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T.P.

3695

MILE SIX POOL-AN EVALUATION OF


RECOVERY EFFICIENCY
E. L. ANDERS, JR., INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM CO., LTD., TALARA, PERU, MEMBER AIME

ABSTRACT GEOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION


The Mile Six pool is located on the La BreaParinas Con Mile Six pool is located on the northern end of a structural
cession of International Petroleum Co., Ltd., in northwestern spur projecting from the La Brea-Negritos uplift. The spur
Peru on the west coast of South America. The reservoir pres is probably a reflection of a basement structure. It plunges
sure in this pool has been maintained within 200 psi of its gently to the north, is broken into a complex series of fau~t
initial value throughout its history, and gravity drainage has blocks, and contains the Verdun Alto. Section Sixteen, and
played an important role in the production behavior. It has Mile Six pools.
now produced 95 per cent of its estimated ultimate recovery. The Parinas sandstone (lower Eocene), which is the pro-
It is estimated that this interesting oil pool will ultimately ducing formation in Mile Six, occurs at an average depth of
0

produce 67 per cent of the initial oil in place and that the 2,200 ft in the pool and dips north and east at from 15 to
0
resulting residual oil saturation may be as low as 19 per cent 20 The pool covers an area of approximately 350 acres.

of the pore volume (29 per cent of the hydrocarbon pore Mile Six is down faulted about 600 ft from Section Sixteen
volume). An evaluation of reservoir rock and fluid character pool to the south, and a major fault forms its western
istics and ultimate oil recovery is presented. boundary. The north and east boundaries are formed by the
intersection of the sand top with the water-oil contact which
occurs at approximately 2,440 ft subsea. An original gas-oil
INTRODUCTION contact probably existed at about 1,875 ft subsea. Fig. 1 pre-
sents the latest structural interpretation of the pool, and Fig.
This study of Mile Six pool was made to evaluate its
2 is an isopach map showing thickness of the total Parinas
performance according to latest available information. The
formation above the original water-oil contact. The heavy lines
production performance of this pool has been discussed in
various articles,,,3,.,., .. in the past, and the reported behavior of Fig. 1 are contours on the sand top, and the fine lines
are contours on the fault planes. This type of straight-line
has been used as an example for application of computation
structural map was developed by International's geologists
procedures for gravity drainage depletion' and as an illustra-
to reflect structural conditions where the bedding planes dip
tion oi field behavior under gravity drainage or expanding
and have no curvature. The La Brea-Parinas Concession is
gas cap drive_'" There have been wide variations in reported
highly faulted by normal faults. The beds are flat wherever
values of initial oil in place, reservoir oil volume factor. con-
exposed. The Parinas formation is approximately 635 ft thick,
nate-water sauration, volume of effective sand, and ultimate
and it is estimated that 62 percent of the formation is effective
recovery because of the paucity of reliable basic data, These
sand. The original oil zone was about 565 ft thick. Fig. 2A
various factors have been determined as accurately as prac-
presents an electric log showing typical Parinas sand develop-
ticable with the latest available information, and this evaluation
ment in Mile Six pool.
is presented herein. The production history of Mile Six is an
The Parinas sand in Mile Six is a well-sorted, meditm1'- to-
excellent example of gravity drainage depletion with effective
coarse-grained. cross-b~dded sand with minor lenses of shale
pressure maintenance by gas injection.
and small lenses and pockets of pebble conglomerate. The
sand grains are subangular to rounded and consist chiefly of
GENERAL quartz with feldspars. biotite, hornblende, and augite as
accessory minerals.
Mile Six pool was discovered by cable-tool drilling in Because of faulting of the Parinas formation to the east
November, 1927, when well 1996 was completed in the and north of the pool, there is probably no possibility of a
Parinas sand. After slow development with cable tools and significant natural water drive in Mile Six. The faults within
sporadic production, the pool was opened to continuous pro- the pool, as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2, are of smaller dis-
duction in November, 1933, and development was completed placement and seem to act only as partial barriers to fluid
with rotary rigs. Pressure maintenance was started in Decem- movement within the reservoir.
her, 1933, by returning gas to upstructure wells.
Most of the development was completed by 1937, but some
additional wells were drilled in the period 1939-1947, and RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS
several old wells were deepened. A total of 46 oil and gas Core analysis data are available from five wells. The data
wells and 4 dry holes were drilled on approximately 7-acre were obtained from three wells (Nos. 3401, 3586 and 3719) at
spacing. Of the producers, 21 are now flowing, 2 are pumping, the time of their completion and from well 1996 when the
4 are gas input wells, 3 are abandoned, 1 is a gas well shut original liner was sidetracked and the well was deepened
in, and 15 are shut in because of non-commercial production in 1946. Data from well 2779 were obtained in 1943 from old
or high gas-oil ratio. The locations of all wells are shown on cores taken when the well was deepened in 1934. From these
the map of Fig. 1. core analyses_ the average porosity was estimated to be 22.6
Total oil production on Dec. 31, 1952, was 30,867,373 bbl: per cent, and the average permeability to dry air was esti-
cumulative gas production was 22,023,777 MC; and 26,410,946 mated to be 780 md. Measured productivity indices varied
Mcf of gas had been returned to the reservoir. These figures from 3.1 to 71.4 BjD per psi differentIal. Specific productivity
do not include oil and gas lost in a blowout in January, 1946. indices varied approximately from 0.1 to 0.3 BjD per psi per
'Refere:1ces jtiven at end of paper. ft of sand..

Vol. 198, 1953 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 279


T.P. 3695 MILE SIX POOL- AN EVALUATION OF RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

The average connate water saturation was estimated to be estimated to be 300 md. Curves representing the relationship
about 35 per cent with distribution as shown in Fig. 3. No of relative permeabilities to oil and gas as a function of gas
direct measununents of connate water from cores taken with saturation (as a fraction of hydrocarbon pore volume) are
oil-base mud or from restored-state tests are available for shown in Fig. 5. These curves were developed from field
Mile Six. The curve of Fig. 3 was determined from a j.function data from nearby pools having very similar sand character-
curve which was prepared from 240 restored-state measure- istics and which were produced by the solution-gas-drive
ments for cores from similar Parinas sand in the Corral mechanism. No laboratory measuremen.ts of relative permeabili-
Quemado and Silla pools. The j-curve is shown as Fig 4. ties have been obtained.
The average permeability to oil or gas where the hydro- Fig. 6 is a cross section of Mile Six showing the original
carbon pore space is completely saturated with one phase was gas-oil and water-oil contacts and the original pressures at

OH Well
~ 0" Hole
Abondoned Prod!Jcer
4) Gas Well
@ Gas Input Well . . .0
~
Contours drOwn on bedding Ptone
Contour$ drown Fault Ptone .I C>
C>
It)
DATUM PLAf'E - SEA LEVEL
CONTOUR INTERVAL' 100 FEET '"

..
C>
C>

'"
<:,
C>
It)

'"
\
C>
C> .\
'"'" C>
...
C>

'"
.
1

INTERNATIONA,L PET'!OLEUM COMPANY, LTO


o .~ 1000'
LA 8REA a PARINAS CONCESSION
seA l E TAlARA PERU SA

FIG. 1 - STRUCTURE MAP OF THE TOP OF THE PARINAS SANDSTONE IN MILE SIX POOL.

280 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME Vol, 198, 1953


<
~ - ~=+~~t=tjit=~-~-~~.-
... " -'1\-
'0
~
'0
.~ .. -- .....-
01
W -=~~~~~~==E=~2.oor-t-i~
-
__ ~~+-~~~~--
'? ~

i ,.

-=:~~~~~t;t:t= ~--
utC)i

\o!.W!..2 - J2800 :I!


011 ....

.....

........,.,. ,.e...... "'.'
0fJ HO"

..... If..

++~~t
II
lID

--~
-~
I ~+""~~+-~~~-
i''''
." --r-+-~~~~~-J~29oo ~O-r-+-4~~
m
..... "'7 ~
:::0 ; :r
0
....
m ( z
C
~ :r rn
111111111" ~I I II / I i II I~ r
ifJmm~oo;
.....
:::0
" .. "\. - 9

> r
>
Z
Z
~ //111111111 , \. '\.tl,,' '\. II II r'- / y { / I 211t
9
<
om
:::0
n
..... ~
(5 '--
Z ?t.J
!JI
> 100 (

~
m -- --

( <: -

=-t=+-t:1;t~:;:t:D32oo
---~ ---- -- --
::>
- - - ( - - - - c-f---
- --- t-- - --

--t-"'F~=l=::hbt--l 3300
-- -- ~e-:;:;~-
- - f----
r-t:::*""1/=---t-+-+--+--4----!-
,--- - f-- '-

...
N
(II)
o
- - ,0Gft
SCA~E
.._. ."",tt"ATIONAL

FIG. 2 -ISOPACH MAP, TOTAL FORMATION ABOVE ORIGINAL WATER-OIL CONTACT (AT 2,440 FT
loA BREA a
PET"OLEUM COMNHY.
PARI NAB CONct:tlIlON
TALAflA .. "CItV " A.
LU.,TO
-- -<

FIG. 2A - ELECTRIC LOG OF WELL 3597, SHOWING TYPICAL


PARINAS SAND DEVELOPMENT IN MILE SIX POOL.
-+----
:a
Co)

$UI
SUBSEA), MILE SIX POOL.
T.P. 3695 MILE SIX POOl- AN EVALUATION OF RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

1600 15
I I I
14 CAPILLARY PRESSURE FUNCTION CURVE f--
AS APPLIED TO
1100 MILE SIX POOL
3 PERU
f-

2 FIGURE 4 f-
1800
CON ATE WATE~
01 TRIB TlON I
MIL SIX POO

1900 IGUR 3 10
4
W
11'1
III 9
~
11'1
2000
~ 8
w
W
IL.
Z 7
0 2100
t=
~ 6
W
..J
W
2200 5

4
\
2300 \
\I~-
I -~-

3
\
H-- 2
\
2400

r----
l\.
"-.. t--
I
1\
~

'I"-
2500 0
o 20 60 80 100 o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
BRINE SATURATION, % TOTAL PORE VOLUME
CONNATE WATER SATURATION, PERCENT OF PORE SPACE

FIG. 4- CAPILLARY PRESSURE FUNCTION CURVE AS APPLIED TO


FIG. 3 - CONNATE WATER DISTRIBUTION, MILE SIX POOL. MILE SIX POOL.

Table I - Mile Six Pool, Summary of Reservoir Data Table 2 -Mile Six Pool, Separator Fluid
Sample Analyses
RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS Sample from Well 2779
Date Sampled Feh.22,1936
Ori~inal Oil Zone Volume, Acre-feet ~ 54,580 Gravity of Oil, 0 API 40.02
Original Gas Cap Volume, Acre-feel. 7,120 Molecular Weight of Oil 185.25
Average Porosity, Per Cent.. 22.6 Practical Analysis of Oil Liq. Weight
Average Permeability to Dry Air, Millidarcies 780 Yol. % o/r
Average Formation Dip, Degrees ~~~.~~~~ 17.5 Methane. .041 .009
Reservoir Rock Assumed to be Water Wet Ethane ~ .068 .032
Original Gas-Oil Contact, Feet Subsea ~ 1875 Propane. .283 .177
Original Water-Oil Contact, Feet Subsea~~ 2440 I-Butane .474 .323
Original Oil in Place, Stock Tank bbL ~~ 51,800,000 NButane 1.067 .754
Original Oil in Place, Reservoir hbl .... 61,900,000 I-Pentane 1.211 .920
Relative Permeabilites - See Fig. 5 NPentane ~ 1.971 1.514
Hexane and Heavier 04.RR5 96.271
RESERVOIR FLUID CHARACTERISTICS 100.000 100.000
Fradional Analysis of Gas Gas Yol. %
Original Pressure at Gas-Oil Contact, psia~~ 856 Methane .. 50.S!!
Original Pressure at Water-Oil Contact, psia 1045 Ethane lO.5:~
Original Pressure at Oil Zone Midpoint (-2158 ft ss), psia 951 Propane 14.7!!
Original Pressure at Datum Plane (-2200 ft ss), psia~~~ 965 IButane~~ 5.01
Temperature at 2200 ft ss, F~~~~~ .. ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ .. 114 N-Butane~~.~~ S.27
Original Gas-Oil Ratio (Flash), SCF /Stock Tank bbL 325 Pentanes and Heavier~ 10.53
Original Reservoir Yolume Factor (Flash), 100.00
Res. hhljST hhl ~~ ~~ .. ~.~~~~~~ ... ~ .. ~.~~~~~~~~ .. 1.1960 St'parator Temperature, F~ 91
Original Reservoir Oil Yiscosity, Centipoises ~ 1.02 Specific Gravity of Gas ~. ~ 1.174
Original Reservoir Gas Yiscosity, Centipoise8.-~~~ ~. ~.~ 0.013 Yacuum on Separator, Inches of Mercury~ 3.5
Original Compressibility Factor - Gas Liberated by Gas-Oil Ratio, SCF /bbL 325
Differential Yaporization ~~ ... ~ .... ~~ .. ~ .. ~.~ .............. ~ ..... ~~ ... ~~ .. ~ 0.570 Production Rate, B/D .. ~ 547
Original Compressibility Factor - Gas-Cap Gas~ ..... . 0.880 Reservoir Temperature, OF 114
282 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AI ME Vol. 198, 1953
E. l. ANDERS, JR. T.P. 3695

100 I00 tho~e tWI) ,Icpths and at the pressure datum at 2,200 ft subsea.
The original sand volumes in the gas cap and oil zone were
....
z
w
o
ffiao
Cl.
.;
~--- ~ -~ ---

\
\
--
i/ 80
I-
Z
W
o
ffi
Cl.
j
taken from the curves of Fig. 7. These curves were determined
from Fig~. 1 and 2. The original gas.oil contact was assumed
to be at 1,875 ft subsea, and the average wateroil contact
was at 2,440 ft subsea. The estimate of percent effective sand
was determined from core data and meager electric.log data.
c(
(5
(!)

:? 60 f - - - \ / 60 :?
The original gascap volume was thus determined to be 7,120
acreft with an oil zone of S4.S80 acreft.
-+-' -.- The amount of oil originally in place was calculated from
>-
t:
...J
1\ / Figs. 3 and 7 to he 5].800,000 stock tank hhl or 61,900,000
~
W 40 \ I
/ reservoir bbl. Table 1 presents a summary of the reservoir data.

2
ffi
Cl. \ \
1
RESERVOIR FLUID CHARACTERISTICS
w
>
~ 20
\ V 20 ~
W
No subsurface fluid samples were taken from Mile Six until
1942. Since that time, six samples have been taken from three
c(
...J
W X !;i
...J
W
wells, and the solution gasoil ratio and reservoir-volume factor
for flash vaporization were measured at the saturation pressure

-
II: II:
V "-.. for each sample. The results were rather erratic and con-
~ sidered to be unreliable. Since the GOR and shrinkage were
o
1.0 0.8
GAS SATURATION, FRACTION
0.6 0.4 0.2
----
OF H.C.P.V.
o
0.0 measured at only one pressure in each case and the results
were so erratic, these values were calculated from hydrocarbon
analyses of separator oil and gas samples obtained from well
FIG. 5 - RElATIVE PERMEABILITY - SATURATION RElATIONSHIP, PARI 2779 in February, 1936.
NAS SAND, MILE SIX POOL The hydrocarbon analysis of separator samples from well
2779 are shown in Table 2. These were recombined accord-
ing to the measured gasoil ratio, and the composition of the
reservoir oil was calculated. Equilibrium vaporization con-
stants were determined for this mixture from reported ideal
_,000'" 'ull""
K's at low pressures" and the correlations of Hadden'o and
Brown, Katz, Oberfell and Alden." Using these computed
K,values, the bubble point pressure of the reservoir oil was
determined to be 890 psi a which was very close to the measured
Ii reservoir pressure at the time the samples were obtained.
It was then assumed that the average oil from Mile Six
was produced to separator conditions of 11.2 psia (5 in. mer-
cury vacuum) and 90F. Equilibrium vaporization constants
were determined for these conditions, and the solution GOR
011. ,AI c'" VOI,.~r.T.'IO AGIiI-fUT
0111 0,1,. 10111 IfOI,.UM, ...... ao "CII[-'lIT and reservoir-volume factor were calculated for flash vaporiza-
tion. These were determined to be 325 std cu ft per bbl and
1.1960 reservoir bbl per stock tank bbl.
The variations in solution COR and shrinkage with change
in saturation pressure were calculated for a combination
FIG. 6 - CROSS SECTION, MILE SIX POOL vaporization process. For these calculations it was assumed
that as the reservoir pressure declined, the liberated vapor was
separated from the remaining oil because of gravity segrega-
tion (differential vaporization) and that the resulting saturated

O~r--
I

'- ----t---!~ ~
30009

00.8
. """ .
~
Go.

'"
1/ -
/" I 30

I.

-----
~ (,.0;
~~....
'"
001

00.6
~
~
IU

.- .-
."
.- '" '" '"-- .
'"
'10\"'~
~
~
>:<1--
I

I.

z
o
IOO 0'
g /
."
."

.,,-- - -- fO''!!''
I

RESERVOIR FLUID CHARACTERISTIC


0.4,
"" MILE SIX POOL I

I
I fiGURE

0 I 00
10 20 SO 40 $0 60 70 10 100 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 .00 loao
AeRIE-FEU OF SAND ,UOy[ ELEVATION SATURATION PRESSURE, PSI"

FIG. 7 - SAND VOLUME AS RElATED TO ElEVATION, MILE SIX POOL FIG. 8 - RESERVOIR flUID CHARACTERISTIC, MILE SIX POOL.

Vol. 198, 1953 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 283


T.P. 3695 MILE SIX POOl - AN EVALUATION OF RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

oil would he proc\IJ('('d IIIHkl' fla~" vaporization c(lllditioll~. The Tahlt' :i -- 'tik Six Pool, Pre,,~url' .--- Produdiol1 Data
------ _. __ ... _--_._-- .------...
results of thel'e cakulationl' ar(' ~h()wll in Fig. 8. It wa~ also J'rt'ss. itt (;atH)j!
------~.--

}>rt>}iS. at Cum. Oil Cum. Gas Cunl. Gas Prod.


2200 i t ~Ollt<t('t. ('.() COllt<t('t ProdU<'Nf Produ(,'ci IlIjN'.U'd GOR.
found that for th(' aSl'lImption of truc t'qlliJihrium or flash J);d.' "'!>, P~lli Ft. :-:.; P~1iI !VIM RbI .\Ie! x 10-1; Me( X lO-H ('F /Hhl
- - .------~----------.---------

vaporization the resulting curves would agree very well wit h Disco\'{'n 96.1 1875 8.16 0 0 0
the presented curves for the comhination vaporization. '1/:-\0/:;:1 9.12 IH7S R4:-\ 0.385 0.17.1 0 :;Illl
The re~ervoir oil viscosity at original conditions wa~ about 'I/,)0/.)4 H:-\H 197.1 76:) 2.777 1.16.) O.1l6:-l :'16:)
1.02 ('jJ. alld till' prodllct'd'(']'lIde-oil gravity was IW o ;\ PI :in! j;)1l HHIl 2110 HS4 H.MS . :-l.491 :t491 :\41
1/ :-11/ :-IH H76 22.10 H71l 17.629 6.4.14 H.6:-\4 'lllH
at 60)<,. II.S1H III II
10 /:\ 1 j;)<) H7l 2:HO Hi4 22.19.1 9.0%
InO/l2 H21l 2:)40 H26 2.1.142 10.902 1:-l.H4:) 900
1/:-\0/44 H:)<) 2:-l60 H:W 21l.H:W ].).78:-\ 16.437 2.194
EXPLOIT ATION PRA<:TICES 9/:)0/4.1 H.) 1 2370 H:)} 27.61H 15.710 IH.355 2512
H/:)1/46 765 2380 765 28.176* 18.034* 19.228 1039
Fifteen oil wells and three dry holes were drilled with cable 9/30/4H 786 2:)90 786 29.457* 19.673* 21.529 171H
tools, and the remainder were drilled by rotary rigs. For the 1/31/50 770 2395 770 30.040* 21.095* 23.301 3250
wells drilled with cable tools, the general practice was to 5/,)1/52 762 2400 762 30.476* 22.320* 24.983 2931
cement casing at the top of the Parinas formation and then "'These figures include 7.000 bbl of oil and 1.600 MMcf of gas lost in blow-
out of well 2281.
drill into the sand a few feet and run pre-perforated liner.
All of the cable-tool drilled oil wells were later deepened with
and to decrease the gas-oil ratios. Now almost all flowing wells
rotary rigs except for well 2743 which wal' noncommercial
produce through automatic chokes. Only two wells are pump-
and was abandoned.
ing, and about 95 per cent of the total ultimate recovery will
Most of the rotary drilled wells also had casing cemented
be obtained by natural flow.
at the sand top and were then drilled to within a few feet
Pressure maintenance by gas injection through upstructure
of the water-oil contact. These were completed with uncemented
wells began in December. 1933, and the reservoir pressure was
perforated liners. Since 1939, all wells completed or deepened
maintained at an average of about 850 psig at 2,200 ft subsea
were drilled to a point below the water-oil contact; an elec-
until January, 1946, when an estimated 1.600 MMcf of gas and
trical log was run; and an oil string or hlank liner was set,
7.000 hhl of oil were lost in a blowout of well 2281. Sincf'
cemented. and selectively perforated.
that time the reservoir pressure has been maintained at ahout
Beginning in 1934. all producers were tubed to within a
760 psig. Since 1948, as wells went to high gas-oil ratio, they
few feet of the bottom to give maximum submergence. Flow
were shut in to decrease the amount of gas required for
rates were controlled with positive chokes so that production
pressure maintenance if no workover possibility existed.
was obtained at low gas-oil ratios as long as possible. Packer
settings in non-perforated sections opposite shale stringers in
the wells with cemented blank liner or casing have been very PRODUCTION HISTORY
effective in reducing gas-oil ratios as the gas cap expanded. Little oil was produced from Mile Six between its discovery
Most of the deepening jobs were done to increase production in 1927 and Octoher, 1933. Pressure maintenance was started

I I I I

f---!---t-'.::..::+---+--+''_- I /f
Produced Go.Oil Ratio
I

.0

20

'0

FIG. 9 - PRESSURE-PRODUCTION HISTORY, MILE SIX POOL.

284 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME Vol. 198, 1953


E. l. ANDERS, JR. T.P. 3695

in December, 11),3J. aud the uil Iln)(lucliuu ral" wa~ innca"'d of Ll50 "II fl hilI. (;as was r<'lllrn.-d 10 Ih .. r"""",-Oll' at a
to 14,000 B/D by thf' middlf' of 19~0. TIll' prodllcti,)n rat, rate of ,1.200 I\fd D.
had declined to 1.400 B/D by 1945. and the average prodm(d lndllding the oil and ga" losl in Ihe blowoul. a total of
gas.oil ratio had increased slowly from 330 cu ft/bbl in the JO,875.000 hhl of oil and 23.624.000 Mcf of gas have been
early life of the pool to over 2,300 cu ft/bbl in 1944 and 1945. produced from Mile Six, In addition. approximately 2.2.')0,000
The deepening program was accelerated in 1940 to increase hhl of gasoline have heen removed from the pror1l1cf'd gas hy
Ihe oil production rate and 10 decrease gas.oil ralios. It was ihe Mill' Six Casolin(' I'lanl.
during deepening of well 22RI Ihal it hl!'w oul. Fig, IJ "how" tlu: pr("'III,,.production hislory of IIIe pool.
In Decem her, 11).')2. Mil, Six was producing ()()O Il;]) and Tahl,' :) "llOw,s 1'1'1' ... >'111'" and production dala for variou"
of oil (an averagl' of 20 hhl P('I' wl'lIda\ I at a gas.oil ralio dalt".

0' '000' :rOQO'


LEGEND SCALE
RECOVERY, BBlSI AC,- Ft,

0-100 CJ
100 -500 ~
500 - 1000

1000 - 1500
lIlIIilllll
~
\ \I
co
""
"'0
0

'" .1
> 1500 ~

INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM COMPANY, LTD


LA BREA 8 PARlliiAS CONCESSION
TALARA PERU 5 A

FIG. 10 - RECOVERIES, BARRELS PER ACREFOOT, MILE SIX POOL

Vol. 198, 1953 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 285


T.P. 3695 MILE SIX POOL - AN EVALUATION OF RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

Table 4 - ~1ileSix Pool, Ultimate Re(:overies and this gas can he used for fll!'\ and for pressure maintenance
Residual Oil Saturations in other pools later.
(:um. Reeowry to D"c ..'31. 1952, Bhl ~.T. Oil :lO,867,37:l To summarize, the following reasons are offered in explana-
Cum. Recovery to Dec. 31. 1952. Rbi Gasolillf' 2,250,000 tion of the sllcce~sful pressure-maintenance program in Mile
Total Recovery to Dec. 31, 1952, Bbl Liquid :13,117,373
Est. Economic Ult. Reco""ry, Bbl S.T. Oil :l2,000,OOO Six pool:
Est. Economic Ult. Reeo\'ery, Bbl Gasolinp 2,800,000 1. Reservoir characteristics condu<;ive to effective gravity
Total Ult. Reeov!'ry, Bbl Liquid, :14,SOO.OOO drainage. These include massive, continuous sand section,
E"t. mt. Residual Oil Saturation, 'Ir, Total Port> Vol. II) high permeability, fairly steep dips, and low oil viscosity.
Est. Ult. R!'sidual Oil Saturation, '7r Hydorcarbon Pore Vol. 21)
Est. Ult. Recovery, % Stock Tank Oil Initially in Plan' 117 2. Pool owned and operated hy (,ne company.
Est. Ult. R!'cov!'ry. Rbl/ A<T{'ft 6:)7 :t Early gas injection he fore the reservoir pressure had de-
NOTE: Production figures do not include oil and gas lost in blowuut of
eiined to any significant extent.
well 2281. 4. Effective pressure maintenance throughout pool by gas
injection to the gas cap only.
S. High productivity indices which allowed wide range of
ULTIMATE RECOVERY production rates with small pressure drawdowns.
It is now estimated that lV[ile Six will produce a total of 6. Availability of a large supply of make-up gas from near-
32000 000 bbl of stock-tank oil to an estimated economic limit by pools which allowed effective pressure maintenance.
of'lOO' B jD. The amount of natural gasoline to be produced 7. Effective methods of gas.oil ratio control at moderate
in the future will, of course, depend upon the method by which expense.
the present gas cap is depleted, If the pressure is maintained 8. ~ature of reservoir oil (fairly high content of light hydro-
to the economic limit for oil production and the gas cap is carbons) which has allowed effective vaporization of oil
then processed without return of dry gas to the gas cap, the in contact with dry injected gas.
ultimate recovery of gasoline sohuld be about 2,800,000 bb1. Future operation of pool and method of depletion of gas
Cycling of the gas-cap gas should increase that figure signifi- cap will depend upon demand for gas for fuel and for other
cantly, but no evaluation of such a procedure has been pressure-maintenance projects. Continued cycling of the gas
prepared. cap gas can probably increase the total liquid recovery above
The total ultimate liquid recovery is estimated to be the present e~timates if sllch operation can be carried out
34 800000 bbl which will leave a residual oil saturation of economically.
19' pe; cent of the total pore volume or 29 per cent of the
hydrocarbon pore volume. Such recovery will be equal to
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
67 per cent of the initial stock-tank oil in place. A summary The writer is indebted to the International Petroleum Co.,
of recovery determinations is presented in Table 4. These Ltd., for granting permission to publish this paper. The maps
residual oil saturation estimates may be subject to some varia- of Figs. 1 a,ld 2 were prepared by Roy W. Pearce, and much
tion since the estimate of connate water in Mile Six was valuable information was obtained from the reports written
based on a correlation developed for other similar poo},; and by E. C. Breene. Jr.
since the estimate of net pay is always approximate. REFERENCES
There can be little doubt that gravity segregation has played
1. Breen!', E. C. Jr., and Wiedey, L. W.: "Development of the
a very important role in the production of Mile Six pool.
Mile Six Pool of International Petroleum Co., Ltd.-
Qualitatively, the effects of gravity drainage can be shown by
Peru," Unpubli~hed report of Int. Pet. Co .. Ltd. (Jan.
the map of Fig. 10. The recoveries from wells near the top 1, 1940).
of the structure have been very low while many of the down-
2. Breene, E. C.. J r.: "Supplementary Report on Develop-
dip wells have produced more oil than was originally in place
ment of Mile Six Pool," Unpuhlished report of Int. Pet.
in the areas they would ordinarily be expected to drain. The
Co .. Ltd. (Sept. 1, 1942).
presence of faults has undoubtedly affected the recoveries
3. Mullane, J. J.: "Reservoir Performance," Drill. and Prod.
of some wells completed in fault zones, and some of the
Prac., API, (1944) 53.
wells completed in thin sand sections close to the water oil con-
4. Moyer, R. E.: "Conservation and Utilization of Natural
tact have had fairly low recoveries because of high connate
Gas," Oil and Gas Jour. (Dec. 27, 1947) 46, (34) 251.
water saturation. There has been no active water drive.
S. Muskat, M.: Physical Principles of Oil Production, Mc-
GrawHill Book Co., Inc., New York (1949) 486,495.
CONCLUSIONS 6. Holmes, W. H., Coleman, G. S., Anders, E. L., Jr., and
Marsh, J. M.: "Modern Methods Applied to International
Although the Mile Six pool has been producing for over Petroleum's Peruvian Operations," Oil and Gas Jour.
25 years and good field measurements of oil and gas produc- (Dec. 20,1951).
tion, gas injected, and reservoir pressures are available, it 7. Welge, H. J.: "A Simplified Method for Computing Oil
is still very difficult to determine the amount of additional oil Recovery by Gas or Water Drive," Trans. AIME (1952)
recovery which can be attributed to the effects of pressure 195, 91.
maintenance. Since the pool has so many properties which are 8. Petroleum Reservoir Efficiency and Well Spacing., Stand-
conducive to effective gravity segregation, the ultimate recovery ard Oil Development Co., 1943.
without pressure maintenance would probably have been much 9. Technical Manual, Natural Gasoline Supply Men's As-
higher than is usually considered good for solution-gas drive soc., Dallas, Tex., 1946.
but lower than is actually expected. However, there is no 10. Hadden, S. T.: "Vapor - Liquid Equilibrium in Hydro-
doubt but that pressure maintenance has been an economic carbon Systems," Chem. Eng. Prowess, (Jan., 1948) 44,
success because of the reduced time for depletion, value of (1) .
gasoline removed from the cycled gas, increased oil recovery, 11. Brown, G. G., Katz, D, L., Oberfell, G. G., and Alden,
and reduced lifting costs due to the fact that it has been R. C.: N alura! Gasoline and the VaZatile Hydrocarbons,
possible to flow almost all of the oil produced to date. Also, Nat. Ga~oline Assoc. of America, Tulsa, Okla., 1948.
a large amount of gas has been stored in the reservoir, and

286 PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME


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Vol. 198, 1953