(a) it provides the response to static, cyclic, and dynamic stress distribution along the caisson shaft. Fig. 2 shows the

loading applied at the top of a caisson, as well as to stress pattern for a caisson with (a) circular and (b) rectangular

seismic ground deformations (kinematic excitation); cross-section.

(b) it models the full variety of caisson plan shapes that are A dynamic Winkler four-spring model is developed in this

usually encountered in practice (circular, square, paper incorporating distributed translational (lateral) and

rectangular, elliptical); rotational (rocking) springs and dashpots, as well as

(c) it readily handles any horizontally layered soil profile concentrated shear translational (shear) and rotational

(as well as continuously inhomogeneous soils); (moment) springs and dashpots at the base of the caisson.

N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361 349

Fig. 1. A possible crude classification of foundations according to the slenderness or depth of embedment of their individual elements. (The flexibility of a caisson

depends on whether it is massive or cellular; on the stiffness of the soil; and on the material of the caisson.)

These four types of springs and dashpots are related to the The distributed rotational springs kq and dashpots cq are

resisting forces acting on the caisson shaft and base, as follows: associated with the moment produced by the vertical shear

tractions on the circumference (shaft) of the caisson.

The distributed lateral springs kx and dashpots cx are The resultant base shear translational spring Kh and dashpot

associated with the horizontal soil reaction on the Ch associated with the horizontal shearing force on the base

circumference (shaft) of the caisson. of the caisson.

350 N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361

that stems from both radiation of wave energy away from the

caisson wall and hysteretic dissipation of energy in the soil.

The proposed Winkler spring model is illustrated schematically

in Fig. 3.

rectangular in plan caisson embedded in homogeneous elastic

soil over a deformable bedrock, and subjected to lateral

dynamic excitation at its top: Q0(t) and M0(t) (Fig. 4).

According to this figure the positive rotation and overturning

moment are clockwise. The caisson is a rigid block of mass m,

and mass moment of inertia about the center of gravity Jc. The

depth of embedment of the caisson is D while the height of

the sidewall that is in contact with the surrounding soil is d. The

Winkler four-spring model described in the previous section is

used for simulating the soilcaisson interaction. Dynamic

equilibrium of the shear forces with respect to the base of the

caisson gives

Fig. 3. The four-types of springs and dashpots for the analysis of inertially and Q0 Kmu c KPx KQb Z 0 (1)

kinematically loaded caissons.

where ucZuc(t) is the displacement of the caisson at its center

The resultant base rotational spring Kr and dashpot Cr of gravity, given by

associated with the moment produced by normal pressures D

uc Z ub C q c (2)

on the base of the caisson. 2

Fig. 4. (a) Elastic response of a caisson subjected to lateral dynamic loading M0, Q0 at its top. (b) Schematic definition of the global stiffnesses (i.e. at the top of the

caisson) in lateral translation (SHH), rotation (SMM) and cross-coupling of the translation and rotation (SHM). The associated dashpot terms are not shown for the sake

of clarity of the figure.

N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361 351

where ubZub(t) is the displacement of the caisson base, and the stiffness matrix

qcZqc(t) the rotation angle of the caisson. PxZPx(t) is the " #

resultant sidewall horizontal resistance due to the lateral soil Khh Khr

Kb Z

reaction (Fig. 2), Khr Krr

2 3

d d d d

Px Z px z;tdz Z kx zuz;t C cx zuz;tdz

_ (3) 6 K C k zdz kx zz dz 7

6 h x 7

6 7

0 0 6 7

Z6 d 0 0

7 (12)

6 d d 7

6 2 7

where z is the spatial coordinate starting from the base of the 4 kx zz dz Kr C kx zz dz C kq zdz 5

caisson, u is the displacement of the caisson at the location z 0 0 0

determined as

" #

u Z ub C qc z (4) Chh Chr

Cb Z

Chr Crr

and Qb the shear resistance at the base of the caisson given by 2 3

d d

Qb Z Kh ub C Ch u_b (5) 6 C C c zdz cx zz dz 7

6 h x 7

6 7

6 0 0 7

Dynamic moment equilibrium with respect to the base of the Z6 d 7 (13)

6 d d 7

caisson gives 6 2 7

4 cx zz dz Cr C cx zz dz C cq zdz 5

D 0 0 0

M0 C Q0 DKJc q c Km u c KMx KMq KMb Z 0 (6)

2 and the damping matrix (due to both radiation and hysteretic

dissipation in the soil). The external force vector Pb is

where MxZMx(z,t) and MqZMq (z,t) are the sidewall resisting ( )

moments arising from the horizontal soil reaction px and the Q0

vertical shear stresses txz or trz, respectively, on the caisson Pb Z (14)

M0 C Q0 D

periphery. Mx is expressed as

In the frequency domain, the complex stiffness matrix of the

d d caisson is calculated as

Mx Z px z;tz dz Z kx zuz;t C cx zuz;tz

_ dz (7)

~ b Z Kb C iuCb

K (15)

0 0

and Mq as

2 2 3

~ h C k~x D

K k~x D

d d 6 2 7

6 7

Mq Z mq z;tdz Z kq zqc t C cq zq_c tdz (8) ~

Kb Z 66 7 (16)

2 7

4 ~ D 1 5

0 0 kx K~ r C k~q D C k~x D 3

2 3

Mb is the resultant resisting moment at the base of the caisson

The dynamic impedance matrix, S, referred to the top of the

Mb Z Kr qc C Cr q_c (9) caisson is readily obtained by a coordinate transformation of

Eq. (15)

Eqs. (1) and (6) can be rewritten in a matrix form as " #

S~ S~ MH

~S Z HH

( ) ( ) ( )

u b u_ b ub S~MH S~ MM

Mb C Cb C Kb Z Pb (10) " #

q b q_b qb K~ hh K~ hr KDK~ hh

Z (17)

where the mass matrix K~ hr KDK~ hh K~ rr K2DK~ hr C D2 K~ hh

D

Fig. 3. The reliability of the proposed Winkler-type model

6 m m72

6 7 depends on the proper choice of the dynamic spring and

Mb Z 6

6 D

7

27 (11) dashpot coefficients. These coefficients are frequency dependent

4m D 5

Jc C m and are functions of both caisson geometry and soil stiffness.

2 4

In the following, a simple methodology for the calibration of

352 N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361

the parameters of the four-spring model is developed, utilising of the soil. Of course, only(any) two of them are enough to

published results for embedded foundation. determine all other.

B, L, D and d: width, length, depth of embedment, and

height of the sidewall that is in contact with the surrounding

4. Calibration of the spring and dashpot coefficients soil.

Ab, Ib and h: area, moment of inertia, and distance of the

Gazetas and Tassoulas [15,16] and Fotopoulou et al. [17] centroid of the effective sidewall from the ground surface.

studied the problem of the lateral oscillation of arbitrarily Aw: total area of the actual sidewallsoil contact surface

shaped rigid foundations embedded in a homogeneous elastic (perimeter times D).

halfspace, as depicted in Fig. 5. Based on some simple physical Aw,s and Aw,ce: refer to horizontal oscillations and represent

models calibrated with results of rigorous boundary-element the sum of the projections of all the sidewall areas in

and finite-element elastodynamic formulations, as well as data direction parallel (Aw,s) and perpendicular (Aw,ce) to

from the literature, they developed closed-form expressions for loading, subjected to shear (s) and compressionextension

the dynamic impedances of such foundations [18,21]. For an (ce) type of soil reaction, respectively.

arbitrarily shaped foundation in plan view, circumscribed by a Jws and Iwce: the sum of the polar moments of inertia about

rectangle of width B and length L (LOB), they express the the off-plane axis of rotation of all surfaces actually

dynamic impedances, with respect to the center of the base mat, shearing the soil, and the sum of moments of inertia of all

in the form surfaces actually compressing the soil about their base axes

K~ emb Z Kemb cemb u C iuCu (18) parallel to the axis of rotation.

Di: The distance of surface Awce,i from the x axis.

where Kemb is the static stiffness, and cemb(u) the dynamic

stiffness coefficient. C(u) is the frequency-dependent Gazetas and workers developed the following formulae for

(radiation and material) damping coefficient. The parameters stiffness and damping in the longitudinal x-axis of a orthogonal

that enter in the computation of stiffness and damping in or cylindrical caisson

Eq. (18), are

KHH u

Gs, Es, Vs, Va, n: shear modulus, modulus of elasticity, shear

wave velocity, apparent analog velocity, and Poissons ratio r!

2D 8hAw 0:4

zKH 1 C 0:15 1 C 0:52 cemb u

B BL2

(19)

[15], and cemb is a dynamic stiffness coefficient presented in

chart form [15,18] in terms of D/B and d/B as a function of the

dimensionless parameter a0 (ZuB/2Vs). In the case of a fully

embedded caisson, curve fitting gives cemb in the form

cemb z1

D D

C a0 0:08K0:0074 a20

B B (20)

D D

K 0:31K0:0416 a0 K0:0442 C 0:14

B B

where

[16], taken as that of a surface foundation on halfspace. The

coupled swaying-rocking complex impedance is approximated

by

1

Fig. 5. Geometry of a rigid foundation arbitrarily-shaped in plan embedded in a K~ HM z d K~ HH (23)

homogeneous elastic halfspace. 3

N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361 353

2d equivalent square

KMM u Z KM u 1 C 0:92 1:5

L

Statickx / Es

2

1:9 K0:6

2d d

C 1K0:30a0 24

L D

Novak

1 circular caisson

cylinder

where KM is the static rocking stiffness of the caisson base [18],

taken as that of a surface foundation on halfspace.

The radiation dashpot constant in rocking oscillation is

0

expressed as 0 1 2 3 4

Slenderness ratio : D / B

CMM u Z CM u C rVLa Iwce c1 u

" # 6

X

2

C rVs Jws C Awcei Di c1 u (25)

5

i

Statick / Es D2

4

where CM(u) is the dashpot of the caisson base [17]. The

dynamic dashpot coefficient c1 is given by 3

p d Ka0 =2 2D K0:25 2

c1 z0:25 C 0:65 a0 (26)

D B 1

0 1 2 3 4

referring to the base has been calculated as

Slenderness ratio : D / B

" #

K~ HH K~ HM Fig. 6. Comparison of the translational (top) and rotational (bottom) static

~ emb Z

K (27) spring stiffnesses, calculated with the simplified Eqs. (30) and (31) (solid lines)

K~ HM K~ MM and the exact Eqs. (28) and (29) (circles). Novaks [24] solution is plotted with

dotted lines.

There is a number of ways to determine the complex spring

stiffnesses functions k~k and k~q of the equivalent Winkler Square caisson

model. The simplest way that we follow here is to equate

the diagonal terms in the matrices of Eqs. (16) and (27). A K0:13 K1:31

D D

check is then necessary to ensure that the resulting kx z2:18 Es and kq z2:17 Es D 2 (30)

B B

off-diagonal cross-term KHM in Eq. (33) is at least

reasonably similar with the respective term in Eq. (17).

Circular caisson

We thus derive

K0:13 K1:71

1 D D

k~x Z kx C iuCx Z K~ HH KK~ h (28) kx z1:75 Es and kq z0:85 Es D 2 (31)

D B B

and Fig. 6 compares the static spring stiffnesses derived from the

approximated relations of Eqs. (30) and (31), with their exact

values calculated from Eqs. (28) and (29). It is interesting to

k~q Z kq C iuCq

note that for a slenderness ratio D/Bz10, Eq. (31) for the

cylindrical caisson simplify to

1 ~ 1 1

Z K MM KK~ r C D2 K~ h K K~ HH D2 (29)

D 3 3 kx z1:2Es and kq z0 (32)

These are the general expressions from which the which are reminiscent of the spring moduli used for laterally

distributed springs and dashpots of the model can be loaded piles, e.g. Ref. [22]. Novaks spring stiffnesses [24] for

derived (easily, even if not always in closed form) for any a0Z0.3 are also plotted in Fig. 6. Novaks solution under-

shape in plan of the caisson. For instance, for the particular estimates slightly the horizontal spring stiffness at small D/B

cases of greatest interest, the square and circular plan values, but quite severely the rotational one. This was

shapes, and static lateral loading the above equations yield anticipated since Novaks springs are derived for a 2D

the following distributed springs horizontal slice of the caisson and surrounding soil

354 N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361

Fig. 7. Comparison of the translational static spring stiffness, calculated with the simplified Eqs. (30) and (31) (dotted black lines) and Mylonakis (2005) solution

(grey solid line) for a flexible fixed-head and infinitely-long circular caisson, and for Poissons ratio of the soil nsZ0.3.

(plane strain condition) and do not account for the 3D geometry Mylonakis solution is a function of the caissonsoil stiffness

of caisson foundations. contrast, Ep/Es, while Eqs. (30) and (31) are valid only for rigid

Fig. 7 compares the static spring stiffness derived from the caissons and depend only on the slenderness ratio D/B. The

approximate relations of Eq. (30) for a square caisson and Eq. comparisons are quite satisfactory, especially if one considers

(31) for a circular caisson, with the Mylonakis [23] solution the different assumptions adopted in the two solutions.

for a flexible fixed-head and infinitely-long circular caisson.

The comparison, however, is not straightforward given that

3

3 3

3 D =1

kx () / Es

2 2 B

L

Statickx / Es, ky / Es

=1

2 B

2

Novak

1 D/B=1

3

1

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

0 Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

0 1 2 3 4

Slenderness ratio : D / B

10

30 3

8

25 D =1

B

Static k / Es D2

6

Cx () / Es

20

2

15 4

3

10 2

2

5 L

=1 0

B

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

0

0 1 2 3 4 Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

Slenderness ratio : D / B

Fig. 9. Normalized dynamic translational spring stiffness (top), and dashpot

Fig. 8. Static spring stiffnesses, translational (top) and rotational (bottom), for a coefficients (bottom) for a square caisson with slenderness ratio D/BZ1, 2 and

rectangular caisson for length to width ratio L/BZ1, 2 and 3. The stiffnesses in 3, computed with Eq. (28). Novaks [24] spring and dashpot coefficient for a

the longitudinal direction (x) are plotted with solid lines, and those in the lateral cylindrical caisson with slenderness ratio D/BZ1 are plotted with dotted lines

direction (y) with dotted lines. for comparison.

N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361 355

D/B of the static spring stiffnesses derived from Eqs. (28) and

SMM

(29), for aspect (length to width) ratios L/BZ1, 2, and 3.

SHM

While the translational stiffness is practically insensitive to

variations in either the slenderness or the aspect ratios, the

4

rotational stiffness is strongly affected. Results for elliptical

foundation plan could be derived using the expression D

presented recently by Mylonakis et al. [21]. =1

3 B

Novak D / B = 1

Re(SHH)/EsD

5. Parametric study of the inertial caisson response 2 2

1

at investigating the influence of several key parameters on the

lateral dynamic response of fully-embedded square-shaped

caisson foundations. 0

Figs. 9 and 10 compare the normalized translational and the 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

rotational stiffnesses of the distributed (local) soil springs as Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

functions of the dimensionless frequency a0. Three different

slenderness ratios (D/BZ1, 2, and 3) are examined. Note that 10

as the slenderness ratio increases, the dynamic stiffnesses 1

8 3

EsD2) decrease. This reveals that in the limit of extremely high

slenderness the vertical shear resistance mechanism along the

Im(SHH)/EsD

6

(a) 2 Novak D / B = 1

4

D =1

k () / EsD2

1.5 B

2

1

0

2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

0.5 3

Novak D / B = 1 Fig. 11. Normalized real and imaginary part of the resultant swaying stiffness

atop a square caisson, for slenderness ratios D/BZ1, 2 and 3. Solution for

0 D/BZ1 using Novaks method gives the dotted curves.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

circumference vanishes and the caisson behavior approaches

(b) 1.5 that of a pile. Novaks springs [24] for D/BZ1 are also plotted

in Figs. 9 and 10. It is interesting to note that the static

translational stiffness derived from Novaks plane strain

1 solution is equal to zero.

C () / EsD2

0.5

parts of the complex global stiffnesses (namely the swaying,

Novak D / B = 1

rocking, and cross swayingrocking components) atop of the

caisson utilizing the distributed springs from Eqs. (28) to (29),

0 2 and those proposed by Novak. Notice that the dynamic

3 stiffnesses are decreasing functions of the dimensionless

-0.5

frequency a0. But the normalized imaginary parts increase

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 almost linearly with frequency, which would lead to the

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs filtering-off of the high-frequency components of a seismic

motion.

Fig. 10. Normalized coefficients (a) kq and (b) cq of dynamic rotational spring Fig. 14 shows the magnitude of the dynamic to static

and dashpot (distributed along the depth) for square caissons with slenderness

ratios D/BZ1, 2 and 3, computed with Eq. (29). The spring and dashpot curves

displacement and rotation ratio, respectively, atop the caisson,

computed using the Novak et al. [24] approximation for a cylindrical caisson for unit shear force (Q0Z1) and zero bending moment (M0Z0).

with slenderness ratio D/BZ1 are plotted with dotted lines. The ratios are plotted as functions of the dimensionless

356 N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361

SHH SHH

SMM SMM

SHM SHM

6 0

2

Re(SMM)/EsD3

Re(SMH)/EsD2

4 1

D

=1

B

Novak D / B = 1

Novak D / B = 1

2 2 D

2 =1

B

3

0 3

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

6 0

1

Im(SMM)/EsD3

Im(SMH)/EsD2

4 2 Novak D / B = 1

Novak D / B = 1 2

3

2 4 1

3

0 6

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

Fig. 12. Normalized real and imaginary part of the resultant rocking stiffness Fig. 13. Normalized real and imaginary part of the resultant cross swaying

atop a square caisson, for slenderness ratios D/BZ1, 2 and 3. Solution for rocking stiffness atop a square caisson, for slenderness ratios D/BZ1, 2 and 3.

D/BZ1 using Novaks method gives the dotted curves. Solution for D/BZ1 using Novaks method gives the dotted curves.

hysteretic damping ratio x is equal to zero. Observe that due to representative of a foundation response when the fundamental

the huge radiation damping the system exhibits no resonance period of its supported superstructure is larger than the first

phenomena. For frequencies above the first fundamental natural period of the soil. The two eigenfrequencies of the

frequency of the caisson the motion vanishes exponentially. caissonsoil system can be easily observed in this figure. The

Fig. 15 illustrates the normalized dynamic displacement and first one (a0z1.30) corresponds to the translational mode, and

rotation atop the caisson, as a function of the dimensionless the second (a0z2.25) to the rotational mode. For a loading

frequency a0 for selected values of normalized loading ratio ratio M0/Q0DZ0, the maximum normalized displacement

M0/Q0D. The curves correspond to a slenderness ratio of D/BZ occurs at the first eigenfrequency of the caissonsoil system.

2. Small values of the loading ratio M0/Q0D correspond to short Increasing the loading ratio the contribution of the second

superstructure systems (such as short bridge piers), while larger eigenfrequency grows up, and finally dominates the response

values are representative of tall systems. We conclude that for loading ratios greater than five. On the other hand, the peak

while the normalized displacement is an increasing function of normalized rotation is controlled by the second eigenfre-

the loading ratio, the normalized rotation remains, surprisingly, quency; the contribution of the first eigenfrequency to the

insensitive. rotational oscillation is negligible and decreases with increasing

To interpret this paradox, we investigate the influence of the loading ratio. But the second fundamental frequency of the

existence of a cut-off frequency for radiation damping on the caissonsoil system corresponds to high frequencies where the

response of the caisson. Fig. 16 plots the same results with radiation damping in a homogeneous halfspace is huge, leading

those of Fig. 15 except that the radiation damping is spuriously eventually to normalized rotation being less affected by

reduced to merely 10% of its actual value. This is variations in the loading ratio.

N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361 357

1.5 1.5

100

5

1 1

U0() / U0(0)

U0() / U0(0)

1

M0

=0

Q0D

0.5 M0 0.5

=0

Q0D

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

1.5 1.5

D

=1

1 B 1

0() / 0(0)

0() / 0(0)

2

3

0.5 0.5

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

Fig. 14. Magnitude of the dynamic to static ratios of displacement (top) and Fig. 15. Magnitude of the dynamic to static ratios of displacement (top) and

rotation (bottom) atop a square caisson. Slenderness ratios D/BZ1, 2 and 3. rotation (bottom) atop a square caisson. Loading ratios M0/Q0DZ0, 1, 5, 100,

Loading ratio M0/Q0DZ0. and slenderness ratio D/BZ2.

the normalized displacements of a caisson (xZ0 and 10%, 10 m deeper than the caisson base, thus having a negligible

respectively). Plots are given for a slenderness ratio D/BZ2, influence on its response.

and for three values of the loading ratio. The full radiation Steady-state analyses were performed to compute the

damping of the caisson has been taken into account. Observe magnitude of the dynamic to static ratios of displacement (a)

that the influence of the hysteretic damping on the response of and rotation (b) atop the caisson. The normalized loading ratios

the caisson is small and could be ignored in design without any M0/Q0D are 0 and 1.67. The results of the finite element and the

remarkable loss. Winkler method are compared in Fig. 19. The agreement is

quite good, with the proposed method predicting slightly larger

values than those of the finite element model.

6. Comparison with results of 3D-finite element analysis

comparison is performed with results from finite element

analysis. The problem studied is a rigid circular caisson of While long-pile foundations could simply follow more-or-

height DZ6 m and diameter BZ3 m (D/BZ2), embedded in less the seismic motion of the ground, in many cases, caissons

homogeneous elastic soil stratum. Youngs modulus, Poissons (characterized by considerable rigidity) modify the soil

ratio, mass density, and hysteretic damping of the soil are deformation and generate additional soil strains in their

constant with depth: EsZ100 MPa, nsZ0.3, rsZ2 mg/m3, and vicinity. As a result, the incident seismic waves are scattered

xZ0%. A detailed numerical model of the caisson and the and the seismic excitation to which the caisson-foundation is

surrounding soil is developed with the code ABAQUS. The effectively subjected to differs from that of the free field

finite element mesh used in the analysis is depicted in Fig. 18. motion. This kinematic filtering effect is more pronounced at

Both the caisson and the soil are modeled with 3D elements. small slenderness ratios and high bending rigidity. Increasing

The far field is represented with infinite elements ensuring that frequency of the excitation, tends to increase the waviness of

the displacements vanish at infinity. The soil stratum reaches the soil response and thereby increases the filtering effect.

358 N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361

3

5

U0() / U0(0)

2 1

1

M0

=0

Q0D

0

0 1 2 3 4

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

Fig. 18. The finite element mesh used in the analysis. The caisson elements are

5

shown with deep grey colour, the surrounding soil elements with soft grey, and

the infinite elements with mid grey colour.

4

0() / 0(0)

3

motion is then imposed at the supports of the caisson springs

2

and dashpots. The method of analysis is schematically

1

illustrated in Fig. 20.

Equations of motion with respect to the base of the caisson

0 are derived from Eq. (10) by replacing the vector of effective

0 1 2 3 4

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

Fig. 16. Magnitude of the dynamic to static displacement (top) and rotation 1.5

(bottom) ratio atop a square caisson for loading ratios M0/Q0DZ0, 1, 5, and for

slenderness ratio D/BZ2. The radiation damping of the caisson is reduced to

10% of its actual value.

U0() / U0(0)

0.5

circular in-plan caisson embedded in a single layered elastic

soil over a flexible bedrock, and subjected to kinematic loading

due to vertical shear wave propagation. Solution is carried out

0

in two steps: (a) the free-field soil response (without the 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

presence of the caisson) is first calculated, and (b) this free-field Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

2

1.5 = 0%

= 10%

1.5

0() / 0(0)

5

1

U0() / U0(0)

1

D =2

B

0.5

0.5

M0

=0

Q0D 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

0 Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs

0 1 2 3 4

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = B / 2Vs Fig. 19. Magnitude of the dynamic to static ratios of displacement (top) and

rotation (bottom) atop the cylindrical caisson (DZ6 m, BZ3 m) of Fig. 18 for

Fig. 17. Comparison of the normalized dynamic displacement atop a square- loading ratios M0/Q0DZ0 (black lines and circles) and 1.67 (grey lines and

shaped caisson for hysteretic damping ratios equal to xZ0 and 10%, triangles), computed with the proposed Winkler model (solid lines) and the

respectively. finite element model (triangles and circles).

N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361 359

Fig. 20. Schematic illustration of the method of analysis of the response of a kinematically loaded caisson: The free-field motion due to vertical shear waves (left)

imposes horizontal displacement and rotation at the supports (i) of the distributed springs and dashpots (kx, cx; kq, cq) along the caisson height, and (ii) of the resultant

springs and dashpots (Kh, Ch; Kr, Cr) of the base.

8 9

>

> d >

> u0 u

>

> >

> heff u Z (37)

>

> ~

k zU zdz C K ~ U 0 >

> Uff D;u

>

<

x ff h ff >

=

0 the effective displacement ratio at the top of the caisson,

Pb Z d (33)

>

> d >

>

>

> ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 >

> q0 uD

>

> k zU zz dz k zU zdz K U 0 >

>

>

:

x ff C q ff C r ff >

; qeff u Z (38)

0 0

Uff D;u

where Uff and Uff0 are the free-field displacement and its the effective rotation ratio at the top of the caisson,

derivative with respect to z. Details on the derivation of Eq. Aff u Z Uff D;u=Uff 0;u (39)

(33) is given in Appendix A. For an elastic soil layer supported

on a flexible bedrock, Uff is equal to [25] the amplification ratio at the top of the caisson

expikDKz C expKikDKz Ac u Z u0 u=Uff 0;u (40)

Uff z Z Ug (34)

1 C aexpikD C 1KaexpKikD the amplification ratio at the surface of the soil profile, and

where Ug is the displacement amplitude at the base of the soil uD

layer, k is the complex wave number given by b0 Z (41)

Vs

u

k Z p (35) the dimensionless frequency with respect to the caisson height.

Vs 1 C 2ixs

Fig. 21 compares the effective top displacement and

where a is the complex impedance ratio given by rotation ratios of a square-shaped caisson for three typical

p slenderness ratios (D/BZ1, 2, and 3), as functions of the

r V 1 C 2ix

a Z s s ps (36) dimensionless frequency b0. The solution developed by the

rr Vr 1 C 2ixr

authors utilizing Novaks springs for D/BZ1, is also shown in

where subscript s refers to soil and r to rock. this figure. The hysteretic damping in the surrounding soil is

Solution of Eqs. (10) and (33) can be solved in closed form equal to xZ20%; in the free-field soil equal to xsZ5%. The

for this case of homogeneous stratum. This solution is explored mass density of the caisson has been ignored. It is noted that

herein in the form of parametric study. To present the results of both top displacement and rotation of the caisson attain

our analysis in a convenient form, the following dimensionless negligibly small (or even zero) values at a discretely infinite

360 N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361

0 6 0 9 8 c b

Ac = Ub / U a

6 a Aff = Uc / Ua

D s D 1.5 s

A ()

4

Aff Ac (D / B = 1, 2, 3)

1.5 Novak 2

D/B=1

0

1 3 D 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

=1

B Dimensionless frequency : 0 = D / Vs

eff

Fig. 22. Comparison of the transfer functions (amplification ratios) between top

0.5 2 (zZ0) and base (zZD) displacement amplitudes for the free-field (Aff ) and the

caisson (Ac ). Square caisson with slenderness ratios D/BZ1, 2 and 3. Solution

for D/BZ1 using Novaks method gives the spring and dashpot curves (dotted

lines).

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = D / Vs at b0z3, 9 and 15. These values correspond to wave lengths of

about 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5D, respectively, at which, as the insert

2.5 illustrates, the free-field displacements impose a large

unbalanced moment on the caisson supports, inducing

2 eventually its peak response.

1.5

1.5

eff

1

3

1

0.5

eff

2

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0.5

Dimensionless frequency : 0 = D / Vs L

=1

B

Fig. 21. Effective displacement (top) and rotation (bottom) ratios atop a square

caisson for slenderness ratios D/BZ1, 2 and 3. The caisson is fully embedded 0

in a homogeneous halfspace. The kinematic loading has been derived from the 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

free-field response analysis of a soil column supported by a deformable bedrock Dimensionless frequency : 0 = D / Vs

of impedance ratio aZ0.07. Solution for D/BZ1 derived by the authors using

Novaks distributed springs and dashpots is plotted with dotted lines. 2.5

2

slightly higher). This is understandable if we realize that a

value

1.5

eff

uD D

b0 Z z2p z6

Vs ls 1

about equal to the length D of the caisson. Then, as the insert in

Fig. 21 illustrates, the imposed free-field displacements on the 0

spring supports produce a zero external force and a zero 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

external moment! Dimensionless frequency : 0 = D / Vs

Notice also that for b0!6, the response (heff,qeff) of the

Fig. 23. Effect of the caisson shape (L/BZ1, 2, 3) on the effective displacement

caisson plotted versus b0 is independent of the caisson

(top) and rotation (bottom) ratios atop a rectangular caisson with slenderness

slenderness. At higher frequencies this is not exactly the ratio D/BZ2. The caisson is fully embedded in a homogeneous halfspace. The

case, although the undulations of the three curves follow a kinematic loading has been derived from the free-field response analysis of a

similar pattern, with peak values in the studied range occurring soil column supported by a deformable bedrock of impedance ratio aZ0.07.

N. Gerolymos, G. Gazetas / Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26 (2006) 347361 361

frequencies (b0%3 approximately), heff reaches values up to 1.25.

This conclusion is further verified in Fig. 22 where a [1] Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Development of Winkler model for static and

dynamic response of caisson foundations with soil and interface

comparison between the free-field and caisson amplification

nonlinearities. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng, in press, doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.

ratios (also called transfer functions) is portrayed. Finally, the 2005.12.002.

influence of the aspect ratio L/B on the kinematic response of [2] Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Static and dynamic response of massive caisson

the caisson (in the direction of the D) is illustrated in Fig. 23. foundations with soil and interface nonlinearitiesvalidation and results.

Observe that L/B plays an important role only at high Soil Dyn Earthq Eng, in press, doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2005.12.001.

[3] Anastasopoulos I, Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Possible collapse reasons of

frequencies.

an access span of the nishinomiya-ko bridge: kobe 1995. Proceedings of

the fourth hellenic conference on geotechnical engineering, Athens, vol.

2; 2001. p. 8390.

8. Conclusions [4] Tajimi H. Dynamic analysis of a structure embedded in an elastic stratum.

Proceedings of the fourth world conference on earthquake engineering,

A Winkler model with four types of generalized springs Santiago, Chile; 1969.

[5] Beredugo YO, Novak M. Coupled horizontal and rocking vibration of

is presented for the lateral static and dynamic response of

embedded footings. Can Geotech J 1972;9(4):47797.

rigid caissons in a homogeneous elastic soil. The spring and [6] Kausel E, Roesset JM. Dynamic stiffness of circular foundations. J Eng

dashpot moduli, calibrated using the elastic theory of rigid Mech Div ASCE 1975;101(6):77085.

embedded foundations, model the complex stress distri- [7] Dominguez J. Dynamic stiffness of rectangular foundations. Research

bution along the shaft of square, rectangular or circular Report R78-20. Department of Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute

of Technology, Cambridge; 1978.

caisson plan shapes. The predictions of the model compare

[8] Tassoulas JL. Elements for the numerical analysis of wave motion in

to results of 3D-finite element analysis. It is then utilized to layered media. Research Report R81-2. Department of Civil Engineering,

study parametrically the response of a rectangular caisson Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; 1981.

subjected to (a) lateral dynamic loading at the top, and (b) [9] Karabalis DL, Beskos DE. Dynamic response of 3-D embedded

kinematic loading due to vertical seismic shear wave foundations by the boundary element method. Comput Methods Appl

Mech Eng 1986;56:91119.

propagation. Despite its simplicity the model is capable of

[10] Mitta A, Luco JE. Dynamic response of a square foundation embedded in

capturing the important phenomena of the problem, an elastic half space. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 1989;8.

including the wave filtering effect at frequencies above the [11] Tajirian FF, Tabatabaie M. Vibration analysis of foundations on layered

first natural frequency of the soil. media. In: Gazetas G, Selig ET, editors. Vibration problems in

The versatility of the model makes it easy to extend it to the geotechnical engineering. New York: ASCE; 1985.

[12] Harada T, Kubo K, Katayama T. Dynamic soilstructure interaction

most interesting cases inhomogeneous and nonlinear soil. This

analysis by continuum formulation method. Report of the Institute of

is done in the two companion papers [1,2]. Industrial Science, vol. 29. The University of Tokyo; 1981 [issue no. 5].

[13] Saitoh M. Effective seismic motion of caisson and pile foundation. RTRI

Rep 2001;46.

Appendix A. Regarding the derivation of Eq. (33) [14] Gazetas G, Dobry R, Tassoulas JL. Vertical response of arbitrarily shaped

embedded foundations. J Geotech Eng ASCE 1985;111(6):75071.

[15] Gazetas G, Tassoulas J. Horizontal stiffness of arbitrarily shaped

The equilibrium of a kinematically loaded rigid caisson with embedded foundations. J Geotech Eng ASCE 1987;113(5):44057.

respect to its base gives [16] Gazetas G, Tassoulas JL. Horizontal damping of arbitrarily shaped

embedded foundations. J Geotech Eng ASCE 1987;113(5):45875.

d [17] Fotopoulou M, Kotsanopoulos P, Gazetas G, Tassoulas JL. Rocking

Kmu c tK k~x zuz;tKUff z;tdzKK~ h ub tKUff 0;t Z 0 damping of arbitrarily-shaped embedded foundations. J Geotech Eng

ASCE 1989;115(4):47389.

0

[18] Gazetas G. Formulas and charts for impedances of surface and embedded

(A1) foundations. J Geotech Eng ASCE 1991;117(9):136381.

[19] Gadre A, Dobry R. Lateral cyclic loading centrifuge tests on square

for the horizontal forces, and embedded footing. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 1998;124(11):

d 112838.

D [20] Davidson HL. Laterally loaded drilled pier research. Research Report,

KJc q c tKm u c tK k~x zuz;tKUff z;tz dz Electric Power Research Institute, vol. 2. Pennsylvania: Gai Consultants,

2

0 Inc.; 1982.

[21] Mylonakis G, Gazetas G, Nikolaou S. Footings under seismic loading.

d analysis and design issues with emphasis on bridge foundations. Soils

K k~q zqc tKUff0 z;tdzKK~ r qc tKUff0 0;t Dyn Earthq Eng 2005.

[22] Makris N, Gazetas G. Dynamic pilesoilpile interaction. Part II. Lateral

0 and seismic response. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 1992;21:14562.

[23] Mylonakis G. Elastodynamic model for large-diameter end-bearing

Z0 (A2) shafts. Soil Found 2001;41(3):3144.

[24] Novak M, Nogami T, Aboul-Ella F. Dynamic soil reactions for plane

for the overturning moments. Using Eqs. (2) and (4), and strain case. J Eng Mech Div ASCE 1978;104(4):9539.

transferring all the terms of Uff and Uff0 to the right side of Eqs. [25] Kramer S. Geotechnical earthquake engineering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

(A1) and (A2), Eq. (33) is obtained. Prentice-Hall; 1996.

- 10-12-15 Rev ITransféré paroundhakar
- Methodology for Pile Foundation 08-09Transféré parJeremy Jenkins
- 1st Addenda Corrigendum Vol-III Road Bridge Works Schedule 2014Transféré parsananda
- AbstractTransféré parPhalgun Moturu
- Deep FoundationsTransféré paracidrisamuel2656
- 2 8 16_caculation as Per IRC 112Transféré parsnehar redkar
- 3. Piled Foundation ReportTransféré parDijo Mathews
- PilingTransféré parP.Sang-Geo
- Challenges and Recent Advance in Geotechnics for Foundation EngineeringTransféré parchrisho
- sept2009a-Apple pile capacity proof for auger cast piles.pdfTransféré parOzarturkcell
- Pile Group Stiffness for Seismic Soil-Structure InteractionTransféré parDani Goodone
- Pile modelTransféré parParameswaran Ganesan
- ProtaStructure Suite 2016 Whats NewTransféré parChin Chloe
- PILETransféré parThaung Myint Oo
- Pile Rate AnalysisTransféré parNaveen
- PilesTransféré parRajesh Khadka
- 302797 Geotechnical Engineering 465Transféré parSuman Saha
- Toprak Home PageTransféré parGindiMan
- variational.pdfTransféré parHusseinali Hussein
- (K530 2)Rectangular(Pile) FoundationTransféré parleodegarioporral
- Dpie.tpipmanual 3.28.15finalTransféré paraliengineer953
- Sump on Piles - Structural DetailTransféré parDushan Lalithya Gamaethige
- SF 1,5 for foundationTransféré parveronica_darc
- capwap-pdcaTransféré parPungge Prima Huwa
- Geo.dgi.Bulletin.no.12Transféré parErica Walsh
- POWER LINE SPECIFICATIONS AND GUIDELINESTransféré parSeptimiu Bota
- P307Transféré parRifky Netriady
- 2911_1_3Transféré parPrabhumk07
- Pile Length (Frank)Transféré pardanilo m.sampaga
- Pile RefereneTransféré paramazon

- The Effect of Soil-Structure Interaction and SiteTransféré parricardomartinzevallo
- The_Effect_of_Soil-Structure_Interaction_And_Site_.pdfTransféré parricardomartinzevallo
- Mylonakis Gazetas SSI JEE 2000Transféré parricardomartinzevallo
- Contribution_of_site_effects_and_soil-structure_in.pdfTransféré parricardomartinzevallo
- Contribution of Site Effects and Soil-structure InTransféré parricardomartinzevallo
- 1998_EGESD III - ASCE SP-Seismic Soil Structure Interaction. New Evidence and Emerging IssuesTransféré parricardomartinzevallo

- computer notes - 3D ConceptsTransféré parecomputernotes
- 03.00 ExerciseTransféré parecorob
- AeroModeller..March.2015.pdfTransféré parFrancisco Costa Gomes Filho
- artikel tentang komunikasiTransféré parErma Suriany
- claes oldenburg group project draftTransféré parapi-351075337
- Virtual Art Academy® CurriculumTransféré parVirtualArtAcademy
- GeoModeller Inversion Workflow DetailsTransféré parRicardo Fabio Amaya
- Staad Foundation EngTransféré partanujaayer
- 5th-math-unit-5Transféré parapi-276678628
- asbell unit - keith haring -4th gradeTransféré parapi-302751744
- Urban Planning, Design, Site PlanningTransféré parShekinah Mizpah
- Www.spiraloflight.com Ls SacredTransféré parOm Prakash
- Object Oriented Programming (OOP) - CS304 Power Point Slides Lecture 06Transféré parSameer Hane
- Foldforming.pdfTransféré parNatalia Ávila
- Abhimanyu Third Integrated Unit PlanTransféré parAbhimanyu Maheshwari
- Lab PreformDesignTransféré parvincent02hk_57881301
- 10.5923.j.arch.20140403.01Transféré parMitoko Sato
- PLTW IED Activity 2.1.3 Sketches CADTransféré parZanzarr
- 14 Housing Typology Courtyard 02Transféré parAngela Palmitessa
- Y11 Topic Overview With Objectives MathsTransféré parJosé Pedro Mesquita
- CSI BRIDGE.pdfTransféré parrangga nopara
- Translation and Text Transfer موسوعة ترجماني - المترجم هاني البداليTransféré parLouti Khadr
- integratedesllessonplanTransféré parapi-311632217
- PROTEIN DOCKING.pptxTransféré parIffat Fatima
- RPT MT TAHN 1 DLPTransféré parIntanieza
- Many Complicated Structural SystemsTransféré parYara Mouna
- 150645299-Cut-PasteG1-3-Science.pdfTransféré parDesislava Peeva
- desktopTransféré parKelson Sim
- tutorial-tips.pdfTransféré parMichael Fadjar
- Math EdTransféré parRadhakrishnan Sreerekha

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.