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UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER

FOR POWER SYSTEM STABILITY


Main Project Report submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement

for the award of Bachelors degree by

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY


KAKINADA
In the department of

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BY

N.Indira E.Pradeep Naidu


(Reg.No:09341A0264) (Reg.No:10345A0209)

Ch.L.Satish V.Alekhya
(Reg.No:09341A0251) (Reg.No:09341A0289)

UNDER THE ESTEEMED GUIDANCE OF


Mr. M.Venkateswara Rao

Associate Professor

DEPARTMENT OF EEE

GMRIT

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

GMR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada, A.P)
Accredited by NAAC-A+& NBA, ISO 9001:2008 Certified
GMR Nagar, Rajam-532127, A.P.

April-2013
GMR Institute of Technology
Rajam
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled as Unified Power Flow Controller for
Power System Stability, is being submitted by N.Indira, E.Pradeep Naidu, Ch.L.Satish,
V.Alekhya, in the partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology
in Electrical and Electronics Engineering of GMR Institute of Technology and is a record
of bonafide work carried out by them.

The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other University or
Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:

Mr. M.Venkateswara Rao Dr. P.Kanta Rao


Associate Professor Head of the Department
Department of EEE. Department of EEE.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We hereby acknowledge our profound gratitude to the following eminent personalities


whose aid and advice helped us to complete this project report successfully without any
difficulty.

We would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to our academic guide
Mr.M.VenkateswaraRao, Associate Professor, Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Department, GMR Institute of Technology for his esteemed guidance, encouragement and
support which was of immense help in carrying out this report, for which we are greatly
indebted.

We consider it our great privilege to express our deepest gratitude to


Dr.C.L.V.R.S.V.Prasad, Principal and Head of the Department, Dr.P.Kanta Rao for giving
us this valuable opportunity to undertake the project report.

We sincerely thank all the staff members of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Department for their sustained help in our pursuits and thank all of them who contributed
directly or indirectly in successfully carrying out this work.

Yours Sincerely,
Project Associates
N.Indira (09341A0264)
E.Pradeep Naidu (10345A0209)
Ch.L.Satish (09341A0251)
V.Alekhya (09341A0289)

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

FACTS Flexible AC Transmission System

SVC Static VAR Compensator

TCR Thyristor Controlled Reactor

TSR Thyristor Switched Reactor

TSC Thyristor Switched Capacitor

SSG Static Synchronous Generator

UPFC Unified Power Flow Controller

IPFC Interline Power Flow Controller

TSSR Thyristor Switched Series Reactor

TCSR Thyristor Controlled Series Reactor

TCSC Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor

TSSC Thyristor Switched Series Capacitor

SSSC Static Synchronous Series Compensation

TCPST Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer

STATCOM Static Synchronous Compensator

NR METHOD Newton-Raphson Method

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

Vs sending end voltage

Vr receiving end voltage

s sending end bus

r receiving end bus

R resistance of transmission line

X reactance of transmission line

G conductance of transmission line

B susceptance of transmission line

Ic transmission line current

Vdc voltage across the DC link

Vpq injected voltage

Vpqmax maximum value of voltage injected

VRef reference value of voltage

ZRef reference value of impedence

QRef reference value of reactive power

d direct axis

q quadrature axis

series voltage magnitude ratio

rotor angle

P real power

Q reactive power

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LIST OF FIGURES

S.NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

2.1 Classification of Power System Stability 10

3.1 Circuit Diagram of Static VAR Compensator (SVC) 19

3.2 Circuit Diagram of Thyristor Controlled Series 20

Capacitor (TCSC)

3.3 Block Diagram of Static Synchronous Series 20

Compensator (SSSC)

3.4 Circuit Diagram of Static Synchronous 21

Compensator (STATCOM)

3.5 Circuit Diagram of Interline Power Flow Controller 22

3.6 Circuit Diagram of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) 23

3.7 Circuit Diagram of Generalized UPFC 23

4.1 Basic circuit arrangement of Unified Power Flow Controller 27

4.2 Basic UPFC Control Functions 29

4.3 Two Machine system with the unified power flow controller 30

4.4 (a) Transmittable real power and receiving-end reactive 30

power demand transmission angle of a two-machine system

(b) The corresponding Qo vs Po

4.5 Range of transmittable real power P and receiving-end 33

reactive power demand Q vs. transmission angle of a

UPFC controlled transmission line

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4.6 Control region of the attainable real power P and receiving 35

end reactive power demand Q, with a UPFC-controlled

transmission line at = 0 (a), = 300 (b), = 60 (c),

and = 90 (d)

5.1 Single-machine infinite-bus power system incorporated 38

with UPFC

5.2 UPFC installed in a single machine to infinite bus power 39

system

5.3 (a) UPFC equivalent circuit with controlled voltage sources 40

(b) UPFC equivalent circuit with controlled current sources

5.4 Reduced equivalent circuit with single machine-infinite 41

bus system with UPFC

5.5 Phasor diagram 42

6.1 Transient analysis of a power system for low power output 47

condition with and without UPFC

6.2 Transient analysis of a power system for low power output 49

condition with and without UPFC for modified gain constants

6.3 Transient analysis of a power system for high power output 51

condition with and without UPFC

6.4 Transient analysis of a power system for high power output 53

condition with and without UPFC for modified gain constants

6.5 Transient analysis of a power system for low power output 55

condition with and without UPFC along with modified gain

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constants

6.6 Transient analysis of a power system for high power output 57

condition with and without UPFC along with modified

gain constants.

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LIST OF CONTENTS

S.NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 2

1.1. Introduction 2

1.2. Organization of the Project 3

2. Power System Stability 6

2.1. Introduction to Power System Stability 6

2.2. Basic Concepts of Stability 6

2.3. Classification of Stability 10

2.4. Methods of Improving Stability 12

3. FACTS Devices 16

3.1. Introduction to FACTS Devices 16

3.2. Basic Types of FACTS Controllers 16

3.3. Different FACTS Controllers 18

3.4. Advantages of FACTS 24

4. Basics of Unified Power Flow Controller 26

4.1. Introduction to UPFC 26

4.2. Working and Operation of UPFC 26

4.3. Basic Control Functions 28

4.4. Basic Principles of P and Q Control 29

4.5. Independent Real and Reactive Power Flow Control 33

5. Single-Machine to Infinite-Bus Power 38

System Incorporated With UPFC

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5.1. Basic Circuit Description 38

5.2. Synchronous Machine Model 38

5.3. UPFC Model 39

5.4. UPFC Controlling Modes 42

5.5. MATLAB Implementation 44

6. Results and Analysis 47

6.1. Low power system with basic gain constants 47

6.2. Low power system with improved gain constants 49

6.3. High power system with basic gain constants 51

6.4. High power system with improved gain constants 53

6.5. Comparison of the low power system with and 55

without the UPFC controller

6.6. Comparison of the high power system with and without 57

the UPFC controller

7. Conclusion and Scope for Future Work 60

7.1. Conclusion 60

7.2. Scope for Future Work 61

REFERENCES 62

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ABSTRACT
With the increase in power demand, operation and planning of large interconnected
power system are becoming more complex, so power system will become less secure and
stable. Operating environment, conventional planning and operating methods can leave
power system exposed to instabilities. Voltage stability is one of the phenomena which have
result in a major blackout. Moreover, with the fast development of restructuring, the problem
of voltage stability has become a major concern in deregulated power systems. The Flexible
AC transmission systems (FACTS) initiative was launched to solve the above emerging
problems due to restrictions on the transmission line construction and to facilitate the
growing power export/import and wheeling transactions among the utilities.
Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a versatile device in the FACTS family of
controllers which has the ability to simultaneously control all the transmission parameters of
power systems i.e. voltage, impedance and phase angle which determines the power flow of a
transmission line. Controlling power flow in modern power systems can be made more
flexible by the use of recent developments in power electronic and computing control
technology. The UPFC provides a promising means to control power flow in modern power
systems. Placement of UPFC in suitable can lead to control in line flow and maintain bus
voltages in desired level and so improve voltage stability margins.
This project deals with UPFC analysis, single machine infinite bus system with and
without UPFC, and impact on these with change in controller parameters for improvement of
voltage profile and reduction of power system losses.
MATLAB codes are tested on a single machine infinite bus system with and without
UPFC device and impact on these with change in controller parameters and results are
presented.

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CHAPTER-1

1
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Introduction

Economic and operational factors make power systems to utilize maximum percentage of
their transmission capacity and consequently operate close to stability limit with fewer
margins. Existence of transmission system constraints dictates the finite amount of
power that can be transferred between two points on the electric grid. In practice, it
may not be possible to deliver all bilateral and multilateral contracts in full and to
supply all pool demand at least cost as it may lead to violation of operating constraints
such as voltage limits and line overloads (congestion) . In such stressful and tensional
environment, power system congestion and voltage instability can be emerged as major
threats that the system operators (SOs) may be faced with them. The SO should ensure
the operation of transmission system within acceptable operating limits. Voltage security is
becoming an increasingly limiting factor in the planning and operation of many power
systems. With increased system loading and open transmission access pressures, power
systems are more vulnerable to voltage instability.

The FACTS initiative was launched to solve the above emerging problems due to restrictions
on the transmission line construction and to facilitate the growing power export/import and
wheeling transactions among the utilities. FACTS devices can enhance transmission system
control and increase line loading in some cases all the way up to thermal limits thereby
without compromising reliability. These devices can be an alternative to reduce the flows in
heavily loaded lines, resulting in an increased load ability, low system loss, improved
stability of the network, reduced cost of production and fulfilled contracture requirement by
controlling the power flows in the network, reduce cost of production and fulfilled
contracture requirement by controlling the power flows in the network. These capabilities
allow transmission system owners and operators to maximize asset utilization and execute
additional bulk transfer with immediate bottom-line benefits. FACTS devices provide new
control facilities, both in steady state power control.

UPFC is the most comprehensive multivariable FACTS controller. It combines features of


two old FACTS devices like STATCOM and SSSC. The term Unified means that it can
simultaneously control voltage, phase angle and impedance. Alternatively it can control real

2
and reactive power in transmission line. UPFC which consists of a series and a shunt
converter connected by a common DC link capacitor.

In practice, these two devices are two voltage source Converters (VSIs) connected
respectively in shunt with the transmission line through a shunt transformer and in series with
the transmission line through a series transformer, connected to each other by a common DC
link including a storage capacitor. The shunt converter is used for voltage regulation at the
point of connection injecting an opportune reactive power flow into the line and to balance
the real power flow exchanged between the series converter and the transmission line. The
series converter can be used to control the real and reactive line power flow inserting a
voltage with controllable magnitude and phase in series with the transmission line. Thereby,
the UPFC can fulfill functions of reactive shunt compensation, active series compensation
and phase shifting

This project deals with UPFC analysis, single machine infinite bus system with and without
UPFC, and impact on these with change in controller parameters for Improvement of
voltage profile and Reduction of power system losses.
The main aim of the power system network is to Use the existing transmission lines to fullest
extent by maintaining the voltage and power flows within specified limits. Due to sudden
changes in load, and during short circuits & fault conditions, voltage at various buses may
change or power flows in a transmission line may exceed well above their capability. This
may have impact on the rotor angle of the synchronous machine towards the source side and
thus upon the stability of the system. So, we place UPFC in a single machine infinite bus
system so that the stability is improved.

1.2. Organization of the Project

The report of the work done is organized on as follows:

Chapter 2: It deals about Power system stability and classification of stability and
methods of improving power system stability.

Chapter 3: Gives a brief introduction about different types of FACTS controllers.

Chapter 4: It gives a brief overview of unified power flow controller. In this chapter the
circuit arrangements, operation, basic control functions and characteristics of

3
the UPFC are discussed. UPFC mathematical background and Load Flow
studies with UPFC are also discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 5: It discusses about the single machine infinite bus system with and without
UPFC. It discusses impact on these with change in controller parameters of
proposed controller.

Chapter 6: It presents results and their discussions.

Chapter 7: It discusses important conclusions and scope of future work. Adequate


references are provided at the end of the chapter.

4
CHAPTER-2

5
2. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY

2.1. Introduction to Power System Stability


Power system stability is the ability of the electric power system, for a given initial operating
condition, to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a physical or
electrical disturbance, with system variables bounded so that practically the entire power
system remains intact.

Stability is a condition of equilibrium between opposing forces. The mechanism by which


interconnected synchronous machines maintain synchronism. With one another is through
restoring forces, which act whenever there are forces tending to accelerate or decelerate one
or more machines with respect to other machines. Under steady-state conditions, there is
equilibrium between the input mechanical torque and the output electrical torque of each
machine, and the speed remains constant. If the system is perturbed this equilibrium is upset,
resulting in acceleration or deceleration of the rotors of the machines according to the laws of
motion of a rotating body. If one generator temporarily runs faster than another, the angular
position of its rotor relative to that of the slower machine will advance. The resulting angular
difference transfers part of the load from the slow machine to the fast machine, depending On
the power-angle relationship. This tends to reduce the speed difference and hence angular
separation. The power-angle relationship, as discussed above is highly nonlinear. Beyond a
certain limit, an increase in angular separation is accompanied by a decrease in power
transfer; this increases the angular separation further and leads to instability.
For any given situation, the stability of the system depends on whether or not the deviations
in angular positions of the rotors result in sufficient restoring torques.

2.2. Basic Concepts of Stability

2.2.1. Rotor Angle Stability

Rotor angle stability is the ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power system
to remain in synchronism. The stability problem involves the study of the electro mechanical
oscillations inherent in power systems. A fundamental factor in this problem is the manner in
which the power outputs of synchronous machines vary as their rotors oscillate.

6
When two or more synchronous machines are interconnected, the stator voltages and currents
of all the machines must have the same frequency and the rotor mechanical speed of each is
synchronized to this frequency. Therefore, the rotors of all interconnected synchronous
machines must be in synchronism.

The physical arrangement (spatial distribution) of the stator armature windings such that the
time-varying alternating currents flowing in the three-phase windings produce a rotating
magnetic field that, under steady-state operation, rotates at the same speed as the rotor. The
stator and rotor fields react with each other and an electromagnetic torque results from the
tendency of the two fields to align themselves. In a generator, this electromagnetic torque
opposes rotation of the rotor, so that mechanical torque must be applied by the prime mover
to sustain rotation. The electrical torque (or power) output of the generator is changed only by
changing the mechanical torque input by the prime mover. The effect of increasing the
mechanical torque input is to advance the rotor to a new position relative to the revolving
magnetic field of the stator. Conversely, a reduction of mechanical torque or power input will
retard the rotor position. Under steady-state operating conditions, the rotor field and the
revolving field of the stator have the same speed. However, there is an angular separation
between them depending on the electrical torque output of the generator.

2.2.2. Voltage Stability and Voltage Collapse

Voltage stability is the ability of a power system to maintain steady acceptable voltages at all
buses in the system under normal operating conditions and after being subjected to a
disturbance. A system enters a state of voltage instability when a disturbance, increase in load
demand, or change in system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable drop in
voltage. The main factor causing instability is inability of the power system to meet the
demand for reactive power. The heart of the problem is usually the voltage drop that occurs
when active power and reactive power flow through inductive reactances associated with the
transmission network.

A criterion for voltage stability is that, at a given operating condition for every bus in the
system, the bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is
increased. A system is voltage unstable if, for at least one bus in the system, the bus voltage
magnitude (V) decreases as the reactive power injection (Q) at the same bus is increased. In
other words, a system is voltage stable if V-Q sensitivity is positive for every bus and voltage
unstable if V-Q sensitivity is negative for at least one bus.
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Voltage stability is essentially a local phenomenon; however, its consequences may have a
widespread impact. Voltage collapse is more complex than simple voltage instability and is
usually the result of a sequence of events accompanying voltage instability leading to a low-
voltage profile in a significant part of the power system.

A criterion for small-disturbance voltage stability is that, at a given operating condition for
every bus in the system, the bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection
at the same bus is increased .A system is voltage unstable if, for at least one bus in the
system, the bus voltage magnitude (V) decreases as the reactive power injection (Q) at the
same bus is increased. In other words, a system is voltage-stable if V-Q sensitivity is positive
for every bus and unstable if V-Q sensitivity is negative for at least one bus. Several recent
major power system blackouts are characterized by a progressive decline in voltage
magnitude at the system buses. These events are termed voltage collapses. The mechanisms
of voltage collapse are not well defined and the dynamics of the process are not well
understood.

A voltage collapse is defined as the process by which voltage instability lead to a very low
voltage profile in a significant part of the system. Voltage stability in power systems is
influenced by generator field and armature current limiters, on-load tap changers and load
dynamics.

The importance of the armature current limiter behaviour is emphasized since this protection
system causes the generator to lose all of its voltage support when trying to keep the armature
current on a constant level. During a voltage decline in the transmission network, the on-load
tap changers try to maintain a constant load voltage. This will cause a higher current demand
in the transmission system which increases the voltage drop even more.

2.2.3. Mid Term and Long Term Stability

The terms long-term stability and mid-term stability are relatively new to the literature on
power system stability .They were introduced as a result of the need to deal with problems
associated with the dynamic response of power systems to severe upsets. Severe system
upsets result in large excursions of voltage, frequency, and power flows that thereby invoke
the actions of slow processes, controls, and protections not modelled in conventional
transient stability studies. The characteristic times of the processes and devices activated by

8
the large voltage and frequency shifts will range from a matter of seconds (the responses of
devices such as prime mover energy supply systems and load voltage regulators).

Long-term stability analysis assumes that inter-machine synchronizing power oscillations


have damped out, the result being uniform system frequency. The focus is on the slower and
longer-duration phenomena that accompany large-scale system upsets and on the resulting
large, sustained mismatches between generation and consumption of active and reactive
power. These phenomena include: boiler dynamics of thermal units, penstock and conduit
dynamics of hydro units, automatic generation control, power plant and transmission system
protection/controls, transformer saturation, and off-nominal frequency effects on loads and
the network.
The mid-term response represents the transition between short-term and long term response.
In mid-term stability studies, the focus is on synchronizing power oscillations between
machines, including the effects of Some of the slower phenomena, and possibly larger
voltage or frequency excursions.

Typical ranges of time periods are as follows:


Short-term or transient: 0 to 10 second
M id-term: 10 seconds to a few minutes
Long-term: a few minutes to 10's of minutes

It should, however, be noted that the distinction between mid-term and long-term stability is
primarily based on the phenomena being analyzed and the system representation used,
particularly with regard to fast transients and inter-machine oscillations, rather than the time
period involved.
Generally, long-term and mid-term stability problems are associated with inadequacies in
Equipment responses, poor coordination of control and protection or insufficient active /
reactive power reserves.
Long-term stability is usually concerned with system response to major disturbances that that
involve contingencies beyond the normal system design criteria. This may entail cascading
and splitting of the power system into a number of separate islands with the generators in
each island remaining in synchronism. Stability in this case is a question of whether or not
each island will reach an acceptable state of operating equilibrium with minimal loss of load.
It is determined by the overall response of the island as evidenced by its mean frequency,

9
rather than the relative motion of machines. In an extreme case, the system and unit
protections may compound the adverse situation and lead to collapse of the island as a whole
or in part.
Other applications of long-term and mid-term stability analysis include dynamic analysis of
voltage stability requiring simulation of the effects of transformer tap-changing, generator
over excitation protection and reactive power limits, and thermostatic loads. In this case,
inter-machine oscillations are not likely to be important. However, care should be exercised
not to neglect some of the fast dynamics.
There is limited experience and literature related to the analysis of long-term and mid-term
stability. As more experience is gained and improved analytical techniques for simulation of
slow as well as fast dynamics become available, the distinction between mid-term and long-
term stability becomes less significant.

2.3. Classification of Stability

Figure 2.1. Classification of Power System Stability

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The electric power sources in a power system are usually synchronous generators, which are
coupled together by a common electric network in such a way that the rotors of all generators
are in synchronized rotation. This mode, called the normal, or steady-state, mode, should be
stable; that is, the power system must return to the initial state (or one practically identical)
every time after a deviation from the steady-state mode. The deviations may be associated
with a variation in load, short circuits, disconnections of power transmission lines, and
similar causes. The systems stability is usually diminished by an increase in the load (the
power delivered by the generators) and a decrease in the voltage (an increase in the power
consumed or a decrease in the excitation of the generators); specific limit, or critical, values
can be determined for each power system for these quantities or for associated quantities that
characterize the stability limit. A power system can operate reliably if a specific stability
margin is provided for it, that is, if the parameters of the operating mode and the system itself
differ sufficiently from the critical values. Various measures are taken to ensure the stability
of an electric power system, such as designing the system with an adequate stability margin,
regulating the excitation of the generators automatically, and using automated counter
emergency equipment.

2.3.1. Steady State Stability

Steady State Stability studies are restricted to small and gradual changes in the system
operating conditions. In this we basically concentrate on restricting the bus voltages close to
their nominal values. We also ensure that phase angles between two buses are not too large
and check for the overloading of the power equipment and transmission lines. These checks
are usually done using power flow studies.

2.3.2. Transient Stability

Transient Stability involves the study of the power system following a major disturbance.
Following a large disturbance the synchronous alternator the machine power (load) angle
changes due to sudden acceleration of the rotor shaft. The objective of the transient stability
study is to ascertain whether the load angle returns to a steady value following the clearance
of the disturbance. Following a transient disturbance, if the power system is stable, it will
reach a new equilibrium state with practically the entire system intact; the actions of
automatic controls and possibly human operators will eventually restore the system to normal
state. On the other hand, if the system is unstable, it will result in a run-away or run-down

11
situation for example, a progressive increase in angular separation of generator rotors, or a
progressive decrease in bus voltages.

An unstable system condition could lead to cascading outages and shut-down of a major
portion of the power system.

2.3.3. Dynamic Stability


The ability of a power system to maintain stability under continuous small disturbances is
investigated under the name of Dynamic Stability (also known as small-signal stability).
These small disturbances occur due random fluctuations in loads and generation levels. In an
interconnected power system, these random variations can lead catastrophic failure as this
may force the rotor angle to increase steadily.
One of the most important parts of power system stability is dynamic stability. Controlling
devices to improve dynamic stability of power systems are called power system stabilizers
(PSS). The problem is to determine the proper place of stabilizers next to generators which
needs those stabilizers. Changes and expansions of the network may cause movement of
stabilizers. One solution of this problem is collecting the stabilizers in one place of network
and connecting them to network through a channel.
For many years power system stabilizers (PSS) have been one of the most common
controllers used to damp out power system oscillations. Unfortunately, in some operating
conditions such as inter-area oscillations it may not work properly. Nowadays, application of
power electronic based devices such as FACTS is considered as one of the most effective
ways to enhance power system stability, controllability and increasing power transfer limits
as well as its operational margins. Unified power flow controller (UPFC) is a multi-functional
device.

2.4. Methods of Improving Stability

For a given system, any one method of improving stability may not be adequate. The best
approach is likely to be a combination of several methods judicious chosen so as to most
effectively assist in maintaining stability for different contingencies and system conditions. In
applying these method to the solution of specific stability problems, it is important to keep in
mind the overall performance of the power system. Solution to the stability problem of one
category should not be effected at the expense of another category.

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2.4.1. Transient Stability Enhancement:

Methods of improving transient stability try to achieve one or more of the following effects:

(a) Reduction in the disturbing influence by minimizing the fault severity and duration.
(b) Increase of the restoring synchronizing forces.
(c) Reduction of the accelerating torque through control of prime-mover mechanical
power.
(d) Reduction of the accelerating torque by applying artificial load.
The following are various methods of achieving these objectives.

2.4.2. High-Speed Fault Clearing

The amount of kinetic energy gained by the generators during a fault is directly proportional
to the fault duration; the quicker the fault is cleared, the less disturbance it causes.

Two-cycle breakers, with high-speed relays and communication, are now widely used in
locations where rapid fault clearing is important.

In special circumstances, even faster clearing may be desirable. It describes the development
and application of a one-cycle circuit breaker by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).
Combined with a rapid response overcurrent type sensor, which anticipates fault magnitude,
nearly one-cycle total fault duration is attained. One-cycle breakers are not yet in widespread
use. It describes an ultra-high-speed relaying system for EHV lines based on travelling wave
detection.

2.4.3. Reactor Switching

Shunt reactor near generators provide a simple and convenient means of improving transient
stability. The reactor normally remains connected to the network. The resulting reactive load
increases the generator internal voltage, and this is beneficial to stability. Following a fault,
switching out the reactor further improves stability.

2.4.4 Small- Signal Stability Enhancement

The problem of small-signal stability is usually one of sufficient damping of system


oscillations. The use of power system stabilizers to control generator excitation systems is the
most cost-effective method of enhancing the small-signal stability of power systems.

13
Additionally, supplemental stabilizing signals may be used to modulate HVDC converter
controls and static var compensator controls to enhance damping of system oscillations.

The controls used for small-signal stability enhancement should perform satisfactorily under
severe transient disturbances. Therefore, while the controls are designed using linear
techniques, their overall performance is assessed by considering mall-as well as large-signal
responses.

In large systems, the selection of units on which to install the PSS to damp interarea
oscillations may not be rapidly apparent. Although the principle of PSS deign for damping of
local and interarea modes are similar, the mechanism by which a PSS contributes to the
damping of the two types of oscillation are different. A PSS adds damping to an interarea
mode largely by modulating system loads, whereas the performance of the PSS with regard to
a local mode is only slightly affected by the load characteristics. Understanding these
mechanism is essential to the effective application of the PSS.

14
CHAPTER-3

15
3. FACTS DEVICES
3.1. Introduction to FACTS Devices
Most of the worlds electric supply systems are widely interconnected. This is done for
economic reasons, to reduce the cost of electricity and to improve its reliability, it must
however be kept in mind that these inter connections are very complex and they emerged
gradually based upon the requirements of various utilities. The power system becomes
increasingly complex to operate and system can become less secure for riding through major
outages. It may lead to large power flows with inadequate control, excessive reactive power.
Thus the full potential of a transmission connection cannot be utilized. It is very difficult to
control such transmission of power in such systems. The power electronic controllers are all
grouped in a category called Flexible AC Transmission Controllers or FACTS controllers
will satisfy this need.
FACTS controllers can control the interrelated parameters that govern the operation of
transmission system. Impedance, Current, Voltage, Phase angle etc., are some of the
interrelated parameters that are controlled. By providing added flexibility, FACTS controllers
can enable a line to carry power closer to its thermal rating.
The FACTS technology is not a single high power controller but rather a collection of
controllers, which can be applied individually or in co-ordination with others to control one
or more of the interrelated system parameters mentioned above. A Well-chosen FACTS
controller can overcome specific limitations of designated transmission line.

3.2. Basic Types of FACTS Controllers


Basically the FACTS controllers are four types:

1. Series Controllers

2. Shunt Controllers

3. Combined Series-Series Controllers

4. Combined Series-Shunt Controllers


3.2.1. Series Controllers
By means of controlling impedance or phase angle or series injection of voltage. A series
FACTS control can control the flow of current. Hence, the series controller could be
variable impedance, such as capacitor, reactor or power electronics based variable source to
16
serve the desired need. But generally all series controllers inject variable voltage in series
with line. Even variable impedance multiplied by current flow through it represents an
injected series voltage. As long as voltage is in quadrature with the line current, the series
controller only supplies or consumes variable reactive power. Any other phase relationship
will involve real power as well.
3.2.2. Shunt Controllers
As in the case of series controllers, shunt controllers may be variable impedance, variable
source or a combination of these. In principle all shunt controller inject current into the
system. Even variable shunt impedance causes a variable current injection into the line. As
long as injected current is in phase quadrature with the line voltage it supplies or
consumes variable reactive power. Any other phase relationship will involve real power
exchange also.
3.2.3. Combined Series-Series Controllers
This could be a combination of separate series controllers, which are controlled in a
coordinated manner, or it could be a unified controller. The series controllers could provide
independent series reactive compensation but also could transfer real power among the lines
via the power link (D.C link). The real power transfer capability of the unified series-series
controller, referred to as interline power flow controller, makes it possible to balance both
the real and reactive power flow in the lines. And there by maximize the utilization of the
transmission system. Note that the term unified here means that the DC terminals of all
controller converters are all connected together for real power transfer.
3.2.4. Combined Series-Shunt Controllers
This is a combination of series and shunt controllers which are controlled in a coordinated
manner or a unified power flow controller with series and shunt elements. In principle
combined shunt and series controller inject current in to the system with the shunt part of the
controller and voltage in series in the line with the series part of the controller. However
when the shunt and series controllers are unified, there can be a real power exchange
between the series and shunt controllers via the power link.

Inferring from one and two of above, the shunt converter of the UPFC injects current into
the line while the series converter injects voltage in series with the line. The power link
enables real power exchange between the two.
From the above discussion it can be inferred that the word unified emphasizes or refers to
the existence of a power link via which the combination of controllers i.e. series series and

17
series - shunt exchange real power, also the power link if provided with a storage system
such as D.C capacitors etc., is much more effective for controlling the system dynamics.
After all the above discussion FACTS can be defined as:
Alternating current transmission systems incorporating power electronic based and other
controllers to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability.
A power electronic based system and other static equipment that provide control of one or
more AC transmission system parameters is known as FACTS controller
Below a list of FACTS controllers that fall into the four categories that has been discussed.
The working of each has not been discussed as their general principal of working has
already been discussed.
Shunt Controllers
1. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)
2. Static VAR Compensator (SVC)
3. Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR)
4. Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC)

Series Controllers
1. Static Synchronous Series Controller (SSSC)
2. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
Combined Shunt and Series connected Controllers
1. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
2. Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer (TCPST)
Combined Series and Series connected Controllers
1. Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)

3.3. Different FACTS Controllers


First Generation of FACTS Controllers: These categories of controllers are designed based
on thyristor based FACTS technology.
3.3.1. Static VAR Compensator (SVC)
It is the first device in the first generation of FACTS controller introduced to provide fast-
acting reactive power compensation in the transmission network.
Circuit Description: Static Var Compensator as shown in Figure 3.1 composed of
thyristor controlled reactor (TCR), thyristor switched capacitor (TSC) and harmonic filters
connected in parallel to provide shunt compensation. The current in the thyristor controlled

18
reactor is controlled by the thyristor valve that controls the fundamental current by
changing the firing angle, ensuring the voltage limited to an acceptable range at the injected
node. Current harmonics are inevitable during the operation of thyristor controlled
rectifiers, thus it is essential to have filters to eliminate harmonics in the SVC system. The
filter banks not only absorb the risk harmonics but also produce the capacitive reactive
power.

Figure 3.1. Circuit Diagram of Static VAR Compensator (SVC)

Characteristics of SVC: SVC placed in a transmission network provides a voltage control to


improve the power flow control of the power systems.
In real time scenario, it effectively controls the reactive power, improves the power factor,
reduces the voltage levels caused by the nonlinear loads, improves the power quality and
reduces the energy consumption.
The main advantage of SVC application is to maintain bus voltage approximately near a
constant level in addition used to improve transient stability. It is widely used in metallurgy,
electrified railway, wind power generation etc.
3.3.2. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
It is designed based on the thyristor based FACTS technology that has the ability to control
the line impedance with a thyristor-controlled capacitor placed in series with the
transmission line. It is used to increase the transmission line capability by installing a series
capacitor that reduces the net series impedance thus allowing additional power to be
transferred. The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 3.2.

19
Figure 3.2. Circuit Diagram of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

Characteristics of TCSC: TCSC placed in a transmission network provides the power flow
control in a power system.
The Thyristors in TCSC device offers a flexible adjustment with the ability to control the
continuous line compensation. TCSC controllers effectively used for solving power
system problems of voltage stability in long transmission lines.
Second Generation of FACTS Controllers:
These categories of controllers are designed based on voltage source converter
FACTS technology.
3.3.3. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
Static Synchronous Series Compensator is based on solid-state voltage source converter
designed to generate the desired voltage magnitude independent of line current.
Circuit Description: SSSC consists of a converter, DC bus (storage unit) and coupling
transformer as shown in Figure 3.3. The dc bus uses the converter to synthesize an AC
voltage waveform that is inserted in series with transmission line through the transformer
with an appropriate phase angle and line current. If the injected voltage is in phase with
the line current it exchanges a real power and if the injected voltage is in quadrature with
line current it exchanges a reactive power. Therefore, it has the ability to exchange both the
real and reactive power in a transmission line.

Figure 3.3. Block Diagram of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)

20
Characteristics of SSSC: SSSC in a transmission network generates a desired
compensating voltage independent of the magnitude of line current.
The SSSC has a capability to exchange both active and reactive power .All the above
features of SSSC attract the FACTS device for power flow control.
3.3.4. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)
It is designed based on Voltage source converter (VSC) electronic device with Gate turn off
thyristor and dc capacitor coupled with a step down transformer tied to a
transmission line as shown in Figure 3.4. It converts the dc input voltage into ac output
voltages to compensate the active and reactive power of the system. STATCOM has better
characteristics than SVC and it is used for voltage control and reactive power compensation.

Figure 3.4. Circuit Diagram of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

Characteristics of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM): STATCOM placed on a


transmission network improve the voltage stability of a power system by controlling the
voltage in transmission and distribution systems, provides the desired reactive power
compensation of a power system.
Third Generation of FACTS Controllers:
The third generation of FACTS controllers is designed by combining the features of
previous generations series and shunt compensation FACTS controllers.
3.3.5. Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)
It is designed based on Convertible Static Compensator (CSC) of FACTS Controllers. As
shown in Figure 3.5 IPFC consists of two series connected converters with two transmission
lines. It is a device that provides a comprehensive power flow control for a multi-line

21
transmission system and consists of multiple number of DC to AC converters, each providing
series compensation for a different transmission line. The converters are linked together to
their DC terminals and connected to the AC systems through their series coupling
transformers. With this arrangement, it provides series reactive compensation in addition any
converter can be controlled to supply active power to the common dc link from its own
transmission line.

Figure 3.5: Circuit Diagram of Interline power flow Controller

Characteristics of IPFC: To avoid the control of power flow problem in one system with
synchronous of power in other system, installation of IPFC system in additional parallel
converter is required to meet the active power demand
3.3.6. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
It is designed by combining the series compensator (SSSC) and shunt compensator
(STATCOM) coupled with a common DC capacitor. It provides the ability to
simultaneously control all the transmission parameters of power systems, i.e. voltage,
impedance and phase angle.
Circuit Description: As shown in Figure 3.6 it consists of two converters one connected
in series with the transmission line through a series inserted transformer and the other one
connected in shunt with the transmission line through a shunt transformer. The DC
terminal of the two converters is connected together with a DC capacitor. The series
converter control to inject voltage magnitude and phase angle in series with the line to
control the active and reactive power flows on the transmission line. Hence the series
converter will exchange active and reactive power with the line.
22
Figure 3.6: Circuit Diagram of UPFC

Characteristic of UPFC: The concept of UPFC makes it possible to handle practically all the
power flow control and transmission lines compensation problems using solid-state
controllers that provide functional flexibility which are generally not obtained by thyristor-
controlled controllers.
3.3.7. Generalized Unified power Flow Controller (GUPFC)
It has been proposed to realize the simultaneous power flow control of several transmission
lines. It is designed by combining three or more dc to ac converters working together
extending the concepts of voltage and power flow control of the known two-converter UPFC
controller to multi voltage and power flow control. The GUPFC shown in Figure 3.7 consists
of three converters, one

Figure 3.7: Circuit Diagram of Generalized UPFC

23
3.4. Advantages of FACTS

The following are the benefits that are principally derived by using the FACTS
controllers:
a) The flow of power is ordered. It may be as per the contract or as per the
requirements of utilities.

b) It increases the loading capability of the lines to their thermal capability.


Overcoming their limitations and sharing of power among lines can accomplish this.

c) It makes the system secure.

d) Provides secure tie line connections to neighboring utilities and regions, thereby
decreasing over all generation reserve requirements on both sides.

e) Provides greater flexibility in sitting new generation.

f) Up gradation of lines

g) Reduce loop flows

h) Minimizes the cost of transmission and hence the overall cost of generation.

24
CHAPTER-4

25
4. BASICS OF UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER

4.1. Introduction to UPFC

Gyugyi proposed the unified power flow controller (UPFC) concept in 1991. The UPFC was
devised for the real time control and dynamic compensation of AC transmission system,
providing multifunctional flexibility required solving many of the problems facing the
delivery industry. With the framework of traditional power transmission concept, the UPFC
is able to control, simultaneously or selectively; all the parameters affecting power flow in
the transmission line (i.e. voltage, impedance, and phase angle). And this unique capability
signified by the adjective unified in the name. Alternatively, it can independently control
both the real and reactive power flow in the line. Such new FACTS device combines
together the features of two old FACTS devices, static synchronous compensator
(STATCOM) and the static synchronous series compensator (SSSC).

In practice, these two devices are two voltage source Converters (VSIs) connected
respectively in shunt with the transmission line through a shunt transformer and in series with
the transmission line through a series transformer, connected to each other by a common DC
link including a storage capacitor. The shunt converter is used for voltage regulation at the
point of connection injecting an opportune reactive power flow into the line and to balance
the real power flow exchanged between the series converter and the transmission line. The
series converter can be used to control the real and reactive line power flow inserting a
voltage with controllable magnitude and phase in series with the transmission line. Thereby,
the UPFC can fulfill functions of reactive shunt compensation, active series compensation
and phase shifting.

4.2. Working and Operation of UPFC

In the presently used practical implementation, the UPFC consist of two switching
converters, which in the implementations considered are voltage source converters .These
back to back converters labeled converter1 and converter 2 in the Figure, are operator
from a common dc link provided by a dc storage capacitor. This arrangement functions as an
AC to AC converter in which the real power can freely Flow in either direction between the
ac terminals of the converter and each converter can independently generate or absorb
reactive power at its own ac output terminals.

26
Figure: 4.1. Basic circuit arrangement of Unified Power Flow Controller

Converter 2 provides the main function of UPFC by injecting an AC voltage Vpq with
controllable magnitude Vpq(0 Vpq Vpqmax) and phase angle (0 360), at the power
frequency , in series with the line via an insertion transformer. The transmission line current
Flow through this voltage source resulting in real and reactive power exchange between it
and AC system. The reactive power exchanged at the AC terminal is generated internally by
the converter.
The basic function of converter 1 is to supply or absorb the real power demanded by the
converter 2 at the common DC link. This DC link power is converted back to ac and coupled
to the transmission line via a shunt connected transformer.converter1 can also generate or
absorb controllable reactive power, if it is desired and thereby it can provide independent
shunt reactive compensation for the line. It is important to note that whereas there is a closed
direct path for the real power by the action of series voltage injection through converter 1
and 2 back to the line, the corresponding reactive power exchanged is supplied or absorbed
locally by converter2 and therefore it does not Flow through the line. Thus converter1 can be

27
operated at a unity power factor or be controlled to have a reactive power exchange with the
line independently of the reactive power exchanged by the converter2.

4.3. Basic Control Functions

a. Terminal Voltage regulation: It is similar to that obtainable with a transformer tap


changer having infinitely small steps. The V0 shown in the Figure 4.2(a) is injected in phase
(or anti phase with V0)

b. Series capacitive compensation: Here Vpq = Vc is injected in quadrature to the line


current. Functionally this is similar to series capacitive and inductive line compensation
attained by SSSC, the injected series compensating voltage can be kept constant, if desired,
independent of the line current variation, or can be varied in proportion with the line current
to imitate the compensation obtained with a series capacitor or reactor.

c. Transmission angle regulation: Vpq = V is injected with an angular relationship with


respect to the V that achieves the desired phase shift (advance or retard) without any change
in magnitude. Thus the UPFC can function as a perfect phase angle regulator, which cans
also the supply the reactive power involved with the transmission angle control by internal
VAR generation.

d. Multi-Function power flow Control: It is executed by simultaneous terminal voltage


regulation, series capacitive line compensation and phase shifting, is shown in Figure4.2(d).
Where Vpq = (V+Vc+V). This functional capability is unique to the UPFC. No single
equipment has similar Multifunctional capability.

28
Figure 4.2. Basic UPFC Control Functions.

4.4. Basic Principles of P and Q Control

Consider Figure 4.3 simple two machine (or two bus ac inter line) system with sending end
voltage Vs, receiving end voltage Vr, and line or tie impedance X, (assumed, for simplicity,
inductive is shown. At Figure 4.3(b) the voltage of system in the form of phasor diagram of
shown with transmission angle and Vs=Vr=V. At Figure 4.4(a) the transmitted power P=
(V2 / X) sin () and the reactive power Q=Qs=Qr {Q= (V2/X) (1-cos ()} supplied at the end
of the line are shown plotted against angle. at Figure 4.4(b) the reactive power Q= Qr =Qs is
shown plotted against the transmitted power P corresponding to stable value of (0
90).

Consider Figure 4.3(a) the simple power system with the UPFC. The UPFC is represented by
a controllable voltage source in series with the line, which as explained in the previous
system, can generate or absorb reactive power that it negotiates with the line, but the real
power it exchanges must be supplied to it, or absorbed from it, bye the sending end generator.
The UPFC in series with the line is represented by the pharos Vpq having magnitude Vpq
(0Vpq Vpqmax) and angle (0 360) measured from the given phase position of phasor
Vs, as illustrated in the Figure. The line current represented by phasor I, Flows through the
series voltage source Vpq and generally results in both reactive and real power exchange.

In order to represents the UPFC properly, the series voltage source is stipulated to generate
only the reactive power Qpq it exchanges with the line. Thus the real power Ppq it negotiates
with the line is assumed to be transferred by the sending end generators if a perfect real

29
power flow between it and sending end generator excited. This is in arrangement with the
UPFC structure in which the DC link between the two constituent converters establishes a
bidirectional coupling for real power flow between the injected series voltage source and the
sending end bus.

(a) (b)

Figure 4.3. Two Machine system with the unified power flow controller

Figure 4.4 (a) Transmittable real power and receiving-end reactive power demand
transmission angle of a two-machine system (b) and the corresponding QorvsPo

As Figure 4.4 implies, in the present discussion it is further assumed for clarity at the shunt
reactive components capability of the UPFC not utilized. This is, the UPFC shunt converter is

30
assumed to be operated at unity power factor, its sole function being to transfer the real
power demand of the series converter to the sending end generator. With these assumptions
the series voltage, together with the real power coupled to the sending end generator as
shown in Figure 4.4 is an accurate representation of the basis UPFC. It can be readily
absorbed in Figure 4.4 shows that transmission line sees Vpq + Vs as effective sending end
voltage. Thus it is clear that the UPFC effects the voltage(both its magnitude and phase
angle) across the Transmission line and therefore it is reasonable to expect that it is able to
control reactive power demand of the line at any given transmission control. By varying the
magnitude and angle of Vpq, the transmittable real power as well as the reactive power
demand of the line at any transmission angle between the sending end and receiving end
voltages. The general power flow control capability of the UPFC, from the viewpoint of
conventional transmission control, can be illustrated best by the real and reactive power
transmission versus transmission angle characteristics of the simple two-machine system.
Shown in Figure 4.4. With reference to this Figure, the transmitted power P and the reactive
power - jQr supplied by the receiving end, can be expressed as follows:

Vs+Vpq Vr
P-jQr = Vr( ) 4.1

Where symbol * means the conjugate of a complex number. If Vpq = 0, then (4.1)
describes the uncompensated system, that is,

VsVr
P-jQr = Vr( ) ..4.2

Thus, with Vpq 0, the total real and reactive power can be written in the form

VsVr Vpq
P-jQr = Vr( )+ Vr( ) ..4.3

Substituting



Vs = V 2 = V (cos (2 ) +jsin (2 )) ..4.4



Vr = V 2 = V (cos ( 2 )-jsin (2 )) ......4.5



Vpq = Vpq (2 +) = V (cos (2 + ) + jsin (2 + )) ..4.6

The following expressions are obtained for P and Q

31
2
P(, )=Po()+Ppq()= sin (cos + ) ..4.7
2

2
Qr(, )=Qor()+Qpq()= (1 cos ) (sin + ..4.8
2

Where

2
Po()= sin ......4.9

2
Qor()= (1 cos ) .....4.10

Po (), Qor () are the real and reactive power characterizing the power transmission of the
uncompensated system at a given angle . Since angle is freely variable between 0 and 2
at any given transmission angle (0 ), it follows that Ppq() and Qpq() are
controllable between - VVpq/X and + VVpq/X independent of angle . Therefore, the
transmittable real power P is controllable between


Po() - P(, ) Po() + 4.11


Qor() - Qr(, ) Qor() + ....4.12

A phasor diagram Figure 4.3(b), defining the relationship between Vs , Vr , Vx (the voltage
phasor across X) and the inserted voltage phasor Vpq,with controllable magnitude (0 Vpq
Vpqmax) and angle (0 Ppq 360), is shown in Figure 4.5.(For the illustrations, = 30 and
Vs=Vr=1, X=0.5, Vpqmax = 0.25 p.u. values were assumed.).As illustrated, the inserted voltage
phasor Vpq is added to the fixed sending end voltage phasor Vsett produce the effective
sending-end voltage Vsett= Vs+ Vpq. The difference Vsett Vr provides the compensated
voltage phasor, Vx , across X. As angle Ppq is varied over its full 360 degree range, the end of
phasor Vpq moves along a circle with its center located at the end of phasor Vs. The area
within this circle, obtained with Vpqmax, defines the operating range of phasor Vpq and thereby
the achievable compensation of the line.

32
(a) (b)

Figure 4.5. Range of transmittable real power P and receiving-end reactive power demand Q
vs. transmission angle of a UPFC controlled transmission line.

The rotation of phasor Vpq with angle pq modulates both the magnitude and angle of phasor
Vx and, therefore, both the transmitted real power, P, and the reactive power, Q R vary with
pq in a sinusoidal manner, as illustrated in Figure 4.5(b). This process, of course, requires
the voltage source (Vpq) to supply and absorb both reactive and real power, Qpq and Ppq,
which are also sinusoidal functions of angle pq, as shown in the Figure.

4.5. Independent Real and Reactive Power Flow Control:

In order to investigate the capability of the UPFC to control real and reactive power flow in
the transmission line, refer to figure 4.3. Let it first be assumed that the injected
compensating voltage, is zero. Then the original elementary two machine system with
sending end voltage Vs receiving end voltage transmission angle and line impedance X
is restored. With these, the normalized transmitted power, () and the normalized reactive
power, = = supplied at the ends of the line, are shown plotted against
angle () in Figure 4.4. The relationship between real power () and reactive power
can readily be expressed with 2 /X = 1 in the following form:

= -1-(1- ()2 ) .4.13

( + 1)2 + ( ()2 ) = 1 ..4.14

33
2
{ (, ) ()}2 + { , 2
}2 = { } .4.15

Equation (4.14) describes a circle with a radius of 1.0 around the center defined by
coordinates P = 0 and Qr = -1 in a {Qr, P} plane, as illustrated for positive values of Pin
Figure 4.4(b). Each point of this circle gives the corresponding and values of the
uncompensated system at a specific transmission angle . For example, at = 0, = 0 and
= 0; at = 30, = 0.5 and = -Q.134; at = 90, = 1.0 and = -1.0; etc.

Refer again to Figure 4.3 and assume now that 0. It follows that the real and reactive
power change from their uncompensated values, () and (), as functions of the
magnitude and angle of the injected voltage phasor . Since angle is an unrestricted
variable (0 360), the boundary of the attainable control region for P (, ) and Q (, ) is
obtained from a complete rotation of phasor with its maximum magnitude .It
follows from the above equations that this control region is a circle with a center defined by
coordinates () and () and a radius of V, /X. With = = V, the boundary circle
can be described by the following equation: (4.15) The circular control regions defined by
(4.15) are shown in Figures 3.7 through (d) for V = 1.0, = 0.5, and X = 1.0 (per unit
or p.u. values) with their centers on the circular arc characterizing the uncompensated system
(4.14) at transmission angles = 0, 30, 60, and 90. In other words, the centers of the
control regions are defined by the corresponding (), () coordinates at angles = 0,
30, 60, and 90 in the { , P} plane.

Consider first Figure 4.6, which illustrates the case when the transmission angle is zero ( =
0). With = 0, P, () (and ) are all zero, i.e., the system is at standstill at the origin of
the , P coordinates. The circle around the origin of the { , P} plane is the loci of the
corresponding Q, and P values, obtained as the voltage phasor is rotated a full revolution
with its maximum magnitude . The area within this circle defines all P and Q, values
obtainable by controlling the magnitude and angle p of phasor . In other words, the
circle in the { , P} plane defines all P and Q, values attainable with the UPFC of a given
rating. It can be observed, for example, that the UPFC with the stipulated voltage rating of
0.5 p.u. is able to establish 0.5 p.u. power flow, in either direction, without imposing any
reactive power demand on either the sending-end or the receiving-end generator. (This
statement tacitly assumes that the sending-end and receiving-end voltages are provided by

34
independent power systems which are able to supply and absorb real power without any
internal angular change.) Of course, the UPFC, as illustrated, can force the system at one end
to supply reactive power for, or absorb that from, the system at the other end. Similar control
characteristics for real power P and the reactive power Qr can be observed at angles = 30,
60, and 90 in Figures 4.6(b), (c), and (d).

Fig 4.6 Control region of the attainable real power P and receiving-end reactive power
demand Q, with a UPFC-controlled transmission line at = 0 (a), = 300 (b), = 60 (c),
and = 90 (d).

35
In general, at any given transmission angle , the transmitted real power P, as well as the
reactive power demand at the receiving end can be controlled freely by the UPFC within
the boundary circle obtained in the { , P} plane by rotating the injected voltage phasor
with its maximum magnitude a full revolution. Furthermore, it should be noted that, although
the above presentation focuses on the receiving end reactive power, the reactive
component of the line current, and the corresponding reactive power can actually be
controlled with respect to the voltage selected at any point of the line. Figures 4.6(a) through
(d) clearly demonstrate that the UPFC, with its unique capability to control independently the
real and reactive power flow at any transmission angle, provides a powerful, hitherto
unattainable, new tool for transmission system control.

36
CHAPTER-5

37
5. SINGLE-MACHINE TO INFINITE-BUS POWER SYSTEM
INCORPORATED WITH UPFC

5.1. Basic Circuit Description:

Fig. 5.1. Single-machine infinite-bus power system incorporated with UPFC

To study the new control strategy for the UPFC, a single machine infinite-bus system is
considered for dynamic stability at the first instance. The power system and its detailed
circuit model are shown in Fig. 5.1. The synchronous generator is represented by a 3rd order
machine model and the generator excitation system has a simple automatic voltage regulator
(AVR). The series converter injects a variable voltage source and the shunt converter a
variable current .

5.2. Synchronous Machine Model:

Each synchronous machine is represented as a third order model equipped with a simple
automatic voltage regulator (AVR) for excitation control. A PSS is also used for controlling
the local modal oscillations. No speed governor is assumed for highlighting the role of UPFC
control. The dynamics of each synchronous machine is represented by the followings:

= 0 + , = / (Differential operator) 5.1


= ( ) 5.2

= ( 0 + ( ) )/ 0

5.3

+
p = and -0.6 6 5.4

38
= + ( ) 5.5

The control u in the below equation is obtained from the PSS controllable loops as:

= ( . /1 + . ). [( 1 + . 1 ) / ( 1 + . 2 )] 5.6

5.3. UPFC Model:

Fig.5.2. UPFC installed in a single machine to infinite bus power system.

Fig.5.2 shows the UPFC installed between the busses s and r in a single-machine to infinite-
bus power system. The UPFC is one of the most versatile FACTS devices, and controls the
real and reactive power flow in the line independently by using the series injected voltage.
The UPFC consists of four major parts; an excitation transformer (ET), a boosting
transformer (BT), a DC link capacitor and two three-phase voltage source converters
(VSC).The UPFC uses voltage source converters (VSCs) for series voltage injection as well
as shunt current control. The two voltage source converters (converter-1 and converter-2) are
connected via a common DC link capacitor as shown in Fig. 5.2.

39
a) b)

Fig. 5.3. (a) UPFC equivalent circuit with controlled voltage sources. (b) UPFC equivalent
circuit with controlled current sources.

Assuming that the voltages induced across BT and ET are and1 , respectively, the
UPFC is shown as two current sources (one positive and the other negative) connected across
the busses sand r, in Fig.5.3 (b). Fig.5.3 (a) shows the equivalent circuit with controlled
voltage sources.

Where: and are series and shunt reactances of UPFC converter transformers,
respectively; and are series and shunt susceptances of UPFC converter transformers,
respectively; and are series voltage magnitude ratio ( / ) and angle of with
respect to .

The real and reactive powers injected at the buses sand rare obtained as follows:

= 1 |2 | sin + |2 | sin 5.7

= 1 2 cos + 2 cos 2 5.8

= sin( + ) 5.9

= cos( + ) 5.10

Is nearly zero ( 0) for the shunt converter operation, so we have the followings:

1 2 sin 0 5.11

1 2 cos 2 0 5.12

40
Then we conclude as below:

= |2 | sin 5.13

= 2 cos 5.14

The assumption of exact power balance between Converter-1 and Converter- 2 is never
realizable in actual practice as the two converters are independently controlled. Thus the
UPFC model is modified to take care of the mismatch in real power.

Let a current , in phase with the voltage , be drawn by the shunt converter. The real power
of converter-1 is,

1 = 5.15

To take care of real power mismatch between the converters, the injection modes use
as the additional term in eqn 5.16. With the above representation of the UPFC between bus s
and r, the equivalent circuit of single machine-infinite bus power system is shown in Fig.5.4.

= 2 sin + ...5.16

Fig. 5.4. Reduced equivalent circuit with single machine-infinite bus system with UPFC

In Fig.5.4 the controllable loads at the busses s and r are obtained from , , , are as
below:


= , = 5.17
2 2

41
5.4. UPFC Controlling Modes:

5.4.1. Power Flow Control Mode:

The UPFC has the unique capability of controlling real and reactive power flow on a
transmission line independently. The local control scheme assumes that both the series and
shunt converters generate controllable voltage sources while the voltage of DC-bus remains
constant.

Fig. 5.5. Phasor diagram

The reactance of transmission line controls the real power flow. Thus the component ( ) of
the series injection voltage in quadrature with the line current is generated from real power
deviation ( ) in the transmission line after the series transformer. The in-phase
component ( ) is either generated from the reactive power deviation ( ) in the
transmission line or the voltage deviation ( -V) of the bus after the series transformer.

The relation between series converter voltage source components; and with
transmission line current with in phase and inquadrature with it is obtained as
follows:

2
= 2
+ 5.18


= 5.19

42
Where;

= 5.20

= + 5.21


= tan1 ( ) 5.22

2
= + 2 5.23

, , , , and are the direct and quadrature axis components of current and
voltages respectively. The magnitude ratio ()is defined as / and is the phase
difference between and . These controllable parameters and are calculated as
follows:

2 2

= 5.24


= tan1 ( ) + tan1 ( ) tan1 ( ) 5.25

Where and are the d-axis and q-axis transmission linecurrents after the series

transformer. and are the d-axis and q-axis voltage of the sth bus of UPFC. The

detailed phasor diagram in the d-q reference frame is shown in Fig. 5.5.

The in-phase and quadrature components; and , for UPFC series voltage source
control are usually obtained from conventional PI regulators using reactive and real power
deviations from reference reactive power and real power respectively as follows:

= + 5.26

= + 5.27

43
5.4.2. Voltage Control Mode:

Voltage control mode of UPFC can be realized by controlling the bus voltage using the
shunt-converter reactive current component.Due to the mismatch of real power between the
two converters the DC link capacitor voltage is not constant.

The dynamics of the DC link voltage neglecting losses can be represented by:
1
= [ 1 2 ] 5.28

2
= . / V 5.29

Where C = DC capacitor magnitude and p is the differential operator.

By substituting the 1 and 2 values the above equation can be modified as


1 2
= [ sin( + ) + | | sin ] 5.30

Where; is in-phase component (with respect to ) of the shunt converter current further, to
control the DC-link voltage using a simple PI controller, the current is obtained as:

= + . 5.31

5.5. MATLAB Implementation:

The following single machine to infinite bus data in p.u. is taken for the MATLAB
implementation to get the output characteristics with and without UPFC:

1) Generator data:

= 1.9 , = 1.6 , = 0.17 ,


= 4.314

= 4 , = 0.3 , = 50 , = 0.1

2) UPFC data:

= 31.113 , = 100 , = 5500 .

3) Limits of UPFC data in p.u:

= 0.2 , = 0.2

44
4) Controller data:

= 0.3, = 3 , = 0.5 , = 1 , = 0.1 , = 1

By considering the above information as the respective parameter values in the MATLAB
code, and then we are running the program to get the characteristics.

For the above single machine to infinite bus power system network, by neglecting the UPFC
controller data, we are running the code initially, which is meant to obtain the characteristics
of without UPFC controller for both low power and high power output conditions.

The PI controller equations for power flow control mode are:

= +

= +

By assigning the basic gain constants which are specified in above controller data in the
above equations, we will obtain the characteristics for the system with UPFC controller under
both low power and high power conditions.

Here the real and reactive power for the low power output conditions are taken as:

P = 0.4 p.u, Q = 0.2 p. and

For high power output conditions:

P = 1.4 p.u, Q = 0.6 p.

After that, we are modifying the controller parameters in the equation:

= +

= +

the modified parameters are:

= 0.1, = 4.5 , = 0.6 , = 1.4

By considering the above controller data, we will obtain the characteristics for the UPFC
controller under both low power and high power output conditions.

45
CHAPTER-6

46
6. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

6.1. Low power system with basic gain constants:

A single machine to infinite bus power system is considered in this analysis. The
synchronous generator is assumed to operate at low power output condition. The performance
of the above low power system is analyzed under a fault condition with and without UPFC.

The UPFC control scheme consists of controlling the voltage components Vcp and Vcr.
These voltage components are produced with the help of the PI regulator by considering the
real and reactive power deviation as its input. Here the gain constants are considered for the
PI regulator with the basic values. The overall parameters discussed prior to the analysis are
useful in explaining the same.

The synchronous machine is loaded at P = 0.4 p.u. and Q = 0.2 p.u. and the system is tested
for a 3-phase fault.

Fig 6.1. Transient analysis of a power system for low power output condition with and
without UPFC

47
Thus the characteristics are plotted against the rotor angle and time. The first curve in the
characteristics shows the Transient response of the system without a UPFC controller. The
second curve shows the Transient response of the system incorporated with a UPFC
controller having a conventional PI regulator.

In the first case, i.e., without a UPFC controller, the stability is achieved at t = 3.65 sec,
which is not as quick as expected. The peak overshoot is also not as good as expected.
Whereas, in the second case, with the UPFC controller, the stability is achieved rapidly when
compared to the first case, i.e., at t = 2.4 sec, and the electro-mechanical oscillations are also
damped quickly.

This shows that, with the help of the UPFC controller, the overall system stability can be
improved for a low power system.

48
6.2. Low power system with improved gain constants:

A single machine to infinite bus power system is considered in the above analysis. The
synchronous generator is assumed to operate at low power output condition (P=.4 p.u. and
Q=.2 p.u.). The performance of the above low power system is analyzed for a 3-phase fault
condition with and without UPFC.

The UPFC control scheme consists of controlling the voltage components Vcp and Vcr.
These voltage components are produced with the help of the PI regulator by considering the
real and reactive power deviation as its input. Here the gain constants are changed with the
improved values for the PI regulator. The overall parameters discussed prior to the analysis
are useful in explaining the same.

Fig 6.2. Transient analysis of a power system for low power output condition with and
without UPFC for modified gain constants.

49
Thus the characteristics are plotted against the rotor angle and time. The first curve in the
characteristics shows the Transient response of the system without a UPFC controller. The
second curve shows the Transient response of the system incorporated with a UPFC
controller having a conventional PI regulator.

In the first case, i.e., without a UPFC controller, the stability is not achieved so quickly, i.e.,
at t = 3.65 sec. The peak overshoot is also not as good as expected. Whereas, in the second
case, with the UPFC controller, the stability is achieved rapidly, i.e., at t = 1.405 sec and the
electro-mechanical oscillations are damped quickly when compared to the previous case.

This shows that, with the help of the UPFC controller, the overall system stability can be
improved with the modified gain parameters for a low power system.

50
6.3. High power system with basic gain constants:

A single machine to infinite bus power system is considered in the above analysis. The
synchronous generator is assumed to operate at high power output condition (P=1.4 p.u and
Q=0.6 p.u). The performance of the above high power system is analyzed for a 3-phase fault
condition with and without UPFC.

The UPFC control scheme consists of controlling the voltage components Vcp and Vcr.
These voltage components are produced with the help of the PI regulator by considering the
real and reactive power deviation as its input. Here the gain constants are considered for the
PI regulator with the basic values. The overall parameters discussed prior to the analysis are
useful in explaining the same.

Fig 6.3. Transient analysis of a power system for high power output condition with and
without UPFC.

51
Thus the characteristics are plotted against the rotor angle and time. The first curve in the
characteristics shows the Transient response of the system without a UPFC controller. The
second curve shows the Transient response of the system incorporated with a UPFC
controller having a conventional PI regulator.

In the first case, i.e., without a UPFC controller, the stability is not achieved, i.e., rotor falls
out of synchronism at t = 7 sec. The peak overshoot is also not as good as expected. Whereas,
in the second case, with the UPFC controller, the stability is achieved when compared to the
first case, i.e., at t = 4.56 sec and the electro-mechanical oscillations are damped.

This shows that, with the help of the UPFC controller, the overall system stability can be
improved for a high power system.

52
6.4. High power system with improved gain constants:

A single machine to infinite bus power system is considered in the above analysis. The
synchronous generator is assumed to operate at high power output condition (P=1.4 p.u. and
Q=.6 p.u.). The performance of the above high power system is analyzed for a 3-phase fault
with and without UPFC.

The UPFC control scheme consists of controlling the voltage components Vcp and Vcr.
These voltage components are produced with the help of the PI regulator by considering the
real and reactive power deviation as its input. Here the gain constants are changed with the
improved values for the PI regulator. The overall parameters discussed prior to the analysis
are useful in explaining the same.

Fig 6.4. Transient analysis of a power system for high power output condition with and
without UPFC for modified gain constants.

53
Thus the characteristics are plotted against the rotor angle and time. The first curve in the
characteristics shows the Transient response of the system without a UPFC controller. The
second curve shows the Transient response of the system incorporated with a UPFC
controller having a conventional PI regulator.

In the first case, i.e., without a UPFC controller, the stability is not achieved, i.e., rotor falls
out of synchronism at t = 7 sec. The peak overshoot is also not as good as expected. Whereas,
in the second case, with the UPFC controller, the electro-mechanical oscillations are damped
quickly, i.e., at t = 2.86 sec, and the peak overshoot is also reduced when compared to the
previous case.

This shows that, with the help of the UPFC controller, the overall system stability can be
improved and peak overshoot is also reduced with the modified gain parameters for a high
power system.

54
6.5. Comparison of the low power system with and without the UPFC
controller:

The above characteristic curves show the combined plot of the low power system. The first
characteristics is the one without a UPFC, the second one is with a UPFC, and the third one is
the characteristic with the UPFC along with the improved gain constants.

The three curves are compared against each other in one graph. This clearly explains that the
installation of a UPFC into a power system network is helpful in improving the stability. And
the peak overshoot is also reduced with the improved gain constant parameters.

Fig 6.5. Transient analysis of a power system for low power output condition with and
without UPFC along with modified gain constants.

55
The characteristics also tell us that the power system is less stable if the UPFC is not installed
into it. Thus, the UPFC not only improves the stability but also reduces the peak overshoot as
well.

Hence the overall performance of the power system can be improved for a low power output
condition with the installation of the UPFC and with the modified controller parameters of
UPFC.

56
6.6. Comparison of the high power system with and without the UPFC
controller:

The above characteristic curves show the combined plot of previous cases for the high power
system. The first characteristics is the one without a UPFC, the second one is with a UPFC,
and the third one is the characteristic with the UPFC along with the improved gain constants.

The three curves are compared against each other in one graph. This clearly explains that the
installation of a UPFC into a power system network is helpful in improving the stability. And
the peak overshoot is also reduced with the improved gain constant parameters.

Fig 6.6. Transient analysis of a power system for low power output condition with and
without UPFC along with modified gain constants.

57
The characteristics also tell us that the power system loses its synchronism if the UPFC is not
installed into it, as its a high power system. Hence the UPFC not only improves the stability
but also reduces the peak overshoot as well.

Hence the overall performance of the power system can be improved for a high power output
condition with the installation of the UPFC and with the modified controller parameters of
UPFC.

58
CHAPTER-7

59
7. CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
7.1. Conclusion
This project deals with the case study of Single machine to infinite bus networks and its
power flow control with the help of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) that is used to
maintain and improve the power system operation. This project presents the power flow
operation of power systems and its limitations, different devices to control the power
flow with the existing transmission lines, types of FACTS controllers used in the power
system, basic characteristics and operation of UPFC, Newton-Raphson flow chart and
algorithm with UPFC and a case study on the power flow control with UPFC.

The Unified Power Flow Controller provides simultaneous or individual controls of basic
system parameters like transmission voltage, impedance and phase angle there by
controlling the transmitted power. In this project single machine to infinite bus networks is
considered and power flow program with UPFC and without UPFC is simulated in
MATLAB. And also power flow program with UPFC and without UPFC by change in
controller parameters is also simulated in MATLAB. Results have shown that the controller
exhibits good power flow characteristics for different operating conditions. This feature to
control simultaneously all the transmission parameters with high flexibility cannot be
accomplished with the ordinary mechanical and other FACTS devices.

From economical point of view, more power can be transmitted over existing or new
transmission grids with unimpeded availability at an investment cost. Also, in many cases,
money can be saved on a decrease of power transmission losses. From an environmental
point of view, FACTS enables the transmission of power over vast distances with less or
much less right-of-way impact than would otherwise be possible. Furthermore, the saving
in transmission losses may well bring a corresponding decrease in need for generation, with
so much less toll on the environment. So to conclude, a single machine to infinite bus
network with UPFC gives more stable results when compared to without UPFC.

60
7.2. Scope for Future Work
Work on this topic never ends with limited application. It has much more area of
application such as damping of the power swings from local and inter-area oscillations,
Voltage regulation of local network, reduction of short-circuit current etc. and used within
power systems to enhance inter-area stability.

To include more than one UPFC for the advanced features in the power
system.
To maintain and improve the power system operation and control by optimal
location of UPFC using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization.
Coordinating UPFC with other FACTS controllers to have greater flexibility.
To extend the work towards a multi-machine power system.

61
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