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61 vues74 pagesUpfc for Power System Stability

Jul 30, 2017

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Upfc for Power System Stability

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61 vues

Upfc for Power System Stability

© All Rights Reserved

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Main Project Report submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement

KAKINADA

In the department of

SUBMITTED BY

(Reg.No:09341A0264) (Reg.No:10345A0209)

Ch.L.Satish V.Alekhya

(Reg.No:09341A0251) (Reg.No:09341A0289)

Mr. M.Venkateswara Rao

Associate Professor

DEPARTMENT OF EEE

GMRIT

(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada, A.P)

Accredited by NAAC-A+& NBA, ISO 9001:2008 Certified

GMR Nagar, Rajam-532127, A.P.

April-2013

GMR Institute of Technology

Rajam

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled as Unified Power Flow Controller for

Power System Stability, is being submitted by N.Indira, E.Pradeep Naidu, Ch.L.Satish,

V.Alekhya, in the partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology

in Electrical and Electronics Engineering of GMR Institute of Technology and is a record

of bonafide work carried out by them.

The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other University or

Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Associate Professor Head of the Department

Department of EEE. Department of EEE.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

whose aid and advice helped us to complete this project report successfully without any

difficulty.

We would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to our academic guide

Mr.M.VenkateswaraRao, Associate Professor, Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Department, GMR Institute of Technology for his esteemed guidance, encouragement and

support which was of immense help in carrying out this report, for which we are greatly

indebted.

Dr.C.L.V.R.S.V.Prasad, Principal and Head of the Department, Dr.P.Kanta Rao for giving

us this valuable opportunity to undertake the project report.

We sincerely thank all the staff members of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Department for their sustained help in our pursuits and thank all of them who contributed

directly or indirectly in successfully carrying out this work.

Yours Sincerely,

Project Associates

N.Indira (09341A0264)

E.Pradeep Naidu (10345A0209)

Ch.L.Satish (09341A0251)

V.Alekhya (09341A0289)

i

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

d direct axis

q quadrature axis

rotor angle

P real power

Q reactive power

iii

LIST OF FIGURES

Capacitor (TCSC)

Compensator (SSSC)

Compensator (STATCOM)

4.3 Two Machine system with the unified power flow controller 30

iv

4.6 Control region of the attainable real power P and receiving 35

and = 90 (d)

with UPFC

system

v

constants

gain constants.

vi

LIST OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction 2

1.1. Introduction 2

3. FACTS Devices 16

vii

5.1. Basic Circuit Description 38

7.1. Conclusion 60

REFERENCES 62

viii

ABSTRACT

With the increase in power demand, operation and planning of large interconnected

power system are becoming more complex, so power system will become less secure and

stable. Operating environment, conventional planning and operating methods can leave

power system exposed to instabilities. Voltage stability is one of the phenomena which have

result in a major blackout. Moreover, with the fast development of restructuring, the problem

of voltage stability has become a major concern in deregulated power systems. The Flexible

AC transmission systems (FACTS) initiative was launched to solve the above emerging

problems due to restrictions on the transmission line construction and to facilitate the

growing power export/import and wheeling transactions among the utilities.

Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a versatile device in the FACTS family of

controllers which has the ability to simultaneously control all the transmission parameters of

power systems i.e. voltage, impedance and phase angle which determines the power flow of a

transmission line. Controlling power flow in modern power systems can be made more

flexible by the use of recent developments in power electronic and computing control

technology. The UPFC provides a promising means to control power flow in modern power

systems. Placement of UPFC in suitable can lead to control in line flow and maintain bus

voltages in desired level and so improve voltage stability margins.

This project deals with UPFC analysis, single machine infinite bus system with and

without UPFC, and impact on these with change in controller parameters for improvement of

voltage profile and reduction of power system losses.

MATLAB codes are tested on a single machine infinite bus system with and without

UPFC device and impact on these with change in controller parameters and results are

presented.

ix

CHAPTER-1

1

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Introduction

Economic and operational factors make power systems to utilize maximum percentage of

their transmission capacity and consequently operate close to stability limit with fewer

margins. Existence of transmission system constraints dictates the finite amount of

power that can be transferred between two points on the electric grid. In practice, it

may not be possible to deliver all bilateral and multilateral contracts in full and to

supply all pool demand at least cost as it may lead to violation of operating constraints

such as voltage limits and line overloads (congestion) . In such stressful and tensional

environment, power system congestion and voltage instability can be emerged as major

threats that the system operators (SOs) may be faced with them. The SO should ensure

the operation of transmission system within acceptable operating limits. Voltage security is

becoming an increasingly limiting factor in the planning and operation of many power

systems. With increased system loading and open transmission access pressures, power

systems are more vulnerable to voltage instability.

The FACTS initiative was launched to solve the above emerging problems due to restrictions

on the transmission line construction and to facilitate the growing power export/import and

wheeling transactions among the utilities. FACTS devices can enhance transmission system

control and increase line loading in some cases all the way up to thermal limits thereby

without compromising reliability. These devices can be an alternative to reduce the flows in

heavily loaded lines, resulting in an increased load ability, low system loss, improved

stability of the network, reduced cost of production and fulfilled contracture requirement by

controlling the power flows in the network, reduce cost of production and fulfilled

contracture requirement by controlling the power flows in the network. These capabilities

allow transmission system owners and operators to maximize asset utilization and execute

additional bulk transfer with immediate bottom-line benefits. FACTS devices provide new

control facilities, both in steady state power control.

two old FACTS devices like STATCOM and SSSC. The term Unified means that it can

simultaneously control voltage, phase angle and impedance. Alternatively it can control real

2

and reactive power in transmission line. UPFC which consists of a series and a shunt

converter connected by a common DC link capacitor.

In practice, these two devices are two voltage source Converters (VSIs) connected

respectively in shunt with the transmission line through a shunt transformer and in series with

the transmission line through a series transformer, connected to each other by a common DC

link including a storage capacitor. The shunt converter is used for voltage regulation at the

point of connection injecting an opportune reactive power flow into the line and to balance

the real power flow exchanged between the series converter and the transmission line. The

series converter can be used to control the real and reactive line power flow inserting a

voltage with controllable magnitude and phase in series with the transmission line. Thereby,

the UPFC can fulfill functions of reactive shunt compensation, active series compensation

and phase shifting

This project deals with UPFC analysis, single machine infinite bus system with and without

UPFC, and impact on these with change in controller parameters for Improvement of

voltage profile and Reduction of power system losses.

The main aim of the power system network is to Use the existing transmission lines to fullest

extent by maintaining the voltage and power flows within specified limits. Due to sudden

changes in load, and during short circuits & fault conditions, voltage at various buses may

change or power flows in a transmission line may exceed well above their capability. This

may have impact on the rotor angle of the synchronous machine towards the source side and

thus upon the stability of the system. So, we place UPFC in a single machine infinite bus

system so that the stability is improved.

Chapter 2: It deals about Power system stability and classification of stability and

methods of improving power system stability.

Chapter 4: It gives a brief overview of unified power flow controller. In this chapter the

circuit arrangements, operation, basic control functions and characteristics of

3

the UPFC are discussed. UPFC mathematical background and Load Flow

studies with UPFC are also discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 5: It discusses about the single machine infinite bus system with and without

UPFC. It discusses impact on these with change in controller parameters of

proposed controller.

references are provided at the end of the chapter.

4

CHAPTER-2

5

2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY

Power system stability is the ability of the electric power system, for a given initial operating

condition, to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a physical or

electrical disturbance, with system variables bounded so that practically the entire power

system remains intact.

interconnected synchronous machines maintain synchronism. With one another is through

restoring forces, which act whenever there are forces tending to accelerate or decelerate one

or more machines with respect to other machines. Under steady-state conditions, there is

equilibrium between the input mechanical torque and the output electrical torque of each

machine, and the speed remains constant. If the system is perturbed this equilibrium is upset,

resulting in acceleration or deceleration of the rotors of the machines according to the laws of

motion of a rotating body. If one generator temporarily runs faster than another, the angular

position of its rotor relative to that of the slower machine will advance. The resulting angular

difference transfers part of the load from the slow machine to the fast machine, depending On

the power-angle relationship. This tends to reduce the speed difference and hence angular

separation. The power-angle relationship, as discussed above is highly nonlinear. Beyond a

certain limit, an increase in angular separation is accompanied by a decrease in power

transfer; this increases the angular separation further and leads to instability.

For any given situation, the stability of the system depends on whether or not the deviations

in angular positions of the rotors result in sufficient restoring torques.

Rotor angle stability is the ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power system

to remain in synchronism. The stability problem involves the study of the electro mechanical

oscillations inherent in power systems. A fundamental factor in this problem is the manner in

which the power outputs of synchronous machines vary as their rotors oscillate.

6

When two or more synchronous machines are interconnected, the stator voltages and currents

of all the machines must have the same frequency and the rotor mechanical speed of each is

synchronized to this frequency. Therefore, the rotors of all interconnected synchronous

machines must be in synchronism.

The physical arrangement (spatial distribution) of the stator armature windings such that the

time-varying alternating currents flowing in the three-phase windings produce a rotating

magnetic field that, under steady-state operation, rotates at the same speed as the rotor. The

stator and rotor fields react with each other and an electromagnetic torque results from the

tendency of the two fields to align themselves. In a generator, this electromagnetic torque

opposes rotation of the rotor, so that mechanical torque must be applied by the prime mover

to sustain rotation. The electrical torque (or power) output of the generator is changed only by

changing the mechanical torque input by the prime mover. The effect of increasing the

mechanical torque input is to advance the rotor to a new position relative to the revolving

magnetic field of the stator. Conversely, a reduction of mechanical torque or power input will

retard the rotor position. Under steady-state operating conditions, the rotor field and the

revolving field of the stator have the same speed. However, there is an angular separation

between them depending on the electrical torque output of the generator.

Voltage stability is the ability of a power system to maintain steady acceptable voltages at all

buses in the system under normal operating conditions and after being subjected to a

disturbance. A system enters a state of voltage instability when a disturbance, increase in load

demand, or change in system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable drop in

voltage. The main factor causing instability is inability of the power system to meet the

demand for reactive power. The heart of the problem is usually the voltage drop that occurs

when active power and reactive power flow through inductive reactances associated with the

transmission network.

A criterion for voltage stability is that, at a given operating condition for every bus in the

system, the bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is

increased. A system is voltage unstable if, for at least one bus in the system, the bus voltage

magnitude (V) decreases as the reactive power injection (Q) at the same bus is increased. In

other words, a system is voltage stable if V-Q sensitivity is positive for every bus and voltage

unstable if V-Q sensitivity is negative for at least one bus.

7

Voltage stability is essentially a local phenomenon; however, its consequences may have a

widespread impact. Voltage collapse is more complex than simple voltage instability and is

usually the result of a sequence of events accompanying voltage instability leading to a low-

voltage profile in a significant part of the power system.

A criterion for small-disturbance voltage stability is that, at a given operating condition for

every bus in the system, the bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection

at the same bus is increased .A system is voltage unstable if, for at least one bus in the

system, the bus voltage magnitude (V) decreases as the reactive power injection (Q) at the

same bus is increased. In other words, a system is voltage-stable if V-Q sensitivity is positive

for every bus and unstable if V-Q sensitivity is negative for at least one bus. Several recent

major power system blackouts are characterized by a progressive decline in voltage

magnitude at the system buses. These events are termed voltage collapses. The mechanisms

of voltage collapse are not well defined and the dynamics of the process are not well

understood.

A voltage collapse is defined as the process by which voltage instability lead to a very low

voltage profile in a significant part of the system. Voltage stability in power systems is

influenced by generator field and armature current limiters, on-load tap changers and load

dynamics.

The importance of the armature current limiter behaviour is emphasized since this protection

system causes the generator to lose all of its voltage support when trying to keep the armature

current on a constant level. During a voltage decline in the transmission network, the on-load

tap changers try to maintain a constant load voltage. This will cause a higher current demand

in the transmission system which increases the voltage drop even more.

The terms long-term stability and mid-term stability are relatively new to the literature on

power system stability .They were introduced as a result of the need to deal with problems

associated with the dynamic response of power systems to severe upsets. Severe system

upsets result in large excursions of voltage, frequency, and power flows that thereby invoke

the actions of slow processes, controls, and protections not modelled in conventional

transient stability studies. The characteristic times of the processes and devices activated by

8

the large voltage and frequency shifts will range from a matter of seconds (the responses of

devices such as prime mover energy supply systems and load voltage regulators).

have damped out, the result being uniform system frequency. The focus is on the slower and

longer-duration phenomena that accompany large-scale system upsets and on the resulting

large, sustained mismatches between generation and consumption of active and reactive

power. These phenomena include: boiler dynamics of thermal units, penstock and conduit

dynamics of hydro units, automatic generation control, power plant and transmission system

protection/controls, transformer saturation, and off-nominal frequency effects on loads and

the network.

The mid-term response represents the transition between short-term and long term response.

In mid-term stability studies, the focus is on synchronizing power oscillations between

machines, including the effects of Some of the slower phenomena, and possibly larger

voltage or frequency excursions.

Short-term or transient: 0 to 10 second

M id-term: 10 seconds to a few minutes

Long-term: a few minutes to 10's of minutes

It should, however, be noted that the distinction between mid-term and long-term stability is

primarily based on the phenomena being analyzed and the system representation used,

particularly with regard to fast transients and inter-machine oscillations, rather than the time

period involved.

Generally, long-term and mid-term stability problems are associated with inadequacies in

Equipment responses, poor coordination of control and protection or insufficient active /

reactive power reserves.

Long-term stability is usually concerned with system response to major disturbances that that

involve contingencies beyond the normal system design criteria. This may entail cascading

and splitting of the power system into a number of separate islands with the generators in

each island remaining in synchronism. Stability in this case is a question of whether or not

each island will reach an acceptable state of operating equilibrium with minimal loss of load.

It is determined by the overall response of the island as evidenced by its mean frequency,

9

rather than the relative motion of machines. In an extreme case, the system and unit

protections may compound the adverse situation and lead to collapse of the island as a whole

or in part.

Other applications of long-term and mid-term stability analysis include dynamic analysis of

voltage stability requiring simulation of the effects of transformer tap-changing, generator

over excitation protection and reactive power limits, and thermostatic loads. In this case,

inter-machine oscillations are not likely to be important. However, care should be exercised

not to neglect some of the fast dynamics.

There is limited experience and literature related to the analysis of long-term and mid-term

stability. As more experience is gained and improved analytical techniques for simulation of

slow as well as fast dynamics become available, the distinction between mid-term and long-

term stability becomes less significant.

10

The electric power sources in a power system are usually synchronous generators, which are

coupled together by a common electric network in such a way that the rotors of all generators

are in synchronized rotation. This mode, called the normal, or steady-state, mode, should be

stable; that is, the power system must return to the initial state (or one practically identical)

every time after a deviation from the steady-state mode. The deviations may be associated

with a variation in load, short circuits, disconnections of power transmission lines, and

similar causes. The systems stability is usually diminished by an increase in the load (the

power delivered by the generators) and a decrease in the voltage (an increase in the power

consumed or a decrease in the excitation of the generators); specific limit, or critical, values

can be determined for each power system for these quantities or for associated quantities that

characterize the stability limit. A power system can operate reliably if a specific stability

margin is provided for it, that is, if the parameters of the operating mode and the system itself

differ sufficiently from the critical values. Various measures are taken to ensure the stability

of an electric power system, such as designing the system with an adequate stability margin,

regulating the excitation of the generators automatically, and using automated counter

emergency equipment.

Steady State Stability studies are restricted to small and gradual changes in the system

operating conditions. In this we basically concentrate on restricting the bus voltages close to

their nominal values. We also ensure that phase angles between two buses are not too large

and check for the overloading of the power equipment and transmission lines. These checks

are usually done using power flow studies.

Transient Stability involves the study of the power system following a major disturbance.

Following a large disturbance the synchronous alternator the machine power (load) angle

changes due to sudden acceleration of the rotor shaft. The objective of the transient stability

study is to ascertain whether the load angle returns to a steady value following the clearance

of the disturbance. Following a transient disturbance, if the power system is stable, it will

reach a new equilibrium state with practically the entire system intact; the actions of

automatic controls and possibly human operators will eventually restore the system to normal

state. On the other hand, if the system is unstable, it will result in a run-away or run-down

11

situation for example, a progressive increase in angular separation of generator rotors, or a

progressive decrease in bus voltages.

An unstable system condition could lead to cascading outages and shut-down of a major

portion of the power system.

The ability of a power system to maintain stability under continuous small disturbances is

investigated under the name of Dynamic Stability (also known as small-signal stability).

These small disturbances occur due random fluctuations in loads and generation levels. In an

interconnected power system, these random variations can lead catastrophic failure as this

may force the rotor angle to increase steadily.

One of the most important parts of power system stability is dynamic stability. Controlling

devices to improve dynamic stability of power systems are called power system stabilizers

(PSS). The problem is to determine the proper place of stabilizers next to generators which

needs those stabilizers. Changes and expansions of the network may cause movement of

stabilizers. One solution of this problem is collecting the stabilizers in one place of network

and connecting them to network through a channel.

For many years power system stabilizers (PSS) have been one of the most common

controllers used to damp out power system oscillations. Unfortunately, in some operating

conditions such as inter-area oscillations it may not work properly. Nowadays, application of

power electronic based devices such as FACTS is considered as one of the most effective

ways to enhance power system stability, controllability and increasing power transfer limits

as well as its operational margins. Unified power flow controller (UPFC) is a multi-functional

device.

For a given system, any one method of improving stability may not be adequate. The best

approach is likely to be a combination of several methods judicious chosen so as to most

effectively assist in maintaining stability for different contingencies and system conditions. In

applying these method to the solution of specific stability problems, it is important to keep in

mind the overall performance of the power system. Solution to the stability problem of one

category should not be effected at the expense of another category.

12

2.4.1. Transient Stability Enhancement:

Methods of improving transient stability try to achieve one or more of the following effects:

(a) Reduction in the disturbing influence by minimizing the fault severity and duration.

(b) Increase of the restoring synchronizing forces.

(c) Reduction of the accelerating torque through control of prime-mover mechanical

power.

(d) Reduction of the accelerating torque by applying artificial load.

The following are various methods of achieving these objectives.

The amount of kinetic energy gained by the generators during a fault is directly proportional

to the fault duration; the quicker the fault is cleared, the less disturbance it causes.

Two-cycle breakers, with high-speed relays and communication, are now widely used in

locations where rapid fault clearing is important.

In special circumstances, even faster clearing may be desirable. It describes the development

and application of a one-cycle circuit breaker by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

Combined with a rapid response overcurrent type sensor, which anticipates fault magnitude,

nearly one-cycle total fault duration is attained. One-cycle breakers are not yet in widespread

use. It describes an ultra-high-speed relaying system for EHV lines based on travelling wave

detection.

Shunt reactor near generators provide a simple and convenient means of improving transient

stability. The reactor normally remains connected to the network. The resulting reactive load

increases the generator internal voltage, and this is beneficial to stability. Following a fault,

switching out the reactor further improves stability.

oscillations. The use of power system stabilizers to control generator excitation systems is the

most cost-effective method of enhancing the small-signal stability of power systems.

13

Additionally, supplemental stabilizing signals may be used to modulate HVDC converter

controls and static var compensator controls to enhance damping of system oscillations.

The controls used for small-signal stability enhancement should perform satisfactorily under

severe transient disturbances. Therefore, while the controls are designed using linear

techniques, their overall performance is assessed by considering mall-as well as large-signal

responses.

In large systems, the selection of units on which to install the PSS to damp interarea

oscillations may not be rapidly apparent. Although the principle of PSS deign for damping of

local and interarea modes are similar, the mechanism by which a PSS contributes to the

damping of the two types of oscillation are different. A PSS adds damping to an interarea

mode largely by modulating system loads, whereas the performance of the PSS with regard to

a local mode is only slightly affected by the load characteristics. Understanding these

mechanism is essential to the effective application of the PSS.

14

CHAPTER-3

15

3. FACTS DEVICES

3.1. Introduction to FACTS Devices

Most of the worlds electric supply systems are widely interconnected. This is done for

economic reasons, to reduce the cost of electricity and to improve its reliability, it must

however be kept in mind that these inter connections are very complex and they emerged

gradually based upon the requirements of various utilities. The power system becomes

increasingly complex to operate and system can become less secure for riding through major

outages. It may lead to large power flows with inadequate control, excessive reactive power.

Thus the full potential of a transmission connection cannot be utilized. It is very difficult to

control such transmission of power in such systems. The power electronic controllers are all

grouped in a category called Flexible AC Transmission Controllers or FACTS controllers

will satisfy this need.

FACTS controllers can control the interrelated parameters that govern the operation of

transmission system. Impedance, Current, Voltage, Phase angle etc., are some of the

interrelated parameters that are controlled. By providing added flexibility, FACTS controllers

can enable a line to carry power closer to its thermal rating.

The FACTS technology is not a single high power controller but rather a collection of

controllers, which can be applied individually or in co-ordination with others to control one

or more of the interrelated system parameters mentioned above. A Well-chosen FACTS

controller can overcome specific limitations of designated transmission line.

Basically the FACTS controllers are four types:

1. Series Controllers

2. Shunt Controllers

3.2.1. Series Controllers

By means of controlling impedance or phase angle or series injection of voltage. A series

FACTS control can control the flow of current. Hence, the series controller could be

variable impedance, such as capacitor, reactor or power electronics based variable source to

16

serve the desired need. But generally all series controllers inject variable voltage in series

with line. Even variable impedance multiplied by current flow through it represents an

injected series voltage. As long as voltage is in quadrature with the line current, the series

controller only supplies or consumes variable reactive power. Any other phase relationship

will involve real power as well.

3.2.2. Shunt Controllers

As in the case of series controllers, shunt controllers may be variable impedance, variable

source or a combination of these. In principle all shunt controller inject current into the

system. Even variable shunt impedance causes a variable current injection into the line. As

long as injected current is in phase quadrature with the line voltage it supplies or

consumes variable reactive power. Any other phase relationship will involve real power

exchange also.

3.2.3. Combined Series-Series Controllers

This could be a combination of separate series controllers, which are controlled in a

coordinated manner, or it could be a unified controller. The series controllers could provide

independent series reactive compensation but also could transfer real power among the lines

via the power link (D.C link). The real power transfer capability of the unified series-series

controller, referred to as interline power flow controller, makes it possible to balance both

the real and reactive power flow in the lines. And there by maximize the utilization of the

transmission system. Note that the term unified here means that the DC terminals of all

controller converters are all connected together for real power transfer.

3.2.4. Combined Series-Shunt Controllers

This is a combination of series and shunt controllers which are controlled in a coordinated

manner or a unified power flow controller with series and shunt elements. In principle

combined shunt and series controller inject current in to the system with the shunt part of the

controller and voltage in series in the line with the series part of the controller. However

when the shunt and series controllers are unified, there can be a real power exchange

between the series and shunt controllers via the power link.

Inferring from one and two of above, the shunt converter of the UPFC injects current into

the line while the series converter injects voltage in series with the line. The power link

enables real power exchange between the two.

From the above discussion it can be inferred that the word unified emphasizes or refers to

the existence of a power link via which the combination of controllers i.e. series series and

17

series - shunt exchange real power, also the power link if provided with a storage system

such as D.C capacitors etc., is much more effective for controlling the system dynamics.

After all the above discussion FACTS can be defined as:

Alternating current transmission systems incorporating power electronic based and other

controllers to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability.

A power electronic based system and other static equipment that provide control of one or

more AC transmission system parameters is known as FACTS controller

Below a list of FACTS controllers that fall into the four categories that has been discussed.

The working of each has not been discussed as their general principal of working has

already been discussed.

Shunt Controllers

1. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

2. Static VAR Compensator (SVC)

3. Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR)

4. Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC)

Series Controllers

1. Static Synchronous Series Controller (SSSC)

2. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

Combined Shunt and Series connected Controllers

1. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)

2. Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer (TCPST)

Combined Series and Series connected Controllers

1. Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)

First Generation of FACTS Controllers: These categories of controllers are designed based

on thyristor based FACTS technology.

3.3.1. Static VAR Compensator (SVC)

It is the first device in the first generation of FACTS controller introduced to provide fast-

acting reactive power compensation in the transmission network.

Circuit Description: Static Var Compensator as shown in Figure 3.1 composed of

thyristor controlled reactor (TCR), thyristor switched capacitor (TSC) and harmonic filters

connected in parallel to provide shunt compensation. The current in the thyristor controlled

18

reactor is controlled by the thyristor valve that controls the fundamental current by

changing the firing angle, ensuring the voltage limited to an acceptable range at the injected

node. Current harmonics are inevitable during the operation of thyristor controlled

rectifiers, thus it is essential to have filters to eliminate harmonics in the SVC system. The

filter banks not only absorb the risk harmonics but also produce the capacitive reactive

power.

improve the power flow control of the power systems.

In real time scenario, it effectively controls the reactive power, improves the power factor,

reduces the voltage levels caused by the nonlinear loads, improves the power quality and

reduces the energy consumption.

The main advantage of SVC application is to maintain bus voltage approximately near a

constant level in addition used to improve transient stability. It is widely used in metallurgy,

electrified railway, wind power generation etc.

3.3.2. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

It is designed based on the thyristor based FACTS technology that has the ability to control

the line impedance with a thyristor-controlled capacitor placed in series with the

transmission line. It is used to increase the transmission line capability by installing a series

capacitor that reduces the net series impedance thus allowing additional power to be

transferred. The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 3.2.

19

Figure 3.2. Circuit Diagram of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

Characteristics of TCSC: TCSC placed in a transmission network provides the power flow

control in a power system.

The Thyristors in TCSC device offers a flexible adjustment with the ability to control the

continuous line compensation. TCSC controllers effectively used for solving power

system problems of voltage stability in long transmission lines.

Second Generation of FACTS Controllers:

These categories of controllers are designed based on voltage source converter

FACTS technology.

3.3.3. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)

Static Synchronous Series Compensator is based on solid-state voltage source converter

designed to generate the desired voltage magnitude independent of line current.

Circuit Description: SSSC consists of a converter, DC bus (storage unit) and coupling

transformer as shown in Figure 3.3. The dc bus uses the converter to synthesize an AC

voltage waveform that is inserted in series with transmission line through the transformer

with an appropriate phase angle and line current. If the injected voltage is in phase with

the line current it exchanges a real power and if the injected voltage is in quadrature with

line current it exchanges a reactive power. Therefore, it has the ability to exchange both the

real and reactive power in a transmission line.

20

Characteristics of SSSC: SSSC in a transmission network generates a desired

compensating voltage independent of the magnitude of line current.

The SSSC has a capability to exchange both active and reactive power .All the above

features of SSSC attract the FACTS device for power flow control.

3.3.4. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

It is designed based on Voltage source converter (VSC) electronic device with Gate turn off

thyristor and dc capacitor coupled with a step down transformer tied to a

transmission line as shown in Figure 3.4. It converts the dc input voltage into ac output

voltages to compensate the active and reactive power of the system. STATCOM has better

characteristics than SVC and it is used for voltage control and reactive power compensation.

transmission network improve the voltage stability of a power system by controlling the

voltage in transmission and distribution systems, provides the desired reactive power

compensation of a power system.

Third Generation of FACTS Controllers:

The third generation of FACTS controllers is designed by combining the features of

previous generations series and shunt compensation FACTS controllers.

3.3.5. Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)

It is designed based on Convertible Static Compensator (CSC) of FACTS Controllers. As

shown in Figure 3.5 IPFC consists of two series connected converters with two transmission

lines. It is a device that provides a comprehensive power flow control for a multi-line

21

transmission system and consists of multiple number of DC to AC converters, each providing

series compensation for a different transmission line. The converters are linked together to

their DC terminals and connected to the AC systems through their series coupling

transformers. With this arrangement, it provides series reactive compensation in addition any

converter can be controlled to supply active power to the common dc link from its own

transmission line.

Characteristics of IPFC: To avoid the control of power flow problem in one system with

synchronous of power in other system, installation of IPFC system in additional parallel

converter is required to meet the active power demand

3.3.6. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)

It is designed by combining the series compensator (SSSC) and shunt compensator

(STATCOM) coupled with a common DC capacitor. It provides the ability to

simultaneously control all the transmission parameters of power systems, i.e. voltage,

impedance and phase angle.

Circuit Description: As shown in Figure 3.6 it consists of two converters one connected

in series with the transmission line through a series inserted transformer and the other one

connected in shunt with the transmission line through a shunt transformer. The DC

terminal of the two converters is connected together with a DC capacitor. The series

converter control to inject voltage magnitude and phase angle in series with the line to

control the active and reactive power flows on the transmission line. Hence the series

converter will exchange active and reactive power with the line.

22

Figure 3.6: Circuit Diagram of UPFC

Characteristic of UPFC: The concept of UPFC makes it possible to handle practically all the

power flow control and transmission lines compensation problems using solid-state

controllers that provide functional flexibility which are generally not obtained by thyristor-

controlled controllers.

3.3.7. Generalized Unified power Flow Controller (GUPFC)

It has been proposed to realize the simultaneous power flow control of several transmission

lines. It is designed by combining three or more dc to ac converters working together

extending the concepts of voltage and power flow control of the known two-converter UPFC

controller to multi voltage and power flow control. The GUPFC shown in Figure 3.7 consists

of three converters, one

23

3.4. Advantages of FACTS

The following are the benefits that are principally derived by using the FACTS

controllers:

a) The flow of power is ordered. It may be as per the contract or as per the

requirements of utilities.

Overcoming their limitations and sharing of power among lines can accomplish this.

d) Provides secure tie line connections to neighboring utilities and regions, thereby

decreasing over all generation reserve requirements on both sides.

f) Up gradation of lines

h) Minimizes the cost of transmission and hence the overall cost of generation.

24

CHAPTER-4

25

4. BASICS OF UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER

Gyugyi proposed the unified power flow controller (UPFC) concept in 1991. The UPFC was

devised for the real time control and dynamic compensation of AC transmission system,

providing multifunctional flexibility required solving many of the problems facing the

delivery industry. With the framework of traditional power transmission concept, the UPFC

is able to control, simultaneously or selectively; all the parameters affecting power flow in

the transmission line (i.e. voltage, impedance, and phase angle). And this unique capability

signified by the adjective unified in the name. Alternatively, it can independently control

both the real and reactive power flow in the line. Such new FACTS device combines

together the features of two old FACTS devices, static synchronous compensator

(STATCOM) and the static synchronous series compensator (SSSC).

In practice, these two devices are two voltage source Converters (VSIs) connected

respectively in shunt with the transmission line through a shunt transformer and in series with

the transmission line through a series transformer, connected to each other by a common DC

link including a storage capacitor. The shunt converter is used for voltage regulation at the

point of connection injecting an opportune reactive power flow into the line and to balance

the real power flow exchanged between the series converter and the transmission line. The

series converter can be used to control the real and reactive line power flow inserting a

voltage with controllable magnitude and phase in series with the transmission line. Thereby,

the UPFC can fulfill functions of reactive shunt compensation, active series compensation

and phase shifting.

In the presently used practical implementation, the UPFC consist of two switching

converters, which in the implementations considered are voltage source converters .These

back to back converters labeled converter1 and converter 2 in the Figure, are operator

from a common dc link provided by a dc storage capacitor. This arrangement functions as an

AC to AC converter in which the real power can freely Flow in either direction between the

ac terminals of the converter and each converter can independently generate or absorb

reactive power at its own ac output terminals.

26

Figure: 4.1. Basic circuit arrangement of Unified Power Flow Controller

Converter 2 provides the main function of UPFC by injecting an AC voltage Vpq with

controllable magnitude Vpq(0 Vpq Vpqmax) and phase angle (0 360), at the power

frequency , in series with the line via an insertion transformer. The transmission line current

Flow through this voltage source resulting in real and reactive power exchange between it

and AC system. The reactive power exchanged at the AC terminal is generated internally by

the converter.

The basic function of converter 1 is to supply or absorb the real power demanded by the

converter 2 at the common DC link. This DC link power is converted back to ac and coupled

to the transmission line via a shunt connected transformer.converter1 can also generate or

absorb controllable reactive power, if it is desired and thereby it can provide independent

shunt reactive compensation for the line. It is important to note that whereas there is a closed

direct path for the real power by the action of series voltage injection through converter 1

and 2 back to the line, the corresponding reactive power exchanged is supplied or absorbed

locally by converter2 and therefore it does not Flow through the line. Thus converter1 can be

27

operated at a unity power factor or be controlled to have a reactive power exchange with the

line independently of the reactive power exchanged by the converter2.

changer having infinitely small steps. The V0 shown in the Figure 4.2(a) is injected in phase

(or anti phase with V0)

current. Functionally this is similar to series capacitive and inductive line compensation

attained by SSSC, the injected series compensating voltage can be kept constant, if desired,

independent of the line current variation, or can be varied in proportion with the line current

to imitate the compensation obtained with a series capacitor or reactor.

respect to the V that achieves the desired phase shift (advance or retard) without any change

in magnitude. Thus the UPFC can function as a perfect phase angle regulator, which cans

also the supply the reactive power involved with the transmission angle control by internal

VAR generation.

regulation, series capacitive line compensation and phase shifting, is shown in Figure4.2(d).

Where Vpq = (V+Vc+V). This functional capability is unique to the UPFC. No single

equipment has similar Multifunctional capability.

28

Figure 4.2. Basic UPFC Control Functions.

Consider Figure 4.3 simple two machine (or two bus ac inter line) system with sending end

voltage Vs, receiving end voltage Vr, and line or tie impedance X, (assumed, for simplicity,

inductive is shown. At Figure 4.3(b) the voltage of system in the form of phasor diagram of

shown with transmission angle and Vs=Vr=V. At Figure 4.4(a) the transmitted power P=

(V2 / X) sin () and the reactive power Q=Qs=Qr {Q= (V2/X) (1-cos ()} supplied at the end

of the line are shown plotted against angle. at Figure 4.4(b) the reactive power Q= Qr =Qs is

shown plotted against the transmitted power P corresponding to stable value of (0

90).

Consider Figure 4.3(a) the simple power system with the UPFC. The UPFC is represented by

a controllable voltage source in series with the line, which as explained in the previous

system, can generate or absorb reactive power that it negotiates with the line, but the real

power it exchanges must be supplied to it, or absorbed from it, bye the sending end generator.

The UPFC in series with the line is represented by the pharos Vpq having magnitude Vpq

(0Vpq Vpqmax) and angle (0 360) measured from the given phase position of phasor

Vs, as illustrated in the Figure. The line current represented by phasor I, Flows through the

series voltage source Vpq and generally results in both reactive and real power exchange.

In order to represents the UPFC properly, the series voltage source is stipulated to generate

only the reactive power Qpq it exchanges with the line. Thus the real power Ppq it negotiates

with the line is assumed to be transferred by the sending end generators if a perfect real

29

power flow between it and sending end generator excited. This is in arrangement with the

UPFC structure in which the DC link between the two constituent converters establishes a

bidirectional coupling for real power flow between the injected series voltage source and the

sending end bus.

(a) (b)

Figure 4.3. Two Machine system with the unified power flow controller

Figure 4.4 (a) Transmittable real power and receiving-end reactive power demand

transmission angle of a two-machine system (b) and the corresponding QorvsPo

As Figure 4.4 implies, in the present discussion it is further assumed for clarity at the shunt

reactive components capability of the UPFC not utilized. This is, the UPFC shunt converter is

30

assumed to be operated at unity power factor, its sole function being to transfer the real

power demand of the series converter to the sending end generator. With these assumptions

the series voltage, together with the real power coupled to the sending end generator as

shown in Figure 4.4 is an accurate representation of the basis UPFC. It can be readily

absorbed in Figure 4.4 shows that transmission line sees Vpq + Vs as effective sending end

voltage. Thus it is clear that the UPFC effects the voltage(both its magnitude and phase

angle) across the Transmission line and therefore it is reasonable to expect that it is able to

control reactive power demand of the line at any given transmission control. By varying the

magnitude and angle of Vpq, the transmittable real power as well as the reactive power

demand of the line at any transmission angle between the sending end and receiving end

voltages. The general power flow control capability of the UPFC, from the viewpoint of

conventional transmission control, can be illustrated best by the real and reactive power

transmission versus transmission angle characteristics of the simple two-machine system.

Shown in Figure 4.4. With reference to this Figure, the transmitted power P and the reactive

power - jQr supplied by the receiving end, can be expressed as follows:

Vs+Vpq Vr

P-jQr = Vr( ) 4.1

Where symbol * means the conjugate of a complex number. If Vpq = 0, then (4.1)

describes the uncompensated system, that is,

VsVr

P-jQr = Vr( ) ..4.2

Thus, with Vpq 0, the total real and reactive power can be written in the form

VsVr Vpq

P-jQr = Vr( )+ Vr( ) ..4.3

Substituting

Vs = V 2 = V (cos (2 ) +jsin (2 )) ..4.4

Vr = V 2 = V (cos ( 2 )-jsin (2 )) ......4.5

Vpq = Vpq (2 +) = V (cos (2 + ) + jsin (2 + )) ..4.6

31

2

P(, )=Po()+Ppq()= sin (cos + ) ..4.7

2

2

Qr(, )=Qor()+Qpq()= (1 cos ) (sin + ..4.8

2

Where

2

Po()= sin ......4.9

2

Qor()= (1 cos ) .....4.10

Po (), Qor () are the real and reactive power characterizing the power transmission of the

uncompensated system at a given angle . Since angle is freely variable between 0 and 2

at any given transmission angle (0 ), it follows that Ppq() and Qpq() are

controllable between - VVpq/X and + VVpq/X independent of angle . Therefore, the

transmittable real power P is controllable between

Po() - P(, ) Po() + 4.11

Qor() - Qr(, ) Qor() + ....4.12

A phasor diagram Figure 4.3(b), defining the relationship between Vs , Vr , Vx (the voltage

phasor across X) and the inserted voltage phasor Vpq,with controllable magnitude (0 Vpq

Vpqmax) and angle (0 Ppq 360), is shown in Figure 4.5.(For the illustrations, = 30 and

Vs=Vr=1, X=0.5, Vpqmax = 0.25 p.u. values were assumed.).As illustrated, the inserted voltage

phasor Vpq is added to the fixed sending end voltage phasor Vsett produce the effective

sending-end voltage Vsett= Vs+ Vpq. The difference Vsett Vr provides the compensated

voltage phasor, Vx , across X. As angle Ppq is varied over its full 360 degree range, the end of

phasor Vpq moves along a circle with its center located at the end of phasor Vs. The area

within this circle, obtained with Vpqmax, defines the operating range of phasor Vpq and thereby

the achievable compensation of the line.

32

(a) (b)

Figure 4.5. Range of transmittable real power P and receiving-end reactive power demand Q

vs. transmission angle of a UPFC controlled transmission line.

The rotation of phasor Vpq with angle pq modulates both the magnitude and angle of phasor

Vx and, therefore, both the transmitted real power, P, and the reactive power, Q R vary with

pq in a sinusoidal manner, as illustrated in Figure 4.5(b). This process, of course, requires

the voltage source (Vpq) to supply and absorb both reactive and real power, Qpq and Ppq,

which are also sinusoidal functions of angle pq, as shown in the Figure.

In order to investigate the capability of the UPFC to control real and reactive power flow in

the transmission line, refer to figure 4.3. Let it first be assumed that the injected

compensating voltage, is zero. Then the original elementary two machine system with

sending end voltage Vs receiving end voltage transmission angle and line impedance X

is restored. With these, the normalized transmitted power, () and the normalized reactive

power, = = supplied at the ends of the line, are shown plotted against

angle () in Figure 4.4. The relationship between real power () and reactive power

can readily be expressed with 2 /X = 1 in the following form:

33

2

{ (, ) ()}2 + { , 2

}2 = { } .4.15

Equation (4.14) describes a circle with a radius of 1.0 around the center defined by

coordinates P = 0 and Qr = -1 in a {Qr, P} plane, as illustrated for positive values of Pin

Figure 4.4(b). Each point of this circle gives the corresponding and values of the

uncompensated system at a specific transmission angle . For example, at = 0, = 0 and

= 0; at = 30, = 0.5 and = -Q.134; at = 90, = 1.0 and = -1.0; etc.

Refer again to Figure 4.3 and assume now that 0. It follows that the real and reactive

power change from their uncompensated values, () and (), as functions of the

magnitude and angle of the injected voltage phasor . Since angle is an unrestricted

variable (0 360), the boundary of the attainable control region for P (, ) and Q (, ) is

obtained from a complete rotation of phasor with its maximum magnitude .It

follows from the above equations that this control region is a circle with a center defined by

coordinates () and () and a radius of V, /X. With = = V, the boundary circle

can be described by the following equation: (4.15) The circular control regions defined by

(4.15) are shown in Figures 3.7 through (d) for V = 1.0, = 0.5, and X = 1.0 (per unit

or p.u. values) with their centers on the circular arc characterizing the uncompensated system

(4.14) at transmission angles = 0, 30, 60, and 90. In other words, the centers of the

control regions are defined by the corresponding (), () coordinates at angles = 0,

30, 60, and 90 in the { , P} plane.

Consider first Figure 4.6, which illustrates the case when the transmission angle is zero ( =

0). With = 0, P, () (and ) are all zero, i.e., the system is at standstill at the origin of

the , P coordinates. The circle around the origin of the { , P} plane is the loci of the

corresponding Q, and P values, obtained as the voltage phasor is rotated a full revolution

with its maximum magnitude . The area within this circle defines all P and Q, values

obtainable by controlling the magnitude and angle p of phasor . In other words, the

circle in the { , P} plane defines all P and Q, values attainable with the UPFC of a given

rating. It can be observed, for example, that the UPFC with the stipulated voltage rating of

0.5 p.u. is able to establish 0.5 p.u. power flow, in either direction, without imposing any

reactive power demand on either the sending-end or the receiving-end generator. (This

statement tacitly assumes that the sending-end and receiving-end voltages are provided by

34

independent power systems which are able to supply and absorb real power without any

internal angular change.) Of course, the UPFC, as illustrated, can force the system at one end

to supply reactive power for, or absorb that from, the system at the other end. Similar control

characteristics for real power P and the reactive power Qr can be observed at angles = 30,

60, and 90 in Figures 4.6(b), (c), and (d).

Fig 4.6 Control region of the attainable real power P and receiving-end reactive power

demand Q, with a UPFC-controlled transmission line at = 0 (a), = 300 (b), = 60 (c),

and = 90 (d).

35

In general, at any given transmission angle , the transmitted real power P, as well as the

reactive power demand at the receiving end can be controlled freely by the UPFC within

the boundary circle obtained in the { , P} plane by rotating the injected voltage phasor

with its maximum magnitude a full revolution. Furthermore, it should be noted that, although

the above presentation focuses on the receiving end reactive power, the reactive

component of the line current, and the corresponding reactive power can actually be

controlled with respect to the voltage selected at any point of the line. Figures 4.6(a) through

(d) clearly demonstrate that the UPFC, with its unique capability to control independently the

real and reactive power flow at any transmission angle, provides a powerful, hitherto

unattainable, new tool for transmission system control.

36

CHAPTER-5

37

5. SINGLE-MACHINE TO INFINITE-BUS POWER SYSTEM

INCORPORATED WITH UPFC

To study the new control strategy for the UPFC, a single machine infinite-bus system is

considered for dynamic stability at the first instance. The power system and its detailed

circuit model are shown in Fig. 5.1. The synchronous generator is represented by a 3rd order

machine model and the generator excitation system has a simple automatic voltage regulator

(AVR). The series converter injects a variable voltage source and the shunt converter a

variable current .

Each synchronous machine is represented as a third order model equipped with a simple

automatic voltage regulator (AVR) for excitation control. A PSS is also used for controlling

the local modal oscillations. No speed governor is assumed for highlighting the role of UPFC

control. The dynamics of each synchronous machine is represented by the followings:

= ( ) 5.2

= ( 0 + ( ) )/ 0

5.3

+

p = and -0.6 6 5.4

38

= + ( ) 5.5

The control u in the below equation is obtained from the PSS controllable loops as:

= ( . /1 + . ). [( 1 + . 1 ) / ( 1 + . 2 )] 5.6

Fig.5.2 shows the UPFC installed between the busses s and r in a single-machine to infinite-

bus power system. The UPFC is one of the most versatile FACTS devices, and controls the

real and reactive power flow in the line independently by using the series injected voltage.

The UPFC consists of four major parts; an excitation transformer (ET), a boosting

transformer (BT), a DC link capacitor and two three-phase voltage source converters

(VSC).The UPFC uses voltage source converters (VSCs) for series voltage injection as well

as shunt current control. The two voltage source converters (converter-1 and converter-2) are

connected via a common DC link capacitor as shown in Fig. 5.2.

39

a) b)

Fig. 5.3. (a) UPFC equivalent circuit with controlled voltage sources. (b) UPFC equivalent

circuit with controlled current sources.

Assuming that the voltages induced across BT and ET are and1 , respectively, the

UPFC is shown as two current sources (one positive and the other negative) connected across

the busses sand r, in Fig.5.3 (b). Fig.5.3 (a) shows the equivalent circuit with controlled

voltage sources.

Where: and are series and shunt reactances of UPFC converter transformers,

respectively; and are series and shunt susceptances of UPFC converter transformers,

respectively; and are series voltage magnitude ratio ( / ) and angle of with

respect to .

The real and reactive powers injected at the buses sand rare obtained as follows:

= sin( + ) 5.9

= cos( + ) 5.10

Is nearly zero ( 0) for the shunt converter operation, so we have the followings:

1 2 sin 0 5.11

1 2 cos 2 0 5.12

40

Then we conclude as below:

= |2 | sin 5.13

= 2 cos 5.14

The assumption of exact power balance between Converter-1 and Converter- 2 is never

realizable in actual practice as the two converters are independently controlled. Thus the

UPFC model is modified to take care of the mismatch in real power.

Let a current , in phase with the voltage , be drawn by the shunt converter. The real power

of converter-1 is,

1 = 5.15

To take care of real power mismatch between the converters, the injection modes use

as the additional term in eqn 5.16. With the above representation of the UPFC between bus s

and r, the equivalent circuit of single machine-infinite bus power system is shown in Fig.5.4.

= 2 sin + ...5.16

Fig. 5.4. Reduced equivalent circuit with single machine-infinite bus system with UPFC

In Fig.5.4 the controllable loads at the busses s and r are obtained from , , , are as

below:

= , = 5.17

2 2

41

5.4. UPFC Controlling Modes:

The UPFC has the unique capability of controlling real and reactive power flow on a

transmission line independently. The local control scheme assumes that both the series and

shunt converters generate controllable voltage sources while the voltage of DC-bus remains

constant.

The reactance of transmission line controls the real power flow. Thus the component ( ) of

the series injection voltage in quadrature with the line current is generated from real power

deviation ( ) in the transmission line after the series transformer. The in-phase

component ( ) is either generated from the reactive power deviation ( ) in the

transmission line or the voltage deviation ( -V) of the bus after the series transformer.

The relation between series converter voltage source components; and with

transmission line current with in phase and inquadrature with it is obtained as

follows:

2

= 2

+ 5.18

= 5.19

42

Where;

= 5.20

= + 5.21

= tan1 ( ) 5.22

2

= + 2 5.23

, , , , and are the direct and quadrature axis components of current and

voltages respectively. The magnitude ratio ()is defined as / and is the phase

difference between and . These controllable parameters and are calculated as

follows:

2 2

= 5.24

= tan1 ( ) + tan1 ( ) tan1 ( ) 5.25

Where and are the d-axis and q-axis transmission linecurrents after the series

transformer. and are the d-axis and q-axis voltage of the sth bus of UPFC. The

detailed phasor diagram in the d-q reference frame is shown in Fig. 5.5.

The in-phase and quadrature components; and , for UPFC series voltage source

control are usually obtained from conventional PI regulators using reactive and real power

deviations from reference reactive power and real power respectively as follows:

= + 5.26

= + 5.27

43

5.4.2. Voltage Control Mode:

Voltage control mode of UPFC can be realized by controlling the bus voltage using the

shunt-converter reactive current component.Due to the mismatch of real power between the

two converters the DC link capacitor voltage is not constant.

The dynamics of the DC link voltage neglecting losses can be represented by:

1

= [ 1 2 ] 5.28

2

= . / V 5.29

1 2

= [ sin( + ) + | | sin ] 5.30

Where; is in-phase component (with respect to ) of the shunt converter current further, to

control the DC-link voltage using a simple PI controller, the current is obtained as:

= + . 5.31

The following single machine to infinite bus data in p.u. is taken for the MATLAB

implementation to get the output characteristics with and without UPFC:

1) Generator data:

= 4.314

= 4 , = 0.3 , = 50 , = 0.1

2) UPFC data:

= 0.2 , = 0.2

44

4) Controller data:

By considering the above information as the respective parameter values in the MATLAB

code, and then we are running the program to get the characteristics.

For the above single machine to infinite bus power system network, by neglecting the UPFC

controller data, we are running the code initially, which is meant to obtain the characteristics

of without UPFC controller for both low power and high power output conditions.

= +

= +

By assigning the basic gain constants which are specified in above controller data in the

above equations, we will obtain the characteristics for the system with UPFC controller under

both low power and high power conditions.

Here the real and reactive power for the low power output conditions are taken as:

= +

= +

By considering the above controller data, we will obtain the characteristics for the UPFC

controller under both low power and high power output conditions.

45

CHAPTER-6

46

6. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

A single machine to infinite bus power system is considered in this analysis. The

synchronous generator is assumed to operate at low power output condition. The performance

of the above low power system is analyzed under a fault condition with and without UPFC.

The UPFC control scheme consists of controlling the voltage components Vcp and Vcr.

These voltage components are produced with the help of the PI regulator by considering the

real and reactive power deviation as its input. Here the gain constants are considered for the

PI regulator with the basic values. The overall parameters discussed prior to the analysis are

useful in explaining the same.

The synchronous machine is loaded at P = 0.4 p.u. and Q = 0.2 p.u. and the system is tested

for a 3-phase fault.

Fig 6.1. Transient analysis of a power system for low power output condition with and

without UPFC

47

Thus the characteristics are plotted against the rotor angle and time. The first curve in the

characteristics shows the Transient response of the system without a UPFC controller. The

second curve shows the Transient response of the system incorporated with a UPFC

controller having a conventional PI regulator.

In the first case, i.e., without a UPFC controller, the stability is achieved at t = 3.65 sec,

which is not as quick as expected. The peak overshoot is also not as good as expected.

Whereas, in the second case, with the UPFC controller, the stability is achieved rapidly when

compared to the first case, i.e., at t = 2.4 sec, and the electro-mechanical oscillations are also

damped quickly.

This shows that, with the help of the UPFC controller, the overall system stability can be

improved for a low power system.

48

6.2. Low power system with improved gain constants:

A single machine to infinite bus power system is considered in the above analysis. The

synchronous generator is assumed to operate at low power output condition (P=.4 p.u. and

Q=.2 p.u.). The performance of the above low power system is analyzed for a 3-phase fault

condition with and without UPFC.

The UPFC control scheme consists of controlling the voltage components Vcp and Vcr.

These voltage components are produced with the help of the PI regulator by considering the

real and reactive power deviation as its input. Here the gain constants are changed with the

improved values for the PI regulator. The overall parameters discussed prior to the analysis

are useful in explaining the same.

Fig 6.2. Transient analysis of a power system for low power output condition with and

without UPFC for modified gain constants.

49

Thus the characteristics are plotted against the rotor angle and time. The first curve in the

characteristics shows the Transient response of the system without a UPFC controller. The

second curve shows the Transient response of the system incorporated with a UPFC

controller having a conventional PI regulator.

In the first case, i.e., without a UPFC controller, the stability is not achieved so quickly, i.e.,

at t = 3.65 sec. The peak overshoot is also not as good as expected. Whereas, in the second

case, with the UPFC controller, the stability is achieved rapidly, i.e., at t = 1.405 sec and the

electro-mechanical oscillations are damped quickly when compared to the previous case.

This shows that, with the help of the UPFC controller, the overall system stability can be

improved with the modified gain parameters for a low power system.

50

6.3. High power system with basic gain constants:

A single machine to infinite bus power system is considered in the above analysis. The

synchronous generator is assumed to operate at high power output condition (P=1.4 p.u and

Q=0.6 p.u). The performance of the above high power system is analyzed for a 3-phase fault

condition with and without UPFC.

The UPFC control scheme consists of controlling the voltage components Vcp and Vcr.

These voltage components are produced with the help of the PI regulator by considering the

real and reactive power deviation as its input. Here the gain constants are considered for the

PI regulator with the basic values. The overall parameters discussed prior to the analysis are

useful in explaining the same.

Fig 6.3. Transient analysis of a power system for high power output condition with and

without UPFC.

51

Thus the characteristics are plotted against the rotor angle and time. The first curve in the

characteristics shows the Transient response of the system without a UPFC controller. The

second curve shows the Transient response of the system incorporated with a UPFC

controller having a conventional PI regulator.

In the first case, i.e., without a UPFC controller, the stability is not achieved, i.e., rotor falls

out of synchronism at t = 7 sec. The peak overshoot is also not as good as expected. Whereas,

in the second case, with the UPFC controller, the stability is achieved when compared to the

first case, i.e., at t = 4.56 sec and the electro-mechanical oscillations are damped.

This shows that, with the help of the UPFC controller, the overall system stability can be

improved for a high power system.

52

6.4. High power system with improved gain constants:

A single machine to infinite bus power system is considered in the above analysis. The

synchronous generator is assumed to operate at high power output condition (P=1.4 p.u. and

Q=.6 p.u.). The performance of the above high power system is analyzed for a 3-phase fault

with and without UPFC.

The UPFC control scheme consists of controlling the voltage components Vcp and Vcr.

These voltage components are produced with the help of the PI regulator by considering the

real and reactive power deviation as its input. Here the gain constants are changed with the

improved values for the PI regulator. The overall parameters discussed prior to the analysis

are useful in explaining the same.

Fig 6.4. Transient analysis of a power system for high power output condition with and

without UPFC for modified gain constants.

53

Thus the characteristics are plotted against the rotor angle and time. The first curve in the

characteristics shows the Transient response of the system without a UPFC controller. The

second curve shows the Transient response of the system incorporated with a UPFC

controller having a conventional PI regulator.

In the first case, i.e., without a UPFC controller, the stability is not achieved, i.e., rotor falls

out of synchronism at t = 7 sec. The peak overshoot is also not as good as expected. Whereas,

in the second case, with the UPFC controller, the electro-mechanical oscillations are damped

quickly, i.e., at t = 2.86 sec, and the peak overshoot is also reduced when compared to the

previous case.

This shows that, with the help of the UPFC controller, the overall system stability can be

improved and peak overshoot is also reduced with the modified gain parameters for a high

power system.

54

6.5. Comparison of the low power system with and without the UPFC

controller:

The above characteristic curves show the combined plot of the low power system. The first

characteristics is the one without a UPFC, the second one is with a UPFC, and the third one is

the characteristic with the UPFC along with the improved gain constants.

The three curves are compared against each other in one graph. This clearly explains that the

installation of a UPFC into a power system network is helpful in improving the stability. And

the peak overshoot is also reduced with the improved gain constant parameters.

Fig 6.5. Transient analysis of a power system for low power output condition with and

without UPFC along with modified gain constants.

55

The characteristics also tell us that the power system is less stable if the UPFC is not installed

into it. Thus, the UPFC not only improves the stability but also reduces the peak overshoot as

well.

Hence the overall performance of the power system can be improved for a low power output

condition with the installation of the UPFC and with the modified controller parameters of

UPFC.

56

6.6. Comparison of the high power system with and without the UPFC

controller:

The above characteristic curves show the combined plot of previous cases for the high power

system. The first characteristics is the one without a UPFC, the second one is with a UPFC,

and the third one is the characteristic with the UPFC along with the improved gain constants.

The three curves are compared against each other in one graph. This clearly explains that the

installation of a UPFC into a power system network is helpful in improving the stability. And

the peak overshoot is also reduced with the improved gain constant parameters.

Fig 6.6. Transient analysis of a power system for low power output condition with and

without UPFC along with modified gain constants.

57

The characteristics also tell us that the power system loses its synchronism if the UPFC is not

installed into it, as its a high power system. Hence the UPFC not only improves the stability

but also reduces the peak overshoot as well.

Hence the overall performance of the power system can be improved for a high power output

condition with the installation of the UPFC and with the modified controller parameters of

UPFC.

58

CHAPTER-7

59

7. CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

7.1. Conclusion

This project deals with the case study of Single machine to infinite bus networks and its

power flow control with the help of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) that is used to

maintain and improve the power system operation. This project presents the power flow

operation of power systems and its limitations, different devices to control the power

flow with the existing transmission lines, types of FACTS controllers used in the power

system, basic characteristics and operation of UPFC, Newton-Raphson flow chart and

algorithm with UPFC and a case study on the power flow control with UPFC.

The Unified Power Flow Controller provides simultaneous or individual controls of basic

system parameters like transmission voltage, impedance and phase angle there by

controlling the transmitted power. In this project single machine to infinite bus networks is

considered and power flow program with UPFC and without UPFC is simulated in

MATLAB. And also power flow program with UPFC and without UPFC by change in

controller parameters is also simulated in MATLAB. Results have shown that the controller

exhibits good power flow characteristics for different operating conditions. This feature to

control simultaneously all the transmission parameters with high flexibility cannot be

accomplished with the ordinary mechanical and other FACTS devices.

From economical point of view, more power can be transmitted over existing or new

transmission grids with unimpeded availability at an investment cost. Also, in many cases,

money can be saved on a decrease of power transmission losses. From an environmental

point of view, FACTS enables the transmission of power over vast distances with less or

much less right-of-way impact than would otherwise be possible. Furthermore, the saving

in transmission losses may well bring a corresponding decrease in need for generation, with

so much less toll on the environment. So to conclude, a single machine to infinite bus

network with UPFC gives more stable results when compared to without UPFC.

60

7.2. Scope for Future Work

Work on this topic never ends with limited application. It has much more area of

application such as damping of the power swings from local and inter-area oscillations,

Voltage regulation of local network, reduction of short-circuit current etc. and used within

power systems to enhance inter-area stability.

To include more than one UPFC for the advanced features in the power

system.

To maintain and improve the power system operation and control by optimal

location of UPFC using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization.

Coordinating UPFC with other FACTS controllers to have greater flexibility.

To extend the work towards a multi-machine power system.

61

REFERENCES

Systems" - Hingorani NG., Gyugyi L., Wiley-IEEE Press-1999.

[3] "UPFC Controller Design for Power System Stabilization using Particle Swarm

Optimization Algorithm" - by V.Gohari Sadr, M.R.Asadi and H.R.Baghaee; 978-1-

4244-2218-0/08/C-2008-IEEE.

P.K.Dash and G.Panda; IEEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol.147, No.1, January-

2000.

[5] "A Radial Basis Function Neural Network Controller for UPFC" - by P.K.Dash,

S.Mishra, and G.Panda; IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 15, No. 4,

November 2000.

[6] "Unified power flow concept for flexible AC transmission systems" - by Gyugyi.L.,

IEEE Proc. C, 1992, 139, (4), pp. 32S332.

[7] "The unified power flow controller: A new approach to power transmission control" -

by L.Gyugyi, C.D. Schauder, S.L.Torgerson, and A. Edris, IEEE Trans. on Power

Delivery, vol.10, no.2, pp.10881097, 1995.

M.Noroozian, L.Angquist, M.Ghandari, and G.Anderson, IEEE Trans. on Power

Delivery, vol.12, no.4, pp.16351641, 1997.

[9] "Control design and simulation of unified power flow controller" - by K.R.Padiyar

and A.M.Kulkarni, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol.13, no.4, pp.13481354,

1998.

[10] "Fuzzy logic based unified power flow controllers for transient stability

improvement" - by S.Limyingcharoen, U.D.Annakkage, and N.C.Pahalawaththa,

IEEE Proc.-C, vol.145, no.3, pp.225232, 1998.

62

[11] "FACTS Overview" - by IEEE Power Engineering Society and CIGRE,

Press; 1999.

[13] "Tuning the fuzzy damping controller for UPFC through genetic algorithm with

comparison to the gradient descent training" - by T.K.MOK, HaomingLiu, YixinNi,

FelixF.Wu, RonHui, Int.J Electrical power and energy systems 27(2005)275-283.

[14] "UPFC controller design for power system stabilization with improved genetic

algorithm" - by Stella.Morris, P.K.Dash, K.P.Basu, 29th Annual Conference of the

IEEE, Vol.2, Nov.2003 Page(s): 1540- 1545.

63

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