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Dictionary of

Second Edition


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Preface ................................................................................................... v
Staff.......................................................................................................... vi
How to Use the Dictionary ....................................vii
Fields and Their Scope ...................................................................... ix
Pronunciation Key ............................................................................... xi
A-Z Terms .............................................................................................. 1-626
Appendix................................................................................................. 627-643
Equivalents of commonly used units for the U.S.
Customary System and the metric system .......................................... 629
Conversion factors for the U.S. Customary System,
metric system, and International System ............................................ 630
Special constants ................................................................................. 634
Electrical and magnetic units .............................................................. 635
Dimensional formulas of common quantities ..................................... 635
Internal energy and generalized work .................................................. 636
General rules of integration ................................................................. 637
Schematic electronic symbols ............................................................. 639
The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering provides a compendium of more than 18,000 terms that are central to the various
branches of engineering and related fields of science. The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on building construction,
chemical engineering, civil engineering, control systems, design engineering, electricity and electronics, engineering acoustics,
industrial engineering, mechanics and mechanical engineering, systems engineering, and thermodynamics. Many new entries
have been added since the previous edition with others revised as necessary. Many of the terms used in engineering are often
found in specialized dictionaries and glossaries; this Dictionary, however, aims to provide the user with the convenience of a
single, comprehensive reference.
All of the definitions are drawn from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, Sixth Edition (2003). Each definition
is classified according to the field with which it is primarily associated; if it is used in more than one area, it is idenfified by the
general label [ENGINEERING). The pronunciation of each term is provided along with synonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations
where appropriate. A guide to the use of the Dictionary appears on pages vii and viii, explaining the alphabetical organization of
terms, the format of the book, cross referencing, and how synonyms, variant spellings, abbreviations, and similar information
are handled. The Pronunciation Key is given on page xi. The Appendix provides conversion tables for commonly used
scientific units as well as listings of useful mathematical, engineering, and scientific data.
It is the editors' hope that the Second Edition of the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering will serve the needs of scientists,
engineers, students, teachers, librarians, and writers for high-quality information, and that it will contribute to scientific literacy
and communication.
Mark D. Licker
Mark D. Licker, PublisherScience

Elizabeth Geller, Managing Editor Jonathan Weil, Senior Staff Editor David Blumel, Staff
Editor Alyssa Rappaport, Staff Editor Charles Wagner, Digital Content Manager Renee Taylor,
Editorial Assistant

Roger Kasunic, Vice PresidentEditing, Design, and Production

Joe Faulk, Editing Manager

Frank Kotowski, Jr., Senior Editing Supervisor

Ron Lane, Art Director

Thomas G. Kowalczyk, Production Manager

Pamela A. Pelton, Senior Production Supervisor

Henry F. Beechhold, Pronunciation Editor Professor Emeritus of English Former Chairman,

Linguistics Program The College of New Jersey Trenton, New Jersey
How to Use the Dictionary
ALPHABETIZATION. The terms in the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering, Second Edition, are alphabetized on a letter-by-
letter basis; word spacing, hyphen, comma, solidus, and apostrophe in a term are ignored in the sequencing. For example, an
ordering of terms would be:

abat-vent ADP
A block air band
Abney level airblastinq

FORMAT. The basic format for a defining entry provides the term in boldface, the field is small capitals, and the single definition
in lightface:
term SFORTHE definition.
A field may be followed by multiple definitions, each introduced by a boldface number:
term [FIELD) 1. Definition. 2. Definition. 3. Definition. A term may have definitions in two or more fields:
term [civ ENG] Definition, [ENG ACOUS] Definition. A simple cross-reference entry appears as:
term See another term. A cross reference may also appear in combination with definitions:
term [civ ENG] Definition, [ENG ACOUS] Definition.

CROSS REFERENCING. A cross-reference entry directs the user to the defining entry. For example, the user looking up
"access flooring" finds:
access flooring See raised flooring.
The user then turns to the "R" terms for the definition. Cross references are also made from variant spellings, acronyms,
abbreviations, and symbols.
ARL See acceptable reliability level. arriswise See arrisways.
at See technical atmosphere.

ALSO KNOWN AS . . . , etc. A definition may conclude with a mention of a synonym of the term, a variant spelling, an
abbreviation for the term, or other such information, introduced by "Also known as . . . ," "Also spelled "Abbreviated . . . ,"
"Symbolized . . . ," "Derived from . . . ." When a term has more than one definition, the positioning of any of these phrases
conveys the extent of applicability. For example:
term |civ ENG] 1. Definition. Also known as synonym. 2. Definition. Symbolized T.
In the above arrangement, "Also known as . . ." applies only to the first definition; "Symbolized . . ." applies only to the second
term |CIVENG] 1. Definition. 2. Definition. |ENG ACOUS] Definition. Also known as synonym.
In the above arrangement, "Also known as . . ." applies only to the second field.
term |CIVENG] Also known as synonym. 1. Definition. 2. Definition. |ENG ACOUS] Definition.
In the above arrangement, "Also known as . . ." applies to both definitions in the first field.
term Also known as synonym. |civ ENG] 1. Definition. 2. Definition. |ENG ACOUS] Definition.
In the above arrangement, "Also known as . . ." applies to all definitions in both fields.
Fields and Their Scope
building constructionThe technology of assembling materials into a structure, especially one designated for occupancy.

chemical engineeringA branch of engineering which involves the design and operation of chemical plants.

civil engineeringThe planning, design, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry,
for transportation, for use and control of water, for occupancy, and for harbor facilities.

control systemsThe study of those systems in which one or more outputs are forced to change in a desired manner as time

design engineeringThe branch of engineering concerned with the design of a product or facility according to generally
accepted uniform standards and procedures, such as the specification of a linear dimension, or a manufacturing practice, such as
the consistent use of a particular size of screw to fasten covers.

electricityThe science of physical phenomena involving electric charges and their effects when at rest and when in motion.

electronicsThe technological area involving the manipulation of voltages and electric currents through the use of various
devices for the purpose of performing some useful action with the currents and voltages; this field is generally divided into
analog electronics, in which the signals to be manipulated take the form of continuous currents or voltages, and digital
electronics, in which signals are represented by a finite set of states.

engineeringThe science by which the properties of matter and the sources of power in nature are made useful to humans in
structures, machines, and products.

engineering acousticsThe field of acoustics that deals with the production, detection, and control of sound by electrical
devices, including the study, design, and construction of such things as microphones, loudspeakers, sound recorders and
reproducers, and public address sytems.

industrial engineeringA branch of engineering dealing with the design, development, and implementation of integrated
systems of humans, machines, and information resources to provide products and services.

mechanical engineeringThe branch of engineering concerned with energy conversion, mechanics, and mechanisms and
devices for diverse applications, ranging from automotive parts through nanomachines.

mechanicsThe branch of physics which seeks to formulate general rules for predicting the behavior of a physical system
under the influence of any type of interaction with its environment.

systems engineeringThe branch of engineering dealing with the design of a complex interconnection of many elements (a
system) to maximize an agreed-upon measure of system performance.

thermodynamicsThe branch of physics which seeks to derive, from a few basic postulates, relations between properties of
substances, especially those which are affected by changes in temperature, and a description of the conversion of energy from
one form to another.
Pronunciation Key
Vowels Consonants

a as in bat, that b as in bib, dribble

a as in bait, crate cc as in t h e n , breath
a as in bother, father d as in dog, bad
e as in bet, net f as in fix, safe
e as in beet, treat g as in good, signal
i as in bit, skit h as in hand, behind
T as in bite, light i as in joint, digit
o as in boat, note k as in cast, brick
6 as in bought, taut k as in Bach (used rarely)
u as in book, pull 1 as in loud, bell
ii as in boot, pool m as in mild, summer
3 as in but, sofa n as in new, dent
ail as in crowd, power n indicates nasalization of preced-
6i as in boil, spoil ing vowel
ya as in formula, spectacular i) as in ring, single
y as in fuel, mule P as in pier, slip
r as in red, scar
Semivowels/Semiconsonants s as in sign, post
w as in wind, twin sh as in sugar, shoe
y as in yet, onion t as in timid, cat
th as in thin, breath
Stress (Accent) th as in then, breathe
i V
precedes syllable with primary as in veil, weave
Stress z as in zoo, cruise
zh as in beige, treasure
precedes syllable with secondary
Stress Syllabication
precedes syllable with variable Indicates syllable boundary
or indeterminate primary/ when following syllable is
secondary stress unstressed
abattoir [ IND ENG ] A building
Aa See ampere. in which cattle or other
A See ampere; angstrom. animals are slaughtered. {
A See angstrom.
abat-vent [BUILD] A series of
a axis |MECH ENG] The angle sloping boards or metal strips,
that specifies the rotation of a or some similar contrivance,
machine tool about the x to break the force of wind
axis. { 'a 'ak,sis ) without being an obstruction to
abandon [ENG] TO stop the passage of air or sound,
drilling and remove the drill rig as in a louver or chimney
from the site of a borehole cowl. { ^ba'van )
before the intended depth or ablatograph [ENG] An
target is reached. { s'ban- instrument that records
don) ablation by measuring the
abate [ ENG ] 1. To remove distance a snow or ice
material, for example, in surface falls during the
carving stone. 2. In observation period. { s'bla-
metalwork, to excise or beat ds.graf)
down the surface in order to A block [civ ENG] A hollow
create a pattern or figure in concrete masonry block with
low relief. { s'bat) one end closed and the other
abatement [ ENG ] 1. The open and with a web
waste produced in cutting a between, so that when the
timber, stone, or metal piece block is laid in a wall two cells
to a desired size and shape. are produced. { 'a ,blak)
2. A decrease in the amount Abney level See clinometer. {
of a substance or other 'ab-ne 'lev-sl)
quantity, such as atmospheric
pollution. { s'bat-msnt) abnormal reading See
abnormal time. { ab'nor-msl
abat-jour [BUILD] A device 'red-irj )
that is used to deflect daylight
downward as it streams abnormal time [IND ENG]
through a window. { a-ba'zhur) During a time study, an
elapsed time for any element resistance, usually by the
which is excessively longer or weighing of a material sample
shorter than the median of the before and after subjecting it
elapsed times. Also known as to a known abrasive stress
abnormal reading. { throughout a known time
'ab,n6r*m3l 'tTm ) period, or by reflectance or
surface finish comparisons, or
abort branch [CONT SYS] A
by dimensional comparisons.
branching instruction in the
{ s'bra-zhsn test)
program controlling a robot
that causes a test to be abrasive belt [MECH ENG] A
performed on whether the cloth, leather, or paper band
tool-center point is properly impregnated with grit and
positioned, and to reposition it rotated as an endless loop to
if it drifts out of the abrade materials through
acceptable range. { s'bort continuous friction. { s'bras-sv
,branch ) belt)
Abrams' law [civ ENG] In abrasive blasting [MECH ENG]
concrete materials, for a The cleaning or finishing of
mixture of workable surfaces by the use of an
consistency the strength of abrasive entrained in a blast of
concrete is determined by the air. { s'bras-sv 'blast-irj )
ratio of water to cement. { 'a-
abrasive cloth [MECH ENG]
bremz '16 )
Tough cloth to whose surface
abrasion [ENG] 1. The an abrasive such as sand or
removal of surface material emery has been bonded for
from any solid through the use in grinding or polishing. {
frictional action of another s'bras-sv 'kloth )
solid, a liquid, or a gas or
abrasive cone [MECH ENG]
combination thereof. 2. A
An abrasive sintered or
surface discontinuity brought
shaped into a solid cone to
about by roughening or
be rotated by an arbor for
scratching. {s'bra-zhsn )
abrasive machining. { s'bras-
abrasion test [MECH ENG] The sv 'kon )
measurement of abrasion
abrasive disk [MECH ENG] An
abrasive sintered or shaped the terrain below. Also known
into a disk to be rotated by an as terrain-clearance
arbor for abrasive machining. indicator. { 'ab-s3,lut al'tim-s-
{ s'bras-sv 'disk ) dsr)
abrasive jet cleaning [ENG] absolute altitude [ENG]
The removal of dirt from a Altitude above the actual
solid by a gas or liquid jet surface, either land or water,
carrying abrasives to ablate of a planet or natural satellite.
the surface. { s'bras-sv 'jet { 'ab-s3,lut 'al-ts-tud )
'klen-ig )
absolute blocking jciv ENG] A
abrasive machining [MECH control arrangement for rail
ENG] Grinding, drilling, traffic in which a track is
shaping, or polishing by divided into sections or blocks
abrasion. { s'bras-sv upon which a train may not
mo'shen-irj ) enter until the preceding
train has left. { 'ab-s3,lut
abreast milling [MECH ENG] A
'blak-ig )
milling method in which parts
are placed in a row parallel to absolute block system |civ
the axis of the cutting tool and ENG] A block system in which
are milled simultaneously. { only a single railroad train is
s'brest 'mil-irj) permitted within a block
section during a given period
abreuvoir [ civ ENG ] A space
of time. { 'ab-s3,lut 'blak ,sis-
between stones in masonry to
t3m )
be filled with mortar. { ab-
ru'vwar) absolute efficiency |ENG
ACOUS] The ratio of the
ABS See antilock braking
power output of an
electroacoustic transducer,
absolute altimeter [ENG] An under specified conditions, to
instrument which employs the power output of an ideal
radio, sonic, or capacitive electroacoustic transducer. {
technology to produce on its 'ab*s3,lut s'fish-sn-se )
indicator the measurement of
absolute expansion
distance from the aircraft to
|THERMO] The true expansion
of a liquid with temperature, absolute pressure gage
as calculated when the [ENG] A device that measures
expansion of the container in the pressure exerted by a fluid
which the volume of the liquid relative to a perfect vacuum;
is measured is taken into used to measure pressures
account; in contrast with very close to a perfect
apparent expansion. { 'ab- vacuum. { 'ab-s3,lut 'presh-sr
s3,lut ik'span-shsn ) ,gaj )
absolute instrument [ENG] absolute pressure
An instrument which transducer [ENG] A device
measures a quantity (such as that responds to absolute
pressure or temperature) in pressure as the input and
absolute units by means of provides a measurable output
simple physical of a nature different than but
measurements on the instru- proportional to absolute pres-
ment. { 'ab-s3,lut 'in-strs- sure. { 'ab-s3,lut 'presh-sr
msnt) tranz'du-ssr)
absolute magnetometer absolute scale See absolute
[ENG] An instrument used to temperature scale. { 'ab-s3,lut
measure the intensity of a ,skal )
magnetic field without
absolute specific gravity
reference to other magnetic
[MECH] The ratio of the weight
instruments. { 'ab*s3,lut mag-
of a given volume of a
substance in a vacuum at a
absolute manometer [ENG] given temperature to the
1. A gas manometer whose weight of an equal volume of
calibration, which is the same water in a vacuum at a given
for all ideal gases, can be temperature. { 'ab-s3,lut
calculated from the measur- sps'sif-sk 'grav sd-e)
able physical constants of
absolute stop [Civ ENG] A
the instrument. 2. A
railway signal which indicates
manometer that measures
that the train must make a
absolute pressure. { 'ab-s3,lut
full stop and not proceed until
there is a change in the
signal. Also known as stop kilogram. { 'ab-S3,lut 'wa-irj )
and stay. { 'ab-S3,lut 'stap )
absolute zero [THERMO] The
absolute temperature temperature of -273.16C, or -
[THERMO] 1. The temperature 459.69F, or 0 K, thought to
measurable in theory on the be the temperature at which
thermody-namic temperature molecular motion vanishes
scale. 2. The temperature in and a body would have no
Celsius degrees relative to heat energy. { 'ab-s3,lut 'zir-6)
the absolute zero at -
absorber [CHEM ENG]
273.16C (the Kelvin scale) or
Equipment in which a gas is
in Fahrenheit degrees relative
absorbed by contact with a
to the absolute zero at -
liquid. [ELECTR] A material or
459.69T (the Rankine scale). {
device that takes up and
'ab-s3,lut 'tem-pre-chur)
dissipates radiated energy;
absolute temperature scale may be used to shield an
[THERMO] A scale with which object from the energy,
temperatures are measured prevent reflection of the
relative to absolute zero. Also energy, determine the nature
known as absolute scale. { of the radiation, or selectively
'ab-s3,lut 'tem-pre-chur ,skal) transmit one or more
components of the radiation,
absolute volume [ ENG ] The
[ENG] The surface on a solar
total volume of the particles in
collector that absorbs the
a granular material, including
solar radiation. [MECH ENG] 1.
both permeable and
A device which holds liquid for
impermeable voids but
the absorption of refrigerant
excluding spaces between
vapor or other vapors. 2. That
particles. { 'ab-s3,lut 'val-yum
part of the low-pressure side
of an absorption system used
absolute weighing [ENG] for absorbing refrigerant
Determination of the mass of vapor. { sb'sor-bsr)
a sample and expressing its
absorber capacity [CHEM
value in units, fractions, and
ENG] During natural gas
multiples of the mass of the
processing, the maximum
prototype of the international
volume of the gas that can be
processed through an ammonia, is evaporated by
absorber without alteration of heat from an aqueous
specified operating conditions. solution at elevated pressure
{ sb'sor-bsr ks.pas-sd-e ) and subsequently reabsorbed
at low pressure, displacing
absorber plate [ ENG ] A part
the need for a compressor. {
of a flat-plate solar collector
sb'sdrp-shsn ,sT-k3l)
that provides a surface for
absorbing incident solar absorption dynamometer
radiation. { sb'sdr-bsr ,plat) [ENG] A device for measuring
mechanical forces or power in
absorbing boom [civ ENG] A
which the mechanical energy
device that floats on the
input is absorbed by friction or
water and is used to stop the
electrical resistance. {sb'sorp-
spread of an oil spill and aid
shsn dTn-s'mam-sd-sr)
in its removal. { sb'sdrb-ig
,bum ) absorption-emission
pyrometer [ENG] A ther-
absorbing well [civ ENG] A
mometer for determining gas
shaft that permits water to
temperature from
drain through an impermeable
measurement of the radiation
stratum to a permeable
emitted by a calibrated
stratum. { sb'sorb-ig ,wel)
reference source before and
absorption bed [civ ENG] A after this radiation has passed
sizable pit containing coarse through and been partially
aggregate about a distribution absorbed by the gas. {
pipe system; absorbs the sbsdrp-shsn s'mish-sn
effluent of a septic tank. { pT'ram-sd-sr)
sb'sorp-shsn ,bed)
absorption field [civ ENG]
absorption column See Trenches containing coarse
absorption tower. { sb'sorp- aggregate about distribution
shsn ,kal-3m ) pipes permitting septic-tank
effluent to seep into sur-
absorption cycle |MECH ENG] rounding soil. Also known as
In refrigeration, the process disposal field. { sb'sorp-shsn
whereby a circulating ,feld )
refrigerant, for example,
absorption hygrometer Also or refinery gas. { sb'sorp-shsn
known as chemical ,plant )
hygrometer, [ENG] An
absorption process [CHEM
instrument with which the
ENG] A method in which light
water vapor content of the
oil is introduced into an
atmosphere is measured by
absorption tower so that it
means of the absorption of
absorbs the gasoline in the
vapor by a hygroscopic
rising wet gas; the light oil is
chemical. { sb'sorp-shsn
then distilled to separate the
gasoline. { sb'sdrp-shsn ,pras-
absorption loss [ civ ENG ] 3s )
The quantity of water that is
absorption refrigeration
lost during the initial filling of a
[MECH ENG] Refrigeration in
reservoir because of
which cooling is effected by
absorption by soil and
the expansion of liquid
rocks. { sb'sorp-shsn ,16s )
ammonia into gas and
absorption tower [ENG] An absorption of the gas by
instrument designed to water; the ammonia is reused
measure the amount of light after the water evaporates. {
transmitted through a sb'sorp-shsn ra,frij s'ra-shsn
transparent substance, using )
a photocell or other light
absorption system [MECH
detector. { sb'sorp-shsn
ENG] A refrigeration system in
which the refrigerant gas in
absorption number [ ENG ] A the evaporator is taken up by
dimensionless group used in an absorber and is then, with
the field of gas absorption in a the application of heat,
wetted-wall column; released in a generator. {
represents the liquid side sb'sorp-shsn ,sis-t3m )
mass-transfer coefficient. {
absorption tower [ ENG ] A
sb'sorp-shsn ,n3m-b3r)
vertical tube in which a rising
absorption plant [CHEM ENG] gas is partially absorbed by a
A facility to recover the liquid in the form of falling
condensable portion of natural droplets. Also known as ab-
sorption column. { sb'sorp- abutting tenons [DES ENG]
shsn ,tau-3r) TWO tenons inserted into a
common mortise from
absorption trench [ civ ENG ]
opposite sides so that they
A trench containing coarse
contact. { s'bst-ig 'ten-snz )
aggregate about a distribution
tile pipe through which septic- ac See alternating current.
tank effluent may move
accelerated aging [ENG]
beneath earth. { sb'sdrp-shsn
Hastening the deterioration of
,trench )
a product by a laboratory
absorptivity [THERMO] The procedure in order to
ratio of the radiation absorbed determine long-range storage
by a surface to the total and use characteristics. {
radiation incident on the ak'sel-^rad-sd 'aj-irj )
surface. { sb^orp'tiv-sd-e )
accelerated life test [ENG]
Abt track [civ ENG] One of Operation of a device, circuit,
the cogged rails used for or system above maximum
railroad tracking in mountains ratings to produce premature
and so arranged that the cogs failure; used to estimate
are not opposite one another normal operating life.
on any pair of rails. { 'apt {ak'sel-s^a-dsd 'llf ,test)
accelerated weathering [ENG
abutment [civ ENG] A surface ] A laboratory test used to
or mass provided to withstand determine, in a short period
thrust; for example, end of time, the resistance of a
supports of an arch or a paint film or other exposed
bridge. { s'bst-msnt) surface to weathering. {
ak'sel-s^a-dsd 'welh* ar-ig)
abutting joint [DES ENG] A
joint which connects two accelerating incentive See
pieces of wood in such a way differential piece-rate system.
that the direction of the grain { ak'sel-or^d-ig in'sen-tiv )
in one piece is angled (usually
accelerating potential
at 90) with respect to the
[ELECTR] The energy potential
grain in the other. { a'bat'ig
in electron-beam equipment
that imparts additional speed |MECH] The acceleration
and energy to the electrons. { imparted to bodies by the
ak'sel-s^ad-ir) ps'ten-shsl) attractive force of the earth;
has an international standard
acceleration [MECH] The rate
value of 980.665 cm/s2 but
of change of velocity with
varies with latitude and
respect to time. {ak^el-s'ra-
elevation. Also known as
shsn )
acceleration of free fall;
acceleration analysis [MECH apparent gravity. { ak^sel-
ENG] A mathematical s'ra-shsn sv 'gravs-de )
technique, often done
acceleration signature |IND
graphically, by which
ENG] A printed record that
accelerations of parts of a
shows the pattern of
mechanism are determined. {
acceleration and deceleration
ak^el-s'ra-shsn 3,nal-3-s3s )
of an anatomical reference
acceleration-error constant [ point in the performance of a
CONT SYS ] The ratio of the task. { ak^el-s'ra-shsn 'sig-ns-
acceleration of a controlled chsr)
variable of a servomechanism
acceleration tolerance
to the actuating error when the
[ENG] The degree to which
actuating error is constant. {
personnel or equipment
ak^el-s'ra-shsn 'er-sr 'kan-
withstands acceleration. {
ak,sel'3'ra*sh3n 'tal-sr-sns )
acceleration measurement
acceleration voltage
[MECH] The technique of
|ELECTR] The voltage between
determining the magnitude
a cathode and accelerating
and direction of acceleration,
electrode of an electron tube.
including translational and
{ ak^el-s'ra-shsn 'vol-toj )
angular acceleration. { ak^el-
s'ra-shsn 'mezh-sr-msnt) accelerator |MECH ENG] A
device for varying the speed
acceleration of free fall See
of an automotive vehicle by
acceleration of gravity. { ak^el-
varying the supply of fuel. {
s'ra-shsn sv 'fre ,fol)
acceleration of gravity
accelerator jet |MECH ENG]
The jet through which the fuel for recording any other type of
is injected into the incoming acceleration. { ak 'sel-3-
air in the carburetor of an r3,graf)
automotive vehicle with rapid
accelerometer ( ENG ] An
demand for increased power
instrument which measures
output. { ak 'sel*3,rad*3r jet)
acceleration or gravitational
accelerator linkage |MECH force capable of imparting
ENG] The linkage connecting acceleration. { ak^el-s'ram-sd-
the accelerator pedal of an sr)
automotive vehicle to the
accelerometry (IND ENG] The
carburetor throttle valve or
quantitative determination of
fuel injection control. { ak'sel-
acceleration and deceleration
^rad-sr Jirj-kij )
in the entire human body or a
accelerator pedal |MECH ENG] part of the body in the
A pedal that operates the performance of a task. {
carburetor throttle valve or fuel ak^el-s'ram-s-dre)
injection control of an
accent lighting (civ ENG]
automotive vehicle. { ak'sel*
Directional lighting which
3,rad-3r ,ped*al)
highlights an object or attracts
accelerator pump | MECH ENG attention to a particular area. {
] A small cylinder and piston 'ak-sent ,lTd-ir) )
controlled by the throttle of an
acceptability (ENG] State or
automotive vehicle so as to
condition of meeting minimum
provide an enriched air-fuel
standards for use, as applied
mixture during acceleration. {
to methods, equipment, or
ak'sel-^rad-or ,p3mp)
consumable products. {
accelerogram (ENG] A record ak,sep't3'bil*3*de )
made by an ac-celerograph. {
acceptable quality level (IND
ak'sel-s-r^gram )
ENG] The maximum
accelerograph (ENG] An percentage of defects that has
accelerometer having been determined tolerable as
provisions for recording the a process average for a sam-
acceleration of a point on the pling plan during inspection or
earth during an earthquake or test of a product with respect
to economic and functional design specifications, as a
requirements of the item. basis for its acceptance. {
Abbreviated AQL. {ak [sep-to- ak'sep-tons ,test)
bol 'kwal-s-de ,lev-3l)
acceptor (CHEM ENG] A
acceptable reliability level calcined carbonate used to
(IND ENG] The required level of absorb the carbon dioxide
reliability for a part, system, evolved during a coal
device, and so forth; may be gasification process. { ak'sep-
expressed in a variety of tsr)
terms, for example, number of
access (civ ENG] Freedom,
failures allowable in 1000
ability, or the legal right to
hours of operating life. Ab-
pass without obstruction from
breviated ARL. {akjsep-to-bol
a given point on earth to some
rejT-s'bil-s-de , lev-si)
other objective, such as the
acceptance criteria (IND sea or a public highway. {
ENG] Standards of judging the 'ak,ses )
acceptability of manufactured
access door (BUILD] A
items. { ak'sep-tsns kri'ter-e-3
provision for access to
concealed plumbing or other
acceptance number (IND equipment without disturbing
ENG] The maximum allowable the wall or fixtures. { 'ak,ses
number of defective pieces in ,dor)
a sample of specified size. {
access eye (civ ENG] A
ak'sep-tsns ,n3m*b3r)
threaded plug fitted into
acceptance sampling (IND bends and junctions of drain,
ENG] Taking a sample from a waste, or soil pipes to provide
batch of material to inspect for access when a blockage
determining whether the entire occurs. See cleanout. { 'ak,ses
lot will be accepted or ,T )
rejected. { ak'sep-tsns
access flooring See raised
flooring. { 'ak,ses ,flor-ir) )
acceptance test ( IND ENG ] A
access hole See manhole. {
test used to determine
'ak,ses ,hol)
conformance of a product to
accessory ( MECH ENG ] A disabling injuries per thousand
part, subassembly, or worker-hours of exposure. {
assembly that contributes to 'ak-so,dent ss'ver-sd-e ,rat)
the effectiveness of a piece of
accommodation | CONT SYS ]
equipment without changing
Any alteration in a robot's
its basic function; may be
motion in response to the
used for testing, ad-j usting,
robot's environment; it may be
calibrating, recording, or other
active or passive. { 3,kam-
purposes. { ak'ses-3-re )
s'da-shsn )
access road (civ ENG] A
accordion door (BUILD) A
route, usually paved, that
door that folds and unfolds
enables vehicles to reach a
like an accordion when it is
designated facility
opened and closed. { s'kord-
expeditiously. { 'ak-ses ,rod )
e-sn ,dor)
access tunnel (civ ENG] A
accordion partition (BUILD) A
tunnel provided for an access
movable, fabric-faced partition
road. { 'ak-ses ,t3n-3l )
which is fitted into an
accident-cause code (IND overhead track and folds like
ENG] Sponsored by the an accordion. { s'kord-e-sn
American Standards psr'tish-sn )
Association, the code that
accordion roller conveyor
classifies accidents under
(MECH ENG) A conveyor with a
eight defective working
flexible latticed frame which
conditions and nine improper
permits variation in length. {
working practices. { 'ak-
s'kdrd-e-sn 'rol-sr ksn 'va-sr)
s3,dent ]koz ,kod )
accretion (civ ENG) Artificial
accident frequency rate ( IND
buildup of land due to the
ENG ] The number of all
construction of a groin,
disabling injuries per million
breakwater, dam, or beach fill.
worker-hours of exposure. {
{ s'kre-shsn )
'ak-s3,dent 'fre-kwsn-se ,rat)
accumulated discrepancy
accident severity rate ( IND
(ENG) The sum of the
ENG] The number of worker-
separate discrepancies which
days lost as a result of
occur in the various steps of process of learning the
making a survey. { s'kyu-mys techniques of living with a
,lad-3d ds'skrep-sn-se ) minimum of discomfort in an
extreme or new environment.
accumulative timing (IND
{ ^kss-ts-ms'za-shsn )
ENG) A time-study method
that allows direct reading of acetate process (CHEM ENG)
the time for each element of Acetylation of cellulose (wood
an operation by the use of pulp or cotton linters) with
two stopwatches which acetic acid or acetic anhydride
operate alternately. { s'kyu- and sulfuric acid catalyst to
mysjad-iv 'tTm-irj ) make cellulose acetate resin
or fiber. { 'as-3,tat 'pras-ss )
accumulator (CHEM ENG) An
auxiliary ram ex-truderon acetone-benzol process
blow-molding equipment (CHEM ENG) A dewax-ing
usedtostore melted material process in petroleum refining,
between deliveries, (ENG) with acetone and benzol used
See air vessel, (MECH ENG) 1. as solvents. { 'as-3,ton 'ben-
A device, such as a bag zol ,pras-3s )
containing pressurized gas,
acetylene cutting See
which acts upon hydraulic
oxyacetylene cutting.
fluid in a vessel, discharging it
rapidly to give high hydraulic acetylene generator (ENG) A
power, after which the fluid is steel cylinder or tank that
returned to the vessel with provides for controlled mixing
the use of low hydraulic of calcium carbide and water
power. 2. A device connected to generate acetylene. {
to a steam boiler to enable a 3'sed-3l,en 'jen-3,rad-3r)
uniform boiler output to meet
an irregular steam demand. acetylene torch See
3. A chamber for storing low- oxyacetylene torch. { s'sed-
side liquid refrigerant in a 3l,en ,torch )
refrigeration system. Also acfm See actual cubic feet
known as surge drum; surge per minute.
header. { s'kyu-mysjad-sr)
acid blowcase See
accustomization (ENG) The blowcase. { 'as-sd 'blo-kas )
acid cleaning (ENG) The use indicating the acid or base
of circulating acid to remove composition of lubricating oils;
dirt, scale, or other foreign it in no way indicates the
matter from the interior of a corrosive attack of the used
pipe. { 'as-sd 'klen-irj) oil in service. Also known as
corrosion number. { 'as-sd
acid conductor (CHEM ENG)
A vessel designed for
refortification of hydrolyzed acid polishing (ENG) The
acid by heating and use of acids to polish a glass
evaporation of water, or surface. { 'as-sd 'pal-ish-irj )
sometimes by distillation of
acid process (CHEM ENG) In
water under partial vacuum. {
paper manufacture, a pulp
'as-od ksn'dsk-tsr)
digestion process that uses an
acid egg See blowcase. { 'as- acidic reagent, for example, a
sd ,eg ) bisulfite solution containing
free sulfur dioxide. { 'as-sd
acid gases (CHEM ENG) The
,pra-s3s )
hydrogen sulfide and carbon
dioxide found in natural and acid recovery plant (CHEM
refinery gases which, when ENG) In some refineries, a
combined with moisture, form facility for separating sludge
corrosive acids; known as acid into acid oil, tar, and
sour gases when hydrogen weak sulfuric acid, with provi-
sulfide and mercaptans are sion for later reconcentration.
present. { 'as-sd 'gas-sz ) { 'as-sd rs'ksv 3-re ,plant)
adding (ENG) A light etching acid sludge (CHEM ENG) The
of a building surface of cast residue left after treating
stone. { 'as-od-irj ) petroleum oil with sulfuric acid
for the removal of impurities. {
acid lining (ENG) In steel
'as-sd ,sl3J )
production, a silica-brick lining
used in furnaces. { 'as-sd 'lTn- acid soot ( ENG ) Carbon
irj ) particles that have absorbed
acid fumes as a by-product of
acid number (ENG) A number
combustion; hydrochloric acid
derived from a standard test
absorbed on carbon par-
ticulates is frequently the screw thread. { 'ak-me ,thred )
cause of metal corrosion in
acoubuoy [ENG] An acoustic
incineration. { 'as-sd ,sut)
listening device similar to a
acid treatment (CHEM ENG) A sonobuoy, used on land to
refining process in which form an electronic fence that
unfinished petroleum will pick up sounds of enemy
products, such as gasoline, movements and transmit
kerosine, and diesel oil, are them to orbiting aircraft or
contacted with sulfuric acid to land stations. { 3'ku,b6i )
improve their color, odor, and
acoustical ceiling |BUILD] A
other properties. { 'as-sd 'tret-
ceiling covered with or built of
material with special
acid-water pollution (ENG) acoustical properties. { s'kiis-
Industrial wastewa-ters that ts-ksl 'sel-irj)
are acidic; usually appears in
acoustical ceiling system
effluent from the manufacture
(BUILD) A system for the
of chemicals, batteries,
structural support of an
artificial and natural fiber,
acoustical ceiling; lighting and
fermentation processes
air diffusers may be included
(beer), and mining. { 'as-sd
as part of the system. { s'kus-
'wod-sr ps'lu-shsn )
ts-ksl 'sel-irj 'sis-torn )
Ackerman linkage See
acoustical door (BUILD) A
Ackerman steering gear. { 'ak-
solid door with gas-keting
sr-msn ,lir)-kij )
along the top and sides, and
acme screw thread (DES usually an automatic door
ENG ) A standard thread bottom, designed to reduce
having a profile angle of 29 noise transmission. { s'kus-ts-
and a flat crest; used on ksl 'dor)
power screws in such devices
acoustical model (civ ENG) A
as automobile jacks, presses,
model used to investigate
and lead screws on lathes.
certain acoustical properties
Also known as acme thread. {
of an auditorium or room such
'ak-me 'skru ,thred )
as sound pressure dis-
acme thread See acme tribution, sound-ray paths,
and focusing effects. { s'kus- standard telephone line to
ts-ksl 'mad-sl) permit transmission of digital
data in either direction without
acoustical treatment (civ
making direct connections. {
ENG) That part of building
s'kiis-tik 'ksp-tar)
planning that is designed to
provide a proper acoustical acoustic delay (ENG ACOUS)
environment; includes the use A delay which is deliberately
of acoustical material. introduced in sound
{s'kus-ts-ksl 'tret-msnt) reproduction by having the
sound travel a certain
acoustic array ( ENG ACOUS)
distance along a pipe before
A sound-transmitting or
conversion into electric sig-
sound-receiving system
nals. { s'kiis-tik di'la )
whose elements are arranged
to give desired directional acoustic detection ( ENG )
characteristics. { s'kiis-tik s'ra Determination of the profile of
) a geologic formation, an
ocean layer, or some object in
acoustic center ( ENG ACOUS
the ocean by measuring the
) The center of the spherical
reflection of sound waves
sound waves radiating
off the object. { s'kus-tik
outward from an acoustic
di'tek-shsn )
transducer. { s'kiis-tik 'sen-tor)
acoustic fatigue ( MECH ) The
acoustic clarifier (ENG
tendency of a material, such
ACOUS) System of cones
as a metal, to lose strength
loosely attached to the baffle
after acoustic stress. { s'kiis-
of a loudspeaker and
tik fs'teg )
designed to vibrate and
absorb energy during sudden acoustic feedback
loud sounds to suppress (ENGACOUS) The reverbera-
these sounds. { s'kiis-tik 'klar- tion of sound waves from a
^fl-sr) loudspeaker to a preceding
part of an audio system, such
acoustic coupler (ENG
as to the microphone, in such
ACOUS) A device used
a manner as to reinforce, and
between the modem of a
distort, the original input.
computer terminal and a
Also known as acoustic signals which the enemy is
regeneration. {s'kiis-tik attempting to receive and of
'fed,bak) deterring enemy weapons
systems. { s'kus-tik 'jam-irj )
acoustic generator (ENG
ACOUS) A transducer which acoustic labyrinth (ENG
converts electrical, ACOUS) Special baffle
mechanical, or other forms of arrangement used with a
energy into sound. { s'kus-tik loudspeaker to prevent cavity
'jen-3,rad-3r) resonance and to reinforce
bass response. { s'kiis-tik 'lab-
acoustic heat engine ( ENG )
3,rinth )
A device that transforms heat
energy first into sound energy acoustic line (ENG ACOUS)
and then into electrical power, The acoustic equivalent of an
without the use of moving electrical transmission line,
mechanical parts. { s'kus-tik involving baffles, labyrinths, or
[het ,en-jsn) resonators placed at the rear
of a loudspeaker and arranged
acoustic hologram (ENG)
to help reproduce the very low
The phase interference
audio frequencies. { o'kus-tik
pattern, formed by acoustic
'lm )
beams, that is used in
acoustical holography; when acoustic ocean-current
light is made to interact with meter ( ENG ) An instrument
this pattern, it forms an image that measures current flow in
of an object placed in one of rivers and oceans by
the beams. { s'kus-tik 'hal- transmitting acoustic pulses in
3,gram ) opposite directions parallel to
the flow and measuring the
acoustic horn See horn. {
difference in pulse travel
o'kus-tik 'horn )
times between transmitter-
acoustic jamming (ENG receiver pairs. { o'kiis-tik 'o-
ACOUS) The deliberate shsn ,k3r-3nt 'med-sr)
radiation or reradiation of
acoustic position reference
mechanical or electro-acoustic
system (ENG) An acoustic
signals with the objectives of
system used in offshore oil
obliterating or obscuring
drilling to provide continuous The ratio of the intensity of
information on ship position sound radiated directly from a
with respect to an ocean-floor source to the intensity of
acoustic beacon transmitting sound reverberating from the
an ultrasonic signal to three walls of an enclosure, at a
hydrophones on the bottom given point in the enclosure. {
of the drilling ship. { s'kiis-tik s'kiis-tik 'ra-sho )
ps'zish-sn [ref-rens ,sis-t3m )
acoustic reflex enclosure |
acoustic radar (ENG) Use of ENG ACOUS ] A loudspeaker
sound waves with radar cabinet designed with a port
techniques for remote probing to allow a low-frequency
of the lower atmosphere, up contribution from the rear of
to heights of about 5000 feet the speaker cone to be
(1500 meters), for measuring radiated forward. { s'kus-tik
wind speed and direction, 're,fleks in.klo-zhsr)
humidity, temperature
acoustic regeneration See
inversions, and turbulence. {
acoustic feedback. { s'kus-tik
s'kiis-tik 'ra,dar)
rejen-s'ra-shsn )
acoustic radiator (ENG
acousticseal |ENG ACOUS] A
ACOUS) A vibrating surface
joint between two parts to
that produces sound waves,
provide acoustical coupling
such as a loudspeaker cone
with low losses of energy,
or a headphone diaphragm.
such as between an earphone
{ o'kus-tik 'rad-e,ad-3r)
and the human ear. { s'kiis-tik
acoustic radiometer (ENG) 'sel)
An instrument for measuring
acoustic signature [ENG] In
sound intensity by
acoustic detection, the profile
determining the unidirectional
characteristic of a particular
steady-state pressure caused
object or class of objects,
by the reflection or absorption
such as a school of fish or a
of a sound wave at a
specific ocean-bottom
boundary. { s'kus-tik ^ad-s'a-
formation. { s'kus-tik 'sig-ns-
acoustic ratio (ENG ACOUS)
acoustic spectrograph
[ENG] A spectrograph used ACOUS ] A device that
with sound waves of various converts acoustic energy to
frequencies to study the electrical or mechanical
transmission and reflection energy, such as a microphone
properties of ocean thermal or phonograph pickup. { s'kus-
layers and marine life. { tik tranz'du-ssr)
s'kus-tik 'spek-tre,graf)
acoustic transformer [ENG
acoustic spectrometer [ENG ACOUS] A device, such as a
ACOUS] An instrument that horn or megaphone, for
measures the intensities of the increasing the efficiency of
various frequency components sound radiation. { o'kus-tik
of a complex sound wave. tranz 'for-msr)
Also known as audio
acoustic treatment [BUILD]
spectrometer. { s'kus-tik
The use of sound-absorbing
materials to give a room a
acoustic strain gage [ ENG ] desired degree of freedom
An instrument used for from echo and reverberation. {
measuring structural strains; o'kus-tik 'tret-msnt)
consists of a length of fine
wire mounted so its tension
sensor [ENG] A device that
varies with strain; the wire is
employs a surface acoustic
plucked with an electro-
wave, a thickness-shear-
magnetic device, and the
mode resonance (a resonant
resulting frequency of
oscillation of a thin plate of
vibration is measured to
material), or other type of
determine the amount of
acoustic wave to measure the
strain. { s'kiis-tik ,stran ,gaj )
physical properties of a thin
acoustic theodolite [ENG] An film or liquid layer or, in
instrument that uses sound combination with chemically
waves to provide a continuous sensitive thin films, to detect
vertical profile of ocean the presence and
currents at a specific location. concentration of chemical
{ s'kiis-tikthe'ad-sljt) ana-lytes. { o]ku-stik 'wav,bast
acoustic transducer [ ENG
acoustic well logging [ENG] or to 4046.8564224 square
A ground exploration method meters. { 'a-ksr )
that uses a high-energy
aerometer [ ENG ] An
sound source and a
instrument to measure the
receiver, both underground.
density of oils. { s'kram-sd-sr)
{ o'kus-tik 'wel ,lag-irj )
actinogram [ENG] The record
acoustoelectronics [ ENG
of heat from a source, such
ACOUS ] The branch of
as the sun, as detected by a
electronics that involves use of
recording actinometer. {
acoustic waves at microwave
^k'tin-^gram )
frequencies (above 500
megahertz), traveling on or in actinograph [ ENG ] A
piezoelectric or other solid recording actinometer. {
substrates. Also known as ^k'tin-^graf)
pretersonics. { 3!kus-to-
3,lek!tran-iks ) actinometer [ENG] Any
instrument used to measure
acquisition [ENG] The the intensity of radiant energy,
process of pointing an particularly that of the sun. {
antenna or a telescope so ^k-ts'nam-sd-sr)
that it is properly oriented to
allow gathering of tracking or action [MECH] An integral
telemetry data from a satellite associated with the trajectory
or space probe. { ,ak-ws'zish- of a system in configuration
sn ) space, equal to the sum of the
integrals of the generalized
acquisition and tracking momenta of the system over
radar [ENG] A radar set their canoni-cally conjugate
capable of locking onto a coordinates. Also known as
received signal and tracking phase integral. { 'ak-shsn )
the object emitting the signal;
the radar may be airborne or activate [ELEC] TO make a cell
on the ground. { ,ak-ws'zish- or battery operative by
sn on 'trak-irj ,ra,dar) addition of a liquid, [ELECTR]
TO treat the filament, cathode,
acre [MECH] A unit of area, or target of a vacuum tube to
equal to 43,560 square feet, increase electron emission,
[ENG] TO set up conditions so [CONT SYS] The alteration of
that the object will function as preprogrammed robotic
designed or required. { 'ak- motions by the integrated
t3,vat) effects of sensors, controllers,
and the robotic motion itself.
activated sludge [civ ENG] A
{ 'ak-tiv ^kam-s'da-shsn )
semiliquid mass removed
from the liquid flow of sewage active area |ELECTR] The area
and subjected to aeration and of a metallic rectifier that acts
aerobic microbial action; the as the rectifying junction and
end product is dark to golden conducts current in the
brown, partially decomposed, forward direction. { 'ak-tiv 'er-
granular, and flocculent, and e-s)
has an earthy odor when
active-cord mechanism
fresh. { 'ak-t^vad-sd 'sl3j )
|MECH ENG] A slender,
activated-sludge effluent chainlike grouping of joints
[civ ENG] The liquid from the and links that makes active
activated-sludge treatment and flexible winding motions
that is further processed by under the control of actuators
chlorination or by oxidation. { attached along its body. { 'ak-
'ak-t^vad-sd ,sl3J 'efju-snt) tiv [kord 'mek-3,niz-3m )
activated-sludge process active detection system
[civ ENG] A sewage treatment [ENG] A guidance system
process in which the sludge in which emits energy as a
the secondary stage is put means of detection; for
into aeration tanks to facilitate example, sonar and radar. {
aerobic decomposition by 'ak-tiv di'tek-shsn ,sis-t3m )
microorganisms; the sludge
active earth pressure [civ
and supernatant liquor are
ENG] The horizontal pressure
separated in a settling tank;
that an earth mass exerts on
the supernatant liquor or
a wall. { 'ak-tiv 'srth 'presh-sr)
effluent is further treated by
chlorination or oxidation. { 'ak- active illumination [ENG]
t^vad-sd ,sl3J 'pra,s3s ) Lighting whose direction,
intensity, and pattern are
active accommodation
controlled by commands or
signals. { 'ak-tiv sjum-s'na- tiv ms'tir-e-sl)
shsn )
active sludge [civ ENG] A
active infrared detection sludge rich in destructive
system [ENG] An infrared bacteria used to break down
detection system in which a raw sewage. { 'ak-tiv 'slsj )
beam of infrared rays is
active solar system [MECH
transmitted toward possible
ENG] A solar heating or
targets, and rays reflected
cooling system that operates
from a target are detected. {
by mechanical means, such
'ak-tiv 'in-fra,red di'tek-shsn
as motors, pumps, or valves.
,sis-t3m )
{ 'ak-tiv 'so-lsr ,sis-t3m )
active leaf [BUILD] In a door
active sonar [ENG] A system
with two leaves, the leaf
consisting of one or more
which carries the latching or
transducers to send and
locking mechanism. Also
receive sound, equipment for
known as active door. { 'ak-tiv
the generation and detection
of the electrical impulses to
active material [ELEC] 1. A and from the transducer, and
fluorescent material used in a display or recorder system
screens for cathode-ray for the observation of the
tubes. 2. An energy-storing received signals. { 'ak-tiv
material, such as lead oxide, 'so,nar)
used in the plates of a storage
active system [ENG] In radio
battery. 3. A material, such as
and radar, a system that
the iron of a core or the
requires transmitting
copper of a winding, that is
equipment, such as a beacon
involved in energy conversion
or transponder. { 'ak-tiv 'sis-
in a circuit. 4. In a battery, the
torn )
chemically reactive material in
either of the electrodes that active vibration suppression
participates in the charge and [MECH ENG] The prevention of
discharge reactions. [ELECTR] undesirable vibration by tech-
The material of the cathode of niques involving feedback
an electron tube that emits control of the vibratory motion,
electrons when heated. { 'ak- whereby the forces designed
to reduce the vibration volume of gas at operating
depend on the system dis- temperature and pressure, as
placements and velocities. { distinct from volume of gas at
'ak-tiv vT'bra-shsn standard temperature and
pressure. Abbreviated acfm. {
activity [SYS ENG] The
'ak-chs-wsl 'kyii-bik ,fet psr
representation in a PERT or
critical-path-method network
of a task that takes up both actual horsepower See
time and resources and actual power. { 'ak-chs-wsl
whose performance is 'h6rs,pau-3r)
necessary for the system to
actual power [MECH ENG] The
move from one event to the
power delivered at the output
next. { ,ak'tiv-3d-e )
shaft of a source of power.
activity chart [IND ENG] A Also known as actual
tabular presentation of a horsepower. { 'ak-chs-wsl
series of operations of a 'pau-sr)
process plotted against a time
actual time [IND ENG] Time
scale. { ,ak'tiv-3d-e ,chart )
taken by a worker to perform
activity duration [ SYS ENG ] a given task. { 'ak-chs-wsl tTm
In critical-path-method )
terminology, the estimated
actuate [MECH ENG] TO put
amount of time required to
into motion or mechanical
complete an activity. { ,ak'tiv-
action, as by an actuator. {
sd-e ds'ra-shsn )
'ak-chs-wat )
activity sampling See work
actuated roller switch [MECH
sampling. { ,ak'tiv-3d-e ,sam-
ENG] A centrifugal sequence-
control switch that is placed in
actual cost [IND ENG] Cost contact with a belt conveyor,
determined by an allocation of immediately preceding the
cost factors recorded during conveyor which it controls. {
production. { 'ak-chs-wsl 'kost) 'ak-ch^wad-sd 'ro-lsr 'swich )
actual cubic feet per minute actuating system [CONT SYS]
[CHEM ENG] A measure of the An electric, hydraulic, or other
system that supplies and with NaNO3. { 'a-dsmz 'kad-sl-
transmits energy for the sst )
operation of other mecha-
ada mud [ENG] A conditioning
nisms or systems. { 'ak-
material added to drilling mud
ch^wad-ig ,sis-t3m )
to obtain satisfactory cores
actuator [CONT SYS] A and samples of formations. {
mechanism to activate 'a-ds ,m3d )
process control equipment by
adapter | ENG ] A device used
use of pneumatic, hydraulic,
to make electrical or
or electronic signals; for
mechanical connections
example, a valve actuator for
between items not originally
opening or closing a valve to
intended for use together. {
control the rate of fluid flow,
[ENG ACOUs] An auxiliary
external electrode used to adaptive branch |CONT SYS]
apply a known electrostatic A branch instruction in the
force to the diaphragm of a computer program controlling
microphone for calibration a robot that may lead the
purposes. Also known as robot to execute a series of
electrostatic actuator, [MECH instructions, depending on
ENG] A device that produces external conditions. { s'dap-tiv
mechanical force by means of 'branch )
pressurized fluid. { 'ak-
ch^wad-sr) adaptive control |CONT SYS]
A control method in which
adamantine drill [MECH ENG] one or more parameters are
A core drill with hardened sensed and used to vary the
steel shot pellets that revolve feedback control signals in
under the rim of the rotating order to satisfy the
tube; employed in rotary performance criteria. { s'dap-
drilling in very hard ground. { tiv ksn'trol)
^d-s'man^en 'dril)
adaptive-control function
Adam's catalyst [CHEM ENG] |CONT SYS] That level in the
Finely divided plantinum(IV) functional decomposition of a
oxide, made by fusing large-scale control system
hexachloro-platinic(IV) acid which updates parameters of
the optimizing control function extended area that can
to achieve a best fit to current barely be detected by the
plant behavior, and updates eye. { ^dap'ta-msd-sr)
parameters of the direct
addendum (DES ENG] The
control function to achieve
radial distance between two
good dynamic response of the
concentric circles on a gear,
closed-loop system. { s'dap-
one being that whose radius
tiv ksn'trol ^sgk-shsn )
extends to the top of a gear
adaptive robot |CONT SYS] A tooth (addendum circle) and
robot that can alter its the other being that which will
responses according to roll without slipping on a circle
changes in the environment. { on a mating gear (pitch line). {
s'dap-tiv 'ro,bat) s'den-dsm )
adaptive structure [ENG] A addendum circle ( DES ENG ]
structure whose geometric The circle on a gear passing
and inherent structural through the tops of the teeth.
characteristics can be { s'den-dsm ,s3r-k3l)
changed beneficially in
adder (ELECTR] A circuit in
response to external
which two or more signals are
stimulation by either remote
combined to give an output-
commands or automatic
signal amplitude that is
means. { 3,dap-tiv 'strek-chsr)
proportional to the sum of the
adaptive system |SYS ENG] A input-signal amplitudes. Also
system that can change itself known as adder circuit. { 'ad-
in response to changes in its sr)
environment in such a way
adding tape (ENG] A
that its performance improves
surveyor's tape that is cali-
through a continuing
brated from Oto 100 by full feet
interaction with its
(or meters) in one direction,
surroundings. { s'dap-tiv 'sis-
and has 1 additional foot (or
torn )
meter) beyond the zero end
adaptometer (ENG] An which is subdivided in tenths
instrument that measures the or hundredths. { 'ad-ig ,tap )
lowest brightness of an
additive synthesis (ENG
ACOUS] A method of bond, usually measured as a
synthesizing complex tones force required to separate
by adding together an two objects of standard
appropriate number of simple bonded area, by either shear
sine waves at harmonically or tensile stress. { ad'hez-iv
related frequencies. { [ad-s-div 'strerjkth )
'sin-ths-sss )
adiabatic (THERMO] Referring
adhesion (ENG] Intimate to any change in which there
sticking together of metal is no gain or loss of heat. {]ad-
surfaces under compressive e-s|bad-ik)
stresses by formation of
adiabatic compression
metallic bonds, (MECH] The
(THERMO] A reduction in
force of static friction between
volume of a substance
two bodies, or the effects of
without heat flow, in or out.
this force. { ad'he-zhsn )
{]ad-e-3]bad-ik ksm'presh-sn )
adhesional work (THERMO]
adiabatic cooling (THERMO] A
The work required to separate
process in which the
a unit area of a surface at
temperature of a system is
which two substances are in
reduced without any heat
contact. Also known as work
being exchanged between the
of adhesion. { ad'he-zhsn-sl
system and its surroundings. {
[ad-e-3]bad-ik 'kul-irj )
adhesive bond (MECH] The
adiabatic curing (ENG] The
forces such as di-pole bonds
curing of concrete or mortar
which attract adhesives and
under conditions in which
base materials to each other.
there is no loss or gain of
{ ad'hez-iv 'band )
heat. { ]ad-e-3]bad-ik 'kyur-irj )
adhesive bonding (ENG]
adiabatic engine (MECH ENG]
The fastening together of two
A heat engine or
or more solids by the use of
thermodynamic system in
glue, cement, or other
which there is no gain or loss
adhesive. { ad'hez-iv 'band-Hi}
of heat. {]ad-e-3]bad-ik 'en-jsn
adhesive strength ( ENG ] )
The strength of an adhesive
adiabatic envelope tunnel used for excavation of
(THERMO] A surface enclosing the main tunnel. { 'ad-st)
a thermodynamic system in
adjustable base anchor
an equilibrium which can be
(BUILD] An item which holds a
disturbed only by long-range
doorframe above a finished
forces or by motion of part of
floor. { s'jss-ts-bsl [bas 'arj-
the envelope; intuitively, this
means that no heat can flow
through the surface. { ]ad-e- adjustable parallels [ENG]
3]bad-ik 'en-v3,lop ) Wedge-shaped iron bars
placed with the thin end of one
adiabatic expansion
on the thick end of the other,
(THERMO] Increase in volume
so that the top face of the
without heat flow, in or out. {
upper and the bottom face of
]ad-e-3]bad-ik ik'span-chsn )
the lower remain parallel, but
adiabatic extrusion (ENG] the distance between the two
Forming plastic objects by faces is adjustable; the bars
energy produced by driving can be locked in position by a
the plastic mass through an screw to prevent shifting. {
extruder without heat flow. { s'jss-ts-bsl 'par-a.lelz )
[ad-e-3]bad-ik ik'stru-zhsn )
adjustable square [ENG] A
adiabatic process (THERMO] try square with an arm that is
Any thermodynamic at right angles to the ruler; the
procedure which takes place position of the arm can be
in a system without the changed to form an L or a T.
exchange of heat with the Also known as double
surroundings. { [ad-e-3]bad-ik square. { s'jss-ts-bsl 'skwer)
pra-sss )
adjustable wrench [ENG] A
adiabatic vaporization wrench with one jaw which is
(THERMO] Vaporization of a fixed and another which is
liquid with virtually no heat adjustable; the size is
exchange between it and its adjusted by a knurled screw.
surroundings. { [ad-e-3]bad-ik { s'jss-ts-bsl 'rench )
,va-p3r-3'za-sh3n )
adjusting [ENG] In
adit (civ ENG ] An access measurement technology,
setting or compensating a synchronism; it is equipped
measuring instrument or a with facilities for recreating the
weight in such a way that the acoustical liveness and
indicated value deviates as background sound of the envi-
little as possible from the ronment of the original dialog.
actual value. { s'jsst-ir)) Derived from automatic dialog
replacement studio. Also
adjutage [ENG] A tube
known as postsynchronizing
attached to a container of
studio. { ]a]de'ar ,stud-e-o)
liquid at an orifice to facilitate
or regulate outflow. { 'aj-3,tazh adsorption system [MECH
) ENG] A device that
dehumidifies air by bringing it
admittance [ELEC] A measure
into contact with a solid
of how readily alternating
adsorbing substance. {
current will flow in a circuit; the
ad'sdrp-shsn ,sis-t3m )
reciprocal of impedance, it is
expressed in Siemens. { advance [civ ENG] In railway
sd'mit-sns ) engineering, a length of track
that extends beyond the
adobe construction [BUILD]
signal that controls it. [ MECH
Wall construction with sun-
ENG ] To effect the earlier
dried blocks of adobe soil. {
occurrence of an event, for
s'do-be ksn'strsk-shsn )
example, spark advance or
ADP See automatic data injection advance. { sd'vans )
advanced programmatic
ADR studio [ENG ACOUS] A risk analysis [IND ENG] A
sound-recording studio used method for managing
in motion-picture and engineering programs with
television production to allow multiple projects and strict
an actor who did not intelli- resource constraints which
gibly record his or her speech balances both technical and
during the original filming or management risks. { sd[vanst
video recording to do so by ,pro-gre]mad-ik 'risk
watching himself or herself on 3,nal*3S3s )
the screen and repeating the
advanced sewage treatment
original speech with lip
See tertiary sewage aerated flow [ENG] Flowing
treatment. { sd[vanst 'sii-ij liquid in which gas is
,tret#m3nt) dispersed as fine bubbles
throughout the liquid. { 'e,rad-
advance signal [civ ENG] A
3d 'flo )
signal in a block system up to
which a train may proceed aeration [ ENG ] 1. Exposing
within a block that is not to the action of air. 2. Causing
completely cleared. { sd'vans air to bubble through. 3.
'sig-nsl) Introducing air into a solution
by spraying, stirring, or similar
advance slope grouting [
method. 4. Supplying or
ENG ] A grouting technique in
infusing with air, as in sand or
which the front of the mass of
soil. { e'ra-shsn )
grout is forced to move
horizontally through preplaced aeration tank [ENG] A fluid-
aggregate. { sd'vans 'slop holding tank with provisions to
'graud-ig ) aerate its contents by
bubbling air or another gas
advance slope method [ ENG
through the liquid or by
] A method of concrete
spraying the liquid into the air.
placement in which the face of
{ e'ra-shsn ,tar)k )
the fresh concrete, which is
not vertical, moves forward as aerator [DES ENG] A tool
the concrete is placed. having a roller equipped with
{sd'vans 'slop ,meth-3d) hollow fins; used to remove
cores of soil from turf, [ENG]
adz [DES ENG] A cutting tool
1. One who aerates. 2.
with a thin arched blade,
Equipment used for aeration.
sharpened on the concave
3. Any device for supplying air
side, at right angles on the
or gas under pressure, as for
handle; used for rough
fumigating, welding, or
dressing of timber. { adz )
ventilating, [MECH ENG]
adz block [MECH ENG] The Equipment used to inject
part of a machine for wood compressed air into sewage
planing that carries the in the treatment process. {
cutters. { 'adz ,blak) 'e,rad-3r)
aerial cableway See aerial aerial ropeway See aerial
tramway. { 'e-re-sl 'ka-b3l,wa ) tramway. { 'e-re-sl 'rop,wa )
aerial photogrammetry [ENG] aerial spud | MECH ENG ] A
Use of aerial photographs to cable for moving and
make accurate measurements anchoring a dredge. { 'e-re-sl
in surveying and mapmaking. 'spsd )
{ 'e-re-sl ,fot-s'gram-s-tre )
aerial survey [ENG] A survey
aerial photographic utilizing photographic,
reconnaissance See aerial electronic, or other data
photoreconnaissance. { 'e-re- obtained from an airborne
sl ,fod-3]graf-ik ri'kan-s-ssns ) station. Also known as
aerosurvey; air survey. { 'e-re-
aerial photography [ ENG ]
sl 'ssr-va )
The making of photographs of
the ground surface from an aerial tramway |MECH ENG] A
aircraft, spacecraft, or rocket. system for transporting bulk
Also known as aeropho- materials that consists of one
tography. { 'e-re-sl fs'tag-rs-fe or more cables supported by
) steel towers and is capable of
carrying a traveling carriage
aerial photoreconnaissance
from which loaded buckets
[ ENG ] The obtaining of
can be lowered or raised. Also
information by air
known as aerial cableway;
photography; the three types
aerial ropeway. { 'e-re-sl
are strategic, tactical, and
'tram,wa )
photoreconnaissance. Also aeroballistics |MECH ] The
known as aerial photographic study of the interaction of
reconnaissance. { 'e-re-sl projectiles or high-speed
^od-o^i'kan-s-ssns ) vehicles with the atmosphere.
{ ,e-ro-b3'lis-tiks )
aerial reconnaissance [ENG]
The collection of information aerobic-anaerobic interface
by visual, electronic, or | civ ENG ] That point in
photographic means while bacterial action in the body of
aloft. { 'e-re-sl ,ri'kan-3-sons ) a sewage sludge or compost
heap where both aerobic and
anaerobic microorganisms substances. { ^-ro^lor-s'na-
participate, and the shsn )
decomposition of the material
aerodrome See airport. { 'e-
goes no further. { e'rob-ik 'an-
ro,drom )
3,rob-ik 'in-t3r,fas )
aerodynamic balance [ENG]
aerobic-anaerobic lagoon
A balance used for the
|civ ENG] A pond in which the
measurement of the forces
solids from a sewage plant are
exerted on the surfaces of
placed in the lower layer; the
instruments exposed to
solids are partially decom-
flowing air; frequently used in
posed by anaerobic bacteria,
tests made on models in wind
while air or oxygen is bubbled
tunnels. { ,e-ro-dT'nam-ik 'bal-
through the upper layer to
sns )
create an aerobic condition.
{e'rob-ik 'an-3,rob-ik ls'giin ) aerodynamic trajectory
|MECH] A trajectory or part of a
aerobic digestion |CHEM
trajectory in which the missile
ENG] Digestion of matter
or vehicle encounters
suspended or dissolved in
sufficient air resistance to
waste by microorganisms
stabilize its flight or to modify
under favorable conditions of
its course significantly. { ,e-
oxygenation. { e'rob-ik ds'jes-
ro-dT'nam-ik trs'jek-tre )
chsn )
aeroelasticity |MECH ] The
aerobic lagoon |civ ENG] An
deformation of structurally
aerated pond in which
elastic bodies in response to
sewage solids are placed, and
aerodynamic loads. { ^-ro-
are decomposed by aerobic
ijas'tis-sd-e )
bacteria. Also known as aero-
bic pond. { e'ro-bik ls'giin ) aerofall mill |MECH ENG] A
grinding mill of large diameter
aerobic pond See aerobic
with either lumps of ore,
lagoon. {e]ro-bik 'pand )
pebbles, or steel balls as
aerochlorination |civ ENG] crushing bodies; the dry load
Treatment of sewage with is airswept to remove mesh
compressed air and chlorine material. { 'e-ro,f6l ,mil)
gas to remove fatty
aerof ilter [civ ENG ] A filter [ENG] Engineering pertaining
bed for sewage treatment to the design and construction
consisting of coarse material of aircraft and space vehicles
and operated at high speed, and of power units, and to the
often with recirculation. { 'e- special problems of flight in
ro.fil-tsr) both the earth's atmosphere
and space, as in the flight of
aerograph | ENG ] Any self-
air vehicles and in the
recording instrument carried
launching, guidance, and
aloft by any means to obtain
control of missiles, earth
meteorological data. { 'e-
satellites, and space vehicles
and probes. {]e-ro]spas ,en-
aerometeorograph [ENG] A J3'nir-ir) )
self-recording instrument used
aerospace industry [ENG]
on aircraft for the
Industry concerned with the
simultaneous recording of
use of vehicles in both the
atmospheric pressure,
earth's atmosphere and
temperature, and humidity. {
space. { ]e-ro]spas 'in-dss-tre
aerometer [ENG] An
aerostatic balance [ENG] An
instrument to ascertain the
instrument for weighing air. {
weight or density of air or
]e-ro]stad-ik 'bal-sns )
other gases. { e'ra-msd-sr)
aerosurvey See aerial survey.
aerophotography See aerial
{]e-ro!s3r,va )
photography. { ,e-ro-fs'tag-
rs'fe ) aerotrain [ENG] A train that is
propelled by a fan jet engine
aerosol generator [MECH
and floats on a cushion of low-
ENG] A mechanical means of
pressure air, traveling at
producing a system of
speeds up to 267 miles (430
dispersed phase and
kilometers) per hour. { 'e-
dispersing medium, that is,
ro,tran )
an aerosol. { 'e-re,s6l 'jen-
3,rad-3r) aesthesiometer See
esthesiometer. {es,the-ze'am-
aerospace engineering
affreightment [IND ENG] The used on turbocharged
lease of a vessel for the engines. { 'af-ts^kul-sr)
transportation of goods. {
aftercooling [MECH ENG] The
cooling of a gas after its
A frame [ BU ILD ] A dwelling compression. { 'af-t3r,kul-ir) )
whose main frames are in the
afterfilter [MECH ENG] In an
shape of the letter A. [ENG]
air-conditioning system, a
TWO poles supported in an
high-efficiency filter located
upright position by braces or
near a terminal unit. Also
guys and used for lifting
known as final filter. { 'af-
equipment. Also known as
double mast. { 'a ,fram )
afterrunning |MECH ENG] In
afterboil [MECH ENG] In an
an automotive engine,
automotive engine, coolant
continued operation of the
boiling after the engine has
engine after the ignition switch
stopped because of the
is turned off. Also known as
inability of the engine at rest
dieseling; run-on. { 'af-tor^on-
to dissipate excess heat. { 'af-
irj )
after top dead center | MECH
afterburning [MECH ENG]
ENG ] The position of the
Combustion in an internal
piston after reaching the top
combustion engine following
of its stroke in an automotive
the maximum pressure of
engine. { 'af-tsr 'tap 'ded
explosion. { 'af-ts^bsrn-ir) )
aftercondenser [MECH ENG]
agger |civ ENG] A material
A condenser in the second
used for road fill over low
stage of a two-stage ejector;
ground. { 'a-jsr)
used in steam power plants,
refrigeration systems, and air aggregate bin (ENG] A
conditioning systems. { 'af- structure designed for storing
tsr-ksn'denser ) and dispensing dry granular
construction materials such
aftercooler [MECH ENG] A
as sand, crushed stone, and
heat exchanger which cools
gravel; usually has a
air that has been compressed;
hopperlike bottom that funnels dT'ak,sTd )
the material to a gate under
agile manufacturing (IND
the structure. { 'ag-re-gst ,bin
ENG] Operations that can be
rapidly reconfigured to satisfy
aggregate interlock ( ENG ] changing market demands. {
The projection of aggregate [a-jsl ^an-yu'fak-chs-rir) )
particles or portions thereof
aging ( ELEC ] Allowing a
from one side of a joint or
permanent magnet, capacitor,
crack in concrete into
meter, or other device to
recesses in the other side so
remain in storage for a period
as to effect load transfer in
of time, sometimes with a
compression and shear, and
voltage applied, until the
to maintain mutual alignment.
characteristics of the device
{ 'ag-re-gst 'in-t3r,lak)
become essentially constant.
aggregate production ( ENG ] 1. The changing of the
scheduling (IND ENG] A type characteristics of a device due
of planning at a broad level to its use. 2. Operation of a
without consideration of product before shipment to
individual products and stabilize characteristics or
activities in order to develop a detect early failures. { 'aj-irj )
program of output that will
agitating speed (MECH ENG]
meet future demand under
The rate of rotation of the
given constraints. {]ag-ri-g3t
drum or blades of a truck
prajdok-shon ,skej-3-lir))
mixer or other device used for
aggressive carbon dioxide agitation of mixed concrete. {
(CHEM ENG] The carbon 'aj-^tad-ig ,sped )
dioxide dissolved in water in
agitating truck (MECH ENG] A
excess of the amount
vehicle carrying a drum or
required to precipitate a
agitator body, in which freshly
specified concentration of
mixed concrete can be
calcium ions as calcium
conveyed from the point of
carbonate; used as a
mixing to that of placing, the
measure of the corrosivity
drum being rotated
and scaling properties of
continuously to agitate the
water. { s'gres-iv 'kar-bsn
contents. { 'aj 3,tad-ir) ,trak) motion of the tracking
equipment is machine-
agitator (MECH ENG] A device
controlled in collaboration with
for keeping liquids and solids
an operator so as to minimize
in liquids in motion by mixing,
tracking error. { 'ad-sd 'trak-ig
stirring, or shaking. { 'aj-^tad-
aided-tracking mechanism (
agitator body (MECH ENG] A
ENG ] A device consisting of a
truck-mounted drum for
motor and variable-speed
transporting freshly mixed
drive which provides a means
concrete; rotation of internal
of setting a desired tracking
paddles or of the drum pre-
rate into a director or other
vents the setting of the
fire-control instrument, so that
mixture prior to delivery. { 'aj-
the process of tracking is
^tad-sr 'bad-e )
carried out automatically at
agricultural pipe drain (civ the set rate until it is changed
ENG] A system of porous or manually. { 'ad-sd 'trak-irj
perforated pipes laid in a ,mek-3,niz-3m )
trench filled with gravel or the
aided-tracking ratio (ENG]
like; used for draining subsoil.
The ratio between the
{[ag-relksl-chs-rsl ,pTp ,dran )
constant velocity of the aided-
agricultural robot (CONT SYS] tracking mechanism and the
A robot used to pick and velocity of the moving target.
harvest farm products and { 'ad-sd 'trak-irj ,ra-sho )
fruits. { ]ag-relksl-chs-rel
aiguille (ENG] A slender form
of drill used for boring or
AGV See automated guided drilling a blasthole in rock. {
vehicle. ,a'gwel)
aided tracking (ENG ] A aiming circle (ENG] An
system of radar-tracking a instrument for measuring
target signal in bearing, angles in azimuth and
elevation, or range, or any elevation in connection with
combination of these artillery firing and general
variables, in which the rate of topographic work; equipped
with fine and coarse azimuth air-assist forming (ENG] A
micrometers and a magnetic plastics thermo-forming
needle. { 'am-irj .ssr-ksl) method in which air pressure
is used to partially preform a
aiming screws (MECH ENG]
sheet before it enters the
On an automotive vehicle,
mold. { 'er s'sist 'form-irj )
spring-loaded screws
designed to secure headlights air-atomizing oil burner
to a support frame and permit (ENG] An oil burner in which a
aiming of the headlights in stream of fuel oil is broken into
horizontal and vertical planes. very fine droplets through the
{ 'aim-irj ,skruz ) action of compressed air. { 'er
'at-s'mTz-ir) ,6il 'bsrn-sr)
AIR See air-injection reactor. {
er) air bag (MECH ENG] An
automotive vehicle passenger
air-actuated (ENG] Powered
safety device consisting of a
by compressed air. { 'er 'ak-
passive restraint in the form of
a bag which is automatically
air-arc furnace (ENG] An arc inflated with gas to provide
furnace designed to power cushioned protection against
wind tunnels, the air being the impact of a collision. { 'er
superheated to 20,000 K and ,bag)
expanded to emerge at super-
air belt |MECH ENG] The
sonic speeds. { 'er ,ark 'fsr-
chamber which equalizes the
nss )
pressure that is blasted into
air aspirator valve (MECH the cupola at the tuyeres. { 'er
ENG] On certain automotive ,belt)
engines, a one-way valve
air bind [ENG] The presence
installed on the exhaust
of air in a conduit or pump
manifold to allow air to enter
which impedes passage of
the exhaust system; provides
the liquid. { 'er ,bmd )
extra oxygen to convert
carbon monoxide to carbon airblasting | ENG ] A blasting
dioxide. Also known as gulp technique in which air at very
valve. { 'er 'as-p^rad-sr ,valv ) high pressure is piped to a
steel shell in a shot hole and
discharged. Also known as air airborne magnetometer
breaking. { 'er,blast-ir)) (ENG] An airborne instrument
used to measure the magnetic
air bleeder |MECH ENG] A
field of the earth. { 'er,born
device, such as a needle
valve, for removing air from a
hydraulic system. { 'er 'bled- airborne profile recorder
sr) (ENG] An electronic instrument
that emits a pulsed-type radar
airborne collision warning
signal from an aircraft to
system (ENG] A system such
measure vertical distances
as a radar set or radio
between the aircraft and the
receiver carried by an aircraft
earth's surface. Abbreviated
to warn of the danger of
APR. Also known as terrain
possible collision. { 'er,b6rn
profile recorder (TPR). {
ks'lizh-sn 'worn-irj ,sis* torn)
'er,b6rn 'pro,frl ri,k6rd-3r)
airborne detector (ENG] A
airborne radar (ENG] Radar
device, transported by an
equipment carried by aircraft
aircraft, whose function is to
to assist in navigation by
locate or identify an air or
pilotage, to determine drift,
surface object. { 'er,b6rn di
and to locate weather distur-
bances; a very important use
airborne electronic survey is locating other aircraft either
control (ENG] The airborne for avoidance or attack. { 'er
portion of very accurate ,born 'ra,dar)
positioning systems used in
airborne waste (ENG] Vapors,
controlling surveys from
gases, orparticu-lates
aircraft. { 'er,bdrn i,lek'tran-ik
introduced into the
'ssr-va ksn'trol)
atmosphere by evaporation,
airborne intercept radar chemical, or combustion
(ENG] Airborne radar used to processes; a frequent cause
track and "lock on" to another of smog and an irritant to eyes
aircraft to be intercepted or and breathing passages. {
followed. { 'er,b6rn 'in-tor,sept 'er,b6rn 'wast)
air-bound (ENG] Of a pipe or
apparatus, containing a air. (MECH ENG] A small
pocket of air that prevents or auxiliary combustion chamber
reduces the desired liquid used to promote turbulence
flow. { 'er ,baund ) and improve combustion in
certain types of diesel en-
air brake (MECH ENG] An
gines. { 'er ,sel)
mechanism activated by air air chamber (MECH ENG] A
pressure and used to retard, pressure vessel, partially filled
stop, or hold a vehicle or, with air, for converting
generally, any moving pulsating flow to steady flow of
element. { 'er ,brak ) water in a pipeline, as with a
reciprocating pump. { 'er
air breaking See airblasting. {
'er ,brak-irj )
air change (ENG] A measure
air-breathing ( MECH ENG ] Of
of the movement of a given
an engine or aerodynamic
volume of air in or out of a
vehicle, required to take in air
building or room in a specified
for the purpose of
time period; usually expressed
combustion. { 'er 'brelh-irj )
in cubic feet per minute. { 'er
air cap (MECH ENG] A device ,chanj )
used in thermal spraying
air check (ENG ACOUS] A
which directs the air pattern
recording made of a live radio
for purposes of atomization. {
broadcast for filing purposes
'er ,kap )
at the broadcasting facility. {
air casing (ENG] A metal 'er ,chek )
casing surrounding a pipe or
air classifier (MECH ENG] A
reservoir and having a space
device to separate particles
between to prevent heat
by size through the action of a
transmission. { 'er ,kas-irj )
stream of air. Also known as
air cell (ELECTR] A cell in air elutriator. { 'er 'klas-a.fr-ar)
which depolarization at the
air cleaner (ENG] Any of
positive electrode is
various devices designed to
accomplished chemically by
remove particles and aerosols
reduction of the oxygen in the
of specific sizes from air;
examples are screens, settling ^sm'pres-sr ,valv )
chambers, filters, wet
air condenser (MECH ENG] 1.
collectors, and electrostatic
A steam condenser in which
precipitators. { 'er ,klen-3r)
the heat exchange occurs
Airco-Hoover sweetening through metal walls
(CHEM ENG] Removal of separating the steam from
mercaptans from gasoline by cooling air. Also known as
caustic and water washes, air-cooled condenser. 2. A
then heating the dried device that removes vapors,
gasoline and passing it with such as of oil or water, from
some oxygen through a reac- the airstream in a com-
tor containing a slurry of pressed-air line. { 'er
diatomaceous earth ,k3n'dens-3r)
impregnated with copper
air conditioner (MECH ENG] A
chloride; the oxygen
mechanism primarily for
regenerates the catalyst. {
comfort cooling that lowers the
'er,ko 'huvor 'swet-nirj )
temperature and reduces the
air compressor (MECH ENG] A humidity of air in buildings. {
machine that increases the 'er ^sn'dish-sn-sr)
pressure of air by increasing
air conditioning |MECH ENG]
its density and delivering the
The maintenance of certain
fluid against the connected
aspects of the environment
system resistance on the
within a defined space to
discharge side. { 'er
facilitate the function of that
space; aspects controlled
air-compressor unloader include air temperature and
(MECH ENG] A device for motion, radiant heat level,
control of air volume flowing moisture, and concentration
through an air compressor. { of pollutants such as dust,
'er ^sm'pres-sr sn'lod-sr) microorganisms, and gases.
Also known as climate control.
air-compressor valve (MECH
{ 'er ^on'dish-on-irj )
ENG] A device for controlling
the flow into or out of the air conveyor See pneumatic
cylinder of a compressor. { 'er conveyor. { 'er k3n,va-3r)
air-cooled engine | MECH air-cure (CHEM ENG] TO
ENG ] An engine cooled vulcanize at ordinary room
directly by a stream of air temperatures, or without the
without the interposition of a aid of heat. { 'er ,kyur)
liquid medium. { 'er ,kiild 'en-
air curtain (MECH ENG] A
jsn )
stream of high-velocity
air-cooled heat exchanger temperature-controlled air
|MECH ENG] A finned-tube which is directed downward
(extended-surface) heat across an opening; it excludes
exchanger with hot fluids insects, exterior drafts, and so
inside the tubes, and cooling forth, prevents the transfer of
air that is fan-blown (forced heat across it, and permits
draft) or fan-pulled (induced air-conditioning of a space
draft) across the tube bank. { with an open entrance. {
'er ,kuld ,het ,iks'chanj-3r) 'ei^kart-an )
air cooling |MECH ENG ] air cushion (MECH ENG] A
Lowering of air temperature for mechanical device using
comfort, process control, or trapped air to arrest motion
food preservation. { 'er ,kul*ir) ) without shock. { 'er ,kush-3n )
air course See airway. { 'er air-cushion vehicle (MECH
,kors ) ENG] A transportation device
supported by low-pressure,
aircraft detection [ENG] The
low-velocity air capable of
sensing and discovery of the
traveling equally well over
presence of aircraft; major
water, ice, marsh, or relatively
techniques include radar,
level land. Also known as
acoustical, and optical
ground-effect machine (GEM);
methods. { 'er,kraft di'tek-shsn
hovercraft. { 'er ,kush-3n ,ve-
aircraft impactor (ENG] An
air-cut (ENG] Referring to the
instrument carried by an
inadvertent mechanical
aircraft for the purpose of
incorporation of air into a liquid
obtaining samples of airborne
system. { 'er ,fcat)
particles. { 'er,kraft im'pak-
tor) air cycle (MECH ENG] A
refrigeration cycle char- designed to provide a desired
acterized by the working fluid, flow of air from a pressurized
air, remaining as a gas plenum above. { 'er di'strib-
throughout the cycle rather yod-irj s'ku-sti-ksl 'sel-irj )
than being condensed to a
air diving (ENG] A type of
liquid; used primarily in
diving in which the diver's
airplane air conditioning. { 'er
breathing medium is a normal
atmospheric mixture of
air cylinder ( MECH ENG ] A oxygen and nitrogen; limited
cylinder in which air is to depths of 190 feet (58
compressed by a piston, meters). { 'er ,dTvir) )
compressed air is stored, or
air drain (civ ENG] An empty
air drives a piston. { 'er
space left around the external
foundation wall of a building
air density (MECH] The mass to prevent the earth from lying
per unit volume of air. { 'er against it and causing
,den-s3d-e ) dampness. { 'er ,dran )
air diffuser (BUILD] An air airdraulic (MECH ENG]
distribution outlet, usually Combining pneumatic and
located in the ceiling and hydraulic action for operation.
consisting of { ,er'dr6l-ik)
deflecting vanes discharging air drill (MECH ENG] A drill
supply air in various directions powered by compressed air.
and planes, and arranged to {[er ,dril)
promote mixing of the
air drying ( ENG ] Removing
supplied air with the air
moisture from a material by
already in the room. { 'er
exposure to air to the extent
that no further moisture is
air-distributing acoustical released on contact with air;
ceiling (BUILD] A suspended important in lumber
acoustical ceiling in which the manufacture. {]er 'drT-irj )
board or tile is provided with
air duct See airflow duct. {]er
small, evenly distributed
mechanical perforations;
air ejector (MECH ENG] A ENG ] Any air-exhaust unit
device that uses a fluid jet to used to carry away dirt
remove air or other gases, as particles, odors, or fumes. {
from a steam condenser. {[er 'er ig'zost 'ven-tsjad-sr)
airfield (civ ENG] The area of
air eliminator (MECH ENG] In an airport for the takeoff and
a piping system, a device landing of airplanes. { 'er,feld )
used to remove air from
air filter (ENG] A device that
water, steam, or refrigerant.
reduces the concentration of
{]er i'lim-^nad-sr)
solid particles in an airstream
air elutriator See air classifier. to a level that can be tolerated
{[er e'lu-tre,ad-3r) in a process or space
occupancy; a component of
air engine (MECH ENG] An
most systems in which air is
engine in which compressed
used for industrial processes,
air is the actuating fluid. { [er
ventilation, or comfort air
'en-jsn )
conditioning. { 'er ,fil*t3r)
air entrainment (ENG] The
air flotation See dissolved air
inclusion of minute bubbles of
flotation. { 'er flo'ta-shsn )
air in cement or concrete
through the addition of some airflow duct (ENG] A pipe,
material during grinding or tube, or channel through
mixing to reduce the surface which air moves into or out of
tension of the water, giving an enclosed space. Also
improved properties for the known as air duct. { 'er ,flo
end product. {[er in'tran-msnt) .dskt)
air escape (DES ENG] A airflow orifice [ENG] An
device that is fitted to a pipe opening through which air
carrying a liquid for releasing moves out of an enclosed
excess air; it contains a valve space. { 'er,flo '6r*3*fos )
that controls air release while
airflow pipe [ENG] A tube
preventing loss of liquid. { 'er
through which air is conveyed
o,skap )
from one location to another.
air-exhaust ventilator ( MECH { 'er ,flo ,pTp )
air-fuel mixture |MECH ENG] 7.tance from the opening of
In a carbureted gasoline the extrusion die to
engine, the charge of air and
8.the nip formed by the
fuel that is mixed in the
pressure and chill rolls.
appropriate ratio in the
carburetor and subsequently 9.The unobstructed vertical
fed into the combustion distance between
chamber. { 'er 'fyul ,miks-ch3r)
10.the lowest opening of a
air gage (ENG] 1. A device faucet (or the like) which
that measures air pressure. 2.
A device that compares the 11.supplies a plumbing fixture
shape of a machined surface (such as a tank or
to that of a reference surface 12.washbowl) and the level at
by measuring the rate of which the fixture will
passage of air between the
surfaces. { 'er ,gaj ) 13.overflow. { 'er ,gap )

air gap ( ELECTR] 1. A gap or air grating (BUILD] A fixed

an equivalent filler of metal grille on the exterior of
nonmagnetic material across a building through which air is
the core of a choke, brought into or discharged
transformer, or other from the building for purposes
magnetic device. of ventilation. { 'er ,grad-ir))

2.A spark gap consisting of air hammer See pneumatic

two electrodes sepa hammer. { 'er ,ham* or)

3.rated by air. 3. The space air-handling system (MECH

between the stator ENG] An air-conditioning
system in which an air-
4.and rotor in a motor or handling unit provides part of
generator, (ENG] the treatment of the air. { 'er
5.1. The distance between |hand*lirj ,sis*t3m )
two components or air-handling unit (MECH ENG]
6.parts. 2. In plastic extrusion A packaged assembly of air-
coating, the dis conditioning components
(coils, filters, fan humidifier,
and so forth) which provides air hp See air horsepower.
for the treatment of air before
air-injection reactor (MECH
it is distributed. { 'er |hand*lirj
ENG] A unit installed in an
automotive engine which
air heater See air preheater. { mixes fresh air with hot
'er ,hed-3r) exhaust gases in the exhaust
manifold to react with any
air-heating system See air
gasoline that has escaped
preheater. { 'er ,hed-ig 'sis-
unburned from the cylinders.
torn )
Abbreviated AIR. { 'er in]jek-
air hoist (MECH ENG] A lifting shon re'ak-tsr)
tackle or tugger constructed
air-injection system (MECH
with cylinders and pistons for
ENG] A device that uses
reciprocating motion and air
compressed air to inject the
motors for rotary motion, all
fuel into the cylinder of an
powered by compressed air.
internal combustion engine.
Also known as pneumatic
Also known as thermactor. {
hoist. { 'er ,hoist)
'er in]jek-shon ,sis*t3m )
air horn (MECH ENG] In an
air inlet (MECH ENG] In an air-
automotive engine, the upper
conditioning system, a device
portion of the carburetor
through which air is
barrel through which entering
exhausted from a room or
air passes in quantities
building. { 'er |in,let)
controlled by the choke plate
and the throttle plate. { 'er air-inlet valve (MECH ENG] In a
,horn ) heating/air-conditioning
system of a motor vehicle, a
air horsepower (MECH ENG]
valve in the plenum blower
The theoretical (minimum)
assembly that permits selec-
power required to deliver the
tion of either inside or outside
specified quantity of air under
air. { 'er |in,let ,valv )
the specified pressure
conditions in a fan, blower, air knife (ENG] A device that
compressor, or vacuum uses a thin, flat jet of air to
pump. Abbreviated air hp. { remove the excess coating
'er 'hors ,pau-3r) from freshly coated paper. {
'er ,nlf) cylinder. { 'er,lift 'ham-sr)
air-knife coating (ENG] An air-lift pump (MECH ENG] A
even film of coating left on device composed of two
paper after treatment with an pipes, one inside the other,
air knife. { 'er jrfif ,kod*irj ) used to extract water from a
well; the lower end of the
air-lance (ENG] TO direct a
pipes is submerged, and air is
pressurized-air stream to
delivered through the inner
remove unwanted
pipe to form a mixture of air
accumulations, as in boiler-
and water which rises in the
wall cleaning. { 'er ,lans )
outer pipe above the water in
air leakage (MECH ENG] 1. In the well; also used to move
ductwork, air which escapes corrosive liquids, mill tailings,
from a joint, coupling, and and sand. Also known as air
such. 2. The undesired lift. { 'er ,lift 'pomp )
leakage or uncontrolled pas-
air line (ENG] A fault, in the
sage of air from a ventilation
form of an elongated bubble,
system. { 'er ,lek-3j )
in glass tubing. Also known as
airless spraying (ENG] The hairline, (MECH ENG] A duct,
spraying of paint by means of hose, or pipe that supplies
high fluid pressure and compressed air to a
special equipment. Also pneumatic tool or piece of
known as hydraulic equipment. { 'er ,lTn )
spraying. { 'er-lss 'spra-irj)
air-line lubricator See line
air lift (MECH ENG] 1. oiler. { 'er ,lTn 'lu-
Equipment for lifting slurry or
air lock (ENG] 1. A chamber
dry powder through pipes by
capable of being hermetically
means of compressed air. 2.
sealed that provides for
See air-lift pump. { [er [lift)
passage between two places
air-lift hammer (MECH ENG] A of different pressure, such as
gravity drop hammer used in between an altitude chamber
closed die forging in which the and the outside atmosphere,
ram is raised to its starting or between the outside
point by means of an air atmosphere and the work
area in a tunnel or shaft being such as an air mileage
excavated through soil indicator. { 'er ,mT-lij ,yu*ri3t )
subjected to water pressure
air-mixing plenum [MECH
higher than atmospheric. Also
ENG] In an air-conditioning
known as lock. 2. An air
system, a chamber in which
bubble in a pipeline which im-
the recircu-lating air is mixed
pedes liquid flow. 3. A
with air from outdoors. { 'er
depression on the surface of
,miks*irj 'plen-sm )
a molded plastic part that
results from air trapped air monitoring [civ ENG] A
between the surface of the practice of continuous air
mold and the plastic. { 'er ,lak) sampling by various levels of
government or particular
air-lock strip [BUILD] The
industries. { 'er ,man*3*trirj)
weather stripping which is
fastened to the edges of each air motor [MECH ENG] A
wing of a revolving door. { 'er device in which the pressure
,lak ,strip ) of confined air causes the
rotation of a rotor or the
air meter |ENG ] A device that
movement of a piston. { 'er
measures the flow of air, or
gas, expressed in volumetric
or weight units per unit time. air nozzle [MECH ENG] In an
Also known as airometer. { 'er automotive engine, a device
,med-3r) for supplying air to the air-
injection reactor. { 'er ,naz*3l)
air mileage indicator [ENG]
An instrument on an airplane airometer [ENG] 1. An
which continuously indicates apparatus for both holding air
mileage through the air. { [er and measuring the quantity of
,mT-lij 'in-ds'kad-sr) air admitted into it. 2. See air
meter. { ,er'a*m3d*3r)
air mileage unit [ENG] A
device which derives air outlet [MECH ENG] In an
continuously and air-conditioning system, a
automatically the air distance device at the end of a duct
flown, and feeds this through which air is supplied
information into other units, to a space. { 'er ,aut#l3t)
air-permeability test [ ENG ] A construction, and operation
test for the measurement of and maintenance of facilities
the fineness of powdered providing for the landing and
materials, such as portland takeoff, loading and unloading,
cement. { ]er ^sr-me-s'bil-s-de servicing, maintenance, and
,test) storage of aircraft. { 'er,p6rt
en-ja'nir-irj )
airplane flare [ENG] A flare,
often magnesium, that is air preheater [MECH ENG] A
dropped from an airplane to device used in steam boilers
illuminate a ground area; a to transfer heat from the flue
small parachute decreases gases to the combustion air
the rate of descent. { 'er,plan before the latter enters the
,fler) furnace. Also known as air
heater; air-heating system. {
air pocket [ENG] An air-filled
'er ,pre'hed-3r)
space that is normally
occupied by a liquid. Also airproof See airtight. {
known as air trap. { 'er 'er,pruf)
air propeller [MECH ENG] A
air-pollution control [ENG] A rotating fan for moving air. {
practical means of treating 'er pr^pel-sr)
polluting sources to maintain
air pump [ MECH ENG ] A
a desired degree of air
device for removing air from
cleanliness. { [er ps'lu-shsn
an enclosed space or for
ksn ,trol)
adding air to an enclosed
airport [ civ ENG ] A terminal space. { 'er ,p3mp )
facility used for aircraft takeoff
airpuncher [ENG] A machine
and landing and including
consisting essentially of a
facilities for handling
reciprocating chisel or pick,
passengers and cargo and for
driven by air. { 'er ,p3n-ch3r)
servicing aircraft. Also
known as aerodrome. { air purge [MECH ENG]
'er,port) Removal of particulate matter
from air within an enclosed
airport engineering [civ ENG ]
vessel by means of air
The planning, design,
displacement. { 'er ,psrj ) release air from a water pipe
or fitting. { 'er rijles ,valv )
air-raid shelter [civ ENG] A
chamber, often underground, air resistance [MECH] Wind
provided with living facilities drag giving rise to forces and
and food, for sheltering wear on buildings and other
people against air attacks. structures. { 'er ri'zis-tsns )
{[er ,rad [shel-tsr)
air ring [ENG] In plastics
air receiver [MECH ENG] A forming, a circular manifold
vessel designed for which distributes an even flow
compressed-air installations of cool air into a hollow
that is used both to store the tubular form passing through
compressed air and to permit the manifold. { 'er ,rirj )
pressure to be equalized in
air sampling [ENG] The
the system. { 'er ri,se-vsr)
collection and analysis of
air register [ENG] A device samples of air to measure the
attached to an air-distributing amounts of various pollutants
duct for the purpose of or other substances in the air,
controlling the discharge of air or the air's radioactivity. { 'er
into the space to be heated, ,sam*plirj)
cooled, or ventilated. { 'er
air scoop [DES ENG ] An air-
duct cowl projecting from the
air regulator [MECH ENG] A outer surface of an aircraft or
device for regulating airflow, automobile, which is designed
as in the burner of a furnace. { to utilize the dynamic
[er [reg-ysjad-sr) pressure of the airstream to
maintain a flow of air. { 'er
air reheater [MECH ENG] In a
,skup )
heating system, any device
used to add heat to the air air screw [MECH ENG] A screw
circulating in the system. {[er propeller that operates in air. {
,re|hed*3r) 'er ,skru )
air release valve [MECH ENG] air-seasoned [ENG] Treated
A valve, usually manually by exposure to air to give a
operated, which is used to desired quality. { 'er ,sez-3nd )
air separator |MECH ENG] A instrument or device, usually a
device that uses an air pitot tube, mounted on an
current to separate a material aircraft for receiving the static
from another of greater and dynamic pressures of the
density or particles from air used by the airspeed
others of greater size. {]er indicator. { 'er,sped ,hed)
airspeed indicator (ENG) A
air shaft (BUILD) An open device that computes and
space surrounded by the displays the speed of an
walls of a building or buildings aircraft relative to the air mass
to provide ventilation for in which the aircraft is flying. {
windows. Also known as air [er,sped ,in*d3,kad*3r)
well. { 'er ,shaft )
air spring (MECH ENG) A
air shot (ENG) A shot spring in which the energy
prepared by loading storage element is air
(charging) so that an air confined in a container that
space is left in contact with includes an elastomeric
the explosive for the purpose bellows or diaphragm. { 'er
of lessening its shattering ,sprirj )
effect. { 'er ,shat)
air-standard cycle (THERMO)
Airslide conveyor (MECH Athermodynamic cycle in
ENG) An air-activated gravity- which the working fluid is
type conveyor, of the Fuller considered to be a perfect gas
Company, using low-pressure with such properties of air as a
air to aerate or fluidize pulver- volume of 12.4 cubic feet per
ized material to a degree pound at 14.7 pounds per
which will permit it to flow on a square inch (approximately
slight incline by the force of 0.7756 cubic meter per
gravity. { ]er,slTd kon]va-3r) kilogram at 101.36
kilopascals) and 492R and a
air space (ENG) An enclosed
ratio of specific heats of 1 A. {
space containing air in a wall
[er [stan-dsrd 'sT-ksl)
for thermal insulation. { [er
[spas ) air-standard engine ( MECH
ENG ) A heat engine operated
airspeed head ( ENG ) Any
in an air-standard cycle. {[er technique for
[standard 'en-jsn ) microencapsulation of various
types of solid particles; the
air starting valve (MECH ENG)
particles undergo a series of
A device that admits
cycles in which they are first
compressed air to an air
suspended by a vertical
starter. { 'er [stard-ig ,valv)
current of air while they are
air stripping (CHEM ENG) The sprayed with a solution of
process of bubbling air coating material, and are then
through water to remove moved by the airstream into a
volatile organic substances region where they undergo a
from the water. { 'er ,strip-ir) ) drying treatment. Also known
as Wurster process. { 'or
air-supply mask See air-tube sojspen-shon in,kap-ss'la-
breathing apparatus. { 'er shsn )
sojplT ,mask )
air-suspension system
air surveillance (ENG) (MECH ENG) Parts of an
Systematic observation of the automotive vehicle that are
airspace by visual, electronic, intermediate between the
or other means, primarily for wheels and the frame, and
identifying all aircraft in that support the car body and
airspace, and determining frame by means of a cushion
their movements. { 'er ssr'va- of air to absorb road shock
lsns ) caused by passage of the
air surveillance radar ( ENG ) wheels over irregularities. { 'er
Radar of moderate range sojspen-shsn [sis-torn )
providing position of aircraft by air sweetening (CHEM ENG) A
azimuth and range data process in which air or oxygen
without elevation data; used is used to oxidize lead
for air-traffic control. { [er mercaptides to disulfides
sorjva-lons [ra,dar) instead of using elemental
air survey See aerial survey. sulfur. { 'er ,swet*3n*ir) )
{[er [ssr.va ) air system ( MECH ENG ) A
air-suspension mechanical refrigeration
encapsulation (CHEM ENG) A system in which air serves as
the refrigerant in a cycle pipe filled with water that
comprising compressor, heat prevents the escape of foul air
exchanger, expander, and or gas from such systems as
refrigerating core. { 'er ,sis*t3m drains and sewers. See air
) pocket. { 'er ,trap )
air terminal (civ ENG) A air-tube breathing apparatus
facility providing a place of (ENG) A device consisting of a
assembly and amenities for smoke helmet, mask, or
airline passengers and space mouthpiece supplied with
for administrative functions. fresh air by means of a flexible
(ELEC) A structure, such as a tube. Also known as air-
tower, that serves as a supply mask. {[er ,tiib 'brelh-irj
lightning arrester. { 'er ^srm- ,a-p3|rad-3s )
air-tube clutch (MECH ENG) A
air thermometer (ENG) A clutch fitted with a tube whose
device that measures the inflation causes the clutch to
temperature of an enclosed engage, and deflation, to
space by means of variations disengage. { 'er [tub ,kbch )
in the pressure or volume of
airvalve (MECH ENG)
air contained in a bulb placed
Avalvethatautomatically lets
in the space. {[er thojmam-od-
air out of or into a liquid-
carrying pipe when the
airtight (ENG ) Not permitting internal pressure drops below
the passage of air. Also known atmospheric. { 'er ,valv)
as airproof. { 'er,tTt)
air vessel (ENG) 1. An
air-to-air resistance (civ enclosed volume of air which
ENG) The resistance provided uses the compressibility of air
by the wall of a building to the to minimize water hammer.
flow of heat. {[er tii [er ri'sis- Also known as accumulator.
tsns ) 2. An enclosed chamber using
the compressibility of air to
air toxics See hazardous air
promote a more uniform flow of
pollutants. { 'er [tak-siks )
water in a piping system. { 'er
air trap (civ ENG) A U-shaped ,ves-3l)
air washer (MECH ENG) 1. A optionally supported to avoid
device for cooling and its bending. { [er-e ,poins )
cleaning air in which the
Airy stress function [ MECH ]
entering warm, moist air is
A biharmonic function of two
cooled below its dew point by
variables whose second
refrigerated water so that
partial derivatives give the
although the air leaves close
stress components of a body
to saturation with water, it has
subject to a plane strain. {[er-
less moisture per unit volume
e 'stres ^sgk-shsn )
than when it entered. 2.
Apparatus to wash aisleway [ Civ ENG ] A
particulates and soluble passage or walkway within a
impurities from air by passing factory, storage building, or
the airstream through a liquid shop permitting the flow of
bath or spray. { 'er ,wash-3r) inside traffic. { 'Tl,wa )
air-water jet [ENG] A jet of Aitken dust counter [ENG] An
mixed air and water which instrument for determining the
leaves a nozzle at high dust content of the
velocity; used in cleaning the atmosphere. Also known as
surfaces of concrete or rock. { Aitken nucleus counter. { [at-
[er [wod-sr 'jet) ksn 'dost ,kaunt-3r)
air-water storage tank [ENG] Aitken nucleus counter See
A water storage tank in which Aitken dust counter. {[at-ksn
the air above the water is 'nii-kle-ss ,kaunt-3r)
compressed. {[er [wod-sr
'stor-ij ,tar)k) alarm gage [ENG] A device
that actuates a signal either
airway [BUILD] A passage for when the steam pressure in a
ventilation between thermal boiler is too high or when the
insulation and roof boards. { water level in a boiler is too
'er,wa ) low. { s'larm ,gaj )
air well See air shaft. { 'er alarm system [ENG] A
,wel) system which operates a
warning device after the
Airy points [ENG] The points
occurrence of a dangerous or
at which a horizontal rod is
undesirable condition. known as alcoholimeter;
{s'larm ,sis-t3m ) alcoholmeter. { ^l-k^ho'la-
alarm valve [ENG] A device
that sounds an alarm when alcohol thermometer [ ENG ]
water flows in an automatic A liquid-in-glass thermometer
sprinkler system. { s'larm ,valv that uses ethyl alcohol as its
) working substance. { 'al-k^hol
albedometer [ENG] An
instrument used for the alidade [ENG] 1. An
measurement of the reflecting instrument for topographic
power, that is, the albedo, of a surveying and mapping by
surface. { al-bs'da-msd-sr) the plane-table method. 2.
Any sighting device employed
Alberger process [CHEM ENG]
for angular measurement. {
A method of manufacturing
'al-3,dad )
salt by heating brine at high
pressure and passing it to a aligning drift [MECH ENG] A
graveler which removes rod or bar that is used for
calcium sulfate; the salt aligning parts during
crystallizes as the pressure is assembly. { s'lm-ig .drift)
reduced and thus is
alignment [civ ENG] In a
separated from the brine. {
survey for a highway, railroad,
'al-bsr-gsr 'pras-ss )
or similar installation, a
alcoholimeter See ground plan that shows the
alcoholometer. { .al-ks.ho'lim- horizontal direction of the
sd-sr) route. [ELECTR] The process of
adjusting components of a
alcoholmeter See
system for proper
alcoholometer. { 'al-ks.hol
interrelationship, including the
adjustment of tuned circuits
alcoholometer [ENG] A for proper frequency response
device, such as a form of and the time synchronization
hydrometer, that measures of the components of a
the quantity of an alcohol system, [ENG] Placing of
contained in a liquid. Also surveying points along a
straight line. { s'lln-msnt) alkylaromatics; for example,
production of ethylbenzene
alignment correction [ENG]
from benzene and ethylene.
A correction applied to the
{ 'al,kar 'pras-ss )
measured length of a line to
allow for not holding the tape alky I ate bottom [CHEM ENG]
exactly in a vertical plane of Residue from frac-tionation of
the line. { s'lTn-msnt ks'rek- total alkylate which boils at a
shsn ) higher temperature than
aviation gasolines. { 'al
alignment pin [DES ENG] Pin
ks,lat 'bad-sm )
in the center of the base of an
octal, loctal, or other tube alkylation [CHEM ENG] A
having a single vertical refinery process for chemically
projecting rib that aids in combining isoparaffin with
correctly inserting the tube in olefin hydrocarbons. { ^l-ks'la-
its socket. { s'lTn-msnt ,pin ) shsn )
alignment wire See ground allege [BUILD] A part of a wall
wire. { s'lTn-msnt ,wTr) which is thinner than the rest,
especially the spandrel under
alkali ion diode [ENG] In
a window. { a'lezh )
testing for leaks, a device
which senses the presence of Allen screw [DES ENG] A
halogen gases by the use of screw or bolt which has an
positive ions of alkali metal on axial hexagonal socket in its
the heated diode surfaces. { head. { 'al-on ,skru )
'al-ksjT 'T-sn 'dT,od )
Allen wrench [DES ENG] A
alkaline wash [CHEM ENG] wrench made from a straight
The removal of impurities from or bent hexagonal rod, used
kerosine,used for illuminating to turn an Allen screw. { 'al-sn
purposes, by caustic soda ,rench )
solution. { 'al-ksjTn ,wash )
alligator shears [ENG] A
Alkar process [CHEM ENG] cutting tool with a fixed lower
Catalytic alkylation of blade and a movable upper
aromatic hydrocarbons with blade (shearing arm) that
olefins to produce moves in an arc around a
fulcrum pin; used mainly for maximum force per unit area
shearing applications that do that may be safely applied to
not require great accuracy. { a solid. { s'laii-s-bsl 'stres )
'al-s.gad-sr .shirz )
allowance |DES ENG] An
alligator wrench |DES ENG] A intentional difference in sizes
wrench having fixed jaws of two mating parts, allowing
forming a V, with teeth on one clearance usually for a film of
or both jaws. { 'al*3,gad*3r oil, for running or sliding fits. {
,rench ) s'lau-sns )
allocate |IND ENG] TO assign a allowed hours See standard
portion of a resource to an hour. { s'laud 'ail-srz)
activity. { 'a-lo,kat )
allowed time |IND ENG]
allowable bearing value |civ Amount of time allowed each
ENG] The maximum employee for personal needs
permissible pressure on during a work cycle. { s'laud
foundation soil that provides 'tTm )
adequate safety against
alloy junction | ELECTR] A j
rupture of the soil mass or
unction produced by alloying
movement of the foundation
one or more impurity metals to
of such magnitude as to
a semiconductor to form a p or
impair the structure imposing
n region, depending on the
the pressure. Also known as
impurity used. Also known as
allowable soil pressure. {
fused junction. { 'a,l6i jsgk-
s'lau-s-bsl 'ber-irj ,val-yu )
shsn )
allowable load |MECH ] The
alloy-junction diode |ELECTR]
maximum force that may be
A junction diode made by
safely applied to a solid, or is
placing a pill of doped alloying
permitted by applicable
material on a semiconductor
regulators. { s'lau-s-bsl 'lod )
material and heating until the
allowable soil pressure See molten alloy melts a portion of
allowable bearing value. { the semiconductor, resulting in
s'lau-s-bsl 'soil ,presh-3r) a pn junction when the dis-
solved semiconductor
allowable stress |MECH] The
recrystallizes. Also known as
fused-junction diode. { 'a,loi source, instead of by electrons
Ijsgk-shsn 'dT,od ) emitted from a hot filament;
used chiefly for pressures
all-translational system
from 10~3 to 10 torrs. Also
|CONT SYS] A simple robotic
known as alphatron. { 'al-fs ,ra
system in which there is no
'vak-yum ,gaj )
rotation of the robot or its
components during alphatron See alpha-ray
movements of the robot's vacuum gage. { 'al-fo,tran )
body. {[61 ,tranz'la-sh3n-3l
alt See altitude.
'sis-torn )
altazimuth [ENG] An
all-weather airport |civ ENG]
instrument equipped with both
An airport with facilities to
horizontal and vertical
permit the landing of qualified
graduated circles, for the
aircraft and aircrewmen
simultaneous observation of
without regard to operational
horizontal and vertical
weather limits. { '61 ]weth-or
directions or angles. Also
known as astronomical
alpha |ELECTR] The ratio theodolite; universal
between the change in instrument. { al'taz-s-msth )
collector current and the
alt-azimuth mounting See
change in emitter current of a
altitude-azimuth mounting. {
transistor. { 'al-fs )
,alt 'az-s-msth ,maunt-ir) )
alpha cutoff frequency
alternate energy (ENG] Any
(ELECTR] The frequency at the
source of energy other than
high end of a transistor's
fossil fuels that is used for
range at which current
constructive purposes. { 'ol-
amplification drops 3 decibels
tsr-nst 'en-sr-je )
below its low-frequency value.
{ 'al-fs 'k3d,6f ,fre-kw3n-se) alternating current (ELEC]
Electric current that reverses
alpha-ray vacuum gage |
direction periodically, usually
ENG ] An ionization gage in
many times per second.
which the ionization is
Abbreviated ac. {]61-t3r,nad-
produced by alpha particles
ir) [ksr-snt)
emitted by a radioactive
alternating-current welder ( pressure to which the scale of
ENG ] A welding machine an aneroid altimeter is set;
utilizing alternating current for after United States practice,
welding purposes. { the pressure that will indicate
|6l*t3r,nad*ig [ksr-snt 'weld-sr) airport elevation when the
altimeter is 10 feet (3 meters)
alternating stress (MECH] A
above the runway
stress produced in a material
(approximately cockpit height).
by forces which are such that
{al 'tim-sd-sr ,sed-ir))
each force alternately acts in
opposite directions. { 'ol'tar- altimeter-setting indicator (
nad'irj 'stres ) ENG ] A precision aneroid
barometer calibrated to
altigraph (ENG] A pressure
indicate directly the local
altimeter that has a recording
altimeter setting. { al'tim-sd-sr
mechanism to show the
]sed-irj 'in-d^kad-sr)
changes in altitude. { 'al-
t3,graf) altimetry (ENG] The
measurement of heights in the
altimeter (ENG] An
atmosphere (altitude),
instrument which determines
generally by an altimeter. {
the altitude of an object with
al'tim-s-tre )
respect to a fixed level, such
as sea level; there are two altitude Abbreviated alt.
common types: the aneroid (ENG] 1. Height, measured as
altimeter and the radio distance along the extended
altimeter. { al'tim-sd-sr) earth's radius above a given
datum, such as average sea
altimeter corrections (ENG]
level. 2. Angular displacement
Corrections which must be
above the horizon measured
made to the readings of a
by an altitude curve. { 'al-
pressure altimeter to obtain
t3,tiid )
true altitudes; involve horizon-
tal pressure gradient error altitude azimuth (ENG] An
and air temperature error. { azimuth determined by
al'tim-sd-sr ks'rek-shsnz ) solution of the navigational
triangle with altitude,
altimeter setting (ENG] The
declination, and latitude
value of atmospheric
given. { 'al-t3,tiid 'az-s-msth ) heights are reckoned. { 'al-
t3,tud ,dad-3m )
altitude-azimuth mounting
(ENG] A two-axis telescope altitude difference [ENG] The
mounting in which the azimuth difference between computed
of the direction in which the and observed altitudes, or be-
telescope is pointed is tween precomputed and
determined by rotation about a sextant altitudes. Also
vertical axis and the known as altitude intercept;
corresponding altitude is intercept. { 'al-t3,tud 'dif-rsns )
determined by rotation about
altitude intercept See
a horizontal axis; computer-
altitude difference. { 'al-t3,tiid
controlled motors must move
the telescope in both altitude
and azimuth to compensate aluminize [ENG] TO apply a
for the earth's rotation. Also film of aluminum to a material,
known as alt-azimuth such as glass. { 3'lum-3,nTz )
mounting. {jal*t3,tud 'az-s-
msth ,maunt-ir)) AM See amplitude
altitude chamber [ENG] A
chamber within which the air A-mast [ENG] An A-shaped
pressure, temperature, and arrangement of upright poles
so on can be adjusted to for supporting a mechanism
simulate conditions at differ- designed to lift heavy loads. {
ent altitudes; used for 'a ,mast )
experimentation and testing. { ambient [ENG] Surrounding;
'al-t3,tud ,cham-b3r) especially, of or pertaining to
altitude curve [ENG] The arc the environment about a flying
of a vertical circle between the aircraft or other body but
horizon and a point on the undisturbed or unaffected by
celestial sphere, measured it, as in ambient air or
upward from the horizon. { ambient temperature. { 'am-
'al-t3,tud ,ksrv) be-snt)

altitude datum [ENG] The American basement [BUILD]

arbitrary level from which A basement located above
ground level and containing
the building's main entrance. American standard pipe
{ s'mer-s-ksn 'bas-msnt) thread [DES ENG] Taper,
straight, or dryseal pipe thread
American bond [civ ENG] A
whose dimensions conform to
bond in which every fifth,
those of a particular series of
sixth, or seventh course of a
specified sizes established as
wall consists of headers and
a standard in the United
the other courses consist of
States. Also known as Briggs
stretchers. Also known as
pipe thread. { s'mer-s-ksn
common bond; Scotch bond. {
'stan-dsrd 'pip ,thred )
s'mer-s-ksn 'band )
American standard screw
American caisson See box
thread [DES ENG] Screw
caisson. { s'mer-s-ksn 'ka,san
thread whose dimensions
conform to those of a
American filter See disk filter. particular series of specified
{ s'mer-s-ksn 'fil-tor) sizes established as a
standard in the United States;
American melting point used for bolts, nuts, and
[CHEM ENG] A temperature 3F machine screws. { s'mer-s-
(1.7C) higher than the ksn 'stan-dsrd 'skru ,thred )
American Society for Testing
and Materials Method D87 American system drill See
paraffin-wax melting point. { churn drill. { s'mer-s-ksn [sis-
s'mer-s-ksn 'melt-irj ,point) torn ,dril)
American standard beam [civ American Table of
ENG] A type of I beam made Distances [ENG] Published
of hot-rolled structural steel. data concerning the safe
{ s'mer-s-ksn 'stan-dsrd 'bem storage of explosives and
) ammunition. { s'mer-s-ksn ,ta-
b3l sv 'dis-tsns-sz )
American standard channel
[civ ENG] A C-shaped ammeter [ENG] An
structural member made of instrument for measuring the
hot-rolled structural steel. magnitude of electric current
{s'mer-s-ksn 'stan-dsrd flow. Also known as electric
'chan-sl ) current meter. { 'a,med-3r)
ammonia absorption density of aqueous ammonia
refrigerator [MECH ENG] An solutions. { s'mo-nys ,med-3r)
absorption-cycle refrigerator
ammonia synthesis [CHEM
which uses ammonia as the
ENG] Chemical combination of
circulating refrigerant. {
nitrogen and hydrogen gases
s'mon-ys 3b]sorp-shsn ri'frij-
at high temperature and
pressure in the presence of a
ammonia compressor catalyst to form ammonia. {
[MECH ENG] A device that s'mon-ys 'sin-ths-sss )
decreases the volume of a
ammonia valve [ENG] A
quantity of gaseous ammonia
valve that is resistant to
by the amplification of
corrosion by ammonia. {
pressure; used in refrigeration
s'mon-ys ,valv )
systems. {s'mon-ys ksm'pres-
sr) ammonoxidation See
ammoxidation. { ,a-msn^k-
ammonia condenser [MECH
ss'da-shsn )
ENG] A device in an ammonia
refrigerating system that ammoxidation [CHEM ENG] A
raises the pressure of the process in which mixtures of
ammonia gas in the propylene, ammonia, and
evaporating coil, conditions oxygen are converted in the
the ammonia, and delivers it presence of a catalyst, with
to the condensing system. { acry-lonitrile as the primary
s'mon-ys ksn'dens-or) product. Also known as
ammonia liquor [CHEM ENG]
oxyamination. { ,am,ak*s3 'da-
Water solution of ammonia,
shsn )
ammonium compounds, and
impurities, obtained from amortize [ IND ENG ] To
destructive distillation of bi- reduce gradually an obligation,
tuminous coal. { s'mon-ys 'lik- such as a mortgage, by
sr) periodically paying a part of
the principal as well as the
ammonia meter [ENG] A
interest. { 'am-3r,tTz )
hydrometer designed
specifically to determine the amount limit [IND ENG] In a
test for a fixed quantity of the concentration of a
work, the time required to dissolved substance is
complete the work or the total determined from the electric
amount of work that can be current produced between
completed in an unlimited two electrodes immersed in
time. { s'maunt ,lim-3t) the test solution when one of
the electrodes is kept at a
amp See amperage; ampere.
selected electric potential with
{ amp )
respect to the solution.
ampacity |ELEC] Current- {am,pir-3]me-trik tranz'du-
carrying capacity in amperes; ssr)
used as a rating for power
amphibious |MECH ENG] Said
cables. { am'pas-sd-e )
of vehicles or equipment
amperage |ELEC] The designed to be operated or
amount of electric current in used on either land or water. {
amperes. Abbreviated amp. ,am'fib-e-3s )
{ 'am-prij )
amplification factor |ELECTR]
ampere |ELEC] The unit of In a vacuum tube, the ratio of
electric current in the the incremental change in
rationalized meter-kilogram- plate voltage to a given small
second system of units; change in grid voltage, under
defined in terms of the force the conditions that the plate
of attraction between two current and all other
parallel current-carrying electrode voltages are held
conductors. Abbreviated a; constant. { ^m-pls-fs'ka-shsn
A; amp. { 'am,pir) ,fak-t3r)
ampere-hour meter |ENG] A amplification noise |ELECTR]
device that measures the total Noise generated in the
electric charge that passes a vacuum tubes, transistors, or
given point during a given integrated circuits of an
period of time. { 'am,pir [au-sr amplifier. { ^m-pta-fe'ka-shsn
,med-3r) ,noiz )
amperometric transducer amplifier [ENG] A device
|ENG] A transducer in which capable of increasing the
magnitude or power level of a indicator. { 'am-pl^tiid [maj-
physical quantity, such as an sjad-sd
electric current or a hydraulic
amplitude modulation |
mechanical force, that is
ELECTR] Abbreviated AM. 1.
varying with time, without
Modulation in which the
distorting the wave shape of
aplitude of a wave is the
the quantity. { 'am-pl^fl-sr)
characteristic varied in
amplifier-type meter [ENG] accordance with the
An electric meter whose intelligence to be transmitted.
characteristics have been 2. In telemetry, those systems
enhanced by the use of of modulation in which each
preamplification for the signal component frequency / of the
input eventually used to transmitted intelligence
actuate the meter. { 'am-pl^fl- produces a pair of sideband
sr [tip 'med-sr) frequencies at carrier
frequency plus / and carrier
amplify |ENG ACOUS] TO
minus /. { 'am-pb,tud ,maj-
strengthen a signal by
3'la-sh3n )
increasing its amplitude or by
raising its level. { 'am-pl^fl) amylograph [ENG] An
instrument used to measure
and record the viscosity of
response See frequency re-
starch and flour pastes and
sponse. { 'am-pb,tud 'fre-
the temperature at which they
kwsn-se ri'spans )
gelatinize. { s'mTl-^graf)
analemma [civ ENG] Any
indicator |ENG| A general
raised construction which
class of radar indicators, in
serves as a support or rest. {
which the sweep of the
,an-o'lem-o )
electron beam is deflected
vertically or horizontally from a analog [ELECTR] 1. A physical
base line to indicate the exis- variable which remains similar
tence of an echo from a to another variable insofar as
target. Also known as the proportional relationships
deflection-modulated are the same over some
indicator; intensity-modulated specified range; for example,
a temperature may be analog signal without
represented by a voltage distortion or completely blocks
which is its analog. 2. it. 2. Any solid-state device,
Pertaining to devices, data, with or without a driver,
circuits, or systems that capable of bilaterally
operate with variables which switching voltages or
are represented by current. { 'an-3l,ag ,swich )
continuously measured
analog-to-digital converter
voltages or other quantities. {
[ELECTR] A device which
'an-3l,ag )
translates continuous analog
analog output [CONTSYS] signals into proportional
Transducer output in which discrete digital signals. {]an-
the amplitude is continuously 3l,ag to ]dij-3t-3l ksn'vsrd-sr)
proportional to a function of
the stimulus. { 'an-ol,ag
converter [ELECTR] A
'aut,put )
converter in which an analog
analog readout [ ENG ] A input in some form other than
scale on a balance that frequency is converted to a
continuously indicates proportional change in
measurement values by the frequency. {]an-3l,ag to ]fre-
position of an index mark, kwsn-se ksn'vsrd-sr)
either a line or a pointer,
analog voltage [ELECTR] A
opposite a graduated scale
voltage that varies in a
which is usually marked with
continuous fashion in
numbers. { 'an-3l,ag 'red,aut)
accordance with the
analog signal [ELECTR] A magnitude of a measured
nominally continuous variable. { 'an-3l,ag 'vol-tij )
electrical signal that varies in
analytical aerotriangulation [
amplitude or frequency in
ENG ] Analytical
response to changes in sound,
phototriangulation, performed
light, heat, position, or
with aerial photographs. { ,an-
pressure. { 'an-3l,ag 'sig-nsl)
3l'id-3-k3l ler-o^r^ag-gys 'la-
analog switch [ELECTR] 1. A shsn )
device that either transmits an
analytical balance [ENG] A
balance with a sensitivity of analytical photography
O.l-O.Ol milligram. { ,an-3l'id- [ENG] Photography, either
3-k3l 'bal-sns ) motion picture or still,
accomplished to determine
analytical centrifugation
(by qualitative, quantitative,
[ENG] Centrifugation following
or any other means) whether
precipitation to separate
a particular phenomenon
solids from solid-liquid
does or does not occur. {
suspensions; faster than
,an*3l'id*3*k3l fe'tag* ra-fe)
filtration. { ,an-3l'id-3-k3l
sen^rif-s'ga-shsn ) analytical phototriangillation
[ENG] Aphototri-angulation
analytical nadir-point
procedure in which the spatial
triangulation (ENG| Radial
solution is obtained by
triangulation performed by
computational routines. {
computational routines in
,an*3l'id*3*k3l .fod-o.trT.ag-
which nadir points are utilized
gys'la-shsn )
as radial centers. {
,an*3l'id*3*k3l ]no,dir [point analytical radar prediction
^r^arj-gys'la-shsn ) [ENG] Prediction based on
proven formulas, power
analytical orientation | ENG ]
tables, or graphs; considers
The computational steps
surface height, structural and
required to determine tilt,
terrain information, and criteria
direction of principal line, flight
for radar reflectivity together
height, angular elements, and
with the aspect angle and
linear elements in preparing
range to the target. {
aerial photographs for
,an*3l'id*3*k3l 'ra,dar prs'dik-
rectification. { ,an*3l'id*3*k3l
shsn )
^r-e-sn'ta-shsn )
analytical radial
analytical photogrammetry
triangulation [ENG] Radial tri-
[ENG] A method of
angulation performed by
photogrammetry in which
computational routines. {
solutions are obtained by
,an*3l'id*3*k3l 'rad-e-sl ^r^arj-
mathematical methods. {
gys'la-shsn )
,an*3l'id*3*k3l ^od-s'gram-s-
tre ) analytical three-point
resection radial triangula- generator meets the relatively
tion [ENG] A method of cool solution of ammonia in
computing the coordinates of water entering the generator
the ground principal points of and loses some of its vapor
overlapping aerial content. { 'an*3,lTz*3r}
photographs by resecting on
anchor [civ ENG] A device
three horizontal control points
connecting a structure to a
appearing in the overlap area.
heavy masonry or concrete
{ ,an*3l'id*3*k3l jthre [point
object to a metal plate or to
re'sek-shsn 'rad-e-sl ^r^arj-
the ground to hold the
gys'la-shsn )
analytical ultra centrifuge
in place, [ENG] A device, such
[ENG] An ultracentri-fuge that
as a metal rod, wire,or strap,
uses one of three optical
for fixing one object to
systems (schlieren, Rayleigh,
another, such as specially
or absorption) for the accurate
formed metal connectors
determination of
used to fasten together
sedimentation velocity or
timbers, masonry, or trusses.
equilibrium. { ,an*3l'id*3*k3l ja
[MECH ENG] 1. In steam
,yj )
plowing, a vehicle located on
analytic mechanics [MECH] the side of the field opposite
The application of differential that of the engine and
and integral calculus to maintaining the tension on
classical (nonquantum) the endless wire by means of
mechanics. { ,an*3l'id*ik mi a pulley. 2. A device for a
'kan-iks ) piping system that maintains
the correct position and
analyzer [ ENG ] A
direction of the pipes and
multifunction test meter,
controls pipe movement
measuring volts, ohms, and
occurring as a result of
amperes. Also known as set
thermal expansion. { 'arj-ksr)
analyzer, [MECH ENG] The
component of an absorption anchorage [civ ENG] 1. An
refrigeration system where area where a vessel anchors
the mixture of water vapor and or may anchor because of
ammonia vapor leaving the either suitability or
designation. Also known as A door or gate hinge whose
anchor station. 2. A device socket is attached to an
which anchors tendons to the anchor embedded in the
posttensioned concrete masonry. { 'arj-ksrsn 'kal-sr)
member. 3. In preten-sioning,
anchor block [BUILD] A block
a device used to anchor
of wood, replacing a brick in a
tendons temporarily during
wall to provide a nailing or
the hardening of the
fastening surface, [civ ENG]
concrete. 4. See deadman. {
See deadman. { 'arj-ksr
'arj-ks-rij )
anchorage deformation [ civ
anchor bolt [civ ENG] A bolt
ENG ] The shortening of
used with its head embedded
tendons due to their
in masonry or concrete and
modification or slippage when
its threaded part protruding to
the prestressing force is
hold a structure or machinery
transferred to the anchorage
in place. Also known as
device. Also known as an-
anchor rod. { 'ag-ksr ,bolt)
chorage slip. { 'arj-ks-rij
de,f6r'ma-sh3n ) anchor buoy [ENG] One of a
series of buoys marking the
anchorage slip See
limits of an anchorage. { 'arj-
anchorage deformation. { 'ag-
ksr ,boi)
ks-rij ,slip )
anchor charge [ENG] A
anchorage zone [ civ ENG ] 1.
procedure that allows several
In posttensioning, the region
charges to be preloaded in a
adjacent to the anchorage for
seismic shot hole; the bottom
the tendon which is subjected
charges are fired first, and the
to secondary stresses as a
upper charges are held down
result of the distribution of the
by anchors. { 'arj ksr ,charj )
prestressing force. 2. In
pretensioning, the region in anchored bulkhead [civ ENG]
which transfer bond stresses A bulkhead secured to anchor
are developed. { 'arj-ks-rij piles. { 'arj-ksrd 'b3lk,hed )
,zon )
anchor log [Civ ENG] A log,
anchor and collar [DES ENG] beam, or concrete block
buried in the earth and used 'arj-kor ,tau-3r)
to hold a guy rope firmly. Also
anchor wall See deadman. {
known as deadman; ground
'ag-ksr ,wol)
anchor. { 'arj-ksr ,lag )
AND circuit See AND gate. {
anchor nut [DES ENG] A nut
'and .ssr-kst)
in the form of a tapped insert
forced under steady pressure AND gate |ELECTR] A circuit
into a hole in sheet metal. { which has two or more input-
'arj-ksr ,nst) signal ports and which
delivers an output only if and
anchor pile [civ ENG] A pile
when every input signal port is
that is located on the land
simultaneously energized.
side of a bulkhead or pier and
Also known as AND circuit;
anchors it through such
passive AND gate. { 'and ,gat
devices as rods, cables, and
chains. { 'ag-ksr ,pTl)
anchor plate | civ ENG ] A
single logic element whose
metal or wooden plate
operation is equivalent to that
fastened to or embedded in a
of two AND gates with outputs
support, such as a floor, and
feeding into a NOR gate. {
used to hold a supporting
]and [nor ,gat)
cable firmly. { 'arj-kor ,plat )
anchor rod See anchor bolt. {
coincidence circuit that
'ag-ksr ,rad )
performs the logic operation
anchor station See AND NOT, under which a
anchorage. { 'arj-kor ,sta- result is true only if statement
shsn ) A is true and statement B is
not. Also known as A AND
anchor tower |civ ENG] 1. A
NOT B gate. { |and [nat ,gat )
tower which is a part of a
crane staging or stiffleg AND-OR circuit |ELECTR]
derrick and serves as an Gating circuit that produces a
anchor. 2. A tower that prescribed output condition
supports and anchors an when several possible
overhead transmission line. { combined input signals are
applied; exhibits the waves at a particular
characteristics of the AND frequency or over a range of
gate and the OR gate. {]and frequencies; used principally
[or ,s3r-k3t) at microwave frequencies,
such as for measuring radar
beam cross sections. { [an-
|ELECTR] A logic circuit with
ojko-ik 'cham-bsr)
four inputs, a,, a2, bh and b2,
whose output is 0 only if either anelasticity |MECH] Deviation
a, and a2 or , and b2 are I. from a proportional
Abbreviated A-O-I gate. { ]and relationship between stress
[or in'vsrt ,gat) and strain. { [an-3-las[tis-3d-e
Andrade's creep law |MECH ]
A law which states that creep anemobiagraph (ENG] A
exhibits a transient state in recording pressure-tube
which strain is proportional to anemometer in which the wind
the cube root of time and then scale of the float manometer
a steady state in which strain is linear through the use of
is proportional to time. { springs; an example is the
'an,dradz 'krep ,16 ) Dines anemometer. { [a-ns-
Andrews's curves |THERMO]
A series of isotherms for anemoclinometer (ENG] A
carbon dioxide, showing the type of instrument which
dependence of pressure on measures the inclination of
volume at various tempera- the wind to the horizontal
tures. { 'an,druz ,ksrvz ) plane. { ja-n^mo-klajnam*
anechoic chamber [ENG] 1.
A test room in which all an em o gram (ENG] A record
surfaces are lined with a made by an anemograph. {
sound-absorbing material to s'nem-^gram )
reduce reflections of sound to
anemograph (ENG] 1. An
a minimum. Also known as
instrument which records wind
dead room; free-field room. 2.
velocities. 2. A recording
A room completely lined with a
anemometer. { 3'nem-3,graf)
material that absorbs radio
anemometer (ENG] A device aneroid capsule. Also known
which measures air speed. { as aneroid. { 'an-3,roid
^n-s'mam-sd-sr) bs'ram-sd-sr)
anemoscope (ENG] An aneroid calorimeter (ENG] A
instrument for indicating the calorimeter that uses a metal
direction of the wind. { s'nem- of high thermal conductivity as
^skop ) a heat reservoir. { 'android
anemovane (ENG] A
combined contact ane- aneroid capsule (ENG] A
mometer and wind vane used thin, disk-shaped box or
in the Canadian capsule, usually metallic,
Meteorological Service. { [an- partially evacuated and
o-mojvan ) sealed, held extended by a
spring, which expands and
aneroid (ENG] 1. Containing
contracts with changes in
no liquid or using no liquid. 2.
atmospheric or gas pressure.
See aneroid barometer. { 'an-
Also known as bellows. { 'an-
s ,roid)
3,roid 'kap-ssl)
aneroid altimeter ( ENG ] An
aneroid diaphragm (ENG] A
altimeter containing an
thin plate, usually metal,
aneroid barometer that
covering the end of an
actuates the indicator. { 'an-
aneroid capsule and moving
3,r6id al'tim-sd-sr)
axially as the ambient gas
aneroid barograph (ENG] An pressure increases or
aneroid barometer arranged decreases. { 'an-3,roid 'di-
so that the deflection of the 3,fram )
aneroid capsule actuates a
aneroid flowmeter (ENG] A
pen which graphs a record on
mechanism to measure fluid
a rotating drum. Also known
flow rate by pressure of the
as aneroidograph; barograph;
fluid against a bellows
barometrograph. { 'an*3,r6id
counterbalanced by a cali-
brated spring. { 'an-3,roid
aneroid barometer (ENG] A 'flo,med-3r)
barometer which utilizes an
aneroid liquid-level meter
(ENG] A mechanism to usually of metal or wood, set
measure fluid depth by at the corner of a plaster wall
pressure of the fluid against a to protect the corner or serve
bellows which in turn acts on a as a guide to float the plaster
manometer or signal flush with it. { 'arj-gol ,bed )
transmitter. { 'an-3,rdid [lik-
angle beam [ENG] Ultrasonic
wsd [lev-sl ,med-3r)
waves transmitted for the
aneroidograph See aneroid inspection of a metallic
barograph. { 'an 3,r6id-3- surface at an angle measured
graf) from the beam center line to a
normal to the test surface. {
aneroid valve (MECH ENG] A
'arj-gol ,bem )
valve actuated or controlled
by an aneroid capsule. { angle blasting [ENG]
'android 'valv ) Sandblasting, or the like, at
an angle of less that 90. { 'arj-
angel echo (ENG] A radar
gol ,blast-irj )
echo from a region where
there are no visible targets; angle block [ENG] A small
may be caused by insects, block of wood used to fasten
birds, or refractive index adjacent pieces, usually at
variations in the atmosphere. right angles, or glued into the
{ 'an-jsl ,ek-o ) corner of a wooden frame to
stiffen it. Also known as glue
angle back-pressure valve
block. { 'arj* gal ,blak)
|MECH ENG ] A backpressure
valve with its outlet opening at angle board [DES ENG] A
right angles to its inlet board whose surface is cut at
opening. { 'arj-gol 'bak a desired angle; serves as a
,presh-3r ,valv) guide for cutting or planing
other boards at the same
angle bar [BUILD] An upright
angle. { 'arj*gal ,bord )
bar at the meeting of two
faces of a polygonal window, angle bond [civ ENG] A tie
bay window, or bow window. { used to bond masonry work
'arj-gol ,bar) at wall corners. { 'arj*gal ,band
angle bead [BUILD] A strip,
angle brace [ENG] A brace power-operated machine
across the interior angle of fitted with a blade, adjustable
two members that meet at an in height and angle, for
angle. Also known as angle pushing, sidecasting, and
tie. { 'arj-gol ,bras ) spreading loose excavated
material as for opencast pits,
angle brick [ENG] Any brick
clearing land, or leveling
having an oblique shape to fit
runways. Also known as
an oblique, salient corner. {
angling dozer. {
'arj* gal ,brik)
angle clip [civ ENG] A short
angle equation [ENG] A
strip of angle iron used to
condition equation which
secure structural elements at
expresses the relationship
right angles. { 'arj*gal ,klip )
between the sum of the
angle closer [ENG] A measured angles of a closed
specially shaped brick used figure and the theoretical
to close the bond at the value of that sum, the un-
corner of a wall. { 'arj-gal knowns being the corrections
,kloz-3r) to the observed directions or
angles, depending on which
angle collar [DES ENG] A are used in the adjustment.
cast-iron pipe fitting which has Also known as triangle
a socket at each end for equation. { 'arj*gal i,kwa-zh3n
joining with the spigot ends of )
two pipes that are not in
alignment. { 'arj*gal ,kal*ar) angle fillet [ENG] A wooden
strip, triangular in cross
angle-control section See section, which is used to cover
crossover. { 'ag-gal ksn]trol the internal joint between two
,sek-sh3n ) surfaces meeting at an angle
angle divider [DES ENG] A of less than 180. { 'ag-gal ,fll-
square for setting or bisecting at)
angles; one side is an adj angle fishplates [CIVENG]
ustable hinged blade. { 'arj*gal Plates which jointhe rails and
ds'vTd-sr) prevent the rail joint from
angle dozer [ MECH ENG ] A sagging where heavy cars
and locomotives are used. system of lacing in which
Also known as angle; angle angle irons are used in place
bar. { 'arj*gal 'fish,plats ) of bars. { 'ag-gal .las-ig )
angle float [ENG] A trowel angle method of
having two edge surfaces bent adjustment [ENG] A method
at 90; used to finish corners in of adjustment of observations
freshly poured concrete and which determines corrections
in plastering. { 'arj*gal ,flot) to observed angles. { 'arj *gal
,meth-3d sv s'jss-msnt)
angle gauge [civ ENG] A
template used to set or check angle of action [MECH ENG]
angles in building construction. The angle of revolution of
{ 'arj gal igaj ) either of two wheels in gear
during which any particular
angle gear See angular gear.
tooth remains in contact. {
{ 'arpgal ,ger)
'arj-gal sv 'ak-shsn )
angle globe valve [ENG] A
angle of advance See
globe valve having an
angular advance. { 'arpgal sv
angular configuration that
od'vans )
permits it to be fitted at bends
in pipework. { |arj*gal ]glob angle of approach [civ ENG]
|valv ) The maximum angle of an
incline onto which a vehicle
angle hip tile See arris hip
can move from a horizontal
tile. { 'arj*gal 'hip ,trl)
plane without interference.
angle iron [civ ENG] 1. An L- [MECH ENG] The angle that is
shaped cleat or brace. 2. A turned through by either of
length of steel having a cross paired wheels in gear from the
section resembling the letter L. first contact between a pair of
{ 'arj*gal ,T*arn ) teeth until the pitch points of
these teeth fall together. {
angle joint [ENG] A joint 'arj*gal sv s'proch )
between two pieces of lumber
which results in a change in angle of bite See angle of
direction. { 'ag-gal joint) nip. { 'arj*gal sv 'bit)
angle lacing [civ ENG] A angle of departure [civ ENG]
The maximum angle of an friction. { 'ag-gal av ek'starn-al
incline from which a vehicle 'frik-shan )
can move onto a horizontal
angle of fall |MECH] The
plane without interference,
vertical angle at the level
such as from rear bumpers,
point, between the line of fall
[ELECTR] See angle of
and the base of the trajectory.
radiation. { 'arj*gal sv di'par-
{ 'ag-gal av 'fol)
angle of impact |MECH] The
angle of depression [ENG]
acute angle between the
The angle in a vertical plane
tangent to the trajectory at the
between the horizontal and a
point of impact of a projectile
descending line. Also known
and the plane tangent to the
as depression angle; de-
surface of the ground or target
scending vertical angle; minus
at the point of impact. { 'ag-gal
angle. { 'arj*gal sv di'presh-sn
av 'im,pakt )
angle of nip |MECH ENG] The
angle of elevation [ENG] The
largest angle that will just grip
angle in a vertical plane
a lump between the jaws,
between the local horizontal
rolls, or mantle and ring of a
and an ascending line, as
crusher. Also known as angle
from an observer to an object;
of bite; nip. { 'ag-gal av 'nip )
used in astronomy, surveying,
and so on. Also known as angle of obliquity See angle
ascending vertical angle; of pressure. { 'ag-gal av o'blik-
elevation angle. { 'arj*gal sv wad-e )
,el'a'va*shan )
angle of orientation |MECH]
angle of external friction Of a projectile in flight, the
[ENG] The angle between the angle between the plane
abscissa and the tangent of determined by the axis of the
the curve representing the projectile and the tangent to
relationship of shearing resist- the trajectory (direction of
ance to normal stress acting motion), and the vertical plane
between soil and the surface including the tangent to the
of another material. Also trajectory. { 'ag-gal av ^r-e-
known as angle of wall an'ta-shan )
angle of pressure |DES ENG] The angle occurring between
The angle between the the sides of a screw thread,
profile of a gear tooth and a measured in an axial plane. {
radial line at its pitch point. 'ag-gal av 'thred)
Also known as angle of
angle of torsion |MECH] The
obliquity. { 'ag-gal av 'presh-
angle through which a part of
an object such as a shaft or
angle of recess |MECH ENG] wire is rotated from its normal
The angle that is turned position when a torque is
through by either of two applied. Also known as angle
wheels in gear, from the of twist. { 'arj* gal av 'tor-
coincidence of the pitch points shan)
of a pair of teeth until the last
angle of twist See angle of
point of contact of the teeth. {
torsion. { 'ag-gal av 'twist)
'ag-gal av 're,ses )
angle of wall friction See
angle of repose | ENG ] See
angle of external friction. { 'ag-
angle of rest. |MECH] The
gal av ]wol ,frik-shan )
angle between the horizontal
and the plane of contact angle of wrap |DES ENG] On
between two bodies when the a band brake mechanism, the
upper body is just about to distance, expressed in
slide over the lower. Also degrees, that the brake band
known as angle of friction. { wraps around the brake
'arj* gal av ri'poz) flange. { 'ag-gal av 'rap )
angle of rest [ENG] The angle paddle [ENG] A hand
maximum slope at which a tool used to finish a plastered
heap of any loose or surface. { 'ag-gal ,pad*al)
fragmented solid material will
stand without sliding, or will angle plate |DES ENG] An L-
come to rest when poured or shaped plate or a plate
dumped in a pile or on a having an angular section. {
slope. Also known as angle of 'ag-gal ,plat)
repose. { 'arj* gal av 'rest) angle post [BUILD] A railing
angle of thread |DES ENG] support used at a landing or
other break in the stairs. {
'ag-gal i post) method of building a tower for
mechanical strength in which
angle press [MECH ENG] A
braces are placed at angles
hydraulic plastics-molding
with respect to the vertical
press with both horizontal and
support rods. { 'ag-gal ,strak-
vertical rams; used to produce
complex moldings with deep
undercuts. { 'ag-gal ,press ) angle strut [civ ENG] An
angle-shaped structural
angle rafter [BUILD] A rafter,
member which is designed to
such as a hip rafter, at the
carry a compression load. {
angle of the roof. { 'ag-gal
'arj-gal ,strat)
angle valve [DES ENG] A
angle section [civ ENG] A
manually operated valve with
structural steel member
its outlet opening oriented at
having an L-shaped cross
right angles to its inlet
section. { 'ag-gal ,sek-shan )
opening; used for regulating
angle-stem thermometer the flow of a fluid in a pipe. {
[ENG] A device used to 'ag-gal ,valv )
measure temperatures in oil-
angle variable [MECH] The
custody tanks; the angle of
dynamical variable w
the calibrated stem may be
conjugate to the action
90 or greater to the sensitive
variable ], defined only for
portion of the thermometer,
periodic motion. { 'ag-gal 'ver-
as needed to fit the tank
shell contour. { 'arj-gal [stem
thar'mam-ad-ar) angling dozer See angle
dozer. { 'arj-glirj ,doz-ar)
angle stile [BUILD] A narrow
strip of wood used to conceal angstrom [MECH] A unit of
the joint between a wall and a length, 10"' meter, used
vertical wood surface which primarily to express
makes an angle with the wall, wavelengths of optical
as at the edge of a corner spectra. Abbreviated A; A.
cabinet. { 'arj* gal ,stTl) Also known as
angle structure [ civ ENG ] A o tenthmeter. { 'arj-stram )
Angstrom compensation angular bitstalk See angular
pyrheliometer [ENG] A bitstock. { 'ag-gys-tar 'bit.stok)
pyrheliometer consisting of two
angular bitstock |MECH ENG]
identical Man-ganin strips,
A bitstock whose handles are
one shaded, the other
positioned to permit its use in
exposed to sunlight; an
corners and other cramped
electrical current is passed
areas. Also known as angular
through the shaded strip to
bitstalk. { 'ag-gys-lsr 'bit,stak }
raise its temperature to that of
the exposed strip, and the angular clearance |DES
electric power required to ENG ] The relieved space
accomplish this is a measure located below the straight of
of the solar radiation. { 'dg- a die, to permit passage of
strain kam-pan'sa-shan blanks or slugs. { 'ag-gys-tar
IpT^heJe'am-ad-ar) 'klir-sns )
angular acceleration [MECH] angular-contact bearing
The time rate of change of |MECH ENG] A rolling-contact
angular velocity. { 'ag-gya-lar antifriction bearing designed
ak,sel* a'ra-shan ) to carry heavy thrust loads
and also radial loads. { 'arj*
angular accelerometer
gys-lsr 'kan,takt ,ber-irj )
[ENG] An accelerome-ter that
measures the rate of change angular cutter |MECH ENG] A
of angular velocity between tool-steel cutter used for
two objects under finishing surfaces at angles
observation. { 'ag-gya-lar greater or less than 90 with
ak,sel-a'rain-ad-ar) its axis of rotation. { 'an-gys-
tar 'ksd-sr)
angular advance [MECH ENG]
The amount by which the angular error of closure
angle between the crank of a See error of closure. { 'an-
steam engine and the virtual gys-lsr 'er-sr sv 'klozh-sr)
crank radius of the eccentric
exceeds a right angle. Also angular gear |MECH ENG] A
known as angle of advance; gear that transmits motion
angular lead. { 'ag-gys- between two rotating shafts
lsrsd'vans ) that are not parallel. Also
known as angle gear. { 'an- a gear between successive
gys-tar 'ger) teeth. { 'arj-gyo-tar 'pich )
angular impulse |MECH] The angular rate See angular
integral of the torque applied speed. { 'ag-gys-lsr ,rat)
to a body over time. { 'an-gys-
angular shear |MECH ENG] A
tar 'im,p3ls )
shear effected by two cutting
angular lead See angular edges inclined to each other
advance. { 'ag-gys-lsr 'led) to reduce the force needed
for shearing. { 'arj-gyo-tar
angular length |MECH] A
length expressed in the unit
of the length per radian or angular speed |MECH ]
degree of a specified wave. { Change of direction per unit
'ag-gys-lsr 'lerjkth ) time, as of a target on a radar
screen, without regard to the
angular milling |MECH ENG]
direction of the rotation axis;
Milling surfaces that are flat
in other words, the magnitude
and at an angle to the axis of
of the angular velocity vector.
the spindle of the milling
Also known as angular rate. {
machine. { 'arj-gyo-tar 'mil-iq )
'arj-gys-lsr 'sped )
angular momentum |MECH]
angular travel error |MECH]
1. The cross product of a
The error which is introduced
vector from a specified
into a predicted angle
reference point to a particle,
obtained by multiplying an
with the particle's linear
instantaneous angular velocity
momentum. Also known as
by a time of flight. { 'ag-gys-lsr
moment of momentum. 2. For
'travel ,er-3r)
a system of particles, the
vector sum of the angular angular velocity |MECH] The
momenta (first definition) of time rate of change of angular
the particles. { 'ag-gys-lsr displacement. { ' vs'las-sd-e )
ms'ment-sm )
angulator |ENG] An
angular pitch |DES ENG] The instrument for converting
angle determined by the angles measured on an
length along the pitch circle of oblique plane to their
corresponding projections on 'mem,bran )
a horizontal plane; the
anker |MECH ] A unit of
rectoblique plotter and the
capacity equal to 10 U.S.
photoangulator are types. {
gallons (37.854 liters); used to
measure liquids, especially
aniline point |CHEM ENG] The honey, oil, vinegar, spirits,
minimum temperature for a and wine. {'ag-ksr)
complete mixing of aniline and
anneal |ENG] TO treat a
materials such as gasoline;
metal, alloy, or glass with
used in some specifications to
heat and then cool to remove
indicate the aromatic content
internal stresses and to make
of oils and to calculate
the material less brittle. Also
approximate heat of combus-
known as temper. { s'nel)
tion. { 'an-sl-sn ,point)
annealing furnace [ENG] A
animal balance |ENG] A
furnace for annealing metals
balance designed to weigh
or glass. Also known as
living animals, with a readout
annealing oven. { a'nel'irj
or display relatively unaffected
,fer*n3s )
by the pulse or movements of
the animal. { 'an-s-msl ,bal- annealing oven See
3ns ) annealing furnace. { s'nel-
ir),3V3n )
animal power |MECH ENG]
The time rate at which annealing point |THERMO]
muscular work is done by a The temperature at which the
work animal, such as a horse, viscosity of a glass is lO' 30
bullock, or elephant. { 'an-s- poises. Also known as
msl ,pau-3r) annealing temperature; 13.0
temperature. { a'nel'irj ,point)
anisotropicmembrane |CHEM
ENG] An ultrafil-tration annealing temperature See
membrane which has a thin annealing point. {a'nel'irj ^em-
skin at the separating surface pre-chsr)
and is supported by a spongy
sublayer of membrane annual cost comparison
material. { ]a,nT-s3]trap-ik |IND ENG] A method of
selecting from among several
alternative projects or courses cell or storage battery; it is
of action on the basis of their positive with respect to the
annual costs, including device, and negative with
depreciation. { 'an-ys-wal 'kost respect to the external
k3m,par-3-s3n ) circuit. | ELECTR ] 1. The
collector of electrons in an
annular auger |DES ENG] A
electron tube. Also known as
ring-shaped boring tool which
plate; positive electrode. 2. In
cuts an annular channel,
a semiconductor diode, the
leaving the core intact. { 'an-
terminal toward which forward
ys-tar 'og-sr)
current flows from the
annular gear |DES ENG] A external circuit. { 'a,nod )
gear having a cylindrical form.
anode current |ELECTR] The
{ 'an-ys-lsr 'gir)
electron current flowing
annular nozzle |DES ENG] A through an electron tube from
nozzle with a ring-shaped the cathode to the anode.
orifice. { 'an-ys-tar 'naz-sl) Also known as plate current. {
'a,nod ,k3r-3nt)
annular section [ENG] The
open space between two anomalous expansion
concentric tubes, pipes, or |THERMO] An increase in the
vessels. { 'an-ys-lsr 'sek-shsn volume of a substance that
) results from a decrease in its
temperature, such as is dis-
annunciator | ENG ] A played by water at
signaling apparatus which temperatures between 0 and
operates electromagnetically 4C (32 and 39F). { s'nam-s-
and serves to indicate visually, bs ik'span-shsn )
or visually and audibly,
whether a current is flowing, anomaly finder |ENG] A
has flowed, or has changed computer-controlled data-
direction of flow in one or plotting system used on ships
more circuits. { s'nsn-se-ad- to measure and record
sr) seismic, gravity, magnetic,
and other geophysical data
anode |ELEC] The terminal at and water depth, time, course,
which current enters a primary and speed. { s'nam-s-le ^Tn-
dsr) solution. { [an-ti'klor)
anonymous dimensionless anticollision radar |ENG] A
group 1-4 (CHEM ENG] Four of radar set designed to give
the dimensionless groups, warning of possible collisions
used to solve problems in during movements of ships or
transfer processes, gas ab- aircraft. { ^n-te-ks'li-zhsn
sorption in wetted-wall ^dar)
columns, and laminar
anticreeper |civ ENG] A
boundary-layer flow. {s'nan-s-
device attached to a railroad
mss di]men-shsn-lss 'grup
rail to prevent it from moving
[won to ]for)
in the direction of its length. {
antenna circuit |ELECTR] A 'an-te^krep-sr)
complete electric circuit which
antidieseling solenoid See
includes an antenna. { an'ten-
idle-stop solenoid. { ^nt-ildez-
s .ssr-kst )
ol-ig 'so-l^ndid )
antenna tilt error |ENG]
antifriction |MECH] Making
Angular difference between
friction smaller in magnitude.
the tilt angle of a radar
|MECH ENG] Employing a
antenna shown on a
rolling contact instead of a
mechanical indicator, and the
sliding contact. { ,an-te 'frik-
electrical center of the radar
shsn )
beam. { an'ten-s 'tilt ,er-3r)
antifriction bearing |MECH
anticathode |ELECTR] The
ENG] Any bearing having the
anode or target of an x-ray
capability of reducing friction
tube, on which the stream of
effectively. { ^n-te'frik-shsn
electrons from the cathode is
focused and from which x-
rays are emitted. { [an- antifriction material [ENG] A
te'katl^od ) machine element made of
Babbitt metal, lignum vitae,
antichlor |CHEM ENG] A
rubber, or a combination of a
chemical used in the
soft, easily deformable metal
manufacture of paper or
overlaid on a hard, resistant
textiles to remove excess
one. { ,an*te'frik* shsn ms'tir-
chlorine or bleaching
e-sl) antinoise microphone [ ENG
ACOUS ] Microphone with
anti-g suit See g suit. { ]an-
characteristics which
te]je ,sut)
discriminate against acoustic
antiknock blending value noise. {]an-te]noiz 'mi-kre ,fon
[ENG] The numerical )
improvement by an antiknock
antiozonant [CHEM ENG] A
additive to gasoline octane,
protective agent which can be
often a greater amount than
added to rubber during
the additive's own octane
processing to diminish the
value. { 'an-te,nak 'blend-irj
deteriorating effects of ozone.
,val*yu )
{ ^n-te'o-zs-nsnt)
antiknock rating | ENG ]
antipercolator [MECH ENG] In
Measurement of the ability of
an automotive engine, a valve
an automotive gasoline to
in the carburetor that is
resist detonation or pinging
designed to vent vapor when
in spark-ignited engines. {
the throttle plate is closed;
'an-te,nak 'rad-irj )
prevents fuel from dropping
antilock braking system into the carburetor due to
|MECH ENG] For vehicles, a unvented pressure. { ^n-
sensor-control system found te'psr-ks .lad-ar)
in braking systems which
antiquing [ ENG ] 1. Producing
prevents wheel lockup while
a rich glow on the surface of a
allowing the brakes to
leather by applying stain,
continue slowing the wheel.
wax, or oil, allowing it to set,
Abbreviated ABS. { ]an-te,lak
and rubbing or brushing the
'brak-irj ,sis-t3m )
leather. 2. A technique of
antimagnetic [ENG] handling wet paint to expose
Constructed so as to avoid parts of the undercoat, by
the influence of magnetic combing, graining, or
fields, usually by the use of marbling. Also known as
nonmagnetic materials and by broken-color work. { an'tek-irj )
magnetic shielding. { ^n-
antirad [CHEM ENG] An
inhibitor incorporated into
rubber during manufacturing impedance of a given electric,
to reduce the degrading acoustic, or dynamic system
effects of radiation. { ]an- is very high, approaching
te]rad ) infinity. { ,an*te'rez* sn-sns )
antiradar coating [ENG] A antiskid plate [ENG] A sheet
surface treatment used to of metal roughed on both
reduce the reflection of sides and placed between
electromagnetic waves so as piled objects, such as boxes
to avoid radar detection. { ,an- in a freight car, to prevent
te'ra ,dar [kod-ir) ) sliding. { ]an-te]skid jplat )
antirattle spring [MECH ENG] antismudge ring [BUILD] A
In an automotive vehicle, a frame attached around a
spring installed to hold parts ceiling-mounted air diffuser, to
in the clutches and the disk minimize the formation of
brakes together; prevents rings of dirt on the ceiling.
rattling. { 'an-te'rad-sl 'sprig ) {[an-te]sm3J 'rig )
anti-red epos ition agent antitheft device [MECH ENG] A
[CHEM ENG] An additive used piece of equipment installed
in a detergent to help prevent on an automotive vehicle in
soil from resettling on a fabric order to prevent or slow down
after it has been removed theft; designs include
during washing. {lan- mechanical locks on the
te^reidep-s'zish-sn ,a* jsnt) steering wheel and ignition
switch as well as other means
antireflection coating [ENG]
of shutting off the ignition
The application of a thin film
system, shutting off fuel flow,
of dielectric material to a
or sounding an alarm. { ,an-
surface to reduce its reflection
te'theft di,vTs )
and to increase its transmis-
sion of light or other anvil [ENG] 1. The part of a
electromagnetic radiation. { machine that absorbs the
^n-te-ri'flek-shsn ,kod*ir)) energy delivered by a sharp
force or blow. 2. The
antiresonance [ELEC] See
stationary end of a
parallel resonance. [ENG] The
micrometer caliper. { 'an-vsl)
condition for which the
AOQL See average outgoing petroleum industry. { ]a]pe]T
quality limit. ,skal)
aperiodic waves |ELEC] The apophorometer [ENG] An
transient current wave in a apparatus used to identify
series circuit with resistance minerals by sublimation. {
R, inductance L, and ,ap*3* fs'ram-sd-sr)
capacitance C when R C =
apothecaries' dram See
4L. { |a,pir*e|ad*ik 'wavz )
dram. { 3'path-3,ker-ez 'dram )
aperture |ELECTR] An opening
apothecaries' ounce See
through which electrons, light,
ounce. { s'path-^ker-ez 'auns
radio waves, or other radiation
can pass. { 'ap-^chsr)
apothecaries' pound See
aperture disk [ENG] A disk
pound. { s'path-^ker-ez
with a small round opening
used in a densitometer to
vary the amount of light or apparent expansion
the area to be measured. { [THERMO] The expansion of a
'ap-^chsr ,disk) liquid with temperature, as
measured in a graduated
apex [ENG] In architecture or
container without taking into
construction, the highest
account the container's
point, peak, or tip of any
expansion. { s'pa-rent ik'span-
structure. { 'a,peks )
shsn )
apical angle [MECH] The
apparent force [MECH] A force
angle between the tangents
introduced in a relative
to the curve outlining the
coordinate system in order
contour of a projectile at its
that Newton's laws be
tip. { 'ap-i-ksl 'arj-gal)
satisfied in the system;
API scale [CHEM ENG] The examples are the Coriolis
American Petroleum Institute force and the centrifugal force
hydrometer scale for the incorporated in gravity. { s'pa-
measurement of the specific rent 'fors )
gravity of liquids; used
apparent gravity See
primarily in the American
acceleration of gravity. { s'pa-
rent 'gravsd-e ) Research directed toward
using knowledge gained by
apparent motion See relative
basic research to make things
motion. { s'pa-rsnt 'mo-shsn )
or to create situations that will
apparent source See serve a practical or
effective center. { s'pa-rsnt utilitarian purpose. { s'plTd
'sdrs ) ri.ssrch )
apparent weight [MECH] For applied strategic research
a body immersed in a fluid [ENG] Research done to
(such as air), the resultant of provide a basic understanding
the gravitational force and the of a current applied project.
buoyant force of the fluid {o'plld stre'te-jik ri 'ssrch )
acting on the body; equal in
applied trim [BUILD]
magnitude to the true weight
Supplementary and separate
minus the weight of the
decorative strips of wood or
displaced fluid. { s'pa-rent
moldings applied to the face
or sides of a frame, such as a
appliance [ENG] A piece of doorframe. { o'plTd 'trim )
equipment that draws electric
approach [MECH ENG] The
or other energy and produces
difference between the
a desired work-saving or other
temperature of the water
result, such as an electric
leaving a cooling tower and
heater, a radio, or an
the wet-bulb temperature of
electronic range. { s'plT-sns )
the surrounding air. { s'proch )
appliance panel [ENG] In
approach signal [civ ENG] A
electric systems, a metal
railway signal warning an
housing containing two or
engineer of a signal ahead
more devices (such as fuses)
that displays a restrictive
for protection against
indication. { s'proch ,sig-nsl)
excessive current in circuits
which supply portable electric approach vector [CONT SYS]
appliances. { s'plT-sns ,pan-3l A vector that describes the
) orientation of a robot gripper
and points in the direction
applied research [ENG]
from which the gripper
approaches a workpiece. { granular or lumpy material and
s'proch ,vek-t3r) consisting of two strands of
roller chain separated by
apron [BUILD] 1. A board on
overlapping plates, forming
an interior wall beneath a
the carrying surface, with
windowsill. 2. The vertical rear
sides 2-6 inches (5-15
panel of a sink attached to a
centimeters) high. { 'a-prsn
wall. 3. A section of a
concrete slab extending
beyond the face of a building apron feeder | MECH ENG ] A
on adjacent ground. Also limited-length version of apron
known as skirt; skirting. 4. A conveyor used for control led-
vertical panel installed behind rate feeding of pulverized
a sink or lavatory, [civ ENG] 1. materials to a process or
A hard-surfaced area, usually packaging unit. Also known
paved, adjacent to a ship or as plate-belt feeder; plate
the like, used to park, load, feeder. { 'a-pren ,fed-3r)
unload, or service vehicles. 2.
apron flashing [BUILD] 1. The
A covering of a material such
flashing that covers the joint
as concrete or timber over
between a vertical surface
soil to prevent erosion by
and a sloping roof, as at the
flowing water, as at the
lower edge of a chimney. 2.
bottom of a dam. 3. A
The flashing that diverts water
concrete or wooden shield
from a vertical surface into a
that is situated along the bank
gutter. { 'a-pren , flash *irj )
of a river, along a sea wall, or
below a dam. 4. In a railroad apron lining [BUILD] The
system, a bridge structure that piece of boarding which
carries tracks and is hinged to covers the rough apron piece
land for connecting the deck of a staircase. { 'a-pren jTn-irj )
of a railroad-car ferry to the
shore. |MECH ENG] A plate apron piece [BUILD] A beam
serving to protect or cover a that supports a landing or a
machine. { 'a-prsn ) series of winders in a
staircase. { 'a-prsn ,pes )
apron conveyor |MECH ENG]
A conveyor used for carrying apron rail [BUILD] A lock rail
having a raised ornamental
molding. { 'a-prsn ,ral) revolving cutting tool or the
work to be cut. { 'ar-bsr)
apron wall [BUILD] In an
exterior wall, a panel which arbor collar [ENG] A
extends downward from a cylindrical spacer that
windowsill to the top of a positions and secures a
window below. { 'a-pren ,wol) revolving cutter on an arbor. {
'ar-bsr ,kal*3r)
AQL See acceptable quality
level. arbor hole [DES ENG] A hole
in a revolving cutter or
aqualung [ENG] A self-
grinding wheel for mounting it
contained underwater
on an arbor. { 'ar-bsr ,hol )
breathing apparatus (scuba)
of the demand or open-circuit arbor press [MECH ENG] A
type developed by ].Y. machine used for forcing an
Cousteau. { 'ak-wajarj ) arbor or a mandrel into drilled
or bored parts preparatory to
aqueduct [civ ENG] An
turning or grinding. Also
artificial tube or channel for
known as mandrel press. { 'ar-
conveying water. { 'ak-w^dskt)
bsr ,pres )
arbitration [IND ENG] A
arbor support [ENG] A device
semijudicial means of settling
to support the outer end or
labor-management disputes
intermediate point of an
in which both sides agree to
arbor. { 'ar-bsr s3,port)
be bound by the decision of
one or more neutral persons arc See electric arc.The
selected by some method graduated scale of an instru-
mutually agreed upon. { ment for measuring angles, as
,ar*b3'tra* shsn ) a marine sextant; readings
obtained on that part of the
arbor [MECH ENG] 1. A
arc beginning at zero and
cylindrical device positioned
extending in the direction usu-
between the spindle and
ally considered positive are
outer bearing of a milling
popularly said to be on the
machine and designed to hold
arc, and those beginning at
a milling cutter. 2. A shaft or
zero and extending in the
spindle used to hold a
opposite direction are said to
be off the arc. { ark ) arch brace [BUILD ] A curved
brace, usually used in pairs to
arc force [MECH] The force of
support a roof frame and give
a plasma arc through a
the effect of an arch. { 'arch
nozzle or opening. { 'ark ,fors
,bras )
arch bridge [civ ENG] A
arch dam[CIV ENG] A
bridge having arches as the
structure curved fac so e
main supports. { 'arch ,brij )
signed that when it is
subjected to vertical loads, its arch center [ civ ENG ] A
two end supports exert temporary structure for
reaction forces with inwardly support of the parts of a
directed horizontal masonry or concrete arch
components; common uses during its construction. { 'arch
for the arch are as a bridge, [sen-tor)
support for a roadway or
arch corner bead [BUILD] A
railroad track, or part of a
corner bead which is cut on
building. { arch }
the job; used to form and
arch band [civ ENG] Any reinforce the curved portion of
narrow elongated surface arch openings. { 'arch [kor-nor
forming part of or connected ,bed)
with an arch. { 'arch ,band)
arch dam [ civ ENG ] A dam
arch bar [BUILD] 1. A curved having a curved face on the
chimney bar. 2. A curved bar downstream side, the curve
in a window sash. { 'arch ,bar) being roughly a portion of a
cylinder whose axis is
arch beam [civ ENG] A curved
vertical. { 'arch ,dam )
beam, used in construction,
with a longitudinal section arched construction [BUILD]
bounded by two arcs having A method of construction
different radii and centers of relying on arches and vaults to
curvature so that the beam support walls and floors. {
cross section is larger at [archt kon'strok-shon )
either end than at the center.
arch girder [civ ENG] A normal
{ 'arch ,bem )
H-section steel girder bent to a
circular shape. { 'arch ,g3r-d3r) for buildings, in contrast to
heavy construction such as
arch-gravity dam [civ ENG]
bridges. { jar* ksltek-chsr-sl
An arch dam stabilized by
,en*j3'nir*ig )
gravity due to great mass and
breadth of the base. { 'arch architectural millwork |civ
jgravad-e ,dam ) ENG] Ready-made millwork
especially fabricated to meet
Archimedes' screw [MECH
the specifications for a
ENG] A device for raising
particular job, as
water by means of a rotating
distinguished from standard
broad-threaded screw or
or stock items or sizes. Also
spirally bent tube within an
known as custom millwork.
inclined hollow cylinder. {]ar-
{[ar-ksltek-chsr-sl 'mil, work)
k3]med,ez 'skru )
architectural volume |civ
arching [civ ENG] 1. The
ENG] The cubic content of a
transfer of stress from a
building calculated by
yielding part of a soil mass to
multiplying the floor area by
adjoining less-yielding or
the height. { [ar-ksltek-chsr-sl
restrained parts of the mass.
'val-ysm )
2. A system of arches. 3. The
arched part of a structure. { architecture (ENG] 1. The art
'arch-irj ) and science of designing
buildings. 2. The product of
architectural acoustics [civ
this art and science. { 'ar-
ENG] The science of planning
and building a structure to
ensure the most arch press (MECH ENG] A
advantageous flow of sound punch press having an arch-
to all listeners. {]ar-k3]tek- shaped frame to permit
cri3r-3l o'ku-stiks ) operations on wide work. {
'arch ,pres )
architectural engineering [
civ ENG ] The branch of arch rib (civ ENG] One of a
engineering dealing primarily set of projecting molded
with building materials and members subdividing the
components and with the undersurface of an arch. {
design of structural systems 'arch ,rib )
arch ring (civ ENG] A curved apparent weight loss of a solid
member that provides the of known mass and volume
main support of an arched when it is immersed in the
structure. { 'arch ,rig ) liquid. { ar'kam-sd-sr)
arch truss (civ ENG ] A truss arc process (CHEM ENG] A
having the form of an arch or former process that used
arches. { 'arch ,tras ) electric arcs for fixation
(oxidation) of atmospheric
arc of action See arc of
nitrogen to manufacture nitric
contact. {[arksv'ak-shsn )
acid. { [ark [pras-ss )
arc of approach (DES ENG] In
arcticization (ENG] The
toothed gearing, the part of
preparation of equipment for
the arc of contact along which
operation in an environment
the flank of the driving wheel
of extremely low
contacts the face of the driven
temperatures. { [ard-ikj'za-
wheel. {[ark sv s'proch )
shsn )
arc of contact (MECH ENG] 1.
arc triangulation (ENG] A
The angular distance over
system of triangula-tion in
which a gear tooth travels
which an arc of a great circle
while it is in contact with its
on the surface of the earth is
mating tooth. Also known as
followed in order to tie in two
arc of action. 2. The angular
distant points. { 'ark ^r^ag-
distance a pulley travels
gys'la-shsn )
while in contact with a belt or
rope. { [ark sv 'kan,takt) are (MECH] A unit of area,
used mainly in agriculture,
arc of recess (DES ENG] In
equal to 100 square meters. {
toothed gearing, the part of
the arc of contact wherein the
face of the driving wheel area coverage (ENG]
touches the flank of the driven Complete coverage of an area
wheel. { [ark sv 're,ses ) by aerial photography having
parallel overlapping flight lines
areometer (ENG] A device for
and stereoscopic overlap be-
determining the density of a
tween exposures in the line of
liquid by measuring the
flight. { 'er-e-s 'ksvrij )
area drain (civ ENG] A area survey (ENG] A survey
receptacle designed to collect of areas large enough to
surface or rain water from an require loops of control. { 'er-
open area. { 'er-e-3 [dran ) e-s [s3r,va )
area landfill (civ ENG] A arc triangulation [ENG] A
sanitary landfill operation that system of triangulation
takes care of the solid waste designed to progress in every
of more than one municipality direction from a control point.
in a region. { 'er-e-3 'land.fil) { 'er-e-3 ^r^ag-gys'la-shsn )
area light (civ ENG] 1. A area wall (civ ENG] A retaining
source of light with significant wall around an areaway. { 'er-
dimensions in two directions, e-3 ,wol)
such as a window or luminous
areaway (civ ENG] An open
ceiling. 2. A light used to
space at subsurface level
illuminate large areas. { 'er-e-
adjacent to a building,
3 ,lTt)
providing access to and
area meter (ENG] A utilities for a basement. { 'er-
mechanism to measure fluid e-^wa )
flow rate through a fixed-area
Argand lamp (ENG] A gas
conduit by the movement of a
lamp having a tube-shaped
weighted piston or float sup-
wick, allowing a current of air
ported by the flowing fluid;
inside as well as outside the
includes rotameters and
flame. { 'ar,gan 'lamp )
piston-type meters. { 'er-e-s
,med-3r) argentometer (ENG] A
hydrometer used to find the
area of use (ENG] For a
amount of silver salt in a
balance depending on
solution. { ,ar-jsn'tam-sd-sr)
gravitational acceleration, an
area that includes a sufficient Arkansas stone (ENG] A
number of locations providing whetstone made of Arkansas
a mean value for the stone, for sharpening edged
gravitational acceleration of tools. { 'ar-k3n,s6 ,ston )
the given balance. { 'er-e-3 sv
'yus ) ARL See acceptable reliability
arm (CONT SYS] A robot part of a door from kicks and
component consiting of an scratches, covering the door
interconnected set of links to a height usually 39 inches
and powered joints that move (1 meter) or more. { 'ar-msr
and support the wrist socket [plat)
and end effector, (ELEC] See
arm solution (CONTSYS) The
branch, (ENG ACOUs] See
computation performed by a
tone arm. { arm )
robot controller to calculate
arm conveyor (MECH ENG] A the joint positions required to
conveyor in the form of an achieve desired tool positions.
endless belt or chain to which { 'arm ssju-shsn )
are attached projecting arms
arm-tool aggregate ( IND ENG
or shelves which carry the
) A biomechanical unit
materials. { [arm ksn'va-sr)
comprising the arm and the
arm elevator (MECH ENG] A tool that it holds and
chain elevator with protruding manipulates. { [arm [tul 'ag-re-
arms to cradle fixed-shape gst)
objects, such as drums or
aromatization (CHEM ENG)
barrels, as they are moved
Conversion of any
upward. { [arm ^l-s'vad-sr)
nonaromatic hydrocarbon
armored faceplate (DES ENG] structure to aromatic
A tamper-proof faceplate or hydrocarbon, particularly
lock front, mortised in the petroleum. {3,ro-msd-s'za-
edge of a door to cover the shsn )
lock mechanism. { 'ar-msrd
arostat process (CHEM ENG)
A process in which aromatic
armored front (DES ENG] A molecules are saturated by
lock front used on mortise catalytic hydrogenation to
locks that consists of two produce high-quality jet fuels,
plates, the underplate and low-aromatic-content
the finish plate. { 'ar-msrd solvents, and high-purity
'front) cyclohexane from benzene. {
'ar-3,stat ,pras-3s )
armor plate (BUILD) A metal
plate which protects the lower array (ELECTR) A group of
components such as of a wall. { 'ar-e^e^vii'sur)
antennas, reflectors, or
arris fillet (BUILD) A triangular
directors arranged to provide
wooden piece that raises the
a desired variation of radiation
slates of a roof against a
transmission or reception with
chimney or wall so that rain
direction. { s'ra )
runs off. { 'ar-ss [fil-st )
array radar ( ENG ) A radar
arris gutter (BUILD) A V-
incorporating a multiplicity of
shaped wooden gutter
phased antenna elements.
fixedtothe eaves of a building.
{s'ra 'ra,dar)
{ 'ar-osjgod-or)
array sonar (ENG) A sonar
arris hip tile (BUILD) A
system incorporating a
special roof tile having an L-
phased array of radiating and
shaped cross section, made
receiving transducers. { s'ra
to fit over the hip of a roof.
Also known as hip tile. { 'ar-ss
arrester (ELEC) See lightning 'hip ,tll)
arrester, (ENG) A wire screen
arris rail (civ ENG) A rail of
at the top of an incinerator or
triangular section, usually
chimney which prevents
formed by slitting diagonally a
sparks or burning material
strip of square section. { 'ar-ss
from leaving the stack. { s'res-
arrissing tool (ENG) A tool
arrestment device (ENG) A
similar to a float, but having a
locking mechanism installed
form suitable for rounding an
on a balance for holding one
edge of freshly placed
of several levers in place;
concrete. { 'ar-os-irj ,tul)
serves to protect the
balance. { s'rest-msnt di,vTs ) arris tile (BUILD) Any
angularly shaped tile. { 'ar-ss
arriere-voussure (BUILD) 1.
,tTl )
An arch or vault in a thick wall
carrying the thickness of the arrisways (civ ENG)
wall, especially one over a Diagonally, in respect to the
door or window frame. 2. A manner of laying tiles, slates,
relieving arch behind the face bricks, or timber. Also known
as arriswise. { 'ar-3s,waz ) permanently or
semipermanently connected.
arriswise See arrisways. { 'ar-
{ ar'tik-ysjad-sd 'tran )
3s,wTz )
articulation (CONT SYS) The
arrival rate (IND ENG) The
manner and actions of joining
mean number of new calling
components of a robot with
units arriving at a service
connecting parts or links that
facility per unit time. { s'rT-vsl
allow motion. { ar
articulation point See cut
articulated drop chute (ENG)
point. { ar^ik-ys'la-shsn
A drop chute, for a falling
stream of concrete, which
consists of a vertical artificial atmosphere (CHEM
succession of tapered metal ENG) A mixture of gases used
cylinders, so designed that in industrial operations in
the lower end of each cylinder place of air; classified as an
fits into the upper end of the active, or process, atmos-
one below. { ar 'tik-ysjad-sd phere, or an inactive, or
'drap ,shut ) protective, atmosphere. { [ard-
ojfish-ol 'at-m^sfir)
articulated leader (MECH
ENG) A wheel-mounted artificial ear ( ENG ACOUS) A
transport unit with a pivotal device designed to duplicate
loading element used in earth the frequency response,
moving. { ar'tik-ysjad-3d 'led- acoustic impedance,
sr) threshold sensitivity, and
relative perception of
articulated structure (civ
loudness, consisting of a
ENG) A structure in which
special-microphone enclosed
relative motion is allowed to
in a box with properties similar
occur between parts, usually
to those of the human ear. {
by means of a hinged or
[ard-ojfish-si 'ir)
sliding joint or joints. { ar'tik-
ysjad-sd 'strak-chsr) artificial ground (ELEC) A
common correction for a
articulated train (ENG) A
radio-frequency electrical or
railroad train whose cars are
electronic circuit that is not
directly connected to the equality constraints and for
earth. { [ard-ojfish-ol 'graund ) greater-than or equal
inequality constraints. {
artificial harbor (civ ENG) 1.
|ard*3|fish*3l 'ver-e-s-bsl)
A harbor protected by
breakwaters. 2. A harbor artificial voice |ENG ACOUS]
formed by dredging. { [ard- 1. Small loudspeaker
3[fish-3l 'har-bsr) mounted in a shaped baffle
which is proportioned to
artificial monument (ENG) A
simulate the acoustical con-
relatively permanent object
stants of the human head;
made by humans, such as an
used for calibrating and
abutment or stone marker,
testing close-talking
used to identify the location of
microphones. 2. Synthetic
a survey station or corner.
speech produced by a multiple
{[ard-ojfish-si 'man-ys-msnt)
tone generator; used to
artificial nourishment (civ produce a voice reply in some
ENG) The process of realtime computer
replenishing a beach by applications. { ]ard-3]fish-3l
artificial means, such as the 'vois )
deposition of dredged
artificial weathering [ENG]
material. { [ard-3[fish-3l 'nsr-
The controlled production of
changes in materials under
artificial recharge (civ ENG) laboratory conditions to
The recharge of an aquifier simulate actual outdoor
depleted by abnormally large exposure. {[ard-3[fish-3l 'welh-
withdrawals, by the use of a-rirj )
injection wells and other tech-
asbestos-cement cladding
niques. {[ard-ojfish-ol 're,charj
(BUILD) Asbestos board and
component wall systems,
artificial variable (IND ENG) directly supported by wall
One type of variable framing, forming a wall or wall
introduced in a linear program facing. { as'bes-tss si]ment
model in order to find an initial 'klad-irj )
basic feasible solution; an
as-built drawing See as-fitted
artificial variable is used for
drawing. {]az [bilt 'dro-iq ) ash collector See dust
chamber. { 'ash ks'lek-tsr)
as-built schedule (IND ENG)
The final schedule for a ash conveyor (MECH ENG) A
project, reflecting the actual device that transports refuse
scope, actual completion from a furnace by fluid or
dates, actual duration of the mechanical means. { 'ash
specified activities, and start ksn'va-sr)
dates. {]az [bilt ]skej-3l)
ash dump (ENG) An opening
ascending branch (MECH) in the floor of a fireplace or
The portion of the trajectory firebox through which ashes
between the origin and the are swept to an ash pit below.
summit on which a projectile { 'ash ,d3mp )
climbs and its altitude con-
ash furnace (ENG) A furnace
stantly increases. { o'send-iq
in which materials are fritted
'branch )
for glassmaking. { 'ash 'fsr-nss
ascending vertical angle )
See angle of elevation. {
ashlar (civ ENG) Masonry with
s'send-ir) [vsrd-i-ksl 'ag-gsl)
an exposed side of square or
as-fitted drawing (ENG) A rectangular stones. { 'ash-lsr)
drawing as amended after
ashlar line (BUILD) The outer
completion of an industrial
line of a wall above any
facility in order to provide an
projecting base. { 'ash-lsr ,lTn
accurate record of the details
of the entire installation in
their final form. Also known as ash pan (ENG) A metal
as-built drawing; as-made receptacle beneath a
drawing. { ]az jfid-ad 'dro-iq ) fireplace or furnace grating for
collection and removal of
ash (ENG) An undesirable
ashes. { 'ash ,pan )
constituent of diesel fuel
whose quantitative ash pit (BUILD) The ash-
measurement indicates collecting area beneath a
degree of fuel cleanliness and fireplace hearth. { 'ash ,pit)
freedom from abrasive
material. { ash ) ash pit door (ENG) A cast-
iron door providing access to 4:3 in the United States and
an ash pit for ash removal. { Britain. 2. In any rectangular
'ash ,pit ,dor) configuration (such as the
cross section of a rectangular
A size ( ENG ) 1. One of a
duct), the ratio of the longer
series of sizes to which
dimension to the shorter,
trimmed paper and board are
(MECH ENG) In an automotive
manufactured; for size AN,
vehicle, the ratio of the
with N equal to any integer
height of a tire to its width.
from 0 to 10, the length of the
Also known as tire profile. {
longer side is 2"|2N " l|/4 meters,
'a,spekt ,ra-sho)
while the length of the shorter
side is 2~(2N + i|/4 met;ers^ with asphalt cutter (MECH ENG) A
both lengths rounded off to the powered machine having a
nearest millimeter. 2. Of a rotating abrasive blade; used
sheet of paper, the to saw through bituminous
dimensions 8.5 inches by 11 surfacing material. { 'a ,sfolt
inches (216 millimeters by 279 .ksd-sr)
millimeters). { 'a ,sTz )
asphalt heater (ENG) A piece
as-made drawing See as- of equipment for raising the
fitted drawing. {]az [mad 'dro-irj temperature of bitumen used
) in paving. { 'a,sfdlt 'hed-sr)
aspect (civ ENG) Of railway asphalt leveling course (civ
signals, what the engineer ENG ) A layer of an asphalt-
sees when viewing the blades aggregate mixture of variable
or lights in their relative thickness, used to eliminate
positions or colors. { 'a,spekt) irregularities in contour of an
existing surface, prior to the
aspect angle (ENG) The
placement of a superimposed
angle formed between the
layer. { 'a,sfolt 'lev-ol-iq ,kors )
longitudinal axis of a projectile
in flight and the axis of a radar asphalt overlay (civ ENG)
beam. { 'a,spekt ,ar)-g3l ) One or more layers of asphalt
construction on an existing
aspect ratio (DES ENG) 1.
pavement. { 'a,sfolt 'ovsr.la )
The ratio of frame width to
frame height in television; it is asphalt pavement (civ ENG)
A pavement consisting of a aspiration psychrometer
surface layer of mineral [ENG] A psychrome-ter in
aggregate, coated and which the ventilation is
cemented together with provided by a suction fan. {
asphalt cement on supporting ,as-p3'ra-sh3n ,si'kram-3d-3r)
layers. { 'a,sfolt 'payment )
aspiration thermograph
asphalt soil stabilization [ENG] A thermograph in which
(civ ENG) The treatment of ventilation is provided by a
naturally occurring nonplastic suction fan. { ,as-p3'ra-sh3n
or moderately plastic soil with 'thsrm-^graf)
liquid asphalt at normal
aspirator (ENG] Any
temperatures to improve the
instrument or apparatus that
load-bearing qualities of the
utilizes a vacuum to draw up
soil. { 'a,sfolt [soil
gases or granular materials. {
,stab*3*l3'za* shsn )
aspirating burner ( ENG ) A
assay balance (ENG] A
burner in which combustion air
sensitive balance used in the
at high velocity is drawn over
assaying of gold, silver, and
an orifice, creating a negative
other precious metals. { 'a,sa
static pressure and thereby
,bal-3ns )
sucking fuel into the stream of
air; the mixture of air and fuel assembling bolt (civ ENG] A
is conducted into a com- threaded bolt for holding
bustion chamber, where the together temporarily the
fuel is burned in suspension. { several parts of a structure
'as-p^rad-ig 'bsr-nsr) during riveting. { s'sem-blig
aspiration meteorograph
(ENG) An instrument for the assembly (MECH ENG] A unit
continuous recording of two or containing the component
more meteorological parts of a mechanism,
parameters, with the machine, or similar device. {
ventilation being provided by a s'sem-ble )
suction fan. { ^s-ps'ra-shsn
^ed-e'or-^graf) assembly line ( IND ENG ] A
mass-production arrangement
whereby the work in process subassembly operation. {
is progressively transferred s'sem-ble ,tTm)
from one operation to the next
assets (IND ENG] All the
until the product is
resources, rights, and
assembled. { s'sem-ble ,1m )
property owned by a person
assembly-line balancing or a company; the book value
(IND ENG] Assigning numbers of these items as shown on
of operators or machines to the balance sheet. { 'a,sets )
each operation of an
assignable cause (IND ENG]
assembly line so as to meet
Any identifiable factor which
the required production rate
causes variation in a process
with a minimum of idle time. {
outside the predicted limits,
s'sem-ble ,lTn 'bal-ons-ig )
thereby altering quality. {
assembly machine (MECH s'sTn-s-bsl 'koz )
ENG] A machine in a
assize (civ ENG] 1. A
manufacturing facility that
cylindrical block of stone
produces a configuration of
forming one unit in a column.
some practical value from
2. A layer of stonework. { s'sTz
discrete components. {s'sem-
ble m^shen )
Assmann psychrometer
assembly method (IND ENG]
(ENG] A special form of the
The technique used to
aspiration psychrometer in
assemble a manufactured
which the ther-mometric
product, such as hand
elements are well shielded
assembly, progressive line
from radiation. { 'as,man
assembly, and automatic
assembly. { s'sem-ble ,meth-
3d) assumed plane coordinates
(ENG] A local plane-coordinate
assembly time ( ENG ] 1. The
system set up at the conve-
elapsed time after the
nience of the surveyor.
application of an adhesive
{s'sumd [plan ,ko'6rd-n3ts )
until its strength becomes
effective. 2. The time elapsed astatic galvanometer (ENG] A
in performing an assembly or sensitive galvanometer
designed to be independent astern (ENG] TO the rear of
of the earth's magnetic field. { an aircraft, vehicle, or vessel;
a'stad-ik ,gal-v3'nam-sd-sr) behind; from the back. {
s'stsrn )
astatic governor See
isochronous governor. { a astragal (BUILD] 1. A small
'stad-ik gsvs-nsr) convex molding decorated
with a string of beads or
astatic gravimeter ( ENG ] A
bead-and-reel shapes. 2. A
sensitive gravimeter designed
plain bead molding. 3. A
to measure small changes in
member, or combination of
gravity. { a'stad-ik gra'vim-sd-
members, fixed to one of a
pair of doors or casement
astatic magnetometer (ENG] windows to cover the joint
A magnetometer for between the meeting stiles
determining the gradient of a and to close the clearance
magnetic field by measuring gap. { 'as-tre-gsl)
the difference in reading from
astragal front (DES ENG] A
two magnetometers placed at
lock front which is shaped to
different positions. { a'stad-ik
fit the edge of a door with an
astragal molding. { 'as-tre-gsl
astatic wattmeter (ENG] An [front)
electrodynamic wattmeter
astral lamp (ENG] An Argand
designed to be insensitive to
lamp designed so that its light
uniform xternal magnetic
is not prevented from
fields. { a'stad-ik 'wat,med-wat
reaching a table beneath it by
the flattened annular reservoir
astatized gravimeter (ENG] A holding the oil. { 'as-tral ,lamp
gravimeter, sometimes )
referred to as unstable, where
astroballistics (MECH] The
the force of gravity is
study of phenomena arising
maintained in an unstable
out of the motion of a solid
equilibrium with the restoring
through a gas at speeds high
force. { 'as-t3,tTzd gra'vim-sd-
enough to cause ablation; for
example, the interaction of a
meteoroid with the the element. {]a-s3[me-trik
atmosphere. {[as-tro-bs'lis-tiks 'rod-or)
asymmetric top (MECH] A
astrolabe ( ENG ] An system in which all three
instrument designed to ob- principal moments of inertia
serve the positions and are different. { ]a-so]me-trik
measure the altitudes of 'tap )
celestial bodies. { 'as-tra,lab )
asynchronous control
astronomical instruments (CONT SYS ] A method of
(ENG] Specific kinds of control in which the time
telescopes and ancillary allotted for performing an
equipment used by operation depends on the
astronomers to study the time actually required for the
positions, motions, and operation, rather than on a
composition of stars and predetermined fraction of a
members of the solar fixed machine cycle. { a'sig-
system. { ^s-trs'nam-s-ksl kre-nss ksn'trol)
'in-stra-msns )
asynchronous device |CONT
astronomical theodolite See SYS] A device in which the
altazimuth. { ,as-tre'nam-s-ksl speed of operation is not
the'ad-sljt) related to any frequency in the
system to which it is
astronomical traverse (ENG]
connected. { a'sig-kre-nss
A survey traverse in which the
di'vTs )
geographic positions of the
stations are obtained from asynchronous operation
astronomical observations, |ELECTR] An operation that is
and lengths and azimuths of started by a completion signal
lines are obtained by from a previous operation,
computation. { ,as-tra'nam-3- proceeds at the maximum
k3l tre'vsrs ) speed of the circuits until
finished, and then generates
asymmetric rotor (MECH
its own completion signal. {
ENG] A rotating element for
a'sirj* kre-nss ,ap-3'ra-sh3n )
which the axis (center of
rotation) is not centered in asynchronous timing |IND
ENG] A simulation method for sea level. Abbreviated atm.
queues in which the system Also known as standard
model is updated at each atmosphere. { 'at-m3,sfir)
arrival or departure, resulting
atmospheric cooler | MECH
in the master clock being
ENG ] A fluids cooler that
increased by a variable
utilizes the cooling effect of
amount. { a'sig-krs-nss 'tlm-irj
ambient air surrounding the
hot, fluids-filled tubes. {[at*
at See technical atmosphere. mojsfir-ik 'kiil-sr)
ata |MECH] A unit of absolute atmospheric distillation
pressure in the metric |CHEM ENG] Distillation
technical system equal to 1 operation conducted at
technical atmosphere. { 'a-ts ) atmospheric pressure, in
contrast to vacuum distillation
athermalize [ENG] TO make
or pressure distillation. { [at-
independent of temperature
mojsfir-ik ,dis-t3'la-shsn )
or of thermal effects. { ja'thar*
msjlz ) atmospheric impurity | ENG ]
An extraneous substance that
atm See atmosphere.
is mixed as a contaminant
atmidometer See with the air of the atmosphere.
atmometer. { ^t-ms'dam-sd- {[at-mojsfir-ik im 'pyur-sd-e )
atmospheric noise |ELECTR]
atmometer [ENG] The general Noise heard during radio
name for an instrument which reception due to atmospheric
measures the evaporation interference. { [at-mojsfir-ik
rate of water into the 'ndiz )
atmosphere. Also known as
atmospheric steam curing
atmidometer; evaporation
[ENG] The steam curing of
gage; evaporimeter. {
concrete or cement products
at atmospheric pressure,
atmosphere | MECH ] A unit of usually at a maximum ambient
pressure equal to 101.325 temperature between 100 and
kilopascals, which is the air 200F (40 and 95C). {
pressure measured at mean jat#m3Jsfir*ik 'stem 'kyur-ig)
atomic force microscope by spraying, sprinkling,
[ENG] A device for mapping misting, or nebulizing. { 'ad-
surface atomic structure by 3,mTz-3r)
measuring the force acting on
atomizer burner [MECH ENG]
the tip of a sharply pointed
A liquid-fuel burner that
wire or other object that is
atomizes the unignited fuel
moved over the surface. {
into a fine spray as it enters
ajtanvik jfors 'mTjkr^skop )
the combustion zone. { 'ad-
atomic moisture meter [ENG] ^mlz-sr [bsr-nsr)
An instrument that measures
atomizer mill [MECH ENG] A
the moisture content of coal
solids grinder, the product
instantaneously and
from which is a fine powder. {
continuously by bombarding it
'ad-3,mTz-3r ,mil)
with neutrons and measuring
the neutrons which bounce atomizing humidifier [MECH
back to a detector tube after ENG] A humidifier in which tiny
striking hydrogen atoms of particles of water are
water. { s'tam-ik 'mdis-chsr introduced into a stream of
,med-3r) air. { 'ad-^mTz-ir) ,hyu'mid-
atomic power plant See
nuclear power plant. { s'tam- atom probe [ ENG ] An
ik 'pau-sr ,plant) instrument for identifying a
single atom or molecule on a
atomization [MECH ENG] The
metal surface; it consists of a
mechanical subdivision of a
field ion microscope with a
bulk liquid or meltable solid,
probe hole in its screen
such as certain metals, to
opening into a mass
produce drops, which vary in
spectrometer; atoms that are
diameter depending on the
removed from the specimen
process from under 10 to over
by pulsed field evaporation fly
1000 micrometers. { ,ad-3-
through the probe hole and
ms'za-shsn )
are detected in the mass
atomizer [MECH ENG] A device spectrometer. { 'ad-sm ,prob )
that produces a mechanical
attached thermometer [ENG]
subdivision of a bulk liquid, as
A thermometer which is
attached to an instrument to building immediately below
determine its operating the roof and entirely or partly
temperature. { s'tacht within the roof framing. { 'ad-ik
thsr'mam-sd-sr) )
attemperation [ENG] The attic tank [BUILD] An open
regulation of thetem-perature tank which is installed above
of a substance. { ^tem-ps'ra- the highest plumbing fixture in
shsn ) a building and which supplies
water to the fixtures by gravity.
attemperation of steam
{ 'ad-ik ,tarjk )
[MECH ENG] The controlled
cooling, in a steam boiler, of attic urge [BUILD] Of a
steam at the superheater doorway, having jambs which
outlet or between the primary are inclined slightly inward, so
and secondary stages of the that the opening is wider at
superheater to regulate the the threshold than at the top.
final steam temperature. { { 'ad-s.ksrj )
3,tem-p3'ra-shsn sv 'stem )
attic ventilator [BUILD] A
attenuate [ENG ACOUS] TO mechanical fan located in the
weaken a signal by reducing attic space of a residence;
its level. { s'ten-y^wat) usually moves large quantities
of air at a relatively low
attenuation [ ELEC ] The
velocity. { 'ad-ik 'vent-3l,ad-3r)
exponential decrease with
distance in the amplitude of attraction gripper [CONT SYS]
an electrical signal traveling A robot component that uses
along a very long uniform adhesion, suction, or
transmission line, due to magnetic forces to grasp a
conductor and dielectric workpiece. {s'trak-shsn ,grip-
losses, [ENG] A process by sr)
which a material is fabricated
attribute sampling |IND ENG]
into a thin, slender
A quality-control inspection
configuration, such as
method in which the sampled
forming a fiber from molten
articles are classified only as
glass. { ^ten-ys'wa-shsn )
defective or nondefective. { 'a-
attic [BUILD] The part of a tre,byut ,sam-plirj )
attributes testing [ENG] A attenuator and used to
reliability test procedure in measure hearing acuity for
which the items under test are pure tones, speech, and bone
classified according to conduction. { ^d-e'am-sd-sr)
qualitative characteristics. { 'a-
tre,byuts ,test-ir))
radiosonde [ ENG ] A radio-
attrition mill |MECH ENG] A sonde with a carrier wave
machine in which materials modulated by audiofrequency
are pulverized between two signals whose frequency is
toothed metal disks rotating controlled by the sensing
in opposite directions. { elements of the instrument. {
s'trish-sn ,mil) ]6d-e-o]maj-3-lad-3d ]rad-e-
o,sand )
Atwood machine |MECH ENG]
A device comprising a pulley audio patch bay [ENG
over which is passed a ACOUS] Specific patch panels
stretch-free cord with a provided to terminate all
weight hanging on each end. audio circuits and equipment
{ 'at,wud ms'shen ) used in a channel and
technical control facility; this
audible leak detector [ENG]
equipment can also be found
A device used as an auxiliary
in transmitting and receiving
to the main leak detector for
stations. { '6d-e-o ]pach ,ba )
conversion of the output
signal into audible sound. { audio spectrometer See
iod-s-bsl 'lek di,tek-tsr) acoustic spectrometer. { 'dd-
e-6 spek'tram-sd-sr)
audio-frequency meter [ENG]
One of a number of types of audio system See sound-
frequency meters usable in reproducing system. { 'od-e-o
the audio range; for example, ,sis-t3m )
a resonant-reed frequency
audio taper [ENG ACOUS] A
meter. { '6d-e-o [fre-kwsn-se
special type of potentiometer
used in a volume-control
audiometer [ENG] An apparatus to compensate for
instrument composed of an the nonlinearity of human
oscillator, amplifier, and hearing and give the
impression of a linear in- penetration is accomplished
crease in audibility as volume by the cutting or gouging
is raised. Also known as action of chisel-type cutting
linear taper. { '6d-e-o ,ta-psr) edges forced into the
substance by rotation of the
audiphone [ENG ACOUS] A
auger bit. Also known as
device that enables persons
auger boring. { '6-gsr ,dril-ir) )
with certain types of deafness
to hear, consisting of a plate auger packer [MECH ENG] A
or diaphragm that is placed feed mechanism that uses a
against the teeth and continuous auger or screw
transmits sound vibrations to inside a cylindrical sleeve to
the inner ear. { '6d-3,fon ) feed hard-to-flow granulated
solids into shipping
auger [DES ENG] 1. A wood-
containers, such as bags or
boring tool that consists of a
drums. { '6-gsr 'pak-sr)
shank with spiral channels
ending in two spurs, a central auget [ENG] A priming tube,
tapered feed screw, and a used in blasting. Also spelled
pair of cutting lips. 2. A large augette. { 6'zhet)
augerlike tool for boring into
augette See auget. { 6'zhet)
soil. { '6-gsr)
auralization See virtual
auger bit [DES ENG] a A bit
acoustics. { ,6r-3l-3'za-shsn )
shaped like an auger but
without a handle; used for autoadaptivity [CONT SYS]
wood boring and for earth The ability of an advanced
drilling. { '6-gsr ,bit) robot to sense the
environment, accept
auger boring [ENG] 1. The
commands, and analyze and
hole drilled by the use of
execute operations. { [od-o-
auger equipment. 2. See
^dap'tiv-sd-e )
auger drilling. { '6-gsr ,bor-ir) )
autoclave [ENG] An airtight
auger conveyor See screw
vessel for heating and
conveyor. { '6-gsr ksn'va-sr)
sometimes agitating its
auger drilling [ENG] A contents under high steam
method of drilling in which pressure; used for industrial
processing, sterilizing, and ENG] The secondary grinding
cooking with moist or dry heat of material by tumbling the
at high temperatures. { '6d- material in a revolving
o,klav ) cylinder, without balls or bars
taking part in the operation. {
autoclave curing [ENG]
o'taj-s-nss 'grind-Hi}
Steam curing of concrete
products, sand-lime brick, autogenous healing [ENG] A
asbestos cement products, natural process of closing and
hydrous calcium silicate filling cracks in concrete or
insulation products, or cement mortar while it is kept damp. {
in an autoclave at maximum o'taj-s-nss 'hel-irj )
ambient temperatures
autogenous mill See
generally between 340 and
autogenous tumbling mill. {
420F (170 and 2l5C). { '6d-
d'taj-s-nss 'mil)
o,klav 'kyur Hi}
autogenous tumbling mill
autoclave molding [ENG] A
|MECH ENG] A type of ball-mill
method of curing reinforced
grinder utilizing as the grinding
plastics that uses an
medium the coarse feed
autoclave with 50-100 pounds
(incoming) material. Also
per square inch (345-690 kilo-
known as autogenous mill. {
pascals) steam pressure to
o'taj-s-nss 'torn-blirj ,mil)
set the resin. { '6d-o,klav
[mold-irj ) autoignition |MECH ENG]
Spontaneous ignition of some
autocorrelation [ELECTR] A
or all of the fuel-air mixture in
technique used to detect
the combustion chamber of an
cyclic activity in a complex
internal combustion engine.
signal. { ]6d-o,kar-3'la-sh3n )
Also known as spontaneous
autofrettage [ ENG ] A process combustion. {[od-o-ig'nish-sn )
for manufacturing gun barrels;
automanual system |civ ENG]
prestressing the metal
A railroad signal system in
increases the load at which its
which signals are set manually
permanent deformation
but are activated
occurs. { '6d-o,fred-ij )
automatically to return to the
autogenous grinding [MECH danger position by a passing
train. { ]6d-o]man- ys-wsl 'sis- balance capable of performing
torn ) weighing procedures without
the intervention of an
automated guided vehicle
operator. {]6d-3]mad-ik 'ba-
|IND ENG] In a flexible
tons }
manufacturing system, a
driverless computer-controlled automatic batcher (MECH
vehicle equipped with ENG] A batcher for concrete
guidance and collision- which is actuated by a single
avoidance systems and used starter switch, opens
to transport workpieces and automatically at the start of
tools between work stations. the weighing operations of
Abbreviated AGV. { ,6d- each material, and closes
3]mad-3d [gTd-sd 've-3-ksl) automatically when the
designated weight of each
automated guided vehicle
material has been reached.
system (CONT SYS] A
{]6d-o]mad-ik 'bach-sr)
computer-controlled system
that uses pallets and other automatic calibration (ENG]
interface equipment to trans- A process in which an
port workpieces to numerically electronic device automatically
controlled machine tools and performs the recalibration of a
other equipment in a flexible measuring range of a
manufacturing system, weighing instrument, for
moving in a predetermined example an electronic
pattern to ensure automatic, balance. { ]6d-o]mad-ik ,kal-
accurate, and rapid work- 3'bra-sh3n )
machine contact. { '6d-3,mad-
automatic check-out system
od [gld-sd 've-s-ksl ,sis-t3m )
(CONT SYS] A system utilizing
automatic [ENG] Having a test equipment capable of
self-acting mechanism that automatically and
performs a required act at a simultaneously providing
predetermined time or in actions and information which
response to certain will ultimately result in the
conditions. { ]6d-3]mad-ik) efficient operation of tested
equipment while keeping time
automatic balance (ENG] A
to a minimum. {]6d-o]mad-ik
'chek,aut ,sis*t3m ) system, in which the
components of the control
automatic choke (MECH ENG]
system are represented as
A system for enriching the air-
functional blocks in series and
fuel mixture in a cold
parallel arrangements
automotive engine when the
according to their position in
accelerator is first depressed;
the actual control system. {
the choke plate opens
]6d-o]mad-ik ksn'trol 'blak ^T-
automatically when the
^gram )
engine achieves normal
operating temperature. { [6d- automatic-control error
3[mad-ik 'chok) coefficient (CONT SYS] Three
numerical quantities that are
automatic control (CONT SYS]
used as a measure of the
Control in which regulating
steady-state errors of an
and switching operations are
automatic control system
performed automatically in
when the system is subjected
response to predetermined
to constant, ramp, or
conditions. Also known as
parabolic inputs. {]6d-o]mad-ik
automatic regulation. { ]6d-
ksn'trol 'er-sr ,ko-3'fish-3nt)
o]mad-ik k3n,trol)
automatic control balance
frequency response (CONT
(ENG] An automatic balance
SYS] The steady-state output
fitted with an accessory which
of an automatic control
determines whether a
system for sinusoidal inputs
package has been filled within
of varying frequency. { [6d-
preselected limits. Also
3[mad-ik 'fre-kwsn-se ri
known as check-weigher. {
,spans )
]6d-o]mad-ik ksn]trol ,bal*3ns )
automatic controller
automatic-control block
(CONTSYS] An instrument that
diagram ( CONT SYS ] A
continuously measures the
diagrammatic representation
value of a variable quantity or
of the mathematical
condition and then automati-
relationships defining the flow
cally acts on the controlled
of information and energy
equipment to correct any
through the automatic control
deviation from a desired
preset value. Also known as the system changes from one
automatic regulator; controller. steady-state condition to
{ ]6d-o]mad-ik konjtrol-or) another in terms of such
quantities as maximum
automatic-control servo
overshoot, rise time, and
valve (CONT SYS] A
response time. { ]6d-o]mad-ik
mechanically or electrically
ksn'trol 'tran-zhsnt 3,nal-3-s3s
actuated servo valve
controlling the direction and
volume of fluid flow in a automatic coupling (MECH
hydraulic automatic control ENG] A device which couples
system. { ]6d-o]mad-ik ksn'trol rail cars when they are
'ssr-vo ,valv ) bumped together. {]6d-a]mad-
ik 'kap-lig )
automatic-control stability
(CONT SYS] The property of an automatic data processing
automatic control system [ENG] The machine
whose performance is such performance, with little or no
that the amplitude of transient human assistance, of any of a
oscillations decreases with variety of tasks involving
time and the system reaches informational data; examples
a steady state. {]6d-o]mad-ik include automatic and re-
ksn'trol st3,bil-3-de ) sponsive reading,
computation, writing, speak-
automatic control system
ing, directing artillery, and the
(CONT SYS] A control system
running of an entire factory.
having one or more automatic
Abbreviated ADP. {]6d-
controllers connected in
a]mad-ik ]dad-a 'pras,as*ir) )
closed loops with one or more
processes. Also known as automatic dialog
regulating system. { ]6d- replacement studio See ADR
o]mad-ik ksn'trol ,sis-t3m ) studio. { ]6d-a]mad-ik ,di*a,lag
ri'plas-mant ,stQd*e,O}
automatic-control transient
analysis (CONT SYS] The automatic door bottom
analysis of the behavior of the [ENG] A movable plunger, in
output variable of an the form of a horizontal bar at
automatic control system as the bottom of a door, which
drops automatically when the device that lights the fuel in a
door is closed, sealing the gas burner when the gas-
threshold and reducing noise control valve is turned on. {
transmission. Also known as ]6d-a]mad-ik ig'nish-an )
automatic threshold closer. {
automatic indexing |CONT
]6d-a]mad-ik 'dor ,bad-am )
SYS] The procedure for
automatic drill |DES ENG] A determining the orientation
straight brace for bits whose and position of a workpiece
shank comprises a coarse- with respect to an
pitch screw sliding in a automatically controlled
threaded tube with a handle machine, such as a robot
at the end; the device is manipulator, that is to perform
operated by pushing the han- an operation on it. {]6d-a]mad-
dle. { ]6d-a]mad-ik 'dril ) ik 'in,deks*ir) )
automatic fire pump |MECH automatic level control
ENG ] A pump which provides |ELECTR] A circuit that keeps
the required water pressure in the output of a radio
a fire standpipe or sprinkler transmitter, tape recorder, or
system; when the water other device essentially
pressure in the system drops constant, even in the
below a preselected value, a presence of large changes in
sensor causes the pump to the input amplitude.
start. { ]6d-a]mad-ik ,flr ,pamp Abbreviated ALC. | MECH
) ENG] In an automotive
vehicle, a system in which
automatic flushing system
two air-chamber shock
|civ ENG] A water tank system
absorbers in the rear are fed
which provides automatically
compressed air by an electric
for the periodic flushing of
compressor; pressure in the
urinals or other plumbing
air chambers is determined
fixtures, or of pipes having too
automatically by sensors to
small a slope to drain
maintain the vehicle at a
effectively. {]6d-a]mad-ik 'flash
predetermined height
*irj ,sis* tarn)
regardless of load. {]6d-
automatic ignition [ENG] A a]mad-ik 'lev-al kan,trol)
automatic microfiller [ENG] automatic regulation See
A device used to place automatic control. { ]6d-
microfilm in jackets at a]mad-ik ,reg'ya'la*shan )
relatively high speeds. {]6d-
automatic regulator See
a]mad-ik 'mi-kro^il-ar)
automatic controller. { ]6d-
automatic mold [ENG] Arnold a]mad-ik 'reg-yajad-ar)
used in injection or
automatic times WITCH[ ENG]
compression molding of
A mechanical device to
plastic objects so that
sample process streams
repeated molding cycles are
(gas, liquid, or solid) either
possible, including ejection,
continuously or at preset time
without manual assistance. {
intervals. { ]6d-a]mad-ik 'sam-
]6d-a]mad-ik 'mold)
automatic press [MECH ENG]
automatic screw machine
A press in which mechanical
[MECH ENG] A machine
feeding of the work is
designed to automatically
synchronized with the press
produce finished parts from
action. {]6d-a]mad-ik 'pres )
bar stock at high production
automatic pumping station rates; the term is not an exact,
[CHEM ENG] An installation on specific machine-tool
a pipeline that automatically classification. { ]6d-a]mad-ik
provides the proper pressure 'skru ma ,shen )
when a fluid is being
automatic shut-off [ENG
transported. {]6d-a]mad-ik
ACOUS] A switch in some
'pamp-ir) ,sta* shan )
tape recorders which
automatic ranging See automatically stops the
autoranging. { ]6d-a]mad-ik machine when the tape ends
'ranj-irj ) or breaks. { ]6d-a]mad-ik
automatic record changer
[ENG ACOUS] An electric automatic slips [ ENG ] A
phonograph that automatically pneumatic or hydraulic device
plays a number of records for setting and removing slips
one after another. {jod* automatically. Also known as
a]mad-ik 'rek-ard ,chanj-ar) power slips. {]6d-a]mad-ik
'slips ) automatic tuning system [
CONT SYS ] An electrical,
automatic stoker [MECH ENG]
mechanical, or
A device that supplies fuel to
electromechanical system
a boiler furnace by
that tunes a radio receiver or
mechanical means. Also
transmitter automatically to a
known as mechanical
predetermined frequency
stoker. { ]6d-a]mad-ik 'stok-ar)
when a button or lever is
automatic test equipment pressed, a knob turned, or a
[ENG] Test equipment that telephone-type dial operated.
makes two or more tests in {[6d-3[mad-ik 'tun-ig ,sis-t3m )
sequence without manual
automatic-type belt-
intervention; it usually stops
tensioning device (MECH
when the first out-of-tolerance
ENG] Any device which
value is detected. { ]6d-a]mad-
maintains a predetermined
ik 'test i,kwip-mant)
tension in a conveyor belt.
automatic threshold closer {]6d-3[mad-ik ,tTp 'belt [ten-
See automatic door bottom. shon-ig di,vTs )
{]6d-a]mad-ik 'thresh,hold
automatic volume
compressor See volume
automatic time switch [ENG] compressor. { [6d-3[mad-ik
Combination of a switch with 'val-ysm ksn^pres-sr)
an electric or spring-wound
automatic volume expander
clock, arranged to turn an
See volume expander. { [6d-
apparatus on and off at pre-
3[mad-ik 'val-ysm ik,spand-3r)
determined times. {]6d-a]mad-
ik ,tTm ,swich ) automatic wet-pipe sprinkler
system |ENG| A sprinkler
automatic track shift [ENG
system, all of whose parts are
ACOUS] A system used with
filled with water at sufficient
multiple-track magnetic tape
pressure to provide an
recorders to index the tape
immediate continuous
head, after one track is
discharge if the system is
played, to the correct position
activated. { [6d-3[mad-ik [wet
for the start of the next track.
]pTp 'sprirjk-lor ,sis-t3m )
{]6d-a]mad-ik 'trak ,shift)
automatic zero setting |ENG] and steering system. { ,6d-3-
A system for automatic ms'bel 'chas-e )
correction of zero-point drifts
automotive air conditioning
or for compensation of soiling
|MECH ENG] A system for
of load receivers on a balance
maintaining comfort of
by means of a special
occupants of automobiles,
accessory component. {]6d-
buses, and trucks, limited to
3[mad-ik 'zir-o ,sed-ir) )
air cooling, air heating,
automation |ENG] 1. The use ventilation, and occasionally
of technology to ease human dehumidification. {[6d-3[mod-
labor or extend the mental or iv 'er ksn ,dish-3n-ir) )
physical capabilities of
automotive body |ENG] An
humans. 2. The mechanisms,
enclosure mounted on and
machines, and systems that
attached to the frame of an
save or eliminate labor, or
automotive vehicle, to contain
imitate actions typically
passengers and luggage, or
associated with human
in the case of commercial
beings. { ^d-s'ma-shsn )
vehicles the commodities
automechanism |CONT SYS ] being carried. {[6d-3[mod-iv
A machine or other device 'bad-e )
that operates automatically or
automotive brake |MECH ENG]
under control of a
A friction mechanism that
servomechanism. {[dd-o'mek-
slows or stops the rotation of
3,niz-3m )
the wheels of an automotive
automobile |MECH ENG] A vehicle, so that tire traction
four-wheeled, trackless, self- slows or stops the vehicle. {
propelled vehicle for land ]6d-s'mod-iv 'brak)
transportation of as many as
automotive engine |MECH
eight people. Also known as
ENG] The fuel-consuming
car. { ^d-s-ms'bel)
machine that provides the
automobile chassis |MECH motive power for automobiles,
ENG] The automobile frame, airplanes, tractors, buses, and
together with the wheels, motorcycles and is carried in
power train, brakes, engine, the vehicle. { ]6d-3[mod-iv 'en-
jsn ) |MECH ENG] The springs and
related parts intermediate
automotive engineering |
between the wheels and
MECH ENG ] The branch of
frame of an automotive
mechanical engineering
vehicle that support the frame
concerned primarily with the
on the wheels and absorb
special problems of land
road shock caused by
transportation by a four-
passage of the wheels over
wheeled, trackless, automo-
irregularities. {[6d-3[mod-iv
tive vehicle. {]6d-3[mod-iv ^n-
sss'pen-chsn )
automotive transmission
automotive frame [ENG] The
|MECH ENG] A device for
basic structure of all
providing different gear or
automotive vehicles, except
drive ratios between the
tractors, which is supported
engine and drive wheels of an
by the suspension and upon
automotive vehicle, a principal
which or attached to which
function being to enable the
are the power plant, trans-
vehicle to accelerate from rest
mission, clutch, and body or
through a wide speed range
seat for the driver. { [6d-
while the engine operates
3[mod-iv 'fram )
within its most effective
automotive ignition system range. {]6d-3[mod-iv tranz
|MECH ENG] A device in an 'mish-sn )
automotive vehicle which
automotive vehicle | MECH
initiates the chemical reaction
ENG ] A self-propelled vehicle
between fuel and air in the
or machine for land
cylinder charge. {]6d-3[mod-iv
transportation of people or
ig'nish-sn ,sis* torn)
commodities or for moving
automotive steering |MECH materials, such as a
ENG] Mechanical means by passenger car, bus, truck,
which a driver controls the motorcycle, tractor, airplane,
course of a moving motorboat, or earthmover.
automobile, bus, truck, or {[6d-3[mod-iv 've-s-ksl)
tractor. { ]6d-3[mod-iv 'stir-irj )
autonomous robot (ENG] A
automotive suspension robot that not only can
maintain its own stability as it meter from its lowest to the
moves, but also can plan its next higher range, with the
movements. { 6]tan-3-m3s switching process repeated
'ro,bat) until a range is reached for
which the full-scale value is
autonomous vehicle (ENG]
not exceeded. Also known as
A vehicle that is able to plan
automatic ranging. { 'od-o^anj-
its path and to execute its
ir) )
plan without human
intervention. { 6]tan-3-m3s autoreducing tachymeter
've* 3-kal) [ENG] A class of ta-chymeter
by which horizontal and height
autopatrol (MECH ENG] A self-
distances are read
powered blade grader. Also
simultaneously. {]6d-o-ri]dus-
known as motor grader. {
ig ts'kim-sd-sr)
'6d*o* p3,trol)
autorotation | MECH ] 1.
autoradar plot See chart
Rotation about any axis of a
comparison unit. { ]6d-o]ra,dar
body that is symmetrical and
exposed to a uniform
autoradiography (ENG] A airstream and maintained only
technique for detecting by aerodynamic moments. 2.
radioactivity in a specimen by Rotation of a stalled
producing an image on a symmetrical airfoil parallel to
photographic film or plate. the direction of the wind. { lod-
Also known as o^o'ta-shsn )
radioautography. { jod'O^rad-
autosled |MECH ENG] A
e'ag* ra-fe )
propeller-driven machine
autorail (MECH ENG] A self- equipped with runners and
propelled vehicle having both wheels and adaptable to use
flange wheels and pneumatic on snow, ice, or bare roads. {
tires to permit operation on 'od-o'sledj
both rails and roadways. { '6d-
autostability |CONT SYS] The
6,ral )
ability of a device (such as a
autoranging (ENG] Automatic servomechanism) to hold a
switching of a multirange steady position, either by
virtue of its shape and propor- structural member, any
tions, or by control by a reinforcement in addition to
servomechanism. { iod-o- that whose function is pre-
sts'bil-sd-e ) stressing. { og'zil-ys-re ^e-
auxanometer [ENG] An
instrument used to detect and auxiliary rim lock [DES ENG] A
measure plant growth rate. { secondary or extra lock that is
,6g-zs'nam-sd-sr) surface-mounted on a door to
provide additional security. {
auxiliary dead latch |DES
og'zil-ys-re 'rim ,lak)
ENG] A supplementary latch in
a lock which automatically auxiliary rope-fastening
deadlocks the main latch bolt device [MECH ENG] A device
when the door is closed. Also attached to an elevator car, to
known as auxiliary latch bolt; a counterweight, or to the
deadlocking latch bolt; trigger overhead dead-end rope-hitch
bolt. { dg'zil-ys-re 'ded ,lach ) support, that automatically
supports the car or
auxiliary latch bolt See
counterweight in case the
auxiliary dead latch. { 6g 'zil-
fastening for the wire rope
ys-re 'lach ,bolt)
(cable) fails. { og'zil-ys-re 'rop
auxiliary power plant |MECH ,fas-3n-ir) di,vTs )
ENG] Ancillary equipment, such
auxiliary thermometer [ENG]
as pumps, fans, and soot
A mercury-in-glass
blowers, used with the main
thermometer attached to the
boiler, turbine, engine,
stem of a reversing
waterwheel, or generator of a
thermometer and read at the
power-generating station. {
same time as the reversing
og'zil-ys-re 'pau-sr ,plant)
thermometer so that the
auxiliary rafter [BUILD] A correction to the reading of
member strengthening the the latter, resulting from
principal rafter in a truss. { change in temperature since
og'zil-ys-re 'raf-tsr) reversal, can be computed. {
og'zil-ys-re thsr'mam-sd-sr)
auxiliary reinforcement [civ
ENG] In a pre-stressed auxograph [ENG] An
automatic device that records The heat per unit mass of a
changes in the volume of a working substance that could
body. { 'ok-ss,graf) be transformed into work in an
engine under ideal conditions
auxometer [ENG] An
for a given amount of heat per
instrument that measures the
unit mass furnished to the
magnification of a lens
working substance. { s'val-s-
system. { ,6k'sam-sd-sr)
bsl 'het)
availability [SYS ENG] The
available motions inventory
probability that a system is
[IND ENG] A list of all motions
operating satisfactorily at any
available to a human for
point in time, excluding times
performing a specific task. {
when the system is under
ojval-o-bol ,mo-sh3nz 'in-ven
repair. { 3,val-3'bil-3-de )
,tor-e )
availability ratio [IND ENG]
avalanche [ELECTR] 1. The
The ratio of the amount of
cumulative process in which
time a system is actually
an electron or other charged
available for use to the
particle accelerated by a
amount of time it is supposed
strong electric field collides
to be available. { 3,val-3'bil-
with and ionizes gas
3d-e 'ra-sho )
molecules, thereby releasing
available draft [MECH ENG] new electrons which in turn
The usable differential have more collisions, so that
pressure in the combustion the discharge is thus self-
air in a furnace, used to maintained. Also known as
sustain combustion of fuel or avalanche effect; cascade;
to transport products of cumulative ionization; electron
combustion. { s'val-s-bsl avalanche; Townsend ava-
'draft ) lanche; Townsend ionization.
2. Cumulative multiplication of
available energy [ MECH ENG ] carriers in a semiconductor as
Energy which can in principle a result of avalanche
be converted to mechanical breakdown. Also known as
work. { s'val-s-bsl 'en-sr-je ) avalanche effect. { 'av-3,lanch
available heat [MECH ENG] )
avalanche breakdown [ nique of forming
ELECTR] Nondestructive interconnections in a field-pro-
breakdown in a grammable logic array by
semiconductor diode when applying appropriate voltages
the electric field across the for shorting selected base-
barrier region is strong emitter junctions. { 'av3,lanch
enough so that current in]diisd ,mT'gra-sh3n )
carriers collide with valence
avalanche noise [ELECTR] 1.
electrons to produce ionization
A junction phenomenon in a
and cumulative multiplication
semiconductor in which
of carriers. { 'av 3,lanch
carriers in a high-voltage
'brak,daun )
gradient develop sufficient en-
avalanche diode [ELECTR] A ergy to dislodge additional
semiconductor breakdown carriers through physical
diode, usually made of silicon, impact; this agitation creates
in which avalanche ragged current flows which
breakdown occurs across the are indicated by noise. 2.
entire pn j unction and voltage The noise produced when a
drop is then essentially junction diode is operated at
constant and independent of the onset of avalanche
current; the two most breakdown. { 'av3,lanch ,noiz
important types are IMPATT )
and TRA-PATT diodes. { 'av-
avalanche oscillator
3,lanch 'dT,6d )
|ELECTR] An oscillator that
avalanche effect See uses an avalanche diode as a
avalanche. { 'av-3,lanch i,fekt) negative resistance to achieve
one-step conversion from
avalanche impedance
direct-current to microwave
[ELECTR] The complex ratio of
outputs in the gigahertz
the reverse voltage of a device
range. { 'av3,lanch [as-sjad-
that undergoes avalanche
breakdown to the reverse cur-
rent. { 'avojanch im'ped-sns ) avalanche photodiode
|ELECTR] A photodiode
operated in the avalanche
migration [ELECTR] A tech-
breakdown region to achieve
internal photocurrent of total output noise power to
multiplication, thereby the portion thereof attributable
providing rapid light-controlled to thermal noise in the input
switching operation. { termination, the total noise
'avsjanch ^od-o'dl^od ) being summed over
frequencies from zero to
avalanche protector |MECH
infinity, and the noise
ENG] Guard plates installed on
temperature of the input
an excavator to prevent loose
termination being standard
material from sliding into the
(290 K). { 'avrij 'noiz ,fig-yor)
wheels or tracks. { 'av 3,lanch
pra,tek-t3r) average outgoing quality
limit (IND ENG| The average
avalanche transistor |
quality of all lots that pass
ELECTR] A transistor that
quality inspection, expressed
utilizes avalanche breakdown
in terms of percent defective.
to produce chain generation
Abbreviated AOQL. { 'avrij
of charge-carrying hole-
'au^go-ir) 'kwal-sd-e ,lim-3t)
electron pairs. { 'av3,lanch
tran'zis-tsr) average power output
|ELECTR] Radio-frequency
avalanche voltage |ELECTR]
power, in an audio-modulation
The reverse voltage required
transmitter, delivered to the
to cause avalanche
transmitter output terminals,
breakdown in a pn
averaged over a modulation
semiconductor junction. {
cycle. { 'avrij 'pau-sr 'aut,put )
'av3,lanch ,vol-tij )
average sample number |IND
average acoustic output
ENG] An anticipated number of
|ENG ACOUS] Vibratory energy
pieces that must be inspected
output of a transducer
to determine the acceptability
measured by a radiation
of a particular lot. { 'avrij
pressure balance; expressed
[sam-psl ^sm-bsr)
in terms of watts per unit
area of the transducer face. { averaging |CONT SYS] The
'avrij s'kii-stik 'aut,put) reduction of noise received by
a robot sensor by screening it
average noise figure
over a period of time. { 'av rij-
|ELECTR] Ratio in a transducer
irj) interruption under the control
of the operator during the
averaging device |ENG] A
normal operating time. {
device for obtaining the
s'void-s-bsl di'la )
arithmetic mean of a number
of readings, as on a bubble avoirdupois pound See
sextant. { 'avrij-irj di'vTs ) pound. { ,av3rd*3'p6iz 'paund
averaging pitot tube [ENG] A
flowmeter that consists of a avoirdupois weight | MECH ]
rod extending across a pipe The system of units which has
with several interconnected been commonly used in
upstream holes, which English-speaking countries for
simulate an array of pitot measurement of the mass of
tubes across the pipe, and a any substance except
downstream hole for the static precious stones, precious
pressure reference. { 'avrij-irj metals, and drugs; it is based
,pe,to ,tub ) on the pound (approximately
453.6 grams) and includes the
aviation method | ENG ]
short ton (2000 pounds), long
Determination of knock-limiting
ton (2240 pounds), ounce
power, under lean-mixture
(one-sixteenth pound), and
conditions, of fuels used in
dram (one-sixteenth ounce). {
spark-ignition aircraft engines.
,av3rd-3'p6iz 'wat)
{ ^-ve'a-shsn 'meth-sd )
awl | DES ENG ] A point tool
avionics [ENG] The design
with a short wooden handle
and production of airborne
used to mark surfaces and to
electrical and electronic
make small holes, as in
devices; term is derived from
leather or wood. { 61)
aviation electronics. { ,a-
ve'an-iks ) awning window (BUILD ] A
window consisting of a series
avogram |MECH] A unit of
of vertically arranged, top-
mass, equal to 1 gram
hinged rectangular sections;
divided by the Avogadro
designed to admit air while
number. { 'a-V3,gram )
excluding rain. { 'on-irj ,win-do
avoidable delay |IND ENG] An )
ax |DES ENG] An implement propeller pump. { 'ak-se-sl 'flo
consisting of a heavy metal ,p3mp)
wedge-shaped head with one
axial force diagram [civ
or two cutting edges and a
ENG] In statics, a graphical
relatively long wooden handle;
representation of the axial
used for chopping wood and
load acting at each section of
felling trees, jaks)
a structural member, plotted
axed brick [ENG] A brick, to scale and with proper sign
shaped with an ax, that has as an ordinate at each point of
not been trimmed. Also the member and along a
known as rough-axed brick. { reference line representing
[akst ]brik ) the length of the member. {
'ak-se-sl ]fors ,di*3,gram )
axhammer [DES ENG] An ax
having one cutting edge and axial hydraulic thrust |MECH
one hammer face. { 'aks,ham- ENG] In single-stage and
3r) multistage pumps, the
summation of unbalanced
axial fan [ MECH ENG ] A fan
impeller forces acting in the
whose housing confines the
axial direction. { 'ak-se-sl
gas flow to the direction along
hT'drd-lik 'threst)
the rotating shaft at both the
inlet and outlet. { 'ak-se-al 'fan axial lead |ELEC] A wire lead
) extending from the end along
the axis of a resistor,
axial-flow compressor
capacitor, or other
[MECH ENG] A fluid compressor
component. { 'ak-se-sl 'led )
that accelerates the fluid in a
direction generally parallel to axial load |MECH] A force
the rotating shaft. { 'ak-se-sl with its resultant passing
'flo ksm'pres-sr) through the centroid of a
particular section and being
axial-flow pump [MECH ENG ]
perpendicular to the plane of
A pump having an axial-flow
the section. { 'ak-se-sl 'lod )
or propeller-type impeller;
used when maximum capacity axial modulus | MECH ] The
and minimum head are de- ratio of a simple tension stress
sired. Also known as applied to a material to the
resulting strain parallel to the of rotation, by which the
tension when the sides of the rotation of a cutting tool
sample are restricted so that deviates from a plane. { 'ak-
there is no lateral se-sl 'ran,aut)
deformation. Also known as
axial-type mass flowmeter
modulus of simple longitudinal
[ENG] An instrument in which
extension. {[ak-se-sl 'maj-3-bs
fluid in a pipe is made to
rotate at a constant speed by
axial moment of inertia a motor-driven impeller, and
|MECH] For any object rotating the torque required by a
about an axis, the sum of its second, stationary impeller to
component masses times the straighten the flow again is a
square of the distance to the direct measurement of mass
axis. { 'ak-se-sl 'mo-msnt sv flow. { 'ak-se-sl ]tTp 'mas
in'sr-shs ) 'flo,med-3r)
axial nozzle |MECH ENG] An axis |MECH ] A line about
inlet or outlet connection which a body rotates. { 'ak-
installed in the head of a sss )
shell-and-tube exchanger and
axis of freedom |DES ENG]
aligned normal to the plane in
An axis in a gyro about which
which the tube lies. { [ak-se-sl
a gimbal provides a degree of
freedom. { 'ak-sss sv fred-sm )
axial rake |MECH ENG] The
axis of rotation |MECH] A
angle between the face of a
straight line passing through
blade of a milling cutter or
the points of a rotating rigid
reamer and a line parallel to
body that remain stationary,
its axis of rotation. { 'ak-se-3l
while the other points of the
body move in circles about
axial relief |MECH ENG] The the axis. { 'ak-sss sv ro'ta-
relief behind the end cutting shsn )
edge of a milling cutter. { 'ak-
axis of sighting [ENG] A line
se-al ri'lef)
taken through the sights of a
axial runout |MECH ENG] The gun, or through the optical
total amount, along the axis center and centers of
curvature of lenses in any of the speed in revolutions
telescopic instrument. { 'ak- per minute of the drive shaft
sss sv 'sTd-irj ) to that of the drive wheels. {
'ak-ssl 'ra-sho )
axis of symmetry |MECH] An
imaginary line about which a axometer [ENG] An
geometrical figure is instrument that locates the
symmetric. Also known as optical axis of a lens,
symmetry axis. { 'ak-sss sv particularly a lens used in
'sim-3-tre ) eyeglasses. { ak'sam-sd-sr)
axis of torsion |MECH] An axis azel mounting See altazimuth
parallel to the generators of a mounting. { 'az-sl ,maunt-ir))
cylinder undergoing torsion,
azeotropic distillation
located so that the
[CHEM ENG] A process by
displacement of any point on
which a liquid mixture is
the axis lies along the axis.
separated into pure
Also known as axis of twist. {
components with the help of
]ak-sss sv 'tor-shsn )
an additional substance or
axis of twist. solvent. {]az-e-a,tro-pik ,dis-
Seeaxisoftorsion. { ]ak- t3'la-shsn )
azimuth [ENG] In directional
axle |MECH ENG] A supporting drilling, the direction of the
member that carries a wheel face of the deviation tool with
and either rotates with the respect to magnetic north. {
wheel to transmit mechanical 'az-s-msth )
power to or from it, or allows
azimuth-adjustment slide
the wheel to rotate freely on it.
rule [ENG] A circular slide rule
{ 'ak-ssl)
by which a known angular
axle box [ENG] A bushing correction for fire at one
through which an axle elevation can be changed to
passes in the hub of a wheel. the proper correction for any
{ 'ak-ssl ,baks ) other elevation. { 'az-3-msth
sljss-msnt 'slid ,rul)
axle ratio [MECH ENG] In an
automotive vehicle, the ratio azimuth alignment [ ENG
ACOUS ] The condition displays azimuth
whereby the center lines of information. { 'az-s-msth ,in-
the playback- and recording- d3,kad-3r)
head gaps are exactly
azimuth instrument [ENG] An
perpendicular to the magnetic
instrument for measuring
tape and parallel to each
azimuths, particularly a device
other. { 'az-o-moth a'lTn-mont)
which fits over a central pivot
azimuth angle [ENG] An in the glass cover of a
angle in triangulation or in magnetic compass. Also
traverse through which the known as azimuth bar;
computation of azimuth is bearing bar. { 'az-s-msth ^n-
carried. { 'az-s-msth 'arj-gol ) stre-msnt)
azimuth bar See azimuth azimuth line [ ENG ] A radial
instrument. { 'az-s-moth ,bar) line from the principal point,
isocenter, or nadir point of a
azimuth circle [ DES ENG ] A
photograph, representing the
ring calibrated from 0 to 360
direction to a similar point of
over a compass, compass
an adjacent photograph in
repeater, radar plan position
the same flight line; used
indicator, direction finder, and
extensively in radial triangula-
so on, which provides means
tion. { 'az-s-msth ,lTn )
for observing compass
bearings and azimuths. { 'az- azimuth marker [ENG] 1. A
s-msth ,s3r-k3l ) scale encircling the plan
position indicator scope of a
azimuth dial [ENG] Any
radar on which the azimuth of
horizontal circle dial that
a target from the radar may be
reads azimuth. { 'az-s-msth
measured. 2. Any of the
,dTl )
reference limits inserted
azimuth error [ENG] An error electronically at 10 or 15
in the indicated azimuth of a intervals which extend radially
target detected by radar. { 'az- from the relative position of
s-moth ,er-or) the radar on an off-center plan
position indicator scope. { 'az-
azimuth indicator [ ENG ] An s-msth ,mar-k3r)
approach-radar scope which
azimuth scale [ENG] A C-band and giving two direc-
graduated angle-measuring tion cosines and slant range
device on instruments, gun which can be used to
carriages, and so forth that determine space position and
indicates azimuth. { 'az-s- velocity of a vehicle (usually
msth ,skal ) a rocket or a missile). {
s'zus-s )
azimuth-stabilized plan
position indicator [ENG] A backacter See backhoe. {
north-upward plan position 'bak,ak-t3r) backband (BUILD)
indicator (PPI), a radarscope, A piece of millwork used
which is stabilized by a gyro- around a rectangular window
compass so that either true or door casing as a cover for
or magnetic north is always at the gap between the casing
the top of the scope and the wall or as a
regardless of vehicle decorative feature. Also
orientation. { 'az-s-msth [sta- known as backbend. {
bsjTzd 'plan ps'zish-sn 'in- 'bak,band)
backbend (BUILD) 1. At the
azimuth transfer [ENG] outer edge of a metal door or
Connecting, with a straight window frame, the face which
line, the nadir points of two returns to the wall surface.
vertical photographs selected 2. See backband. { 'bak,bend
from overlapping flights. { 'az- )
s-msth 'tranz,f3r)
back bias ( ELECTR) 1.
azimuth traverse [ENG] A Degenerative or regenerative
survey traverse in which the voltage which is fed back to
direction of the measured circuits before its originating
course is determined by point; usually applied to a
azimuth and verified by back control anode of a tube or
azimuth. { 'az-s-msth tre'vsrs ) other device. 2. Voltage ap-
plied to a grid of a tube (or
Azusa [ENG] A continuous-
tubes) or electrode of another
wave, high-accuracy, phase-
device to reduce a condition
comparison, single-station
which has been upset by
tracking system operating at
some external cause. { 'bak
,bT-3s ) back fillet (BUILD) The return
of the margin of a groin,
back boxing See backlining. {
doorjamb, or window jamb
'bak [bak-sir) )
when it projects beyond a wall.
backbreak See overbreak. { { 'bak ,fil*3t )
backfire (civ ENG ) A fire that
back check ( DES ENG ) In a is started in order to burn
hydraulic door closer, a against and cut off a
mechanism that slows the spreading fire. (ELECTR) See
speed with which a door may arcback. (ENG) Momentary
be opened. { 'bak ,chek ) backward burning of flame into
the tip of a torch. Also known
backdigger See backhoe. { as flashback, (MECH ENG) In
'bak]dig-3r) an internal combustion
back-draft damper (MECH engine, an improperly timed
ENG) A damper with blades explosion of the fuel mixture in
actuated by gravity, permitting a cylinder, especially one
air to pass through them in occurring during the period
one direction only. { 'bak , that the exhaust or intake
draft 'dam-psr) valve is open and resulting in
a loud detonation. { 'bak,fTr)
back edging (ENG) Cutting
through a glazed ceramic backflap hinge (DES ENG) A
pipe by first chipping through hinge having a flat plate or
the glaze around the outside strap which is screwed to the
and then chipping the pipe face of a shutter or door.
itself. { 'bak ,ej-ir)) Also known as flap hinge. {
'bak,flap ,hinj )
back end See thrust yoke. {
'bak ,end ) backflow (civ ENG) The flow
of water or other liquids,
backfill (civ ENG) Earth mixtures, or substances into
refilling a trench or an the distributing pipes of a
excavation around a building, potable supply of water from
bridge abutment, and the like. any other than its intended
{ 'bak,fil) source. { 'bak,flo )
backflow connection (civ electronic or other system,
ENG) Any arrangement of independent of whether or not
pipes, plumbing fixtures, the desired signal is present. {
drains, and so forth, in which 'bak,graund ,noiz )
backflow can occur. { 'bak,fl6
background returns (ENG) 1.
ks'nek-shsn )
Signals on a radar screen
backflow preventer See from objects which are of no
vacuum breaker. { 'bak ,flo interest. 2. See clutter. {
pri'ven-tsr) 'bak,graund ri'tsrnz )
backflow valve See background signal (ENG) The
backwater valve. { 'bak,flo output of a leak detector
,valv ) caused by residual gas to
which the detector element
backfurrow (civ ENG) In an
reacts. { 'bak,graund ,sig-nsl)
excavation procedure, the
first cut made on undisturbed back gutter (BUILD) A gutter
land. { 'bak.fsr-o) installed on the uphill side of
a chimney on a sloping roof to
back gearing (MECH ENG)
divert water around the
The technique of using gears
chimney. { 'bak ,g3d-9i)
on machine tools to obtain an
increase in the number of back hearth (BUILD) That
speed changes that can be part of the hearth (or floor)
gotten with cone belt drives. { which is contained within the
'bak ,gir-ir)) fireplace itself. Also known as
inner hearth. { 'bak ,harth )
background discrimination (
ENG ) The ability of a backhoe (MECH ENG) An
measuring instrument, circuit, excavator fitted with a hinged
or other device to distinguish arm to which is rigidly attached
signal from background a bucket that is drawn toward
noise. { 'bak,graund dis^rim- the machine in operation. Also
s'na-shsn ) known as backacter;
backdigger; dragshovel;
background noise ( ENG )
pullshovel. { 'bak ,ho )
The undesired signals that are
always present in an backing | civ ENG ] 1. The
unexposed, rough masonry intermediate value, usually
surface of a wall that is faced between 100 and O.I
with finer work. 2. The earth pascals. Also known as fore
backfill of a retaining wall. pump. { 'bak-irj ,p3mp )
|ELECTR] Flexible material,
backing ring [ENG] A strip of
usually cellulose acetate or
metal attached at a pipe joint
polyester, used on magnetic
at the root of a weld to
tape as the carrier for the
prevent spatter and to ensure
oxide coating. { 'bak-irj )
the integrity of the weld. {
backing board [BUILD] In a 'bak-irj ,rir) )
suspended acoustical ceiling,
backing space [ENG] Space
a flat sheet of gypsum board
between a fore pump and a
to which acoustical tile is
diffusion pump in a leak-
attached by adhesive or me-
testing system. { 'bak-irj ,spas
chanical means. { 'bak-irj
,bord )
backing-space technique [
backing brick |CIVENG] A
ENG ] Testing for leaks by
relatively low-quality brick
connecting a leak detector to
used behind face brick or
the backing space. { 'bak-irj
other masonry. { 'bak-ig ,brik)
,spas ,tek'nek)
backing off | ENG ] Removing
backing up [civ ENG] In
excessive body metal from
masonry, the laying of backing
badly worn bits. { 'bak-irj [of)
brick. { 'bak-irj [op )
backing plate [ENG] A plate
back jamb See backlining. {
used to support the hardware
'bak ,jam )
for the cavity used in plastics
injection molding. { 'bak-irj backjoint [civ ENG] In
,plat) masonry, a rabbet such as
that made on the inner side of
backing pump |MECHENG] A
a chimneypiece to receive a
vacuum pump, in a vacuum
slip. { 'bakjoint)
system using two pumps in
tandem, which works directly backlash [DES ENG] The
to the atmosphere and re- amount by which the tooth
duces the pressure to an space of a gear exceeds the
tooth thickness of the mating backlog [IND ENG] 1. An
gear along the pitch circles. accumulation of orders
[ELECTR] A small reverse promising future work and
current in a rectifier tube profit. 2. An accumulation of
caused by the motion of unprocessed materials or un-
positive ions produced in the performed tasks. { 'bak,lag )
gas by the impact of
back mixing [CHEM ENG] The
thermoelec-trons. [ENG] 1.
tendency of reacted
Relative motion of mechanical
chemicals to intermingle with
parts caused by looseness. 2.
unreacted feed in reactors,
The difference between the
such as stirred tanks, packed
actual values of a quantity
towers, and baffled tanks. {
when a dial controlling this
'bak ,mik-sir) )
quantity is brought to a given
position by a clockwise back nailing [BUILD] Nailing
rotation and when it is brought the plies of a built-up roof to
to the same position by a the substrate to prevent
counterclockwise rotation. { slippage. { 'bak ,nal*irj )
'bak,lash )
back nut [DES ENG] 1. A
backlining [BUILD] 1. A thin threaded nut, one side of
strip which lines a window which is dished to retain a
casing, next to the wall and grommet; used in forming a
opposite the pulley stile, and watertight pipe joint. 2. A
provides a smooth surface for locking nut on the shank of a
the working of the weighted pipe fitting, tap, or valve. {
sash. Also known as back 'bak ,nat)
boxing; back jamb. 2. That
piece of framing forming the back off [ENG] 1. To unscrew
back recess for boxing or disconnect.
shutters. { 'bakjTn-ig ) 2.To withdraw the drill bit
back lintel [BUILD] A lintel from a borehole.
which supports the backing of 3.To withdraw a cutting tool or
a masonry wall, as opposed grinding wheel
to the lintel supporting the
facing material. { 'bak Jin-tsl I 4.from contact with the
workpiece. { 'bak ,6f)
back order [ IND ENG ] 1. An die, an opening for the
order held for future release of excess material. {
completion. 2. A new order 'bak ,presh-3r ri'lef ,port)
placed for previously
back rake [DES ENG] An angle
unavailable materials of an
on a single-point turning tool
old order. { 'bak ,6rd-3r)
measured between the plane
backplastering [BUILD] A of the tool face and the
coat of plaster applied to the reference plane. { 'bak ,rak )
back side of lath, opposite the
back-run process [CHEM ENG]
finished surface. { 'bak,plas-
A process for manufacturing
trir) )
water gas in which part of the
backplate [BUILD] A plate, run is made down, by passing
usually metal or wood, which steam through the
serves as a backing for a superheater, thence up
structural member. { 'bak,plat) through the carburetor, down
through the generator, and
backplate lamp holder [DES
direct to the scrubbers. { 'bak
ENG] A lamp holder, integrally
,ran 'pras-ss )
mounted on a plate, which is
designed for screwing to a flat backsaw [DES ENG] A fine-
surface. { 'bak ,plat 'lamp tooth saw with its upper edge
,hol*d3r} stiffened by a metal rib to
ensure straight cuts. { 'bak,so
back pressure [MECH]
Pressure due to a force that
is operating in a direction backscatter gage [ENG] A
opposite to that being radar instrument used to
considered, such as that of a measure the radiation
fluid flow. [MECH ENG] scattered at 180 to the
Resistance transferred from direction of the incident wave.
rock into the drill stem when { 'bak ]skad-sr ,gaj )
the bit is being fed at a faster
backscattering thickness
rate than the bit can cut. {
gage [ENG] A device that uses
'bak ,presh-3r)
a radioactive source for
back-pressure-relief port [ measuring the thickness of
ENG ] In a plastics extrusion materials, such as coatings, in
which the source and the back siphonage (civ ENG)
instrument measuring the The flowing back of used,
radiation are mounted on the contaminated, or polluted
same side of the material, the water from a plumbing fixture
backscattered radiation thus or vessel into the pipe which
being measured. { 'bak]skad- feeds it; caused by reduced
3-rir) 'thik-nss ,gaj ) pressure in the pipe. { 'bak
[sT-fsn-ij )
backset (BUILD) The
horizontal distance from the back solution (CONT SYS )
face of a lock or latch to the The calculation of the tool-
center of the keyhole, knob, or coordinated positions that
lock cylinder. { 'bak,set) correspond to specified
robotic joint positions. { 'bak
backsight (ENG) 1. A sight on
s3,lu-shsn )
a previously established
survey point or line. 2. backspace (MECH ENG) TO
Reading a leveling rod in its move a typewriter carriage
unchanged position after back one space by
moving the leveling depressing a backspace key. {
instrument to a different 'bak,spas )
location. { 'bak,sTt)
backstay (ENG) 1. A
backsight method (ENG) 1. A supporting cable that prevents
plane-table traversing method a more or less vertical object
in which the table orientation from falling forward. 2. A
produces the alignment of the spring used to keep together
alidade on an established the cutting edges of purchase
map line, the table being shears. 3. A rod that runs
rotated until the line of sight is from either end of a carriage's
coincident with the cor- rear axle to the reach. 4. A
responding ground line. 2. leather strip that covers and
Sighting two pieces of strengthens a shoe's back
equipment directly at each seam. { 'bak,sta )
other in order to orient and
back sweetening (CHEM ENG)
synchronize one with the
The controlled addition of
other in azimuth and
elevation. { 'bak,sTt 'meth-sd)
mercaptans to a petroleum 'bak,3p ,tang )
stock having excess free
back vent (civ ENG) An
sulfur in order to reduce free
individual vent for a plumbing
sulfur by forming a disulfide. {
fixture located on the
'bak ,swet*3n*ir) )
downstream (sewer) side of a
backup (BUILD) That part of a trap to protect the trap against
masonry wall behind the siphonage. { 'bak ,vent)
exterior facing, (civ ENG)
Overflow in a drain or piping
aerodynamic fan (MECH ENG)
system, due to stoppage.
A fan that consists of several
(ENG) 1. An item under
streamlined blades mounted
development intended to
in a revolving casing. { 'bak-
perform the same general
word ,blad-3d ^r-o-dT'nam-ik
functions that another item
,fan )
also under development
performs. 2. A compressible backward pass (IND ENG)
material used behind a sealant The calculation of late finish
to reduce its depth and to times (dates) for all
support the sealant against uncompleted network
sag or indentation. { 'bak,3p ) activities for a specific project
by subtracting durations of
backup strip (BUILD ) A wood
uncompleted activities from
strip which is fixed at the
the scheduled finish time of
corner of a partition or wall to
the final activity. { 'bak-wsrd
provide a nailing surface for
'pas )
ends of lath. Also known as
lathing board. { 'bak,3p ,strip ) backwash (CHEM ENG) 1. In
an ion-exchange resin
backup system (SYS ENG) A
system, an upward flow of
system, normally redundant
water through a resin bed that
but kept available to replace a
cleans and reclassifies the
system which may fail in
resin particles after
operation. { 'bak,3p ,sis-t3m )
exhaustion. 2. See
backup tong (ENG) A heavy blowback. { 'bak,wash )
device used on a drill pipe to
backwater valve (ENG) A
loosen the tool joints. {
type of check valve in a
drainage pipe; reversal of flow bag (ENG) 1. A flexible cover
causes the valve to close, used in bag molding. 2. A
thereby cutting off flow. Also container made of paper,
known as backflow valve. { plastic, or cloth without rigid
'bak,w6d-3r ,valv ) walls to transport or store
material. { bag )
badger ( DES ENG ) See
badger plane, ( ENG ) A tool bag filter (ENG) Filtering
used inside a pipe or culvert apparatus with porous cloth or
to remove any excess mortar felt bags through which dust-
or deposits. { 'baj-sr) laden gases are sent, leaving
the dust on the inner surfaces
badger plane (DES ENG) A
of the bags. { 'bag ,fil*t3r)
hand plane whose mouth is
cut obliquely from side to side, bag house ( ENG ) The large
so that the plane can work chamber or room for holding
close up to a corner. Also bag filters used to filter gas
known as badger. { 'baj-sr streams from a furnace. {
,plan ) 'bag,haus )
baffle ( ELEC ) Device for bag molding (ENG) A method
deflecting oil or gas in a circuit of molding plastic or plywood-
breaker, (ELECTR) An auxiliary plastic combinations into
member in a gas tube used, curved shapes, in which fluid
for example, to control the pressure acting through a
flow of mercury particles or flexible cover, or bag, presses
deionize the mercury following the material to be molded
conduction, (ENG) A plate that against a rigid die. { 'bag
regulates the flow of a fluid, ,m6ld-ir) )
as in a steam-boiler flue or a
Bagnold number (ENG) A
gasoline muffler. ( ENG
dimensionless number used
ACOUS) A cabinet or partition
in saltation studies. { 'bag-
used with a loudspeaker to re-
nsld ,n3m-b3r)
duce interaction between
sound waves produced bag plug ( ENG ) An inflatable
simultaneously by the two drain stopper, located at the
surfaces of the diaphragm. { lowest point of a piping
'baf-sl ) system, that acts to seal a
pipe when inflated. { 'bag which operates a counter to
record the total weight of
granular material flowing
bag trap (ENG) An S-shaped through vertical or near-
trap in which the vertical inlet vertical ducts, spouts, or
and outlet pipes are in pipes. { 'bal-e ,med-3r)
alignment. { 'bag .trap)
bailing (ENG] Removal of the
baguette See bead molding. { cuttings from a well during
ba'get) cable-tool drilling, or of the
liquid from a well, by means of
bail [ENG] A loop of heavy a bailer. { 'bal-irj )
wire snap-fitted around two or
more parts of a connector or bailing bucket See bailer. {
other device to hold the parts 'bal-ig ,bak*3t)
together. { bal)
bailing drum (ENG] A reel for
bailer [ENG] A long, winding bailing line. { 'bal-irj
cylindrical vessel fitted with a ,dram )
bail at the upper end and a
bailing line ( ENG ] A cable
flap or tongue valve at the
attached to the bailer of a
lower extremity; used to
derrick; it is passed over a
remove water, sand, and
sheave at the top of the
mud- or cuttings-laden fluids
derrick and spooled on a
from a borehole. Also known
reel. { 'bal-ig ,lTn )
as bailing bucket. { 'bal-or)
baked finish (ENG] A paint or
Bailey bridge | civ ENG ] A
varnish finish obtained by
lattice bridge built of
baking, usually at
interchangeable panels
temperatures above 150F
connected at the corners with
(65C), thereby developing a
steel pins, permitting rapid
tough, durable film. { 'bakt 'fin-
construction; developed in
ish )
Britain about 1942 as a
military bridge. { 'bal-e ,brij) bakeout (ENG] The degassing
of surfaces of a vacuum
Bailey meter (ENG] A
system by heating during the
flowmeter consisting of a
pumping process. { 'bak,aut )
helical quarter-turn vane
baker bell dolphin (civ ENG] long beam, attached to a gate
A dolphin consisting of a (or drawbridge, and such) so
heavy bell-shaped cap as to counterbalance the
pivoted on a group of piles; a weight of the gate during
blow from a ship will tilt the opening or closing. Also
bell, thus absorbing energy. { known as balance bar. { 'bal-
'bak-sr [bel ,dal*fen ) sns ,bem )
baking (ENG] The use of balanced armature unit (ENG
heat on fresh paint films to ACOUS] Driving unit used in
speed the evaporation of magnetic loudspeakers,
thinners and to promote the consisting of an iron armature
reaction of binder pivoted between the poles of
components so as to form a a permanent magnet and
hard polymeric film. Also surrounded by coils carrying
known as stoving. { 'bak-irj ) the audio-frequency current;
variations in audio-frequency
balance (ELEC] The state of
current cause corresponding
an electrical network when it
changes in armature
is adjusted so that voltage in
magnetism and corres-
one branch induces or causes
ponding movements of the
no current in another branch,
armature with respect to the
(ENG] An instrument for
poles of the permanent
measuring mass or weight. {
magnet. { 'bal-snst 'arm-s-
'bal-sns )
chsr ,yu-n3t )
balance arm (BUILD] On a
balanced construction
projected window, a side
(BUILD] A plywood or
supporting arm which is
sandwich-panel construction
constructed so that the center
which has an odd number of
of gravity of the sash is not
plies laminated together so
changed appreciably when the
that the construction is
window is opened. { 'bal-sns
identical on both sides of a
,arm )
plane through the center of
balance bar See balance the panel. { 'bal-snst
beam. { 'bal-sns ,bar) ksn'strek-shsn )
balance beam (civ ENG] A balanced design (ENG]
Awinding pattern used in time cycles of the operators
fabricating filament-wound are made approximately equal
reinforced plastics that so that the work flows at a
renders the stresses in all the desired steady rate from one
filaments equal. { 'bal-snst operator to the next. { 'bal-
di'zTn ) snst ,1m )
balanced door (BUILD] A door balanced method (ENG]
equipped with double-pivoted Method of measurement in
hardware which is partially which the reading is taken at
counterbalanced to provide zero; it may be a visual or
easier operation. { 'bal-snst audible reading, and in the
'dor) latter case the null is the no-
sound setting. { 'bal-snst
balanced draft (ENG] The
maintenance of a constant
draft in a furnace by balanced reinforcement (civ
monitoring both the incoming ENG] An amount and
air and products of distribution of steel
combustion. { 'bal-snst 'draft ) reinforcement in a flex-ural
reinforced concrete member
balanced earthwork (civ
such that the allowable tensile
ENG] Cut-and-fill work in
stress in the steel and the al-
which the amount of fill
lowable compressive stress in
equals the amount of
the concrete are attained
material excavated. { 'bal-
simultaneously. { 'bal-snst ,re-
snst ' srth,work)
3n 'for-smsnt)
balanced line (ELEC] A
balanced sash (BUILD] In a
transmission line consisting of
double-hung window, a sash
two conductors capable of
which opens by being raised
being operated so that the
or lowered and which is
voltages of the two
balanced with counterweights
conductors at any transverse
or pretensioned springs so
plane are equal in magnitude
that little force is required to
and opposite in polarity with
move the sash. { 'bal-snst
respect to ground. (IND ENG] A
,sash )
production line for which the
balanced step (BUILD] One of mechanism. 2. See flywheel. {
a series of winders arranged 'bal-sns ,wel)
so that the width of each
balancing a survey [ENG]
winder tread (at the narrow
Distributing corrections
end) is almost equal to the
through any traverse to
tread width in the straight
eliminate the error of closure
portion of the adjacent stair
and to obtain an adj usted
flight. Also known as dancing
position for each traverse
step; dancing winder. { 'bal-
station. Also known as
snst ,step )
traverse adjustment. { 'bal-
balanced valve (ENG] A valve ons-irj 3 's3r,va )
having equal fluid pressure in
balancing delay |IND ENG] In
both the opening and closing
motion study, idleness of one
directions. { 'bal-snst ,valv )
hand while the other is active
balance method See null to catch up. { 'bal-ons-ig di,la )
method. { 'bal-sns ,meth-3d )
balancing plug cock See
balance pipe [ENG] A pipe in balancing valve. { 'bal-sns-ir)
a compressed-air piping 'plsg ,kak)
system that is used to
balancing valve |ENG] A
displace trapped air so that
valve used in a pipe for
the condensate can flow
controlling fluid flow; not
freely into the trap. { 'bal-sns
usually used to shut off the
,pTpe )
flow. Also known as balancing
balance tool |MECH ENG] A plug cock. { 'bal-ons-ig ,valv )
tool designed for taking the
balconet [BUILD] A
first cuts when the external
pseudobalcony; a low orna-
surface of a piece in a lathe is
mental railing at a window,
being machined; it is sup-
projecting only slightly
ported in the tool holder at an
beyond the threshold or sill. {
unvarying angle. { 'bal-sns
balcony [BUILD] A deck which
balance wheel |MECH ENG] 1.
projects from a building wall
A wheel which governs or
above ground level. { 'bal-ks-
stabilizes the movement of a
ne ) [civ ENG] A low ridge of earth
that marks a boundary line. {
balcony outlet [BUILD] In a
vertical rainwater pipe that
passes through an exterior balking [IND ENG] The refusal
balcony, a fitting which of a customer to enter a
provides an inlet for the queue for some reason, such
drainage of rainwater from as insufficient waiting room. {
the balcony. { 'bal-ks-ne 'bok-irj )
ball [MECH ENG] In fine
bale [IND ENG] 1. A large grinding, one of the crushing
package of material, pressed bodies used in a ball mill. {
tightly together, tied with rope, bol)
wire, or hoops and usually
covered with wrapping. 2.
pulverizer [MECH ENG] A
The amount of material in a
grinding machine in which
bale; sometimes used as a
balls rotate under an applied
unit of measure, as 500
force between two races to
pounds (227 kilograms) of
crush materials, such as coal,
cotton in the United States,
to fine consistency. Also
known as ball-bearing
baler [MECH ENG] A machine pulverizer. {[bol on [ras ,tTp
which takes large quantities of 'psl-v^rTz-sr)
raw or finished materials and
ball-and-ring method See
binds them with rope or metal
ring-and-ball test. { [bol on 'rig
straps or wires into a large
,meth-3d )
package. { 'bal-or)
ball-and-socket joint [MECH
baling [civ ENG] A technique
ENG] A joint in which a
used to convert loose refuse
member ending in a ball is
into heavy blocks by
joined to a member ending in
compaction; the blocks are
a socket so that relative
then burned and are buried in
movement is permitted within
sanitary landfill. { 'bal-ig )
a certain angle in all planes
balk [BUILD] A squared timber passing through a line. Also
used in building construction, known as ball joint. { [bol on
'sak-st joint ) ball bonding [ENG] The
making of electrical
ball-and-trunnion joint [MECH
connections in which a flame
ENG] A joint in which a
is used to cut a wire, the
universal joint and a slip joint
molten end of which solidifies
are combined in a single
as a ball, which is pressed
assembly. { [bol on 'tren-yon
against the bonding pad on an
integrated circuit. { 'bol ,band-
ballast [civ ENG] Crushed ir))
stone used in a railroad bed
ball breaker [ENG] 1. A steel
to support the ties, hold the
or iron ball that is hoisted by
track in line, and help
a derrick and allowed to fall
drainage, [ELEC] A circuit ele-
on blocks of waste stone to
ment that serves to limit an
break them or to swing
electric current or to provide a
against old buildings to
starting voltage, as in certain
demolish them. Also known
types of lamps, such as in
as skull cracker; wrecking ball.
fluorescent ceiling fixtures. {
2. A coring and sampling
device consisting of a hollow
ball bearing [MECH ENG] An glass ball, 3 to 5 inches (7.5 to
antifriction bearing permitting 12.5 centimeters) in diameter,
free motion between moving held in a frame attached to the
and fixed parts by means of trigger line above the
balls confined between outer triggering weight of the corer;
and inner rings. { ,bol 'ber-irj ) used to indicate contact
between corer and bottom. {
ball-bearing hinge [MECH 'bol [brak-sr)
ENG] A hinge which is
equipped with ball bearings ball bushing [ MECH ENG ] A
between the hinge knuckles in type of ball bearing that allows
order to reduce friction. { ,bol motion of the shaft in its axial
'ber-ig ,hinj ) direction. { 'bol ,bush-ir) )
ball-bearing pulverizer See ball catch [DES ENG] A door
ball-and-race-type pulverizer. { fastener having a contained
,bol 'ber-ig 'psl-v^rTz-sr) metal ball which is under
pressure from a spring; the
ball engages a striking plate type of saccharom-eter used
and keeps the door from to determine the density of
opening until force is applied. sugar solutions. { 'bol-irj
{ 'bol ,kach ) hl'dram-sd-sr)
ball check valve [ENG] A ballistic body [ENG] A body
valve having a ball held by a free to move, behave, and be
spring against a seat; used to modified in appearance,
permit flow in one direction contour, or texture by ambient
only. { 'bol 'chek ,valv ) conditions, substances, or
forces, such as by the
ball float [MECH ENG] A
pressure of gases in a gun, by
floating device, usually
rifling in a barrel, by gravity, by
approximately spherical,
temperature, or by air
which is used to operate a ball
particles. { bs'lis-tik ,bad-e )
valve. { 'bol ,flot )
ballistic coefficient [ MECH ]
ball-float liquid-level meter [
The numerical measure of the
ENG ] A float which rises and
ability of a missile to
falls with liquid level,
overcome air resistance;
actuating a pointer adjacent
dependent upon the mass,
to a calibrated scale in order
diameter, and form factor. {
to measure the level of a liquid
bs'lis-tik ^o-s'fish-snt)
in a tank or other container. {
'bol ,flot ]lik-wsd [lev-sl ,med- ballistic conditions [MECH]
3r) Conditions which affect the
motion of a projectile in the
ball grinder See ball mill. {
bore and through the
'bol ,grind-3r)
atmosphere, including muzzle
ballhead |MECH ENG] That velocity, weight of projectile,
part of the governor which size and shape of projectile,
contains flyweights whose rotation of the earth, density of
force is balanced, at least in the air, temperature or
part, by the force of compres- elasticity of the air, and the
sion of a speeder spring. { wind. { bs'lis-tik ksn'dish-sns )
'b6l,hed )
ballistic curve [MECH] The
Balling hydrometer [ENG] A curve described by the path
of a bullet, a bomb, or other Any instrument, such as a
projectile as determined by ballistic galvanometer or a
the ballistic conditions, by the ballistic pendulum, that
propulsive force, and by measures an impact or
gravity. {bs'lis-tik 'ksrv ) sudden pulse of energy. {
bs'lis-tik 'in-stre-msnt)
ballistic deflection [MECH]
The deflection of a missile ballistic limit [MECH] The
due to its ballistic minimum velocity at which a
characteristics. { bs'lis-tik particular armor-piercing
di'flek-shsn ) projectile is expected to
consistently and completely
ballistic density [MECH] A
penetrate armor plate of given
representation of the
thickness and physical
atmospheric density
properties at a specified
encountered by a projectile in
angle of obliquity. { bs'lis-tik
flight, expressed as a
percentage of the density
according to the standard ballistic magnetometer [ENG]
artillery atmosphere. { bs'lis- A magnetometer designed to
tik 'den-ssd-e ) employ the transient voltage
induced in a coil when either
ballistic efficiency [MECH] 1.
the magnetized sample or coil
The ability of a projectile to
are moved relative to each
overcome the resistance of
other. { bs'lis-tik ^ag-ns'tam-
the air; depends chiefly on the
weight, diameter, and shape
of the projectile. 2. The ballistic measurement
external efficiency of a rocket [MECH] Any measurement in
or other jet engine of a missile. which an impulse is applied to
{ bs'lis-tik i'fish-sn-se ) a device such as the bob of a
ballistic pendulum, or the
ballistic entry [MECH]
moving part of a ballistic
Movement of a ballistic body
galvanometer, and the
from without to within a
subsequent motion of the
planetary atmosphere. {bs'lis-
device is used to determine
tik 'en-tre)
the magnitude of the impulse,
ballistic instrument [ ENG ] and, from this magnitude, the
quantity to be measured. { forces its way into targets of
bs'lis-tik 'mezh-sr-msnt) solid or semisolid substances,
such as earth, concrete, or
ballistic pendulum [ENG] A
steel. {bs'lis-tiks sv pen-s'tra-
device which uses the
shsn )
deflection of a suspended
weight to determine the ballistic table [MECH]
momentum of a projectile. { Compilation of ballistic data
bs'lis-tik 'pen-js-lsm) from which trajectory
elements such as angle of fall,
ballistics [MECH] Branch of
range to summit, time of flight,
applied mechanics which
and ordinate at any time, can
deals with the motion and
be obtained. { bs'lis-tik 'ta-bsl
behavior characteristics of
missiles, that is, projectiles,
bombs, rockets, guided ballistic temperature [MECH ]
missiles, and so forth, and of That temperature (in F)
accompanying phenomena. which, when regarded as a
{bs'lis-tiks } surface temperature and used
in conjunction with the lapse
ballistic separator [civ ENG ]
rate of the standard artillery
A device that takes out
atmosphere, would produce
noncompostable material like
the same effect on a projectile
stones, glass, metal, and
as the actual temperature
rubber, from solid waste by
distribution encountered by
passing the waste over a rotor
the projectile in flight. { bs'lis-
that has impellers to fling the
tik 'tern-pro-chsr)
material in the air; the lighter
organic (com-postable) ballistic trajectory [MECH]
material travels a shorter The trajectory followed by a
distance than the heavier body being acted upon only by
(noncompostable) material. { gravitational forces and
bs'lis-tik 'sep-3,rad-3r) resistance of the medium
through which it passes. {
ballistics of penetration
bs'lis-tik tre'jek-ts-re)
[MECH] That part of terminal
ballistics which treats of the ballistic uniformity [MECH]
motion of a projectile as it The capability of a propellant,
when fired under identical balloting |MECH] A tossing or
conditions from round to bounding movement of a
round, to impart uniform projectile, within the limits of
muzzle velocity and produce the bore diameter, while
similar interior ballistic results. moving through the bore
{ bs'lis-tik ju-ns'fdr-msd-e ) under the influence of the
propellant gases. { 'bal-sd-ir))
ballistic vehicle [ENG] A
nonlifting vehicle; a vehicle ball-peen hammer |ENG] A
that follows a ballistic hammer with a ball at one
trajectory. { bs'lis-tik 've-s-ksl) end of the head; used in
riveting and forming metal. {
ballistic wave [MECH] An
'bol,pen 'ham-sr)
audible disturbance caused
by compression of air ahead ball pendulum test |ENG] A
of a missile in flight. { bs'lis-tik test for measuring the
,wav ) strength of explosives;
consists of measuring the
ballistic wind [ MECH ] That
swing of a pendulum
constant wind which would
produced by the explosion of
produce the same effect upon
a weighed charge of material.
the trajectory of a projectile as
{ 'bol 'pen-js-lsm ,test)
the actual wind encountered
in flight. { bs'lis-tik 'wind ) ball race |DES ENG] A track,
channel, or groove in which
ball mill |MECH ENG] A
ball bearings turn. { 'bol ,ras )
pulverizer that consists of a
horizontal rotating cylinder, up ball screw |MECH ENG] An
to three diameters in length, element used to convert
containing a charge of tum- rotation to longitudinal motion,
bling or cascading steel balls, consisting of a threaded rod
pebbles, or rods. Also known linked to a threaded nut by
as ball grinder. { 'bdl ,mil) ball bearings constrained to
roll in the space formed by the
balloon framing |civ ENG]
threads, in order to reduce
Framing for a building in
friction. { 'bol ,skru )
which each stud is one piece
from roof to foundation. { ball test |civ ENG] In a drain, a
bs'lun ,fram*ir) ) test for freedom from
obstruction and for circularity slightly from a wall plane and
in which a ball (less than the usually marking a division in
diameter of the drain by a the wall. Also known as band
specified amount) is rolled course; band molding. |DES
through the drain. { 'bol ,test) ENG] A strip or cord crossing
the back of a book to which
ball-up |ENG] 1. During a
the sections are sewn. { band
drilling operation, collection by
a portion of the drilling
equipment of a mass of bandage |BUILD] A strap,
viscous consolidated band, ring, or chain placed
material. 2. Failure of an around a structure to secure
anchor to hold on a soft and hold its parts together, as
bottom, by pulling out with a around the springing of a
large ball of mud attached. { dome. |ELEC] Rubber ribbon
'bol ,3p ) about 4 inches (10
centimeters) wide for
ball valve |MECH ENG] A valve
temporarily protecting a
in which the fluid flow is
telephone or coaxial splice
regulated by a ball moving
from moisture. { 'ban-dij )
relative to a spherical socket
as a result of fluid pressure band brake |MECH ENG] A
and the weight of the ball. { brake in which the frictional
'bol ,valv ) force is applied by increasing
the tension in a flexible band
baluster |BUILD] A post which
to tighten it around the drum. {
supports a handrail and
'band ,brak )
encloses the open sections of
a stairway. { 'bal-s-stsr) band chain | ENG ] A steel or
Invar tape, graduated in feet
balustrade |BUILD] The railing
and at least 100 feet (30.5
assembly of a stairway
meters) long, used for
consisting of the handrail,
accurate surveying. { 'band
balusters, and usually a
,chan )
bottom rail. { 'bal-3,strad )
band clamp |DES ENG] A
band |BUILD] Any horizontal
two-piece metal clamp,
flat member or molding or
secured by bolts at both ends;
group of moldings projecting
used to hold riser pipes. { more or less uniformly in a
'band ,klamp ) certain band, outside of which
the frequency components
band clutch |MECH ENG] A
are attenuated. { 'band ,pas
friction clutch in which a steel
band, lined with fabric,
contracts onto the clutch rim. { band-pass response
'band ,kl3ch ) |ELECTR] Response char-
acteristics in which a definite
band course See band. {
band of frequencies is
'band ,kors )
transmitted uniformly. Also
banding |DES ENG] A strip of known as flat top response. {
fabric which is used for 'band ,pas ri'spans )
bands, hydln a glacier, a
band-pass system | ENG
structure of alternate ice
ACOUS ] A loudspeaker
layers of different textures and
system, often used for
appearance. { 'band-irj )
subwoofers, in which the
band molding See band. { speaker is mounted inside an
'band ,mold-ir) ) enclosure on a shelf that
divides the enclosure into two
band-pass |ELECTR] A range, parts, and one or both parts
in hertz or kilo-hertz, are coupled to the outside by
expressing the difference a vent; the frequency
between the limiting response of the system is that
frequencies at which a of a fourth-order band-pass
desired fraction (usually half filter (one vent) or an
power) of the maximum output asymmetrical sixth-order
is obtained. { 'band ,pas ) band-pass filter (two vents). {
band-pass amplifier |ELECTR] 'band,pas ,sis-t3m )
An amplifier designed to pass band-rejection filter See
a definite band of frequencies band-stop filter. { 'band ri'jek-
with essentially uniform shsn ,fil*t3r}
response. { 'band ,pas [am-
pl^fT-sr) band saw |MECH ENG] A
power-operated woodworking
band-pass filter |ELECTR] An saw consisting basically of a
electric filter which transmits
flexible band of steel having {[bag [bag 'ro,bat )
teeth on one edge, running
bang-zero-bang control
over two vertical pulleys, and
|CONT SYS] A type of control in
operated under tension. {
which the control values are
'band ,so )
at their maximum, zero, or
band selector |ELECTR] A minimum. Also known as
switch that selects any of the bang-bang-off control. { [bag
bands in which a receiver, ,zir-o 'bag ksn.trol)
signal generator, or
banister |BUILD ] A handrail
transmitter is designed to
for a staircase. { 'ban-s-stsr)
operate and usually has two
or more sections to make the bank |civ ENG ] See
required changes in all tuning embankment. | ELEC ] 1. A
circuits simultaneously. Also number of similar electrical
known as band switch. { 'band devices, such as resistors,
ss'lek-tsr) connected together for use as
a single device. 2. An
band wheel |MECH ENG] In a
assemblage of fixed contacts
drilling operation, a large
over which one or more
wheel that transmits power
wipers or brushes move in
from the engine to the walking
order to establish electrical
beam. { 'band ,wel)
connections in automatic
bang-bang control |CONT switching. |ENG] A pipework
SYS] A type of automatic installation in which the pipes
control system in which the are set parallel to each other
applied control signals in proximity. |IND ENG] The
assume either their maximum amount of material allowed to
or minimum values. {[bag accumulate at a point on a
[bag ksn'trol) production line where it is not
employed or worked upon, to
bang-bang-off control See
permit reasonable fluctuations
bang-zero-bang control. { [bag
in line speed before and after
[bag 'of ksn.trol )
the point. Also known as float.
bang-bang robot |CONT SYS] { bagk )
A simple robot that can make
banker |ENG] The bench or
only two types of motions.
table upon which bricklayers dig )
and stonemasons prepare
bar chair See bar support. {
and shape their material. {
'bar ,cher)
bar clamp |DES ENG] A
bank material |civ ENG] Soil
clamping device consisting of
or rock in place before
a long bar with adjustable
excavation or blasting. { 'bagk
clamping jaws; used in
ma'tir* e-sl)
carpentry. { 'bar ,klamp )
bank measure |civ ENG] The
bare board |ELECTR] A
volume of a given portion of
printed circuit board with
soil or rock as measured in its
conductors but no electronic
original position before
components. {[ber 'bord)
excavation. { 'bagk ,mezh-3r)
bareboat charter |IND ENG]
bar |MECH] A unit of pressure
An agreement to charter a
equal to 105 pascals, or 105
ship without its crew or stores;
newtons per square meter, or
the fee for its use for a
106 dynes per square
predetermined period of time
centimeter. { bar)
is based on the price per ton
Barany chair [ENG] A chair in of cargo handled. { 'ber,bot
which a person is revolved to ,chard-3r)
test his susceptibility to
barefaced tenon | ENG ] A
vertigo. { bs'ran-e ,cher)
tenon having a shoulder cut
barb bolt | DES ENG ] A bolt on one side only. { 'ber,fast
having jagged edges to [ten-sn )
prevent its being withdrawn
bare tube [ENG] In a heat
from the object into which it is
exchanger, a tube whose
driven. Also known as rag
inner and outer surfaces are
bolt. { 'barb ,bolt)
both smooth. {[ber 'tub )
bar bending |civ ENG] In
bargeboard See vergeboard.
reinforced concrete
{ 'barj,bord )
construction, the process of
bending reinforcing bars to barge couple (BUILD] 1. One
various shapes. { 'bar ,ben- of two rafters that support that
part of a gable roof which liquid hydrocarbons by
projects beyond the gable extraction of the wax with a
wall. 2. One of the rafters mixed ethylene dichloride-
(under the barge course) benzene solvent, followed by
which serve as grounds for separation from the
the vergeboards and carry the hydrocarbon in a centrifuge.
plastering or boarding of the {[bar-e [sal ,pras-3s )
soffits. Also known as barge
bar joist [BUILD] A small steel
rafter. { barj ,k3p-3l)
truss with wire or rod web
barge course [BUILD] 1. The lacing used for roof and floor
coping of a wall, formed by a supports. { 'bar joist )
course of bricks set on edge.
barker [DES ENG] See bark
2. In a tiled roof, the part of
spud, [ENG] A machine, used
the tiling which projects
mainly in pulp mills, which re-
beyond the principal rafters
moves the bark from logs. {
where there is a gable. { 'barj
,kdrs )
barkometer [CHEM ENG] A
barge rafter See barge
hydrometer calibrated to test
couple. { 'barj ,raf*tar)
the strength of tanning liquors
barge spike See boat spike. { used in tanning leather. {
'barj ,spTk) bar'kam-sd-sr)
barge stone [BUILD] One of bark spud [DES ENG] A tool
the stones, generally which peels off bark. Also
projecting, which form the known as barker. { 'bark ,spod
sloping top of a gable built of )
masonry. { 'barj ,ston )
bar linkage [MECH ENG] A set
bar hole [ENG] A small- of bars joined together at
diameter hole made in the pivots by means of pins or
ground along the route of a equivalent devices; used to
gas pipe in a bar test survey. transmit power and
{ 'bar ,hol) information. { 'bar ,lig-kij )
Bari-Sol process [CHEM Barlow's equation [MECH] A
ENG ] Removal of waxes from formula, t = DP/2S, used in
computing the strength of bs'ram-sd-sr)
cylinders subject to internal
barometric [ENG] Pertaining
pressures, where t is the
to a barometer or to the
thickness of the cylinder in
results obtained by using a
inches, D the outside diameter
barometer. { bar-s'me-trik)
in inches, Pthe pressure in
pounds per square inch, and barometric altimeter See
S the allowable tensile pressure altimeter. { bar-
strength in pounds per s'met-rik al'tim-sd-sr)
square inch. { 'bar,loz i'kwa-
zhsn ) barometric condenser [MECH
ENG] A contact condenser that
barnacle [ENG] A nodelike uses a long, vertical pipe into
deposit that occurs on the which the condensate and
surface of a heat exchanger cooling liquid flow to
tube or an evaporating device accomplish their removal by
and has a semigranular outer the pressure created at the
shell bonded to the fouled lower end of the pipe. { bar-
surface, enclosing a slurry of s'met-rik ksn'den-ssr)
putrefying organisms. { 'bar-
ns-ksl) barometric draft regulator
[MECH ENG] A damper usually
barodynamics [MECH] The installed in the breeching be-
mechanics of heavy structures tween a boiler and chimney;
which may collapse under permits air to enter the
their own weight. { ^ar-s- breeching automatically as
dT'nam-iks ) required, to maintain a
constant overfire draft in the
barogram [ENG] The record of
combustion chamber. {bar-
an aneroid barograph. { 'bar-
s'met-rik 'draft reg-ys 'lad-sr)
3,gram )
barometric elevation [ENG]
barograph See aneroid
An elevation above mean sea
barograph. { 'bar-3,graf)
level estimated from the
barometer [ENG] An absolute difference in atmospheric
pressure gage specifically pressure between the point in
designed to measure question and an elevation of
atmospheric pressure. { known value. { bar-s'met-rik
el-s'va-shsn ) length used in graduating a
mercury barometer in the
barometric fuse [ENG] A fuse
that functions as a result of
system. { 'bar-3,mil)
change in the pressure
exerted by the surrounding air. baroscope [ENG] An
{ bar-s'met-rik 'fyuz ) apparatus which demon-
strates the equality of the
barometric hypsometry
weight of air displaced by an
[ENG] The determination of
object and its loss of weight
elevations by means of either
in air. { 'bar-3,sk6p)
mercurial or aneroid
barometers. { bar-s'met- barostat [ENG] A mechanism
rikhip'sam-s-tre) which maintains constant
pressure inside a chamber. {
barometric leveling [ENG]
'bar-3,stat )
The measurement of
approximate elevation baroswitch [ENG] 1. A
differences in surveying with pressure-operated switching
the aid of a barometer; used device used in a radiosonde
especially for large areas. { which determines whether
bar-s'met-rik 'lev-sl-ir) ) temperature, humidity, or ref-
erence signals will be
barometric switch See
transmitted. 2. Any switch
baroswitch. { bar-s'met-rik
operated by a change in
'swich )
barometric pressure. Also
barometrograph See aneroid known as barometric
barograph. { bar-3'me-tre,graf) switch. { 'bar-s.swich )
barometry [ENG] The study barothermogram [ENG] The
of the measurement of record made by a
atmospheric pressure, with barothermograph. {[bar-o'thsr-
particular reference to m^gram )
ascertaining and correcting
barothermograph [ENG] An
the errors of the different
instrument which
types of barometer. { bs'ram-
automatically records
s-tre )
pressure and temperature. {
baromil [ MECH ] The unit of [bar-o'thsr-m^graf)
barothermohygrogram [ENG] ENG] A gate with a diagonal
The record made by a brace to reinforce the
barothermohygrograph. { |bar- horizontal timbers. { [bard on
o|th3r-mo'hT-grs, gram ) [brast 'gat)
barothermohygrograph [ barred gate [civ ENG] A gate
ENG ] An instrument that with one or more horizontal
produces graphs of timber rails. { [bard 'gat)
atmospheric pressure,
barrel [DES ENG] 1. A
temperature, and humidity on
container having a circular
a single sheet of paper. {[bar-
lateral cross section that is
largest in the middle, and
barotropic phenomenon ends that are flat; often made
[THERMO] The sinking of a of staves held together by
vapor beneath the surface of a hoops. 2. A piece of small
liquid when the vapor phase pipe inserted in the end of a
has the greater density. { ,bar- cartridge to carry the squib to
s'trap-ik fs'nam-^nan ) the powder. 3. That portion of
a pipe having a constant bore
bar post [civ ENG] One of the
and wall thickness. [MECH]
posts driven into the ground
Abbreviated bbl. 1. The unit of
to form the sides of a field
liquid volume equal to 31.5
gate. { 'bar ,post)
gallons (approximately 119
barrage [civ ENG] An artificial liters). 2. The unit of liquid
dam which increases the volume for petroleum equal to
depth of water of a river or 42 gallons (approximately 158
watercourse, or diverts it into a liters). 3. The unit of dry
channel for navigation or volume equal to 105 quarts
irrigation. { bs'razh ) (approximately 116 liters). 4. A
unit of weight that varies in
barrage-type spillway [civ size according to the com-
ENG] A passage for surplus
modity being weighed. { 'bar-
water with sluice gates across sl)
the width of the entrance. {
bs'razh ,tTp 'spil,wa ) barrel bolt [DES ENG] A door
bolt which moves in a
barred-and-braced gate [civ cylindrical casing; not driven
by a key. Also known as tower processing in a petroleum
bolt. { 'bar-sl ,bolt) refinery, with allowances for
downtime over a period of
barrel compressor [MECH
time. Abbreviated BCD. { 'bar-
ENG] A centrifugal compressor
slz psr [kal-sn-dsr ,da )
having a barrel-shaped
housing. { 'bar-sl k3m,pres-3r) barrels per day |CHEM ENG] A
unit measuring the rate at
barrel drain [civ ENG] Any
which petroleum is produced
drain which is cylindrical. {
at the refinery. Abbreviated
'bar-sl ,dran )
BD; bpd. { 'bar-slz psr 'da )
barrel-etch reactor [ENG] A
barrels per month |CHEM
type of plasma reactor in
ENG] A unit measuring the
which the specimens to be
rate at which petroleum is
etched are placed in a quartz
produced at the refinery.
support stand and a plasma
Abbreviated BM; bpm. { 'bar-
is generated that diffuses
slz psr 'month )
and contacts them. { [bar-sl
[ech re'ak-tsr) barrels per stream day
|CHEMENG] A measurement
barrel fitting [DES ENG] A
used to denote rate of oil or
short length of threaded
oil-product flow while a fluid-
connecting pipe. { 'bar-sl ,fid-
processing unit is in continu-
ous operation. Abbreviated
barrelhead [DES ENG] The BSD. { 'bar-slz psr [strem ,da
flat end of a barrel. { 'bar- )
barren liquor |CHEM ENG]
barrel roof [BUILD] 1. A roof of Liquid (liquor) from filter-cake
semi cylindrical section; washing in which there is little
capable of spanning long or no recovery value; for
distances parallel to the axis example, barren cyanide
of the cylinder. 2. See barrel liquor from washing of gold
vault. { 'bar-sl ,riif) cake slimes. { 'baron [lik-sr)
barrels per calendar day barricade | ENG ] Structure
|CHEM ENG] A unit measuring composed essentially of
the average rate of oil concrete, earth, metal, or
wood, or any combination metal or nonporous
thereof, and so constructed polymeric). { 'bar-e-sr sep-
as to reduce or confine the s'ra-shsn )
blast effect and fragmentation
barrier shield (ENG] A wall or
of an explosion. { 'bar-3,kad )
enclosure made of a material
barricade shield [ENG] A designed to absorb ionizing
type of movable shield made radiation, shielding the
of a material designed to operator from an area where
absorb ionizing radiation, for radioactive material is being
protection from radiation. { used or processed by
'bar-3,kad ,sheld ) remote-control equipment. {
'bar-e-sr ,sheld)
barrier capacitance |ELECTR]
The capacitance that exists barrow See handbarrow;
between the p-type and n- wheelbarrow. { 'ba-ro )
type semiconductor materials
barrow run (civ ENG] A
in a semiconductor pn junction
temporary pathway of wood
that is reverse-biased so that
planks or sheets to provide a
it does not conduct. Also
smooth access for wheeled
known as depletion-layer
materials-handling carriers on
capacitance; junction
a building site. { 'ba-ro ,ren )
capacitance. { 'bar-e-sr
k3,pas-sd-sns ) bar sash lift (BUILD] A type of
handle, attached to the bottom
barrier curb |civ ENG ] A curb
rail of a sash, for raising or
with vertical sides high
lowering it. { 'bar 'sash ,lift )
enough to keep vehicles from
crossing it. { 'bar-e-sr ,ksrb ) bar screen (MECH ENG] A
sieve with parallel steel bars
barrier layer See depletion
for separating small from large
layer. { 'bar-e-sr ,1a-or}
pieces of crushed rock. { 'bar
barrier separation |CHEM ,skren )
ENG] The separation of a two-
bar strainer (DES ENG] A
component gaseous mixture
screening device consisting of
by selective diffusion of one
a bar or a number or parallel
component through a sepa-
bars; used to prevent objects
rative barrier (microporous
from entering a drain. { 'bar bar-type grating (civ ENG] An
,stran-3r) open grid assembly of metal
bars in which the bearing bars
bar support (civ ENG] A
(running in one direction) are
device used to support or hold
spaced by rigid attachment to
steel reinforcing bars in proper
crossbars. { 'bar ,tTp 'grad-irj )
position before or during the
placement of concrete. Also barycentric energy ( MECH ]
known as bar chair. { 'bar The energy of a system in its
ss'port) center-of-mass frame. { ,bar-
3'sen-trik 'en-sr-je)
bar test survey (ENG] A
leakage survey in which bar barye (MECH] The pressure
holes are driven or bored at unit of the centimeter-gram-
regular intervals along the second system of physical
way of an underground gas units; equal to 1 dyne per
pipe and the atmosphere in square centimeter (0.001
the holes is tested with a millibar). Also known as
combustible gas detector or microbar. { 'ba-re )
such. { 'bar ,test 's3r,va )
basal tunnel (ENG] A water
Barth plan (IND ENG] A wage supply tunnel constructed
incentive plan intended for a along the basal water table. {
low task and for all efficiency 'ba-ssl 'tsn-sl)
points and defined as: earning
bascule (ENG] A structure that
= rate per hour X square root
rotates about an axis, as a
of the product (hours
seesaw, with a
standard X hours actual). {
counterbalance (for the weight
'barth ,plan )
of the structure) at one end. {
bar turret lathe (MECH ENG] A 'ba,skul)
turret lathe in which the bar
bascule bridge (civ ENG] A
stock is slid through the
movable bridge consisting
headstock and collet on line
primarily of a cantilever span
with the turning axis of the
extending across a channel; it
lathe and held firmly by the
rotates about a horizontal
closed collet. { 'bar 'tsr-st ,lath
axis parallel with the
waterway. { 'ba,skul ,brij )
bascule leaf (civ ENG] The ,ap-3'rad-3s )
span of a bascule bridge. {
base bias |ELECTR] The direct
'ba,skul ,lef)
voltage that is applied to the
base (CHEM ENG] The primary majority-carrier contact (base)
substance in solution in crude of a transistor. { 'bas ,bT-3s )
oil, and remaining after
base block [BUILD] 1. A block
distillation, (ELECTR] 1. The
of any material, generally with
region that lies between an
little or no ornament, forming
emitter and a collector of a
the lowest member of a base,
transistor and into which
or itself fulfilling the functions
minority carriers are injected.
of a base, as a member
2. The part of an electron tube
applied to the foot of a door or
that has the pins, leads, or
to window trim. 2. A rectangu-
other terminals to which
lar block at the base of a
external connections are
casing or column which the
made either directly or
baseboard abuts. 3. See
through a socket. 3. The
skirting block. { 'bas ,blak)
plastic, ceramic, or other
insulating board that supports baseboard [BUILD] A finish
a printed wiring pattern, (ENG] board covering the interior
Foundation or part upon which wall at the junction of the wall
an object or instrument rests. { and the floor. Also known as
bas ) skirt; skirting. { 'bas,bord )
base anchor [BUILD] The baseboard heater [BUILD]
metal piece attached to the Heating elements installed in
base of a doorframe for the panels along the baseboard of
purpose of securing the frame a wall. { 'bas,bord 'hed-sr)
to the floor. { 'bas ,ar)-k3r)
baseboard radiator [civ ENG]
base apparatus [ENG] Any A heating unit which is
apparatus designed for use in located at the lower portion of
measuring with accuracy and a wall and to which heat is
precision the length of a base supplied by hot water, warm
line in triangulation, or the air, steam, or electricity. {
length of a line in first- or 'bas,bdrd 'rad-e ,ad-sr)
second-order traverse. { 'bas
base cap See base molding. { at the joint between a roofing
'bas ,kap ) surface and a vertical surface,
such as a wall or parapet. {
base circle [DES ENG] The
'bas ,flash*ir) )
circle on a gear such that
each tooth-profile curve is an base isolators [civ ENG]
involute of it. { 'bas .ssr-ksl) Components placed within a
building (not always at the
base correction [ENG] The
base) which are relatively
adjustment made to reduce
flexible in the lateral direction,
measurements taken in field
yet can sustain the vertical
exploration to express them
load. When an earthquake
with reference to the base
causes ground motions, base
station values. { 'bas ks'rek-
isolators allow the structure to
shsn )
respond much more slowly
base course [BUILD] The than it would without them,
lowest course or first course resulting in lower seismic
of a wall, [civ ENG] The first demand on the structure.
layer of material laid down in Isolators may be laminated
construction of a pavement. { steel with high-quality rubber
'bas ,kors ) pads, sometimes
incorporating lead or other
base elbow [DES ENG] A cast- energy-absorbing materials. {
iron pipe elbow having a 'bas ,1-sajlad* srz)
baseplate or flange which is
cast on it and by which it is base line Abbreviated BL.
supported. { 'bas ]el,bo ) [ELECTR] The line traced on
base electrode [ELECTR] An indicators which corresponds
ohmic or majority carrier to the power level of the
contact to the base region of a weakest echo detected by the
transistor. { 'bas i'lek,trod ) radar; it is retraced with every
base flashing [BUILD] 1. The pulse transmitted by the radar
flashing provided by upturned but appears as a nearly
edges of a watertight continuous display on the
membrane on a roof. 2. Any scope, [ENG] 1. A surveyed
metal or composition flashing line, established with more
than usual care, to which base pin See pin. { 'bas ,pin )
surveys are referred for
base plate [DES ENG] The
coordination and correlation.
part of a theodolite which
2. A cardinal line extending
carries the lower ends of the
east and west along the
three foot screws and
astronomic parallel passing
attaches the theodolite to the
through the initial point, along
tripod for surveying, [ENG] A
which standard township,
metal plate that provides
section, and quarter-section
support or a foundation. { 'bas
corners are established. {
'bas ,lm )
base pressure [ MECH ] A
base-line check See ground
pressure used as a reference
check. { 'bas ,lm ,chek)
base, for example,
basement [BUILD] A building atmospheric pressure. {'bas
story which is wholly or less [presh-sr)
than half below ground; it is
base screed [ENG] A metal
generally used for living
screed with expanded or
space. { 'bas-msnt)
short perforated flanges that
basement wall [BUILD] A serves as a dividing strip
foundation wall which between plaster and cement
encloses a usable area and acts as a guide to
undera building. { 'bas-msnt indicate proper thickness of
,wol) cement or plaster. { 'bas
,skred )
base molding [BUILD] Molding
used to trim the upper edge of base sheet [BUILD] Saturated
interior baseboard. Also or coated felt sheeting which
known as base cap. { 'bas is laid as the first ply in a built-
,mold-ir) ) up roofing membrane. { 'bas
base net [ENG] A system, in
surveying, of quadrilaterals base shoe [BUILD] A molding
and triangles that include and at the base of a baseboard. {
are quite close to a base line 'bas ,shu )
in a triangulation system. {
base shoe corner [BUILD] A
'bas jnet)
molding piece or block applied a body member; determined
in the corner of a room to by motion studies. { 'ba-sik
eliminate the need for mitering 'mo-shsn )
the base shoe. { 'bas ]shii
basic motion-time study |IND
ENG] A system of
base station [ENG] The point predetermined motion-time
from which a survey begins. { standards for basic motions.
'bas ,sta-sh3n ) Abbreviated BMT study. { 'ba-
sik 'mo-shsn 'tTm ,st3d-e )
base tee [DES ENG ] A pipe
tee with a connected basic solution |IND ENG] A
baseplate for supporting it. { solution to a linear program
'bas ,te ) model, consisting of m
equations in n variables,
base tile [BUILD] The lowest
obtained by solving for m
course of tiles in a tiled wall. {
variables in terms of the
'bas ,tTl )
remaining (n m) variables
base time See normal and setting the (n m)
element time; normal time. { variables equal to zero. { 'ba-
'bas ,tTm ) sik ss'lu-shsn )
basic element See elemental basic truss |MECH] A
motion. { 'ba-sik 'el-3-msnt) framework of bars arranged
so that for any given loading
basic feasible solution of the bars the forces on the
|INDENG] A basic solution to a bars are uniquely determined
linear program model in which by the laws of statics. { [bas-ik
all the variables are 'tras )
nonnegative. { 'ba-sik [fez-s-
bsl ss'lii-shsn ) basin |civ ENG ] 1. A dock
employing floodgates to keep
basic grasp |IND ENG] Any water level constant during
one of the fundamental tidal variations. 2. A harbor
means of taking hold of an for small craft. |DES ENG] An
object. { 'ba-sik |grasp ) open-top vessel with relatively
basic motion | IND ENG ] A low sloping sides for holding
single, complete movement of liquids. { 'bas-sn )
basket |DES ENG] A lightweight size that bass frequencies
container with perforations. from the rear of the
|MECH ENG] A type of single- loudspeaker emerge to
tube core barrel made from reinforce those radiated
thin-wall tubing with the lower directly forward. {[bas 're,fleks
end notched into points, which ,baf-3l)
is intended to pick up a
bass trap |ENG ACOUS] Any
sample of granular or plastic
device used in a sound-
rock material by bending in on
recording studio to absorb
striking the bottom of the
sound at frequencies less
borehole or solid layer; may
than about 100 hertz. { 'bas
be used to recover an article
,trap )
dropped into a borehole. Also
known as basket barrel; bassy |ENG ACOUS]
basket tube; sawtooth barrel. { Pertaining to sound repro-
'bas-kst ) duction that overemphasizes
low-frequency notes. { 'bas-e )
basket strainer |CHEM ENG] A
porous-sided or screen- bastard-cut file |DES ENG] A
covered vessel used to screen file that has coarser teeth
solid particles out of liquid or than a rough-cut file. { 'bas-
gas streams. { 'bas-kst ,stran- tsrd |kat ,frl)
bastard pointing See
basket sub | ENG ] A fishing bastard tuck pointing. { 'bas-
tool run above a bit or a mill to tsrd ,point-ir) )
recover small nondrillable
pieces of metal or debris in bastard thread |DES ENG] A
the well. { 'bas-kst ,ssb ) screw thread that does not
match any standard threads.
basket-weave |BUILD] A { 'bas-tsrd ,thred )
checkerboard pattern of
bricks, flat or on edge. { 'bas- bastard tuck pointing |BUILD]
kst ,wev ) An imitation tuck pointing in
which the external face is
bass reflex baffle |ENG parallel to the wall, but
ACOUS] A loudspeaker baffle projects slightly and casts a
having an opening of such shadow. Also known as
bastard pointing. { 'bas-tsrd stages of mixing. { 'bacht
[tsk ,point-ir) ) ,wdd-3r)
bat bolt |DES ENG] A bolt batcher |MECH ENG] A
whose butt or tang is bashed machine in which the
or jagged. { 'bat ,bolt) ingredients of concrete are
measured and combined into
batch |ENG] 1. The quantity
batches before being
of material required for or
discharged to the concrete
produced by one operation.
mixer. { 'bach-sr)
2. An amount of material
subjected to some unit batching (ENG] Weighing or
chemical process or physical measuring the volume of the
mixing process to make the ingredients of a batch of
final product substantially concrete or mortar, and then
uniform. { bach ) introducing these ingredients
into a mixer. { 'bach-irj )
batch box |ENG] A container
of known volume used to batch manufacturing (IND
measure and mix the ENG] The manufacture of
constituents of a batch of parts in discrete runs or lots,
concrete, plaster, or mortar, to generally interspersed with
ensure proper proportions. { other production procedures.
'bach ,baks ) { 'bach ,man-3'fak-ch3r-ir) )
batch distillation | CHEM batch mixer (MECH ENG] A
ENG ] Distillation where the machine which mixes
entire batch of liquid feed is concrete or mortar in batches,
placed into the still at the as opposed to a continuous
beginning of the operation, in mixer. { 'bach ,mik-s3r)
contrast to continuous
batch plant (ENG] An
distillation, where liquid is fed
operating installation of
continuously into the still. {
equipment including batchers
'bach dis-ts'la-shsn )
and mixers as required for
batched water [ENG] The batching or for batching and
mixing water added to a mixing concrete materials. {
concrete or mortar mixture 'bach ,plant)
before or during the initial
batch process (ENG] A ENG ] A furnace used for heat
process that is not in treatment of materials, with or
continuous or mass without direct firing; loading
production; operations are and unloading operations are
carried out with discrete carried out through a single
quantities of material or a door or slot. { 'bach ,tTp 'for-
limited number of items. { nos )
'bach ,pras-3s )
bathometer (ENG] A
batch production See series mechanism which measures
production. { 'bach prs'dsk- depths in water. { bo'tham-od-
shsn ) or)
batch reactor (CHEM ENG] A bathtub curve (INDENG] An
chemical reactor in which the equipment failure-rate curve
reactants and catalyst are with an initial sharply declining
introduced in the desired failure rate, followed by a
quantities and the vessel is prolonged constant-average
then closed to the delivery of failure rate, after which the
additional material. { 'bach failure rate again increases
re,ak-t3r) sharply. { 'bath,tob ,korv)
batch rectification (CHEM bathyclinograph (ENG] A
ENG] Batch distillation in mechanism which measures
which the boiled-off vapor is vertical currents in the deep
re-condensed into liquid form sea. { ibath-oiklTn-o,graf)
and refluxed back into the still
bathyconductograph (ENG]
to make contact with the
A device to measure the
rising vapors. { 'bach ^ek-ts-
electrical conductivity of sea
fe'ka-shsn )
water at various depths from a
batch treatment |CHEM ENG] moving ship. { ]bath-o-
A corrosion control procedure kon'dok-to,graf)
in which chemical corrosion
ba thy gram (ENG] A graph
inhibitors are injected into the
recording the measurements
lines of a production system. {
of sonic sounding
'bach ,tret-mont)
instruments. { 'bath-o,gram )
batch-type furnace | MECH
bathymetry (ENG] The dimension-usually 7 inches
science of measuring ocean (18 centimeters) broad, less
depths in order to determine than 4 inches (10 centimeters)
the sea floor topography. { thick, and more than 6 feet
bo'thim-o-tre ) (1.8 meters) long-used for
outside walls of houses,
bathythermogram (ENG] The
flooring, and such. 2. A strip
record that is made by a
of wood nailed across a door
bathythermograph. { ]bath-
or other structure made of
o'thor-mo,gram )
parallel boards to strengthen it
bathythermograph ( ENG ] A and prevent warping. 3. See
device for obtaining a record furring. { 'bat-on)
of temperature against depth
batten door ( BU ILD ] A wood
(actually, pressure) in the
door without stiles which is
ocean from a ship underway.
constructed of vertical boards
Abbreviated BT. Also known
held together by horizontal
as bathythermosphere. {
battens on the back side. Also
known as ledged door. { 'bat-
bathythermosphere See on ,dor)
bathythermograph. { ibath-
battened column (civ ENG]
A column consisting of two
bating (CHEM ENG] Cleaning longitudinal shafts, rigidly con-
of depilated leather hides by nected to each other by
the action of tryptic enzymes. batten plates. { 'bat-ond 'kal-
{ 'bad-ig ) om )
batted work (ENG] A hand- battened wall (BUILD] A wall
dressed stone surface scored to which battens have been
from top to bottom in narrow affixed. Also known as
parallel strokes (usually 8-10 strapped wall. { 'bat-ond 'wol )
per inch or 20-25 per centi-
batten plate (civ ENG ] A
meter) by use of a batting tool.
rectangular plate used to
{ 'bad-od ,work )
connect two parallel structural
batten (BUILD] 1. A sawed steel members by riveting or
timber strip of specific welding. { 'bat-on ,plat)
batten roll (BUILD] In metal vertical to provide resistance
roofing, a roll joint formed over to horizontal forces. Also
a triangular-shaped wood known as brace pile; spur
piece. Also known as conical pile. { 'bad-or ,pTl)
roll. { 'bat-on ,rol )
batter post (civ ENG] 1. A post
batten seam (BUILD] A seam at one side of a gateway or at
in metal roofing which is a corner of a building for
formed around a wood strip. { protection against vehicles. 2.
'baton ,sem ) See batter brace. { 'bad-or
batter (civ ENG] A uniformly
steep slope in a retaining wall batter stick (civ ENG] A
or pier; inclination is tapered board which is hung
expressed as 1 foot vertically and used to test the
horizontally per vertical unit batter of a wall surface. { 'bad-
(in feet). { 'bad-or) or ,stik)
batter board (civ ENG] battery (CHEM ENG] A series of
Horizontal boards nailed to distillation columns or other
corner posts located just processing equipment
outside the corners of a operated as a single unit,
proposed building to assist in (ELEC] A direct-current volt-
the accurate layout of age source made up of one or
foundation and excavation more units that convert
lines. { 'bad-or ,bdrd ) chemical, thermal, nuclear, or
solar energy into electrical
batter brace (civ ENG] A
energy. { 'bad-o-re )
diagonal brace which
reinforces one end of a truss. battery limits (CHEM ENG] An
Also known as batter post. { area in a refinery or chemical
'bad-or ,bras ) plant encompassing a
processing unit or battery of
batter level (ENG] A device for
units along with their related
measuring the inclination of a
utilities and services. { 'bad-o-
slope. { 'bad-or ,lev-ol)
re ,lim-ots )
batter pile (civ ENG] A pile
batting tool (ENG] A mason's
driven at an inclination to the
chisel usually 3-4V2 inches
(7.6-11.4 centimeters) wide, bayonet-tube exchanger
used to dress stone to a |MECH ENG] A dual-tube
striated surface. { 'bad-irj ,tul) apparatus with heating (or
cooling) fluid flowing into the
bauxite treating (CHEM ENG]
inner tube and out of the
A catalytic petroleum process
annular space between the
in which a vaporized
inner and outer tubes; can be
petroleum fraction is passed
inserted into tanks or other
through beds of bauxite; con-
process vessels to heat or
version of many different
cool the liquid contents. { [ba-
sulfur compounds, particularly
o'net ,tub iks'chanj-or)
mercaptans into hydrogen
sulfide, takes place. { 'bok,sTt B-B fraction |CHEM ENG] A
,tred-irj) mixture of butanes and
butenes distilled from a
b axis (MECH ENG] The angle
solution of light liquid
that specifies the rotation of a
hydrocarbons. { |be|be [frak-
machine tool about the y
shon )
axis. { 'be ,ak-sos )
bbl See barrel.
bay (ENG ] A housing used
for equipment, {ba) BCD See barrels per calendar
bayonet coupling (DES ENG]
A coupling in which two or BD See barrels per day.
more pins extend out from a
BDC See bottom dead center.
plug and engage in grooves
in the side of a socket. { ]ba- bdft See board-foot.
o'net |kop-lir) )
beacon tracking |ENG ] The
bayonet socket (DES ENG] A tracking of a moving object by
socket, having ]-shaped slots means of signals emitted from
on opposite sides, into which a transmitter or transponder
a bayonet base or coupling is within or attached to the
inserted against a spring and object. { 'be-kon ,trak-irj)
rotated until its pins are
seated firmly in the slots. { bead |DES ENG] A projecting
[ba-o'net [sak-ot) rim or band, {bed)
bead and butt [BUILD] cast plaster string of beads. {
Framed work in which the 'bed-od [mol'dirj)
panel is flush with the framing
beaded tube end [MECH
and has a bead run on two
ENG] The exposed portion of
edges in the direction of the
a rolled tube which is rounded
grain; the ends are left plain.
back against the sheet in
Also known as bead butt;
which the tube is rolled. {
bead butt work. {[bed on 'bot)
'bed-od 'tub ,end )
bead -an d-f lush panel See
beadflush panel [BUILD] A
beadflush panel. {[bed on
panel which is flush with the
'flash ,pan-ol)
surrounding framing and
bead and quirk See quirk finished with a flush bead on
bead. { [bed on 'kwork) all edges of the panel. Also
known as bead-and-flush
bead and reel [BUILD] A
panel. { 'bed,flosh ,pan-ol )
semiround convex molding
decorated with a pattern of beading [BUILD] Collectively,
disks alternating with round or the bead moldings used in
elongated beads. Also known ornamenting a given
as reel and bead. {[bed on surface. { 'bed-iq )
beading plane [DES ENG] A
bead butt See bead and butt. plane having a curved cutting
{ 'bed ,bot) edge for shaping beads in
wood. Also known as bead
bead, butt, and square
plane. { 'bed-iq ,plan )
[BUILD] Framed work similar to
bead and butt but having the bead-jointed [ENG] Of a
panels flush on the beaded carpentry joint, having a bead
face only, and showing along the edge of one piece to
square reveals on the other. make the joint less
{[bed ,bot on 'skwar) conspicuous. { 'bed join-tod)
bead butt work See bead bead molding [BUILD] A
and butt. { 'bed ,bot ,work) small, convex molding of
semicircular or greater profile.
beaded molding [BUILD] A
Also known as baguette. {
molding or cornice bearing a
'bed ,m6l*dir)) consisting of a stadia arc on
the outer edge of the visual
bead plane See beading
vertical arc; enables the ob-
plane. { 'bed ,plan )
server to determine the
beaking joint [BUILD] A joint difference in elevation of the
formed by several heading instrument and stadia rod
joints occurring in one without employing vertical
continuous line; especially angles. { 'be-mon 'stad-e-o
used in connection with the ,ark)
laying of floor planks. { 'bek-iq
beam bearing plate [civ
ENG] A foundation plate
beam [civ ENG] A body, with (usually of metal) placed
one dimension large beneath the end of a beam, at
compared with the other its point of support, to
dimensions, whose function is distribute the end load at the
to carry lateral loads (perpen- point. { 'bem ,ber-irj ,plat)
dicular to the large
beam blocking [BUILD] 1.
dimension) and bending
Boxing-in or covering a joist,
movements. { bem)
beam, or girder to give the
beam-and-girder appearance of a larger beam.
construction [BUILD] A system 2. Strips of wood used to
of floor construction in which create a false beam. { 'bem
the load is distributed by slabs ,blak-ir))
to spaced beams and girders.
beam bolster [civ ENG] A rod
{ [bem on 'gor-dor kon'strok-
which provides support for
shon )
steel reinforcement in
beam-and-slab floor [BUILD] formwork for a reinforced
A floor system in which a concrete beam. { 'bem ,bol-
concrete floor slab is stor)
supported by reinforced
beam box See wall box. {
concrete beams. {[bem on
'bem ,baks )
[slab ,flor)
beam brick [BUILD] A face
Beaman stadia arc [ENG] An
brick which is used to bond to
attachment to an alidade
a poured-in-place concrete
lintel. { 'bem ,brik) usually between joists or
horizontal beams at their
beam bridge [civ ENG] A fixed
supports; provides increased
structure consisting of a
fire resistance. { 'bem ,fil)
series of steel or concrete
beams placed parallel to traffic beam form |civ ENG] A form
and supporting the roadway which gives the necessary
directly on their top flanges. { shape, suppport, and finish to
'bem ,brij ) a concrete beam. { 'bem ,form
beam clip [ENG] A device for
attaching a pipe hanger to its beamhouse |CHEM ENG] A
associated structural beam place where the initial wet
when it is undesirable to weld operations of tanning,
the pipe hanger to supporting involving soaking in water and
structural steelwork. Also solutions of alkali, are carried
known as girder clamp; girder out. { 'bem,haus )
clip. { 'bem ,klip )
beam pattern See directivity
beam column [civ ENG] A pattern. { 'bem ,pad-3rn )
structural member subjected
beam pocket | civ ENG ] 1. In
simultaneously to axial load
a vertical structural member,
and bending moments
an opening to receive a beam.
produced by lateral forces or
2. An opening in the form for a
eccentricity of the longitudinal
column or girder where the
load. { 'bem ,kal-om )
form for an intersecting beam
beam-deflection amplifier is framed. { 'bem ,pak-3t)
[MECH ENG] A jet-interaction
beam splice |civ ENG] A
fluidic device in which the
connection between two
direction of a supply jet is
lengths of a beam or girder;
varied by flow from one or
may be shear or moment
more control jets which are
connections. { 'bem ,splTs )
oriented at approximately 90
to the supply jet. { 'bem di'flek- beam spread (ENG] The
shon 'am-plo,fT-or) angle of divergence from the
central axis of an
beam fill [ BUILD ] Masonry,
electromagnetic or acoustic
brickwork, or cement fill,
beam as it travels through a slides, or oscillates in or on it.
material. { 'bem ,spred) { 'ber-ig )
Beams servoed rotational bearing bar (BUILD] A
method (ENG] A method of wrought-iron bar placed on
measuring the gravitational masonry to provide a level
constant by determining the support for floor joists, (civ
inertial reaction of a torsional ENG] A load-carrying bar
pendulum to the angular which supports a grating and
acceleration of a rotating table which extends in the direction
that is required to cancel the of the grating span. ( ENG ]
attraction of the pendulum to See azimuth instrument. {
two large masses. { 'bemz 'ber-irj ,bar)
's3r,vod ro'ta-shsn-sl ,meth-
bearing cap (DES ENG] A
3d )
device designed to fit around
beam test (civ ENG] A test of a bearing to support or
the flexural strength (modulus immobilize it. { 'ber-iq ,kap )
of rupture) of concrete from
bearing capacity (MECH]
measurements on a standard
Load per unit area which can
reinforced concrete beam. {
be safely supported by the
'bem ,test)
ground. { 'ber-iq ks'pas-sd-e )
bean (ENG] A restriction,
bearing circle (ENG] A ring
such as a nipple, which is
designed to fit snugly over a
placed in a pipe to reduce the
compass or compass
rate of fluid flow. { ben )
repeater, and provided with
bearer (civ ENG] Any vanes for observing compass
horizontal beam, joist, or bearings. { 'ber-iq ,s3r-k3l)
member which supports a
bearing cursor (ENG] Of a
load. { 'ber-sr)
radar set, the radial line
bearing (civ ENG] That portion inscribed on a transparent
of a beam, truss, or other disk which can be rotated
structural member which rests manually about an axis
on the supports, (MECH ENG] coincident with the center of
A machine part that supports the plan position indicator;
another part which rotates, used for bearing
determination. Also known as maximum load that a column,
mechanical bearing cursor. { wall, footing, or joint will
'ber-iq ,k3r-s3r) sustain at failure, divided by
the effective bearing area. {
bearing distance (civ ENG]
'ber-irj ,strenkth )
The length of a beam
between its bearing supports. bearing stress See bearing
{ 'ber-iq ,dis-t3ns ) pressure. { 'ber-ig ,stres )
bearing partition (BUILD] A bearing test ( ENG ] A test of
partition which supports a the bearing capacities of pile
vertical load. { 'ber-ig psr'tish- foundations, such as a field
sn ) loading test of an individual
pile; a laboratory test of soil
bearing pile (ENG] A vertical
samples for bearing
post or pile which carries the
capacities. { 'ber-irj ,test)
weight of a foundation,
transmitting the load of a bearing wall (civ ENG] A wall
structure to the bedrock or capable of supporting an
subsoil without detrimental imposed load. Also known as
settlement. { 'ber-irj ,pTl) structural wall. { 'ber-irj ,wol)
bearing plate (civ ENG] A flat bear trap gate (civ ENG] A
steel plate used under the end type of crest gate with an
of a wall-bearing beam to upstream leaf and a
distribute the load over a downstream leaf which rest in
broader area. { 'ber-irj ,plat) a horizontal position, one leaf
overlapping the other, when
bearing pressure (MECH]
the gate is lowered. { 'ber
Load on a bearing surface
,trap ,gat)
divided by its area. Also
known as bearing stress. { beater (ENG] 1. A tool for
'ber-irj ,presh-3r) packing in material to fill a
blasthole containing a charge
bearing strain ( MECH ] The
of powder. 2. A laborer who
deformation of bearing parts
shovels or dumps asbestos
subjected to a load. { 'ber-irj
fibers and sprays them with
,stran )
water in order to prepare them
bearing strength (MECH] The for the beating, (MECH ENG] A
machine that cuts or beats bed (civ ENG] 1. In masonry
paper stock. { 'bed-or) and bricklaying, the side of a
masonry unit on which the unit
beater mill See hammer mill.
lies in the course of the wall;
{ 'bed-sr ,mil)
the underside when the unit is
beating (ENG] A process that placed horizontally. 2. The
reduces asbestos fibers to layer of mortar on which a
pulp for making asbestos masonry unit is set. |MECH
paper. { 'bed-iq ) ENG] The part of a machine
having precisely machined
Beattie and Bridgman ways or bearing surfaces
equation (THERMO] An which support or align other
equation that relates the machine parts. { bed )
pressure, volume, and
temperature of a real gas to Bedaux plan |IND ENG] A
the gas constant. { [bed-e on wage incentive plan in which
[brij-msn i'kwa-zhsn ) work is standardized into
man-minute units called
beat tone (ENG ACOUS] bedaux (B); 60 B per hour is
Musical tone due to beats, 100% productivity, and
produced by the heterodyning earnings are based on work
of two high-frequency wave units per length of time. {
trains. { 'bet ,ton ) bs'do ,plan )
beche (MECH ENG] A bedding |civ ENG] 1. Mortar,
pneumatic forge hammer putty, or other substance
having an air-operated ram used to secure a firm and
and an air-compressing even bearing, such as putty
cylinder integral with the laid in the rabbet of a window
frame. { besh ) frame, or mortar used to lay
Beckmann thermometer bricks. 2. A base which is
(ENG] A sensitive thermometer prepared in soil or concrete for
with an adjustable range so laying masonry or concrete. {
that small differences in 'bed-irj )
temperature can be meas- bedding course | civ ENG ]
ured. { 'bek-man ther'mam-sd- The first layer of mortar at the
sr) bottom of masonry. { 'bed-ig
,kors ) conditioned by their working
environments. 2. The
bedding dot |BUILD] A small
interactions between
spot of plaster built out to the
individuals or groups in the
face of a finished wall or
workplace. { bi'ha-vys-rel
ceiling; serves as a screed for
dl'nam-iks )
leveling and plumbing in the
application of plaster. { 'bed-irj Belfast truss |civ ENG] A
,dat) bowstring beam for large
spans, having the upper
bed joint |civ ENG] 1. A
member bent and the lower
horizontal layer of mortar on
member horizontal;
which masonry units are laid.
constructed entirely of timber
2. One of the radial joints in
components. { 'bel,fast 'trss )
an arch. { 'bed joint)
bell [ENG] 1. A hollow metallic
bed molding |BUILD] 1. The
cylinder closed at one end
lowest member of a band of
and flared at the other; it is
moldings. 2. Any molding
used as a fixed-pitch musical
under a projection, such as
instrument or signaling device
between eaves and sidewalls.
and is set vibrating by a
{ 'bed ,mol-dir))
clapper or tongue which
beehive oven [ENG] An strikes the lip. 2. See bell tap.
arched oven that carbonizes { bel)
coal into coke by using the
bell-and-spigot joint [ENG]
heat of combustion of gases
A pipe joint in which a pipe
that are formed, and of a small
ending in a bell-like shape is
part of the coke that is formed,
joined to a pipe ending in a
with no recovery of by-
spigotlike shape. { ]bel on
products. { 'be,hTv ,3v*3n )
'spik-st joint)
beetle See rammer. { 'bed-sl)
bell cap [CHEM ENG] A
behavioral dynamics |IND hemispherical or triangular
ENG] 1. The behavioral metal casting used on dist
operating characteristics of illation-column trays to force
individuals and groups in upflowing vapors to bubble
terms of how these people are through layers of
downcoming liquid. { 'bel decisions are, the remaining
,kap) decisions must constitute an
optimal policy with regard to
belled caisson [civ ENG] A
the state resulting from the
type of drilled caisson with a
first decisions. { 'bel-msnz
flared bottom. { 'beld 'ka,san )
'prin-ss-psl sv ,ap*t3'mal*3d*e
bell glass See bell jar. { 'bel )
,glas )
bell mouth [DES ENG] A flared
bell jar [ENG] A bell-shaped mouth on a pipe opening or
vessel, usually made of other orifice. [ ENG ] A defect
glass, which is used for which occurs during metal
enclosing a vacuum, holding drilling in which a twist drill
gases, or covering objects. produces a hole that is not a
Also known as bell glass. { perfect circle. { 'bel ,mauth )
'bel jar)
bellows [ENG] 1. A
bell-jar testing [ENG] A leak mechanism that expands and
testing method in which a contracts, or has a rising and
vessel is filled with tracer gas falling top, to suck in air
and placed in a vacuum through a valve and blow it
chamber; leaks are out through a tube. 2. Any of
evidenced by gas drawn into several types of enclosures
the vacuum chamber. { 'bel jar which have accordionlike
.tes-tig ) walls, allowing one to vary the
volume. 3. See aneroid
bell-joint clamp [ENG] A capsule. { 'bel-oz )
clamp applied to a bell-and-
spigot joint to prevent bellows expansion joint
leakage. { 'bel joint ,klamp) [DES ENG] In a run of piping, a
joint formed with a flexible
Bellman's principle of metal bellows which
optimality [INDENG] The compress or stretch to
principle that an optimal compensate for linear
sequence of decisions in a expansion or contraction of
multistage decision process the run of piping. { 'bel-oz
problem has the property that ik'span-shsn joint)
whatever the initial state and
bellows gage [ENG] A device bricks, or an inserted row
for measuring pressure in made of a different kind of
which the pressure on a brick, [MECH ENG] A flexible
bellows, with the end plate band used to connect pulleys
attached to a spring, causes or to convey materials by
a measurable movement of transmitting motion and
the plate. { 'bel-oz,gaj} power. { belt)
bellows gas meter [ENG] A belt conveyor [MECH ENG] A
device for measuring the total heavy-duty conveyor
volume of a continuous gas consisting essentially of a
flow stream in which the head or drive pulley, a take-up
motion of two bellows, alter- pulley, a level or inclined end-
nately filled with and less belt made of canvas,
exhausted of the gas, actuates rubber, or metal, and carrying
a register. { 'bel-oz [gas ,med- and return idlers. { 'belt
3r) ksn'va-sr)
bellows seal [MECH ENG] A belt course See string
boiler seal in the form of a course. { 'belt ,kors )
bellows which prevents
belt drive |MECH ENG] The
leakage of air or gas. { 'bel-oz
transmission of power
between shafts by means of a
bell-type manometer [ENG] A belt connecting pulleys on the
differential pressure gage in shafts. { 'belt .dfiv )
which one pressure input is
belted-bias tire See bias-
fed into an inverted cuplike
belted tire. { [bel-tad .bias 'trr)
container floating in liquid,
and the other pressure input belt feeder |MECH ENG] A
presses down upon the top of short belt conveyor used to
the container so that its level transfer granulated or
in the liquid is the measure of powdered solids from a
differential pressure. { storage or supply point to an
'bel,tTp ms'nam-sd-sr) end-use point; for example,
from a bin hopper to a chemi-
belt [civ ENG] In brickwork, a
cal reactor. { 'belt .fed-sr)
projecting row (or rows) of
belt guard |MECH ENG] A bench assembly [ENG] A
cover designed to protect a technique of fitting and joining
belt as well as the pulleys it parts using a bench as a work
connects. { 'belt ,gard ) surface. { 'bench s'sem-ble)
belt highway See beltway. { bench check | IND ENG ] A
jbelt 'hT.wa ) workshop or servicing bay
check which includes the
belt sander |MECH ENG] A
typical check or actual
portable sanding tool having
functional test of an item to
a power-driven abrasive-
ascertain what is to be done
coated continuous belt. { 'belt
to return the item to a service-
able condition or ascertain the
belt shifter | MECH ENG ] A item's temporary or
device with fingerlike permanent disposition. {
projections used to shift a belt 'bench ,chek )
from one pulley to another or
bench dog [ENG] A wood or
to replace a belt which has
metal peg, placed in a slot or
slipped off a pulley. { 'belt
hole at the end of a bench;
used to keep a workpiece from
belt slip |MECH ENG] The slipping. { 'bench .dog )
difference in speed between
bench hook [ENG] Any device
the driving drum and belt
used on a carpenter's bench
conveyor. { 'belt .slip)
to keep work from moving
belt tightener |MECH ENG] In toward the rear of the bench.
a belt drive, a device that Also known as side hook. {
takes up the slack in a belt 'bench ,huk)
that has become stretched
benching [ civ ENG ] 1.
and permanently lengthened.
Concrete laid on the side
{ 'belt .trt-nsr)
slopes of drainage channels
beltway |civ ENG] A highway where the slopes are
that encircles an urban area interrupted by manholes,
along its perimeter. Also and so forth. 2. Concrete laid
known as belt highway; ring on sloping sites as a
road. { 'belt.wa ) safeguard against sliding. 3.
Concrete laid along the sides benchmark job [ IND ENG ] A
of a pipeline to provide job that can be related or
additional support. { 'bench-irj compared to other jobs in
) terms of common
characteristics and
bench lathe [MECH ENG] A
considered an acceptable
small engine or toolroom
gauge for other jobs without
lathe suitable for attachment
the need of direct
to a workbench; bed length
measurements. { 'benchmark
usually does not exceed 6
feet (1.8 meters) and
workpieces are generally bench photometer [ENG] A
small. { 'bench .lath ) device which uses an optical
bench with the two light
benchmark [ENG] A relatively
sources to be compared
permanent natural or artificial
mounted one at each end; the
object bearing a marked point
comparison between the two
whose elevation above or
illuminations is made by a
below an adopted datumfor
device moved along the bench
example, sea levelis known.
until matching brightnesses
Abbreviated BM. [IND ENG] A
appear. { 'bench fe'tam* sd-
standard of measurement
possessing sufficient
identifiable characteristics bench plane [DES ENG] A
common to the individual units plane used primarily in
of a population to facilitate benchwork on flat surfaces,
economical and efficient such as a block plane or jack
comparison of attributes for plane. { 'bench .plan }
units selected from a sample.
bench sander [MECH ENG] A
{ 'benchmark )
stationary power sander,
benchmark index [IND ENG] usually mounted on a table or
In manufacturing and mining, stand, which is equipped with
an index designed to reflect a rotating abrasive disk or
changes in output occurring belt. { 'bench .san-dor}
between census years. {
bench-scale testing [ENG]
'benchmark 'in.deks )
Testing of materials, methods,
or chemical processes on a any material. { 'bend s'lau-sns
small scale, such as on a }
laboratory worktable. { 'bench
bender See bending machine.
,skal 'tes-tig }
{ 'ben-dor}
bench stop [ENG] A bench
bending [ENG] 1. The forming
hook which is used to fasten
of a metal part, by pressure,
work in place, often by means
into a curved or angular
of a screw. { 'bench .stap }
shape, or the stretching or
bench table [BUILD] A flanging of it along a curved
projecting course of masonry path. 2. The forming of a
at the foot of an interior wall or wooden member to a desired
around a column; generally shape by pressure after it has
wide enough to form a seat. { been softened or plasticized
'bench .ta-bsl } by heat and moisture. { 'ben-
dig }
bench vise [ENG] An ordinary
vise fixed to a workbench. { bending brake [MECH ENG] A
'bench .vis } press brake for making
sharply angular linear bends
benchwork [ENG] Any work
in sheet metal. { 'ben-dig
performed at a workbench
rather than on machines or in
the field. { 'bench.workj bending iron [ENG] A tool
used to straighten or to
bend [DES ENG] 1. The
expand flexible pipe,
characteristic of an object,
especially lead pipe. { 'ben-
such as a machine part, that
dig j-srn )
is curved. 2. A section of pipe
that is curved. 3. A knot bending machine |MECH
formed by a rope fastened to ENG] A machine for bending a
an object or another rope. metal or wooden part by
{bend} pressure. Also known as
bender. { 'ben-dig m^shen )
bend allowance [DES ENG]
Length of the arc of the bending moment |MECH]
neutral axis between the Algebraic sum of all moments
tangent points of a bend in located between a cross
section and one end of a shaft by transmitting the
structural member; a bending torque through a set of four
moment that bends the beam balls lying in the plane that
convex downward is positive, contains the bisector of, and
and one that bends it convex is perpendicular to, the plane
upward is negative. { 'ben-dig of the angle between the
,mo*m3nt) shafts. {]ben,diks [wTs ^u-
ns'vsr-ssl joint)
bending-moment diagram
(MECH] A diagram showing the bend radius |DES ENG] The
bending moment at every radius corresponding to the
point along the length of a curvature of a bent specimen
beam plotted as an ordi-nate. or part, as measured at the
{ 'ben-dig [mo-msnt ^T-^gram inside surface of the bend. {
) 'bend ,rad-e-3s )
bending schedule |civ ENG] bend wheel | MECH ENG ] A
A chart showing the shapes wheel used to interrupt and
and dimensions of every change the normal path of
reinforcing bar and the travel of the conveying or
number of bars required on a driving medium; most
particular job for the generally used to effect a
construction of a reinforced change in direction of
concrete structure. { 'ben-dig conveyor travel from inclined
,skej-3l) to horizontal or a similar
change. { 'bend ,wel)
bending stress |MECH] An
internal tensile or Benioff extensometer | ENG ]
compressive longitudinal A linear strain-meter for
stress developed in a beam in measuring the change in
response to curvature induced distance between two
by an external load. { 'ben-dig reference points separated by
,stres ) 60-90 feet (20-30 meters) or
more; used to observe earth
Bendix-Weiss universal joint
tides. { 'ben-e-6f ^k^ten'sam-
|MECH ENG] A universal joint
that provides for constant
angular velocity of the driven bent |civ ENG] A framework
support transverse to the to form an oil similar to crude
length of a structure. { bent) petroleum. Also known as
coal hydrogenation. { 'ber-ge-
bent bar |civ ENG] A
ss 'pras-ss )
longitudinal reinforcing bar
which is bent to pass from Berl saddle (CHEM ENG] A
one face of a structural type of column packing used
member to the other face. { in distillation columns. { 'bsrl
'bent ,bar) ,sad-31}
bent-tube boiler |MECH ENG] berm (civ ENG] A horizontal
A water-tube steam boiler in ledge cut between the foot
which the tubes terminate in and top of an embankment to
upper and lower steam-and- stabilize the slope by
water drums. Also known as intercepting sliding earth. {
drum-type boiler. { 'bent ,tub bsrm )
'boil *91}
Bernoulli-Euler law (MECH] A
bentwood (ENG] Wood law stating that the curvature
formed to shape by bending, of a beam is proportional to
rather than by carving or the bending moment. { ber,nu-
machining. { 'bent,wud ) le ]6il-3r [16 )
benzol-acetone process ( Berth el ot method (THERMO]
CHEM ENG ] A solvent A method of measuring the
dewaxing process in which a latent heat of vaporization of a
mixture of the solvent and oil liquid that involves
containing wax is cooled until determining the temperature
the wax solidifies and is then rise of a water bath that
removed by filtration. { encloses a tube in which a
'ben,z61 'as-3,ton ,pras-3s ) given amount of vapor is
condensed. { 'ber-t3,lo ,meth-
Bergius process (CHEM ENG]
3d )
Treatment of carbonaceous
matter, such as coal or Berth on dynamometer (ENG]
cellulosic materials, with An instrument for measuring
hydrogen at elevated the diameters of small
pressures and temperatures objects, consisting of two
in the presence of a catalyst, metal straightedges inclined
at a small angle and rigidly beta-cutoff frequency
joined together; a scale on (ELECTR] The frequency at
one of the straightedges is which the current amplification
used to read the diameters of of an amplifier transistor drops
objects inserted between to 3 decibels below its value
them. { 'b3r,than ^T-ns'mam- at 1 kilohertz. { 'bad-s 'k3d,6f
sd-sr) ,fre-kw3n-se )
beryllium detector (ENG] An Bethell process See full-cell
instrument designed to detect process. { 'beth-sl 'pras-ss )
and analyze for beryllium by
Betterton-Kroll process
gamma-ray activation
(CHEM ENG] A method for
analysis. Also known as
obtaining pure bismuth from
berylometer. { bs'ril-e-sm
softened and desilverized
lead. {[bed-sr-tsn [krol ,pras-
berylometer See beryllium 3s )
detector. { ,ber-3'lam-3d-or)
Betti reciprocal theorem
best commercial practice (MECH] A theorem in the
(ENG] A manufacturing mathematical theory of
standard for a process vessel elasticity which states that if
which has not been designed an elastic body is subjected to
according to standard codes, two systems of surface and
such as the American Society body forces, then the work
of Mechanical Engineers that would be done by the
Boiler Code. { ,best ks'msr- first system acting through the
shsl 'prak-tss ) displacements resulting from
the second system equals the
beta (ELECTR] The current
work that would be done by
gain of a transistor that is
the second system acting
connected as a grounded-
through the displacements
emitter amplifier, expressed
resulting from the first
as the ratio of change in
system. { 'bat-te ri'sip-re-ksl
collector current to resulting
,thir-3m )
change in base current, the
collector voltage being Betti's method |MECH ] A
constant. { 'bad-s ) method of finding the solution
of the equations of equilibrium window or lens for a meter,
of an elastic body whose tuning dial, or some other
surface displacements are indicating device. 2. A
specified; it uses the fact that sloping face on a cutting
the dilatation is a harmonic tool. { 'bez-sl)
function to reduce the
B-H meter (ENG] A device
problem to the Dirichlet
used to measure the intrinsic
problem. { 'bat-tez ,meth-3d)
hysteresis loop of a sample of
Betz momentum theory magnetic material. { ]be]ach
|MECH ENG] A theory of ,med-3r)
windmill performance that
bhp See boiler horsepower;
considers the deceleration in
brake horsepower.
the air traversing the windmill
disk. { 'bets ms'ment-sm ,the- bias (ELEC] 1. A direct-current
3-re ) voltage used on signaling or
telegraph relays or
bevel | DES ENG ] 1. The angle
electromagnets to secure
between one line or surface
desired time spacing of
and another line or surface, or
transitions from marking to
the horizontal, when this
spacing. 2. The restraint of a
angle is not a right angle. 2. A
relay armature by spring
sloping surface or line. { 'bev-
tension to secure a desired
time spacing of transitions
beveled closer See king from marking to spacing. 3.
closer. {jbevald'klO'zar) The effect on teleprinter
signals produced by the
bevel gear |MECH ENG] One
electrical characteristics of the
of a pair of gears used to
line and equipment. 4. The
connect two shafts whose
force applied to a relay to
axes intersect. { 'beval ,gir)
hold it in a given position.
beveling See chamfering. { (ELECTR] 1. A direct-current
'bev-o-lirj ) voltage applied to a transistor
control electrode to establish
bezel |DES ENG] 1. A grooved the desired operating point.
rim used to hold a 2. See grid bias. { 'bT-ss )
transparent glass or plastic
bias-belted tire (ENG] A curve of a vacuum tube or
motor-vehicle pneumatic tire other device, due to improper
constructed with a belt of biasing. { 'bT-ss dis 'tdr-shsn )
textile cord, steel, or fiber
bias-ply tire (ENG] A motor-
glass around the tire
vehicle pneumatic tire that
underneath the tread and on
has crossed layers of ply cord
top of the ply cords, and laid
set diagonally to the center
at an acute angle to the
line of the tread. { [br-ss ,plT
center line of the tread. Also
known as belted-bias tire.
{\bl-5s ,bel* tod 'tTr) bias voltage (ELECTR] A
voltage applied or developed
bias compensation (ENG
between two electrodes as a
ACOUS] The application of an
bias. { 'bios ,vol*tij )
outward-directed tension to
the pickup arm of a record biaxial stress (MECH] The
player to counteract the condition in which there are
tendency of the arm to slide three mutually perpendicular
toward the center. { 'br-ss principal stresses; two act in
^am-psn^a-shsn ) the same plane and one is
zero. { bT'ak-se-sl ,stress )
bias current (ELECTR] 1. An
alternating electric current Biazzi process (CHEM ENG] A
above about 40,000 hertz continuous-flow process for
added to the audio current the nitration of glycerin to
being recorded on magnetic nitroglyc-erin; also used to
tape to reduce distortion. 2. produce glycol dinitrate and
An electric current flowing diethylene glycol nitrate. {
through the base-emitter be'at-se ,pras-3s )
junction of a transistor and
adjusted to set the operating bibb cock See bibcock. { 'bib
point of the transistor. { 'bT-ss ,kak )
,k3r-3nt) bibcock (DES ENG] A faucet or
bias distortion (ELECTR] stopcock whose nozzle is
Distortion resulting from the bent downward. Also spelled
operation on a nonlinear bibb cock. { 'bib,kak)
portion of the characteristic bicable tramway (MECH ENG]
A tramway consisting of two to sound incidences of 0 and
stationary cables on which the 180. { ^T-ds'rek-shsn-sl 'mT-
wheeled carriages travel, and kr^fon )
an endless rope, which
Bierbaum scratch hardness
propels the carriages. {
test (ENG] A test for the
'bT,ka*b3l 'tram,wa )
hardness of a solid sample by
BiCMOS technology microscopic measurement of
(ELECTR] An integrated circuit the width of scratch made by a
technology that combines diamond point under preset
bipolar transistors and CMOS pressure. { 'bir ,baum [skrach
devices on the same chip. { 'hard-nss ,test)
]bT'se,m6s tek,nal*3*je )
biface tool (DES ENG] A tool,
bicycle (MECH ENG] A human- as an ax, made from a coil
powered land vehicle with two flattened on both sides to form
wheels, one behind the other, a V-shaped cutting edge. {
usually propelled by the action 'bT,fas 'tiil)
of the rider's feet on the
bifacial (DES ENG] Of a tool,
pedals. { 'bT,sik*3l)
having both sides alike. {
bid (ENG] An estimate of costs bT'fa-shsl )
for specified construction,
bifilar electrometer (ENG] An
equipment, or services
electrostatic voltmeter in which
proposed to a customer
two conducting quartz fibers,
company by one or more
stretched by a small weight or
supplier or contractor
spring, are separated by their
companies. { bid )
attraction in opposite
bidirectional (ENG] Being directions toward two plate
directionally responsive to electrodes carrying the
inputs in opposite directions. { voltage to be measured. {
,bT* ds'rek-shsn-sl) bT'fHsr Hek'tram-sd-sr)
bidirectional microphone bifilar micrometer See filar
(ENG ACOUS] A microphone micrometer. { bi'fi-lsr ml'kram-
that responds equally well to sd-sr)
sounds reaching it from the
bifilar suspension [ENG] The
front and rear, corresponding
suspension of a body from (ENG] A temperature-
two parallel threads, wires, or measuring instrument in
strips. { bl'fi-lsr sss'pen-shsn ) which the differential thermal
expansion of thin, dissimilar
bilateral tolerance |DES ENG]
metals, bonded together into
The amount that the size of a
a narrow strip and coiled into
machine part is allowed to
the shape of a helix or spiral,
vary above or below a basic
is used to actuate a pointer.
dimension; for example, 3.650
Also known as differential
0.003 centimeters indicates
thermometer. { [bT-ms'tal-
a tolerance of 0.003
centimeter. {bl'lad-s-rel 'tal-
s-rans ) bin (ENG] An enclosed space,
box, or frame for the storage
bilge block |civ ENG] A
of bulk substance. { bin )
wooden support under the
turn of a ship's bilge in dry binary component ( ELECTR]
dock. { 'bilj ,blak) An electronic component that
can be in either of two condi-
bill |DES ENG] One blade of a
tions at any given time. Also
pair of scissors, jbil)
known as binary device. { 'bln-
billet (ENG] In a hydraulic s-re ksm'po-nsnt)
extrusion press, a large
binary counter See binary
cylindrical cake of plastic
sealer. { 'bln-s-re 'kaunt-sr)
material placed within the
pressing chamber. { 'bil-st) binary device See binary
component. { 'bln-s-re di'vTs )
bimetallic strip ( ENG ] A strip
formed of two dissimilar binary encoder (ELECTR] An
metals welded together; encoder that changes
different temperature angular, linear, or other forms
coefficients of expansion of of input data into binary
the metals cause the strip to coded output characters. {
bend or curl when the 'bln-s-re en'kod-sr)
temperature changes. { [bT-
binary logic (ELECTR] An
ms'tal-ik ,strip )
assembly of digital logic
bimetallic thermometer elements which operate with
two distinct states. { 'bln-s-re application of pressure
'laj-ik) without the addition of a
binder. { 'bln-dsr-lss bri'ked-irj
binary sealer (ELECTR] A
sealer that produces one
output pulse for every two binding post (ELEC] A
input pulses. Also known as manually turned screw
binary counter; scale-of-two terminal used for making
circuit. { 'bln-s-re ]ska-lsr) electrical connections. { 'bin-
dig ,post )
binary separation (CHEM
ENG] Separation by distillation bind-seize See freeze. {[bind
or solvent extraction of a fully [sez )
misci-ble liquid mixture of two
biochemical profile (IND
chemical compounds. { 'bln-s-
ENG] Data recorded by both
re sep-s'ra-shsn )
electromyographic and
binary signal (ELECTR] A biomechanical means during
voltage or current which the performance of a task to
carries information by varying evaluate changes in the
between two possible values, functional capacity of a worker
corresponding to 0 and 1 in resulting from modifications in
the binary system. { 'bln-s-re human-equipment interfaces.
'sig-nsl) { [bl-o'kem-o-kol 'pro,fll)
binary system (ENG] Any biocontrol system (CONT
system containing two SYS] A mechanical system
principal components. { 'bln- that is controlled by biological
s-re 'sis-torn) signals, for example, a
prosthesis controlled by
binder course (civ ENG]
muscle activity. { ,bl-o-k3n'trol
Coarse aggregate with a
,sis-t3m )
bituminous binder between
the foundation course and bioengineering (ENG] The
the wearing course of a application of engineering
pavement. { 'bin-dor ,kors ) knowledge to the fields of
medicine and biology. { ^I-
binderlessbriquetting (ENG]
o^n-js'nir-ig )
Thebriquettingof coal by the
biofilter (ENG] An emission recording biological functions
control device that uses during space flight. { 'bl-o,pak)
microorganisms to destroy
biosolid (civ ENG] A
volatile organic compounds
recyclable, primarily organic
and hazardous air pollutants. {
solid material produced by
wastewater treatment
bioinstrumentation (ENG] processes. { ]bl-o,sal-3d )
The use of instruments
biostabilizer (civ ENG ] A
attached to animals and man
component in mechanized
to record biological
composting systems; consists
parameters such as breathing
of a drum in which moistened
rate, pulse rate, body
solid waste is comminuted
temperature, or oxygen in the
and tumbled for about 5 days
blood. { [bl-Oiin-strs-msn'ta-
until the aeration and
shsn )
biodegradation turns the
biomedical engineering waste into a fine dark
(ENG] The application of compost. { ^I-o'stab-slJz-sr)
engineering technology to the
biotechnical robot (CONT
solution of medical problems;
SYS] A robot that requires the
examples are the develop-
presence of a human operator
ment of prostheses such as
in order to function. {[bl-oltek-
artificial valves for the heart,
ns-ksl 'ro,bat)
various types of sensors for
the blind, and automated biotelemetry (ENG] The use
artificial limbs. { ,bl-o'med-3- of telemetry techniques,
ksl ,en-J3'nir-ir)) especially radio waves, to
study behavior and physiology
bionics (ENG] The study of
of living things. { [bl-o-ts'lem-
systems, particularly
3-tre )
electronic systems, which
function after the manner of Biot-Fourier equation
living systems. { bl'an-iks ) (THERMO] An equation for
heat conduction which states
biopak (ENG] A container for
that the rate of change of
housing a living organism in a
temperature at any point
habitable environment and for
divided by the thermal
diffusivity equals the surface when an electric
Laplacian of the temperature. current is passed through a
{]byo ]fiir-ya i'kwa-zhon ) cell. { bl'po-lor i'lek.trod}
biotron |ENG] A test chamber bipolar integrated circuit
used for biological research |ELECTR] An integrated circuit
within which the environmental in which the principal element
conditions can be completely is the bipolar junction
controlled, thus allowing transistor. { br'po-lor 'in-
observations of the effect of to,grad-od 'sor-kot )
variations in environment on
bipolar junction transistor
living organisms. { 'bT-o,tran )
|ELECTR] A bipolar transistor
bipolar amplifier |ELECTR] An that is composed entirely of
amplifier capable of supplying one type of semiconductor,
a pair of output signals corres- silicon. Abbreviated B]T. Also
ponding to the positive or known as silicon
negative polarity of the input homojunction. { ]bT,pol-or
signal. { bl'po-lor 'am-plo^T- ,jor)k-shon tran'zis-tor)
bipolar magnetic driving unit
bipolar circuit |ELECTR] A |ENG ACOUS] Headphone or
logic circuit in which zeros and loudspeaker unit having two
ones are treated in a magnetic poles acting directly
symmetric or bipolar manner, on a flexible iron diaphragm. {
rather than by the presence bT'po-lor mag'ned-ik 'drivirj
or absence of a signal; for ,yu-not)
example, a balanced
bipolar spin device See
arrangement in a square-
magnetic switch. {jbT,po* lor
loop-ferrite magnetic circuit. {
'spin di,vTs )
bT'po-lor 'sor-kot)
bipolar spin switch See
bipolar electrode |ELEC]
magnetic switch. {]bT,po-lor
Electrode, without metallic
'spin ,swich )
connection with the current
supply, one face of which acts bipolar transistor |ELECTR]
as anode surface andthe A transistor that uses both
opposite face as a cathode positive and negative charge
carriers. { bl'po-lor tranz'is-tor) bistable circuit |ELECTR] A
circuit with two stable states
birdcaged wire [ENG] Wire
such that the transition
rope whose strands have
between the states cannot be
been distorted into the shape
accomplished by self-
of a birdcage by a sudden
triggering. { ;bi;sta-bol ,sar-
release of a load during a
hoisting operation. { 'bord,kajd
,wTr) bistable unit [ENG] A physical
element that can be made to
Birkeland-Eyde process
assume either of two stable
|CHEM ENG] An arc process of
states; a binary cell is an
nitrogen fixation in which air
example. {]bl]sta-bol 'yii-not)
passes through an
alternating-current arc bistatic radar (ENG] Radar
flattened by a magnetic field system in which the receiver is
to form about 1% nitric oxide. some distance from the
{ |bork-tand [T-do 'pras-os ) transmitter, with separate
antennas for each. { 'bT,stad-
Birmingham wire gage |DES
ik 'ra,dar)
ENG] A system of standard
sizes of brass wire, telegraph bit (DES ENG] 1. A machine
wire, steel tubing, seamless part for drilling or boring. 2.
tubing, sheet spring steel, The cutting plate of a plane. 3.
strip steel, and steel plates, The blade of a cutting tool
bands, and hoops. Ab- such as an ax. 4. A removable
breviated BWG. { 'bor-mig-om tooth of a saw. 5. Any cutting
'wTr ,gaj ) device which is attached to or
part of a drill rod or drill string
birth-death process |IND
to bore or penetrate rocks. {
ENG] A simple queuing model
in which units to be served
arrive (birth) and depart bit blank (DES ENG] A steel bit
(death) in a completely ran- in which diamonds or other
dom manner. {[borth [deth cutting media may be inset by
,pra,sos ) hand peening or attached by a
mechanical process such as
biscuit See preform. { 'bis-
casting, sintering, or brazing.
Also known as bit shank; bittern (CHEM ENG]
blank; blank bit; shank. { 'bit Concentrated sea water or
.blarjk) brine containing the bromides
and magnesium and calcium
bit breaker (DES ENG] A
salts left in solution after
heavy plate that fits in a
sodium chloride has been
rotary table for holding the drill
removed by crystallization. {
bit while it is being inserted or
'bid-orn )
broken out of the drill stem. {
'bit ,brak-or) bituminous distributor
(MECH ENG] A tank truck
bit cone See roller cone bit. {
having a perforated spray bar
'bit ,kon )
and used for pumping hot
bit drag (DES ENG] A rotary- bituminous material onto the
drilling bit that has serrated surface of a road or driveway.
teeth. Also known as drag { br]tum-o-nos dis'trib-yod-or)
bit. { 'bit ,drag )
bivane (ENG] A double-
bite (ENG] In glazing, the jointed vane which measures
length of overlap of the inner vertical as well as horizontal
edge of a frame over the edge wind direction. { 'bT,van )
of the glass. { bit)
blackbody (THERMO] An
bit matrix (ENG] The ideal body which would
material, usually powdered absorb all incident radiation
and fused tungsten carbide, and reflect none. Also known
into which diamonds are set in as hohlraum; ideal radiator. {
the manufacture of diamond 'blak;bad-e )
bits. { 'bit ,ma-triks )
blackbody radiation
bitrochanteric width ( IND (THERMO] The emission of
ENG ] A measurement radiant energy which would
corresponding to hip breadth take place from a blackbody
that is used in seating design. at a fixed temperature; it takes
{ ,bi*tr3,kanjter*ik 'width ) place at a rate expressed by
the Stefan-Boltzmann law,
bit shank See bit blank. { 'bit with a spectral energy
,shar)k) distribution described by
Planck's equation. { 'blak]bad- 'smok)
e ,ra-de'a-shon )
black-surface enclosure
blackbody temperature (THERMO] An enclosure for
|THERMO] The temperature of which the interior surfaces of
a blackbody that emits the the walls possess the
same amount of heat radiation radiation characteristics of a
per unit area as a given black-body. { 'blak ,s3r-fes
object; measured by a total in'klozh-sr)
radiation pyrometer. Also
blacktop paver (MECH ENG] A
known as brightness
construction vehicle that
temperature. { 'blak]bad-e
spreads a specified thickness
of bituminous mixture over a
black box [ENG] Any prepared surface. { 'blak,tap
component, usually electronic ,pavar)
and having known input and
bladder press (MECH ENG ] A
output, that can be readily
machine which simultaneously
inserted into or removed from
molds and cures (vulcanizes)
a specific place in a larger
a pneumatic tire. { 'blad-sr
system without knowledge of
,pres )
the component's detailed
internal structure. { 'blak ,baks blade (ELEC] A flat moving
) conductor in a switch, (ENG]
1. A broad, flat arm of a fan,
black-bulb thermometer
turbine, or propeller. 2. The
[ENG] A thermometer whose
broad, flat surface of a
sensitive element has been
bulldozer or snowplow by
made to approximate a
which the material is moved.
blackbody by covering it with
3. The part of a cutting tool,
lampblack. { 'blak ,bslb
such as a saw, that cuts. {
blad )
black smoke (ENG] A smoke
bladed-surface aerator (civ
that has many par-ticulates in
ENG] A bladed, rotating
it from inefficient combustion;
component of a water
comes from burning fossil
treatment plant; used to
fuel, either coal or oil. { ]blak
infuse air into the water. {
'blad-sd ,s3r-fos 'er,ad-sr) solid disk used to close off or
seal a companion flange. {
Blake jaw crusher (MECH
'blagk 'flanj )
ENG] A crusher with one fixed
jaw plate and one pivoted at blankholder slide (MECH
the top so as to give the ENG] The outer slide of a
greatest movement on the double-action power press; it
smallest lump. { 'blak 'jo is usually operated by toggles
,kresh-3r) or cams. { 'blagk,hol-d3r ,slTd )
blank (DES ENG] See bit blanking (ENG] 1. The
blank, (ELECTR] TO cut off the closing off of flow through a
electron beam of a television liquid-containing process pipe
picture tube, camera tube, or by the insertion of solid disks
cathode-ray oscilloscope tube at joints or unions; used
during the process of retrace during maintenance and
by applying a rectangular repair work as a safety
pulse voltage to the grid or precaution. Also known as
cathode during each retrace blinding. 2. Cutting of plastic
interval. Also known as beam or metal sheets into shapes
blank, (ENG] 1. The result of by striking with a punch. Also
the final cutting operation on known as die cutting. { 'blagk-
a natural crystal. 2. See blind, ig )
blast (ENG] The setting off of a
blank bit See bit blank. { heavy explosive charge. {
'blagk ,bit) blast)
blanket gas (CHEM ENG] A blast burner (ENG] A burner
gas phase introduced into a in which a controlled burst of
vessel above a liquid phase to air or oxygen under pressure
prevent contamination of the is supplied to the illuminating
liquid, reduce hazard of gas used. Also known as
detonation, or to exert blast lamp. { 'blast ,b3r-n3r)
pressure on the liquid. Also
blast cleaning (ENG] Any
known as cushion gas. { 'blag-
cleaning process in which an
kst ,gas )
abrasive is directed at high
blank flange (DES ENG] A velocity toward the surface
being cleaned, for example, which water enters in the
sand blasting. { 'blast ,klen-ig bottom of a pump stock. {
) 'blast,hoi )
blast ditching (civ ENG] The blasthole drilling (ENG]
use of explosives to aid in Drilling to produce a series of
ditch excavation, such as for holes for placement of blasting
laying pipelines. { 'blast ,dich- charges. { 'blast,hoi ,dril-ig )
ig )
blasting (ENG] 1. Cleaning
blaster (ENG] A device for materials by a blast of air that
detonating an explosive blows small abrasive particles
charge; usually consists of a against the surface. 2. The act
machine by which an of detonating an explosive. {
operator, by pressing 'bias-tig )
downward or otherwise
blasting cap (ENG] A copper
moving a handle of the device,
shell closed at one end and
may generate a powerful
containing a charge of
transient electric current which
detonating compound, which
is transmitted to an electric
is ignited by electric current
blasting cap. Also known as
or the spark of a fuse; used
blasting machine. { 'bias-tor)
for detonating high
blast freezer (ENG] An upright explosives. { 'bias-tig ,kap )
freezer in which very cold air
blasting fuse (ENG] A core of
circulated by blowers is used
gunpowder in the center of
for rapid freezing of food. {
jute, yarn, and so on for
'blast ,fre-z3r)
igniting an explosive charge in
blast heater (MECH ENG] A a shothole. { 'bias-tig ,yQz }
heater that has a set of heat-
blasting machine See
transfer coils through which
blaster. { 'bias-tig ma'shen )
air is forced by a fan operating
at a relatively high velocity. { blasting mat (ENG] A heavy,
'blast ,hed-3r) flexible, tear-resistant
covering that is spread over
blasthole (ENG] 1. A hole that
the surface during blasting to
takes a heavy charge of
contain earth fragments. {
explosive. 2. The hole through
'blast-ig ,mat) and to provide a stabilizing
load, [ENG] A connection
blast lamp See blast burner;
located at a low place in an
blowtorch. { 'blast , lamp )
air line or a gasoline container
blast wall [ENG] A heavy wall so that, by means of a small
used to isolate buildings or valve, the condensed water or
areas which contain highly other liquid can be drained or
combustible or explosive bled off from the line or con-
materials or to protect a build- tainer without discharging
ing or area from blast damage the air or gas. { 'bled-or)
when exposed to explosions. {
bleeder turbine [MECH ENG] A
'blast ,wol)
multistage turbine where
Blears effect [ENG] The steam is extracted (bled) at
dependence of the signal pressures intermediate
from an ionization gage on between throttle and exhaust,
the geometry of the system for process or feedwater
being measured when an heating purposes. { 'bled-or
organic vapor is present in the ,t3r-bsn )
vacuum; the effect can falsify
bleeding [CHEM ENG] The
measurement results by up to
undesirable movement of
an order of magnitude. { 'blirz
certain components of a
plastic material to the surface
bleed [ENG] TO let a fluid, of a finished article. Also
such as air or liquid oxygen, known as migration, [ENG]
escape under controlled Natural separation of a liquid
conditions from a pipe, tank, from a liquid-solid or semisolid
or the like through a valve or mixture; for example,
outlet. { bled) separation of oil from a stored
lubricating grease, or water
bleeder [ELECTR] A high from freshly poured concrete.
resistance connected across Also known as bleedout. {
the dc output of a high- 'bled-irj)
voltage power supply which
serves to discharge the filter bleeding cycle [MECH ENG] A
capacitors after the power steam cycle in which steam is
supply has been turned off, drawn from the turbine at one
or more stages and used to Measure of the ability of
heat the feedwater. Also
an added component (for
known as regenerative cycle.
example, tetraethyl-lead,
{ 'bled-irj ,sl-ksl)
isooctane, and aromatics) to
bleedout See bleeding. { affect the octane rating of a
'bled,aut) base gasoline stock. { 'blen-
dig ,val-yu )
bleed valve [ ENG ] A small-
flow valve connected to a fluid blendstock See blending
process vessel or line for the stock. { 'blend,stak )
purpose of bleeding off small
blend stop [BUILD] A thin
quantities of contained fluid. {
wood strip fastened to the
'bled ,valv )
exterior vertical edge of the
blended data [ENG] Q point pulley stile or jamb to hold the
that is the combination of sash in position. { 'blend ,stap
scan data and track data to )
form a vector. {[blen-dsd 'dad-
blind [ENG] A solid disk
inserted at a pipe joint or
blending problem [IND ENG] A union to prevent the flow of
linear programming problem in fluids through the pipe; used
which it is required to find the during maintenance and
least costly mix of ingredients repair work as a safety
which yields the desired precaution. Also known as
product characteristics. { blank. { blind )
'blen-dirj ,prab-bm )
blind controller system
blending stock [CHEM ENG] [CONT SYS] A process control
Any substance used for arrangement that separates
compounding gasoline, the in-plant measuring points
including natural gasoline, (for example, pressure, tem-
catalytically reformed perature, and flow rate) and
products, and additives. Also control points (for example, a
known as blendstock. { 'blen- valve actuator) from the
dig ,stak) recorder or indicator at the
central control panel. {[blind
blending value [ENG]
ksn'trol-sr ,sis-t3m )
blind drilling [ ENG ] Drilling in having one end closed off;
which the drilling fluid is not commonly used in boiler
returned to the surface. { construction. {[blind 'nip-sl)
'blind 'dril-iq )
blind spot [ENG] An area on
blind flange [DES ENG] A a filter screen where no
flange used to close the end filtering occurs. Also known as
of a pipe. {[blind 'flanj ) dead area. { 'blind ,spat )
blind floor See subfloor. { blink [MECH] A unit of time
[blind 'flor) equal to 10"5 day or to 0.864
second. { blirjk )
blind hole [DES ENG] A hole
which does not pass blister [ENG] A raised area on
completely through a the surface of a metallic or
workpiece. [ENG] A type of plastic object caused by the
borehole that does not have pressure of gases developed
the drilling mud or other while the surface was in a
circulating medium carry the partly molten state, or by
cuttings to the surface. { [blind diffusion of high-pressure
'hoi) gases from an inner surface. {
blinding [ ENG ] 1. A thin layer
of lean concrete, fine gravel, blistering [ENG] The
or sand that is applied to a appearance of enclosed or
surface to smooth over voids broken macroscopic cavities
in order to provide a cleaner, in a body or in a glaze or
drier, or more durable finish. other coating during firing. {
2. A layer of small rock chips 'blis-ts-rig}
applied over the surface of a
block [DES ENG] 1. A metal or
freshly tarred road. 3. See
wood case enclosing one or
blanking. { 'blln-dirj )
more pulleys; has a hook with
blind joint [ENG] A joint which it can be attached to an
which is not visible from any object. 2. See cylinder block. {
angle. { [blind 'joint) blak )
blind nipple [MECH ENG] A block and fall See block and
short piece of piping or tubing tackle. { [blak on 'fol)
block and tackle [MECH ENG] when its moving elements are
Combination of a rope or blocked so they cannot move;
other flexible material and represents the resistance due
independently rotating only to electrical losses. {
frictionless pulleys. Also 'blakt ri'zis-tsns )
known as block and fall. {
blocker-type forging | ENG ] A
,blak on 'tak-sl )
type of forging for designs
block brake |MECH ENG] A involving the use of large radii
brake which consists of a and draft angles, smooth
block or shoe of wood contours, and generous
bearing upon an iron or steel allowances. { 'blak-sr ,tTp 'for-
wheel. { 'blak ,brak ) jirj)
block diagram |ENG] A block hole [ENG] A small
diagram in which the essential hole drilled into a rock or
units of any system are drawn boulder into which an anchor
in the form of rectangles or bolt or a small charge or
blocks and their relation to explosive may be placed;
each other is indicated by used in quarries for breaking
appropriate connecting lines. { large blocks of stone or
'blak ^T-^gram ) boulders. { 'blak ,hol)
blocked operation |CHEM blockhouse (ENG] 1. A
ENG] The use of a single reinforced concrete structure,
chemical or refinery process often built underground or
unit alternately in more than half-underground, and
one operation; for example, a sometimes dome-shaped, to
catalytic reactor will first provide protection against
produce a chemical product blast, heat, or explosion
and then will be blocked from during rocket launchings or
the main process stream related activities, and usually
during catalyst regeneration. housing electronic equipment
{ 'blakt ap-s'ra-shsn ) used in launching the rocket.
2. The activity that goes on in
blocked resistance | ENG
such a structure. { 'blak,haus )
ACOUS ] Resistance of an
audio-frequency transducer blocking (ELECTR] 1. Applying
a high negative bias to the 'blak ,sek-sh3n )
grid of an electron tube to
block signal system (CONT
reduce its anode current to
SYS] An automatic railroad
zero. 2. Overloading a
traffic control system in which
receiver by an unwanted
the track is sectionalized into
signal so that the automatic
electrical circuits to detect the
gain control reduces the
presence of trains, engines, or
response to a desired signal.
cars. { 'blak 'sig-nsl ,sis-t3m )
3. Distortion occurring in a
resistance-capacitance- block system (civ ENG] A
coupled electron tube railroad system for controlling
amplifier stage when grid train movements by using
current flows in the following signals between block posts,
tube, (ENG] Undesired that is, the structures that
adhesion between layers of contain the instruments
plastic materials in contact indicating the positions of
during storage or use. { 'blak- trains, conditions within block
irj ) sections, and control levers
for signals and other
blocking capacitor See
functions. { 'blak ,sis-t3m )
coupling capacitor. { 'blak-irj
ks'pas-sd-sr) blood bank (ENG] A place for
storing whole blood or
blocking layer See depletion
plasma under refrigeration. {
layer. { 'blak-ig ,la*
'blsd ,bar)k)
bloom (ENG] 1. Fluorescence
block plane (DES ENG] A in lubricating oils or a cloudy
small type of hand plane, surface on varnished or
designed for cutting across enameled surfaces. 2. To
the grain of the wood and for apply an antireflection coating
planing end grains. { 'blak to glass. { blum )
,plan )
blotter (ENG] A disk of
block section (civ ENG] In a compressible material used
railroad system, a specific between a grinding wheel and
length of track that is its flanges to avoid
controlled by stop signals. { concentrated stress. { 'blad-
sr) Removal of liquids or solids
from a process vessel or
blotter press (CHEM ENG] A
storage vessel or aline by the
plate-and-frame filter in which
use of pressure, (MECH ENG]
the filter medium is blotting
The difference between the
paper. { 'blad-sr ,press )
pressure at which the safety
blowback (CHEM ENG] 1. A valve opens and the closing
continuous stream of liquid or pressure. Also known as
gas bled through air lines from blowback. { 'blo,daun )
instruments and to the
blowdown line (CHEM ENG] A
process line being monitored;
large conduit to receive and
prevents process fluid from
confine fluids forced by
backing up and contacting the
pressure from process
instrument. 2. Reverse flow of
vessels. { 'blo,daun ,lm )
fluid through a filter medium to
remove caked solids. Also blowdown stack (CHEM ENG]
known as backwash, (MECH A vertical stack or chimney
ENG] See blowdown. { into which the contents of a
'blo,bak) chemical or petroleum
process unit are emptied in
blowby ( MECH ENG ] Leaking
case of an operational
of fluid between a cylinder
emergency. { 'bl6,daun ,stak)
and its piston during
operation. { 'blo.bT) blower ( MECH ENG ] A fan
which operates where the
blowcase (CHEM ENG] A
resistance to gas flow is
cylindrical or spherical
predominantly downstream of
corrosion- and pressure-
the fan. { 'blo-sr)
resistant container from which
acid is forced by compressed blowing (CHEM ENG] The
air to the agitator; used in introduction of compressed air
manufacture of acids but near the bottom of a tank or
largely superseded by other container in order to
centrifugal pumps. Also known agitate the liquid therein.
as acid blowcase; acid egg. { (ENG] See blow molding. { 'blo-
'blo,kas ) iq )
blowdown (CHEM ENG] blowing pressure (ENG]
Pressure of the air or other Valves in boiler piping which
gases used to inflate the facilitate removal of solid
parison in blow molding. { matter present in the boiler
'blo-irj ,presh-3r) water. { 'blo,6f ,valvz )
blowing still (CHEM ENG] A blowout [ELEC] The melting of
still or process column in an electric fuse because of
which blown or oxidized excessive current, [ENG] 1.
asphalt is made. { 'blO'ig ,stil) The bursting of a container
(such as a tube pipe,
blow-lifting gripper | CONT
pneumatic tire, or dam) by the
SYS ] A robot component that
pressure of the contained
uses compressed air to lift
fluid. 2. The rupture left by
objects. { 'bio jlift'ig ,grip-3r)
such bursting. 3. The abrupt
blow molding [ENG] A escape of air from the
method of fabricating hollow working chamber of a
plastic objects, such as pneumatic caisson. { 'blo,aut
bottles, by forcing a parison )
into a mold cavity and
blowpipe [ ENG ] 1. A long,
shaping by internal air
straight tube, used in glass
pressure. Also known as
blowing, on which molten
blowing. { 'bio ,m6l*dig )
glass is gathered and worked.
blown glass [ENG] Glassware 2. A small, tapered, and
formed by blowing air into a frequently curved tube that
ball of liquefied glass until it leads a jet, usually of air, into
reaches the desired shape. { a flame to concentrate and
jblon 'glas ) direct it; used in flame tests in
analytical chemistry and in
blown tubing [ENG] A flexible brazing and soldering of fine
thermoplastic film tube made work. 3. See blowtorch. {
by applying pressure inside a 'blo,pTp )
molten extruded plastic tube
to expand it prior to cooling blowpit See blowtank. {
and winding flat onto rolls. { 'blo.pit)
jblon 'tQ-big )
blow pressure [ENG] Air
blowoff valves [MECH ENG] pressure required for plastics
blow molding. { 'bio ,presh-3r) diameter of the die. { 'blo,3p
,ra-sho )
blow rate [ ENG ] The speed
of the cycle at which air or an blunger [ENG ] 1. A large
inert gas is applied spatula-shaped wooden
intermittently during the implement used to mix clay
forming procedure of blow with water. 2. A vat,
molding. { 'bio ,rat) containing a rotating shaft
with fixed knives, for mixing
blowtank [CHEM ENG] A tank
clay and water into slip. {
or pit, used in papermaking,
into which the contents of a
digester are blown upon blunging [ENG] The mixing or
completion of a cook. Also suspending of ceramic
known as blowpit. { 'blo,tagk) material in liquid by agitation,
to form slip. { 'blsn-jig )
blowtorch [ENG] A small,
portable blast burner which blunt file [ DES ENG ] A file
operates either by having air whose edges are parallel.
or oxygen and gaseous fuel {jblsnt ifrl)
delivered through tubes or by
blunting [DES ENG] Slightly
having a fuel tank which is
rounding a cutting edge to
pressured by a hand pump.
reduce the probability of edge
Also known as blast lamp;
chipping. { 'blsn-tig )
blowpipe. { 'blo,t6rch )
BM See barrels per month;
blowup [civ ENG] The
localized buckling or breaking
of a rigid pavement caused by BMT See basic motion-time
excess pressure along its study.
length. { 'blo,3p )
BMX bicycle [MECH ENG] A
blowup ratio [ENG] 1. In blow small, extremely strong, type
molding of plastics, the ratio of bicycle, having generally
of the diameter of the mold 20-inch (500-millimeter)
cavity to the diameter of the wheels, large-cleat (knobbly)
parison. 2. In blown tubing, tires, upright but not high-rise
the ratio of the diameter of the handlebars, and a seat
finished product to the positioned more towards the
rear wheel than on a finer work later on. 2. To finish
conventional bicycle, and the face of a building stone by
used for stunt riding and cutting a series of parallel
tricks. { ^e^en^eks 'bT,sik-3l) grooves. { bost)
board drop hammer [MECH boaster See boasting chisel. {
ENG ] A type of drop hammer 'bo-stsr)
in which the ram is attached to
boasting chisel [DES ENG] A
wooden boards which slide
broad chisel used in boasting
between two rollers; after the
stone. Also known as
ram falls freely on the forging,
boaster. { 'bos-tig ,chiz-3l)
it is raised by friction between
the rotating rollers. Also boat spike [DES ENG] Along,
known as board hammer. { square spike used in
'bord 'drap ,ham-9i) construction with heavy
timbers. Also known as barge
board-foot [ENG] Unit of
spike. { 'bot ,spTk)
volume in measuring lumber;
equals 144 cubic inches (2360 Bobillier's law [MECH] The
cubic centimeters), or the law that, in general plane rigid
volume of a board 1 foot motion, when a and b are the
square and 1 inch thick. respective centers of
Abbreviated bd-ft. { jbord'fiit) curvature of points A and B,
the angle between ha and the
board hammer See board
tangent to the cen-trode of
drop hammer. { 'bord ,ham-3r)
rotation (pole tangent) and
boarding [ENG] 1. A batch of the angle between Bb and a
boards. 2. Covering with line from the centrode to the
boards. { 'bor-dig ) intersection of AB and ab
(collineation axis) are equal
board measure [ENG]
and opposite. { bo'bil-yaz ,16 )
Measurement of lumber in
board-feet. Abbreviated bm. body [MECH ENG] The part of
{ 'bord ,mezh-3r) a drill which runs from the
outer corners of the cutting
boast [ ENG ] 1. To shape
lips to the shank or neck. {
stone or curve furniture
'bad-e )
roughly in preparation for
body centrode [MECH] The bogy. | ENG ] 1. A supporting
path traced by the and aligning wheel or roller on
instantaneous center of a the inside of an endless track.
rotating body relative to the 2. A low truck or cart of solid
body. { [bad-e 'sen,trod ) build. 3. A truck or axle to
which wheels are fixed, which
body cone [ MECH ] The cone
supports a railroad car, the
in a rigid body that is swept
leading end of a locomotive,
out by the body's
or the end of a vehicle (such
instantaneous axis during
as a gun carriage) and which
Poinsot motion. Also known
is allowed to swivel under it. 4.
as polhode cone. { 'bad-e ,kon
A railroad car or locomotive
supported by a bogie. |MECH
body force |MECH] An ENG] The drive-wheel
external force, such as assembly and supporting
gravity, which acts on all parts frame comprising the four rear
of a body. { 'bad-e ,fdrs ) wheels of a six-wheel truck,
mounted so that they can
body-load aggregate |IND self-adjust to sharp curves
ENG] A biomechani-cal unit
and irregularities in the road. {
that comprises the combined 'bo-ge )
weight of the load being
manipulated and the body boiler |MECH ENG] A water
segments involved in the heater for generating steam. {
task. {[bad-e ]lod 'a-gre-gst) 'bdil-sr)
body motion |IND ENG] boiler air heater |MECH ENG]
Motion of parts of a human A component of a steam-
body requiring a change of generating unit that transfers
posture or weight distribution. heat from the products of
{ 'bad-e ,mo-sh3n ) combustion after they have
passed through the steam-
body rotation |CONT SYS] An generating and superheating
axis of motion of a pick-and- sections to combustion air,
place robot. { 'bad-e ro,ta- which recycles heat to the
sh3n ) furnace. { 'boil-sr 'er ,hed-3r)
bogie Also spelled bogey; boiler casing |MECH ENG]
The gas-tight structure devices which maintain
surrounding the component desired boiler operating
parts of a steam generator. { conditions with respect to
'boil-sr ,kas-ir) ) variables such as feedwater
flow, firing rate, and steam
boiler circulation |MECH
temperature. { 'boil-sr ksn'trolz
ENG] Circulation of water and
steam in a boiler, which is
required to prevent boiler draft |MECH ENG] The
overheating of the heat- difference between
absorbing surfaces; may be atmospheric pressure and
provided naturally by gravita- some lower pressure existing
tional forces, mechanically by in the furnace or gas
pumps, or by a combination of passages of a steam-
both methods. { 'boil-sr ssr- generating unit. { 'boil-sr
kys'la-shsn ) ,draft)
boiler cleaning |ENG] A boiler economizer |MECH
mechanical or chemical ENG] A component of a
process for removal of steam-generating unit that
grease, scale, and other transfers heat from the
deposits from steam boiler products of combustion after
surfaces. { 'boil-sr .klen-irj ) they have passed through the
steam-generating and super-
boiler code | MECH ENG ] A
heating sections to the
code, established by
feedwater, which it recyceives
professional societies and
from the boiler feed pump
administrative units, which
and delivers to the steam-
contains the basic rules for
generating section of the
the safe design, construction,
boiler. { 'boil-sr i'kan-3,miz-3r)
and materials for steam-gen-
erating units, such as the boiler efficiency |MECH ENG]
American Society of The ratio of heat absorbed in
Mechanical Engineers code. { steam to the heat supplied in
'boil-sr ,kod) fuel, usually measured in
percent. { 'boil-sr i'fish-sn-se )
boiler controls |MECH ENG]
Either manual or automatic boiler feedwater |MECH ENG]
Water supplied to a steam- boiler hydrostatic test
generating unit. { 'boil-sr 'fed |MECH ENG] A procedure that
,wod-3r) employs water under
pressure, in a new boiler
boiler feedwater regulation
before use or in old
|MECH ENG] Addition of water
equipment after major
to the steam-generating unit
alterations and repairs, to test
at a rate commensurate with
the boiler's ability to withstand
the removal of steam from the
about I72 times the design
unit. { 'boil-sr 'fed,wod-3r reg-
pressure. { 'boil-sr hT-
ys'la-shsn )
drs'stad-ik 'test)
boiler furnace |MECH ENG] An
boiler layup |MECH ENG] A
enclosed space provided for
significant length of time
the combustion of fuel to
during which a boiler is
generate steam in a boiler.
inoperative in order to allow
Also known as steam-gener-
for repairs or preventive
ating furnace. { 'bdil-sr ^sr-nss
maintenance. { 'boil-sr 'la-sp )
boiler setting |MECH ENG]
boiler heat balance | MECH
The supporting steel and
ENG ] A means of accounting
gastight enclosure for a
for the thermal energy
steam generator. { 'boil-sr
entering a steam-generating
,sed-ir) )
system in terms of its ultimate
useful heat absorption or boiler storage | MECH ENG ] A
thermal loss. { 'boil-or 'het steam-generating unit that,
,bal-3ns ) when out of service, may be
stored wet (filled with water) or
boiler horsepower |MECH
dry (filled with protective gas).
ENG] A measurement of water
{ 'bdil-sr ,stor-ij )
evaporation rate; I boiler
horsepower equals the boiler superheater |MECH
evaporation per hour of 34'/2 ENG] A boiler component,
pounds (15.7 kilograms) of consisting of tubular elements,
water at 212F (100C) into in which heat is added to
steam at 212F. Abbreviated high-pressure steam to
bhp. { 'boil-or 'h6rs,pau-3r) increase its temperature and
enthalpy. { 'boil-sr [sii- conditions of exposure, as in
psr.hed-sr) the tank of a rocket being
readied for launch. { 'b6il,6f)
boiler trim |MECH ENG] Piping
or tubing close to or bollard |civ ENG] A heavy
attachedto a boiler for post on a dock or ship used
connecting controls, gages, or in mooring ships. { 'bal-srd )
other instrumentation. { 'boil-
holograph | ENG ] Any
or ,trim )
graphical record made by a
boiler tube |MECH ENG] One bolometer; in particular, a
of the tubes in a boiler that graph formed by directing a
carry water (water-tube boiler) pencil of light reflected from
to be heated by the high- the galvanometer of the
temperature gaseous prod- bolometer at a moving photo-
ucts of combustion or that graphic film. { 'bol-^graf)
carry combustion products
bolometer |ENG] An
(fire-tube boiler) to heat the
instrument that measures the
boiler water that surrounds
energy of electromagnetic
them. { 'boil-sr ,tiib )
radiation in certain
boiler walls |MECH ENG] The wavelength regions by
refractory walls of the boiler utilizing the change in
furnace, usually cooled by resistance of a thin conductor
circulating water and capable caused by the heating effect
of withstanding high tempera- of the radiation. Also known
tures and pressures. { 'boil-sr as thermal detector. { bs'lam-
,wolz ) sd-sr)
boiler water |MECH ENG] bolster |ENG] A plate for
Water in the steam-generating maintaining a fixed space
section of a boiler unit. { 'boil- between stacked heat
sr ,wod-3r) exchangers or heat-
exchanger shells. { 'bol-stsr)
boil-off |THERMO] The
vaporization of a liquid, such bolster plate |MECH ENG] A
as liquid oxygen or liquid plate fixed on the bed of a
hydrogen, as its temperature power press to locate and
reaches its boiling point under support the die assembly. {
'bol-stsr ,plat) concrete from adhering to
the bolt. { 'bolt ,slev )
bolt |DES ENG] A rod, usually
of metal, with a square, Boltzmann engine |THERMO]
round, or hexagonal head at An ideal thermo-dynamic
one end and a screw thread engine that utilizes blackbody
on the other, used to fasten radiation; used to derive the
objects together. { bolt) Stefan-Boltzmann law. {
'bolts-msn ,en-J3n )
bolt blank |DES ENG] A
threadless bolt with a head bomb ballistics |MECH] The
that can be threaded for special branch of ballistics
specific applications. Also concerned with bombs
known as screw blank. { 'bolt dropped from aircraft. { 'bam
,blar)k) bs'lis-tiks )
bolted joint | ENG ] The bomb calorimeter [ENG] A
assembly of two or more parts calorimeter designed with a
by a threaded bolt and nut or strong-walled container con-
by a screw that passes structed of a corrosion-
through one member and resistant alloy, called the
threads into another. { [bol- bomb, immersed in about 2.5
tsd 'joint) liters of water in a metal
container; the sample, usually
bolted rail crossing | civ ENG
an organic compound, is
] A crossing whose running
ignited by electricity, and the
surfaces are made of rolled
heat generated is measured.
rail and whose parts are
{ 'bam kal-s'rim-sd-or}
joined with bolts. { [bol-tsd ,ral
'kros-irj) bombproof | ENG ] Referring
to shelter, building, or other
bolting |ENG] A fastening
installation resistant or
system using screw-threaded
impervious to the effects of
devices such as nuts, bolts,
bomb explosions. { 'bam,pruf)
or studs. { 'bol-tiq )
bomb shelter | civ ENG ] A
bolt sleeve |DES ENG] A tube
bomb-proof structure for
designed to surround a bolt in
protection of people. { 'bam
a concrete wall to prevent the
bomb test (ENG] A leak- wire, usually in zigzag form,
testing technique in which the embedded in an insulating
vessel to be tested is backing material, such as
immersed in a pressurized impregnated paper or plastic,
fluid which will be driven which is cemented to the
through any leaks present. { pressure-sensing element. {
'bam ,test) ]ban-dsd 'stran ,gaj )
bond (civ ENG] A piece of bonded transducer (ENG] A
building material that serves transducer which employs a
to unite or bond, such as an bonded strain gage for
arrangement of masonry sensing pressure. { ]ban-dsd
units, (ELEC] The connection tranz'du-ssr)
made by bonding electrically,
bonder See bondstone. {
(ENG] 1. A wire rope that
fixes loads to a crane hook.
2. Adhesion between cement bond header (BUILD] In
or concrete and masonry or masonry, a stone that extends
reinforcement. { band ) the full thickness of the wall.
Also known as throughstone.
Bond and Wang theory
{ 'band ,hed-3r)
(MECH ENG] A theory of
crushing and grinding from bonding (ELEC] The use of
which the energy, in low-resistance material to
horsepower-hours, required to connect electrically a chassis,
crush a short ton of material is metal shield cans, cable
derived. {[band on 'warj ,the* shielding braid, and other sup-
3-re) posedly equipotential points to
eliminate undesirable
bond course (BUILD] A
electrical interaction resulting
course of headers to bond
from high-impedance paths
the facing masonry to the
between them. (ENG] 1. The
backing masonry. { 'band ,kors
fastening together of two
components of a device by
bonded strain gage (ENG] A means of adhesives, as in
strain gage in which the anchoring the copper foil of
resistance element is a fine printed wiring to an insulating
baseboard. 2. See cladding. { )
'ban-dirj )
bond strength [ENG] The
bonding strength (MECH] amount of adhesion between
Structural effectiveness of bonded surfaces measured in
adhesives, welds, solders, terms of the stress required to
glues, or of the chemical bond separate a layer of material
formed between the metallic from the base to which it is
and ceramic components of a bonded. { 'band ,strer)kth )
cermet, when subjected to
bond timber [BUILD] A section
stress loading, for example,
of wood built horizontally into
shear, tension, or
a brick or stone wall in order
compression. { 'ban-dirj
to strengthen it or to hold it
,strerjkth )
together during construction. {
Bond's law (MECH ENG] A 'band ,tim-bor)
statement that relates the
boom [ENG] 1. A row of joined
work required for the crushing
floating timbers that extend
of solid materials (for
across a river or enclose an
example, rocks and ore) to
area of water for the purpose
the product size and surface
of keeping saw logs together.
area and the lengths of
2. A temporary floating
cracks formed. Also known as
barrier launched on a body of
Bond's third theory. { 'banz '16
water to contain material, for
example, an oil spill. 3. A
Bond's third theory See structure consisting of joined
Bond's law. { 'banz ,thord 'the- floating logs placed in a
o-re) stream to retard the flow,
[MECH ENG] A movable steel
bondstone [BUILD] A stone
arm installed on certain types
joining the coping above a
of cranes or derricks to
gable to the wall. |civ ENG] A
support hoisting lines that
masonry stone set with its
must carry loads. { bum )
longest dimension per-
pendicular to the wall face to boom cat [MECH ENG] A
bind the wall together. Also tractor supporting a boom
known as bonder. { 'band,ston and used in laying pipe. { bum
,kat) { 'bord ,sin-tho-sos )
boom dog [MECH ENG] A boost [ELECTR] TO augment
ratchet device installed on a in relative intensity, as to
crane to prevent the boom of boost the bass response in
the crane from being lowered an audio system, [ENG] TO
but permitting it to be raised. bring about a more potent
Also known as boom ratchet. explosion of the main charge
{ 'bum ,dog) of an explosive by using an
additional charge to set it off. {
boomer [ENG] A device used
to tighten chains on pipe or
other equipment loaded on a booster [ELEC] A small
truck to make the cargo generator inserted in series or
secure. { 'biim-or) parallel with a larger generator
to maintain normal voltage
boomerang sediment corer
output under heavy loads.
[ENG] A device, designed for
[ELECTR] 1. A separate radio-
nighttime recovery of a
frequency amplifier connected
sediment core, which
between an antenna and a
automatically returns to the
television receiver to amplify
surface after taking the
weak signals. 2. A radio-
sample. { 'bu-mo,rar) 'sed-o-
frequency amplifier that
mont ,kor-or)
amplifies and re-broadcasts a
boom ratchet See boom dog. received television or
{ 'bum ,rach-ot) communication radio carrier
frequency for reception by the
boom stop [MECH ENG] A general public. [ MECH ENG ]
steel projection on a crane A compressor that is used as
that will be struck by the boom the first stage in a cascade
if it is raised or lowered too refrigerating system. { 'bus-
great a distance. { 'bum tor)
booster brake [MECH ENG] An
Boord synthesis [CHEM ENG] auxiliary air chamber,
A method of producing alpha operated from the intake
olefins by the reduction of manifold vacuum, and
alpha bromo ethers with zinc. connected to the regular
brake pedal, so that less or device designed to bring
pedal pressure is required for itself into a desired state by
braking. { 'bus-tor ,brak) means of its own action. {
'but,strap )
booster ejector [MECH ENG] A
nozzle-shaped apparatus from bootstrap circuit [ELECTR] A
which a high-velocity jet of single-stage amplifier in which
steam is discharged to the output load is connected
produce a continuous-flow between the negative end of
vacuum for process the anode supply and the
equipment. { 'bus-tor e'jek- cathode, while signal voltage
tor) is applied between grid and
cathode; a change in grid volt-
booster fan [MECH ENG] A fan
age changes the input signal
used to increase either the
voltage with respect to ground
total pressure or the volume
by an amount equal to the
of flow. { 'bus-tor ,fan )
output signal voltage. {
booster pump [MECH ENG] A 'but,strap ,sor-kot)
machine used to increase
bootstrap driver [ELECTR]
pressure in a water or
Electronic circuit used to
compressed-air pipe. { 'bus-
produce a square pulse to
tor ,pomp )
drive the modulator tube; the
booster stations [ENG] duration of the square pulse
Booster pumps or com- is determined by a pulse-
pressors located at intervals forming line. { 'but ,strap
along a liquid-products or gas ,drTvor)
pipeline to boost the
bootstrap integrator
pressure of the flowing fluid to
[ELECTR] A bootstrap
keep it moving toward its
sawtooth generator in which
destination. { 'bus-tor ,sta-
an integrating amplifier is
shonz )
used in the circuit. Also
bootjack [ENG] A fishing tool known as Miller generator. {
used in drilling wells. { 'but,strap 'in-to,grad-or)
bootstrapping [ELECTR] A
bootstrap [ENG] A technique technique for lifting a
generator circuit above borehole survey | ENG ] Also
ground by a voltage value known as drill-hole survey. 1.
derived from its own output Determining the course of
signal. { 'but ,strap-ir) ) and the target point reached
by a borehole, using an
bootstrap sawtooth
azimuth-and-dip recording
generator [ELECTR] A circuit
apparatus small enough to be
capable of generating a highly
lowered into a borehole. 2.
linear positive sawtooth
The record of the information
waveform through the use of
thereby obtained. { 'b6r,hol
bootstrapping. {]but,strap
,s3r-va )
]so,tuth 'jen-o,rad-or)
borer |MECH ENG] An
bore [DES ENG] Inside
apparatus used to bore
diameter of a pipe or tube,
openings into the earth up to
[MECH ENG] 1. The diameter of
about 8 feet (2.4 meters) in
a piston-cylinder mechanism
diameter. { 'bor-sr)
as found in reciprocating
engines, pumps, and borescope (ENG] A straight-
compressors. 2. To penetrate tube telescope using a mirror
or pierce with a rotary tool. 3. or prism, used to visually
To machine a workpiece to inspect a cylindrical cavity,
increase the size of an such as the cannon bore of
existing hole in it. { bor) artillery weapons for defects of
manufacture and erosion
borehole See drill hole. {
caused by firing. { 'b6r,skop )
boresighting (ENG] Initial
borehole bit See noncoring
alignment of a directional
bit. { 'bor,hol ,bit)
microwave or radar antenna
borehole logging [ENG] The system by using an optical
technique of investigating and procedure or a fixed target at
recording the character of the a known location. { 'b6r,sTd-ir)
formation penetrated by a drill )
hole in mineral exploration
boring bar (MECH ENG] A rigid
and exploitation work. Also
tool holder used to machine
known as drill-hole logging. {
internal surfaces. { 'bdr-iq
'b6r,h6l ,lag-ir))
,bar) minimize leakage. {]bosh 'fyul
in'jek-shsn ,p3mp)
boring log See drill log. {
'bor-ig ,lag ) Bosch metering system
(MECH ENG] A system having a
boring machine (MECH ENG]
helical groove in the plunger
A machine tool designed to
which covers or uncovers
machine internal work such as
openings in the barrel of the
cylinders, holes in castings,
pump; most usually applied in
and dies; types are horizontal,
diesel engine fuel-injection
vertical, jig, and single. { 'bor-
systems. {[bosh 'med-s-rir)
iq mo 'shen )
boring mill (MECH ENG] A
boss (DES ENG]
boring machine tool used
Protuberance on a cast
particularly for large
metal or plastic part to add
workpieces; types are
strength, facilitate assembly,
horizontal and vertical. { 'bor-
provide for fastenings, or so
ig ,mil)
forth. { bos )
borrow (civ ENG] Earth
Boston ridge (BUILD] A
material such as sand and
method of applying shingles
gravel that is taken from one
to the ridge of a house by
location to be used as fill at
which the shingles alternate
another. { 'ba-ro )
in overlap from one side of
borrow pit (civ ENG] An the ridge to the other. { 'bos-
excavation dug to provide ton ,rij )
material (borrow) for fill
bottle (ENG] A container
elsewhere. { 'ba-ro ,pit)
made from pipe or plate with
bort bit See diamond bit. { drawn, forged, or spun end
'bort ,pit) closures, and used for
storing or transporting gas.
Bosch fuel injection pump { 'bad-si )
(MECH ENG] A pump in the fuel
injection system of an internal bottle centrifuge (ENG] A
combustion engine, whose centrifuge in which the
pump plunger and barrel are a mixture to be separated is
very close lapped fit to poured into small bottles or
test tubes; they are then of a vertical reciprocating
placed in a rotor assembly engine, compressor, or pump
which is spun rapidly. { 'bad-sl when the piston is at the end
'sen-tra,fyuj ) of its down stroke.
Abbreviated BDC. { 'bad-sm
bottleneck assignment
,ded 'sen-tor)
problem (IND ENG] A linear
programming problem in bottom dump (ENG] A
which it is required to assign construction wagon with
machines to jobs (or vice movable gates in the bottom
versa) so that the efficiency of to allow vertical discharge of
the least efficient operation is its contents. { 'bad-sm ,d3mp
maximized. { 'bad-3l,nek )
s'sTn-msnt ,prab-bm )
bottomed hole (ENG] A
bottle thermometer (ENG] A completed borehole, or a
thermoelectric thermometer borehole in which drilling
used for measuring air operations have been
temperature; the name is discontinued. {[bad-smd 'hoi)
derived from the fact that the
bottom flow (ENG] A molding
reference thermocouple is
apparatus that forms hollow
placed in an insulated bottle. {
plastic articles by injecting the
'bad-sl thsr'mam-sd-sr)
blowing air at the bottom of
bottom blow (ENG] A type of the mold. { 'bad-3m ,flo )
plastics blow molding
bottoming drill (DES ENG] A
machine in which air is
flat-ended twist drill designed
injected into the parison from
to convert a cone at the
the bottom of the mold. {
bottom of a drilled hole into a
'bad-sm ,blo )
cylinder. { 'bad-om-iq ,dril)
bottom chord (civ ENG] Any
bottoms (CHEM ENG]
of the bottom series of truss
Residual fractions that remain
members parallel to the
at the bottom of a
roadway of a bridge. { 'bad-
fractionating tower following
sm ,kord )
distillation of the lighter
bottom dead center (MECH components. { 'bad-smz )
ENG] The position of the crank
bottom sampler (ENG] Any Friction between surfaces that
instrument used to obtain a are neither completely dry nor
sample from the bottom of a completely separated by a
body of water. { 'bad-sm ,sam- lubricant. { 'baun-dre .frik-shsn
pl3r) )
bottom tap (DES ENG] A tap boundary lubrication [ENG] A
with a chamfer I to IV2 lubricating condition that is a
threads in length. { 'bad-sm combination of solid-to-solid
,tap ) surface contact and liquid-film
shear. { 'baun-dre Ju-brs'ka-
boulder buster (ENG] A
shsn )
heavy, pyramidal- or conical-
point steel tool which may be boundary monument [ENG] A
attached to the bottom end of material object placed on or
a string of drill rods and used near a boundary line to
to break, by impact, a boulder preserve and identify the
encountered in a borehole. location of the boundary line
Also known as boulder on the ground. { 'baun-dre
cracker. { 'bol-dsr ,b3s-tsr) ,man-y3-m3nt)
boulder cracker See boulder boundary survey [ENG] A
buster. { 'bol-dsr ,krak-or) survey made to establish or to
reestablish a boundary line on
bounce table (MECH ENG] A
the ground or to obtain data
testing device which subjects
for constructing a map or plat
devices and components to
showing a boundary line. {
impacts such as might be
'baun-dre ,s3r-va )
encountered in accidental
dropping. { 'bauns ,ta-b3l ) bound vector [MECH] A vector
whose line of application and
boundary (ELECTR] An
point of application are both
interface between p-and n-
prescribed, in addition to its
type semiconductor materials,
direction. {[baund 'vek-tsr)
at which donor and acceptor
concentrations are equal. { Bourdon pressure gage
'baun-dre ) [ENG] A mechanical pressure-
measuring instrument
boundary friction |MECH]
employing as its sensing
element a curved or twisted distances, particularly around
metal tube, flattened in cross corners. { 'bod-on ,ka-bsl )
section and closed. Also
bowl classifier [CHEM ENG] A
known as Bourdon tube.
shallow bowl with a concave
{]bur-dsn 'presh-sr
bottom so that a liquid-solid
igaj ) suspension can be fed to the
center; coarse particles fall to
Bourdon tube See Bourdon
the bottom, where they are
pressure gage. { 'bur-don 'tub
raked to a central discharge
point, and liquid and fine
Boussinesq equation [ENG] particles overflow the edges
A relation used to calculate and are collected. { jbol iklas-
the influence of a 3,fT-3r)
concentrated load on the
bowl mill See bowl-mill
backfill behind a retaining
pulverizer. { 'bol ,mil)
wall. { 'bu-si'nesk i'kwa-shsn )
bowl-mill pulverizer [MECH
Boussinesq's problem
ENG] A type of pulverizer which
[MECH] The problem of
directly feeds a coal-fired
determining the stresses and
furnace, in which springs
strains in an infinite elastic
press pivoted stationary rolls
body, initially occupying all the
against a rotating bowl
space on one side of an
grinding ring, crushing the
infinite plane, and indented by
coal between them. Also
a rigid punch having the form
known as a bowl mill. { 'bol
of a surface of revolution with
,mil 'p3l-v3,riz-3r)
axis of revolution
perpendicular to the plane. bowl scraper [MECH ENG] A
Also known as Cerruti's towed steel bowl hung within
problem. { 'bti-si'nesks .prab- a fabricated steel frame,
lsm ) running on four or two wheels;
transports soil, in addition to
Bowden cable [MECH ENG] A
spreading and leveling it. {
wire made of spring steel
'bol ,skrap-3r)
which is enclosed in a helical
casing and used to transmit Bow's notation [MECH] A
longitudinal motions over graphical method of
representing coplanar forces box-coking test [ENG] A
and stresses, using laboratory test which forecasts
alphabetical letters, in the the quality of coke producible
solution of stresses or in in commercial practice; uses a
determining the resultant of a specially designed sheet-steel
system of concurrent forces. { box containing about 60
'boz no'ta-shsn ) pounds (27 kilograms) of coal
in a commercial coke oven.
bowstring beam [civ ENG] A
{;baks ;kok-ir) .test)
steel, concrete, or timber
beam or girder shaped in the box girder [civ ENG] A hollow
form of a bow and string; the girder or beam with a square
string resists the horizontal or rectangular cross section.
forces caused by loads on Also known as box beam. {
the arch. { 'bo ,strir) ,bem ) 'baks .gsr-dsr)
box [DES ENG] See boxing, box-girder bridge [civ ENG] A
[ENG] A protective covering or fixed bridge consisting of steel
housing. { baks ) girders fabricated by welding
four plates into a box section. {
box beam See box girder. {
'baks .gsr-dsr ,brij )
'baks ,bem )
box header boiler [MECH
box caisson [civ ENG] A
ENG] A horizontal boiler with a
floating steel or concrete box
front header and rear inclined
with an open top which will be
rectangular header
filled and sunk at a foundation
connected by tubes. { 'baks
site in a river or seaway. Also
,hed-or ,boil-3r)
known as American caisson;
stranded caisson. { 'baks boxing [DES ENG] The
'ka,san ) threaded nut for the screw of
a mounted auger drill. Also
boxcar [ENG] A railroad car
known as box. [ ENG ] A
with a flat roof and vertical
method of securing shafts
sides, usually with sliding
solely by slabs and wooden
doors, which carries freight
pegs. { 'baks-irj )
that needs to be protected
from weather and theft. { boxing shutter [BUILD] A
'baks,kar) window shutter which can be
folded into a boxlike enclosure brace |DES ENG] A cranklike
or recess at the side of the device used for turning a bit.
window frame. { 'baks-ig [ENG] A diagonally placed
.shsd-sr) structural member that
withstands tension and com-
box piles [civ ENG] Pile
pression, and often stiffens a
foundations made by welding
structure against wind. { bras )
together two sections of steel
sheet piling or combinations brace and bit [DES ENG] A
of beams, channels, and small hand tool to which is
plates. { 'baks ,pTlz ) attached a metal- or wood-
boring bit. { [bras on 'bit )
boxplot [IND ENG] In quality
control, a graph summarizing braced framing [civ ENG]
the distribution, central value, Framing a building with post
and variability of a set of data and braces for stiffness.
values; used to identify {[brast 'fram-irj )
problems (or potential
braced-rib arch [civ ENG] A
problems) that affect the
type of steel arch, usually
quality of processes and
used in bridge construction,
products. { 'baks,plat )
which has a system of
box wrench [ENG] A closed- diagonal bracing. { [brast [rib
end wrench designed to fit a 'arch )
variety of sizes and shapes of
brace head [ENG] A cross
bolt heads and nuts. { 'baks
handle attached at the top of
,rench )
a column of drill rods by
Boyle's temperature means of which the rods and
[THERMO] For a given gas, the attached bit are turned after
temperature at which the each drop in chop-and-wash
virial coefficient B in the operations while sinking a
equation of state Pv = RT[ 1 + borehole through overburden.
(B/v) + {C/v2} + ] vanishes. { Also known as brace key. {
'boilz 'tem-pre-chsr) 'bras ,hed )
bpd See barrels per day. brace key See brace head. {
'bras ,ke )
bpm See barrels per month.
brace pile See batter pile. { application of excessive
'bras ,pTl) weight, causing the tooth to
become dull so that its softer
brachiating motion [CONT
inner portion caves over the
SYS] A type of robotic motion
harder case area. { 'brad-irj )
that employs legs or other
equipment to help the Bragg spectrometer [ ENG ]
manipulator move in its work- An instrument for x-ray
ing environment. { [bra-ke'ad- analysis of crystal structure
irj 'mo-shsn ) and measuring wavelengths of
x-rays and gamma rays, in
brachiating robot [CONT SYS]
which a homogeneous beam
A robot that is capable of
of x-rays is directed on the
moving over the surface of an
known face of a crystal and
object. { [bra-ke'ad-irj 'ro,bat )
the reflected beam is
brachistochrone [MECH] detected in a suitably placed
The curve along which a ionization chamber. Also
smooth-sliding particle, under known as crystal
the influence of gravity alone, spectrometer; crystal-diffract
will fall from one point to ion spectrometer; ionization
another in the minimum spectrometer. { 'brag
time. {bre'kis-ts ,kron ) spek'tram-sd-sr)
bracing [ ENG ] The act or braiding [ENG] Weaving fibers
process of strengthening or into a hollow cylindrical shape.
making rigid. { 'bras-irj ) { 'brad-irj )
bracket [BUILD] A vertical brainstorming [IND ENG] A
board to support the tread of procedure used to find a
a stair, [civ ENG] A projecting solution for a problem by
support. { 'brak-st ) collecting all the ideas,
without regard for feasibility,
brad [DES ENG] A small which occur from a group of
finishing nail whose body people meeting together. {
either is of uniform thickness 'bran ,storm-irj )
or is tapered. { brad)
brake [MECH ENG] A machine
bradding [ENG] A distortion element for applying friction
of a bit tooth caused by the
to a moving surface to slow it brake lining [MECH ENG] A
(and often, the containing covering, riveted or molded to
vehicle or device) down or the brake shoe or brake band,
bring it to rest. { brak ) which presses against the
rotating brake drum; made of
brake shoe [MECH ENG] The
either fabric or molded
contracting element of the
asbestos material. { 'brak ,lin-
band brake. { 'brak ,band )
ir) )
brake block [MECH ENG] A
brake mean-effective
portion of the band brake
pressure [ MECH ENG ]
lining, shaped to conform to
Applied to reciprocating piston
the curvature of the band and
machinery, the average
attached to it with
pressure on the piston during
countersunk screws. { 'brak
the power stroke, derived from
the measurement of brake
brake drum [MECH ENG] A power output. { 'brak [men
rotating cylinder attached to a i'fek-tiv 'presh-sr)
rotating part of machinery,
brake shoe [MECH ENG] The
which the brake band or
renewable friction element of
brake shoe presses against. {
a shoe brake. Also known as
'brak ,dr3m )
shoe. { 'brak ,shu )
brake horsepower [MECH
brake thermal efficiency
ENG] The power developed by
[MECH ENG] The ratio of brake
an engine as measured by the
power output to power input. {
force applied to a friction
'brak 'thsr-msl s'fish-sn-se )
brake or by an absorption
dynamometer applied to the branch [ELEC] A portion of a
shaft or flywheel. Abbreviated network consisting of one or
bhp. { [brak 'h6rs,pau-3r) more two-terminal elements in
series. Also known as arm.
brake line [MECH ENG] One
[ENG] In a piping system, a
of the pipes or hoses that
pipe that originates in or
connect the master cylinder
discharges into another pipe.
and the wheel cylinders in a
Also known as branch line. {
hydraulic brake system. {
branch )
'brak ,1m )
branch-and-bound from wine or fermented fruit
technique [ IND ENG ] A juice, usually after the aging
technique in nonlinear of the wine in wooden casks;
programming in which all sets cognac is a brandy distilled
of feasible solutions are from wines made from grapes
divided into subsets, and from the Cognac region of
those having bounds inferior France. { 'bran-de )
to others are rejected.
Brayton cycle |THERMO] A
{[branch on [baund tek'nek)
thermodynamic cycle
branch gain See branch consisting of two const ant-
transmittance. { 'branch ,gan pressure processes
) interspersed with two const
ant-entropy processes. Also
branch line [ civ ENG ] A
known as complete-expansion
secondary line in a railroad
diesel cycle; loule cycle. {
system that connects to the
'brat-sn ,sT-k3l)
main line. [ENG] See branch. {
'branch ,1m ) brazed shank tool | MECH
ENG ] A metal cutting tool
branch sewer [civ ENG] A
made of a material different
part of a sewer system that is
from the shank to which it is
larger in diameter than the
brazed. { [brazd 'sharjk ,tul )
lateral sewer system; receives
sewage from both house breaching |MECH ENG] The
connections and lateral space between the end of the
sewers. { [branch [sii-or} tubing and the jacket of a hot-
water or steam boiler. { 'brech-
branch transmittance [CONT
irj )
SYS] The amplification of
current or voltage in a branch breadboard model [ENG]
of an electrical network; used Uncased assembly of an
in the representation of such instrument or other piece of
a network by a signal-flow equipment, such as a radio
graph. Also known as branch set, having its parts laid out
gain. { [branch trans'mit-sns ) on a flat surface and
connected together to permit a
brandy |CHEM ENG] A potable
check or demonstration of its
alcoholic beverage distilled
operation. { 'bred,bdrd effect or the avalanche effect.
,mad*3l) { 'brak,daun ]dT,od )
breakaway wrist |CONT SYS] breakdown impedance
A robotic wrist that has a [ELECTR] Of a semiconductor,
safety feature that guarantees the small-signal impedance at
its protection from damage if a specified direct current in
too much force is exerted on the breakdown region. { 'brak
the wrist or end effector. { ,daun im'ped-sns )
'brak-3,wa ,rist)
breakdown potential See
break-bulk cargo | IND ENG ] breakdown voltage. {
Miscellaneous goods packed 'brak,daun ps'ten-shsl)
in boxes, bales, crates, cases,
breakdown region |ELECTR]
bags, cartons, barrels, or
Of a semiconductor diode,
drums; may also include lum-
the entire region of the volt-
ber, motor vehicles, pipe,
ampere characteristic beyond
steel, and machinery. { [brak
the initiation of breakdown for
[bslk 'kar-go )
increasing magnitude of bias.
breakdown |ELEC] A large, { 'brak ,daun ,re-J3n )
usually abrupt rise in electric
breakdown voltage |ELEC] 1.
current in the presence of a
The voltage measured at a
small increase in voltage; can
specified current in the
occur in a confined gas
electrical breakdown region of
between two electrodes, a
a semiconductor diode. Also
gas tube, the atmosphere (as
known as Zener voltage. 2.
lightning), an electrical
The voltage at which an
insulator, and a reverse-
electrical breakdown occurs in
biased semiconductor diode.
a dielectric. 3. The voltage at
Also known as electrical
which an electrical breakdown
breakdown. { 'brak,daun )
occurs in a gas. Also known
breakdown diode |ELEC] A as breakdown potential;
semiconductor diode in which sparking potential; sparking
the reverse-voltage voltage. { 'brak,daun ,v6l*tij )
breakdown mechanism is
breaker cam |MECH ENG] A
based either on the Zener
rotating, engine-driven device
in the ignition system of an ,fre*kw3n*se )
internal combustion engine
breaking load |MECH] The
which causes the breaker
stress which, when steadily
points to open, leading to a
applied to a structural
rapid fall in the primary
member, is just sufficient to
current. { 'bra-ksr ,kam )
break or rupture it. Also known
breaker plate [ENG] In plastics as ultimate load. { 'brak-ig ,lod
die forming, a perforated plate )
at the end of an extruder
breaking pin device [ENG] A
head; often used to support a
device designed to relieve
screen to keep foreign
pressure resulting from inlet
particles out of the die. { 'bra-
static pressure by the fracture
ksr ,plat)
of a loaded part of a pin. {
break-even analysis |IND 'brak-irj ,pin di'vTs )
ENG] Determination of the
breaking strength [ MECH ]
break-even point. { bra'ke-
The ability of a material to
vsn s'nal-s-sss )
resist breaking or rupture from
break-even point |IND ENG] a tension force. { 'brak-irj
The point at which a company ,strer)kth )
neither makes a profit nor
breaking stress [MECH] The
suffers a loss from the
stress required to fracture a
operations of the business,
material whether by
and at which total costs are
compression, tension, or
equal to total sales volume. {
shear. { 'brak-ig ,stres )
bra'ke-vsn ,point)
breakout [ELEC] A joint at
break frequency |CONT SYS]
which one or more conductors
The frequency at which a
are brought out from a
graph of the logarithm of the
multiconduc-tor cable, [ENG]
amplitude of the frequency
Failure or collapse of a bore-
response versus the logarithm
hole wall due to stress
of the frequency has an
anisotropy. { 'bra,kaut)
abrupt change in slope. Also
known as corner frequency; breakout schedule [IND ENG]
knee frequency. { 'brak A schedule for a construction
job site, generally in the form exchange system, the first
of a bar chart, that appearance of unadsorbed
communicates detailed day- ions of the type which deplete
today activities to all working the activity of the resin bed;
levels on the project. { this indicates that the bed
'brak,aut ,skej*3l ) must be regenerated. {
'brak,thru )
breakover [ELECTR] In a
silicon controlled rectifier or breakwater |civ ENG] A wall
related device, a transition into built into the sea to protect a
forward conduction caused by shore area, harbor,
the application of an ex- anchorage, or basin from the
cessively high anode voltage. action of waves. { 'brak,w6d-
{ 'bra^ko-vsr) 3r)
breakover voltage [ELECTR] breast boards |civ ENG]
The positive anode voltage at Timber planks used to support
which a silicon controlled recti- the tunnel face when
fier switches into the excavation is in loose soil. {
conductive state with gate 'brest ,bdrdz )
circuit open. { 'bra^ko-vsr
breast drill |DES ENG] A
,v6l*tij )
small, portable hand drill
breakpoint [CHEM ENG] See customarily used by
breakthrough. [IND ENG] In a handsetters to drill the holes
time study, the end of an in bit blanks in which
element in a work cycle and diamonds are to be set; it
the point at which a reading is includes a plate that is
made. Also known as end pressed against the worker's
point; reading point. { breast. { 'brest ,dril)
breasting dolphin |civ ENG]
breakthrough [CHEM ENG] 1. A pile or other structure
A localized break in a filter against which a moored ship
cake or precoat that permits rests. { [brest-ig [dal-fsn )
fluid to pass through without
breast wall |civ ENG] A low
being filtered. Also known as
wall built to retain the face of
breakpoint. 2. In an ion-
a natural bank of earth. {
'brest ,wol ) that mixes the gases to
provide low breathing
breather pipe |MECH ENG] A
resistance. { 'brelh-iq ,bag )
pipe that opens into a
container for ventilation, as in breathing line [civ ENG] A
a crankcase or oil tank. Also level of 5 feet (1.5 meters)
known as crankcase above the floor; suggested
breather. { 'bre-thsr ,pTp) temperatures for various
occupancies of rooms and
breath-hold diving [ENG] A
other chambers are usually
form of diving without the use
given at this level. { 'breth-iq
of any artificial breathing
,lTn )
mixtures. { 'breth ,hold ,divir))
breeching [MECH ENG] A duct
breathing [ENG] 1. Opening
through which the products of
and closing of a plastics mold
combustion are transported
in orderto let gases escape
from the furnace to the stack;
during molding. Also known
usually applied in steam
as degassing. 2. Movement of
boilers. { 'bre-chirj )
gas, vapors, or air in and out
of a storage-tank vent line as a Brennan monorail car [MECH
result of liquid expansions and ENG] A type of car balanced
contractions induced by on a single rail so that when
temperature changes. { the car starts to tip, a force
'breth-iq ) automatically applied at the
axle end is converted
breathing apparatus [ENG]
gyroscopically into a strong
An appliance that enables a
righting moment which forces
person to function in
the car back into a position of
irrespirable or poisonous
lateral equilibrium. { [bren-on
gases or fluids; contains a
'man-3,ral ,kar)
supply of oxygen and a
regenerator which removes Brewster process [CHEM
the carbon dioxide exhaled. { ENG] Concentration of dilute
'brelh-iq ap-s'rad-ss ) acetic acid by use of an
extraction solvent (for
breathing bag [ENG] A
example, isopropyl ether),
component of a sem-iclosed-
followed by distillation. { 'brii-
circuit breathing apparatus
stsr ,pras-3s ) bridge; may be fixed or seated
on expansion rollers. { 'brij
brick molding [BUILD] A
,ber*irj )
wooden molding applied to
the gap between the frame of bridge cable [civ ENG] Cable
a door or window and the from which a roadway or
masonry into which the frame truss is suspended in a
has been set. {]brik [mold-ir)) suspension bridge; may be of
pencil-thick wires laid parallel
brick seat [BUILD] A ledge on
or strands of wire wound
a footing or a wall for
spirally. { 'brij ,ka* bal}
supporting a course of
masonry. { 'brik,set) bridge crane [MECH ENG] A
hoisting machine in which the
bridge [civ ENG] A structure
hoisting apparatus is carried
erected to span natural or
by a bridgelike structure
artificial obstacles, such as
spanning the area over which
rivers, highways, or railroads,
the crane operates. { 'brij
and supporting a footpath or
,kran )
roadway for pedestrian,
highway, or railroad traffic. [ bridge foundation [civ ENG]
ELEC ] 1. An electrical The piers and abutments of a
instrument having four or more bridge, on which the
branches, by means of which superstructure rests. { 'brij
one or more of the electrical faun'da-shsn )
constants of an unknown
bridge hybrid See hybrid
component may be
junction. { 'brij 'hi-brad)
measured. 2. An electrical
shunt path. { brij) bridge limiter [ELECTR] A
device employed in analog
bridge abutment [ civ ENG ]
computers to keep the value
The end foundation upon
of a variable within specified
which the bridge
limits. { [brij [lim-sd-sr)
superstructure rests. { 'brij
^bst-msnt) bridge magnetic amplifier
[ELECTR] A magnetic amplifier
bridge bearing [CIV ENG]
in which each of the gate
The support at a bridge pier
windings is connected in
carrying the weight of the
series with an arm of a bridge bridge vibration [MECH]
rectifier; the rectifiers provide Mechanical vibration of a
self-saturation and direct- bridge superstructure due to
current output. {[brij mag'ned- natural and human-produced
ik 'am-pl3,fr*3r) excitations. { 'brij vT'bra-shsn
bridge oscillator [ELECTR] An
oscillator using a balanced bridgewall |MECHENG] A wall
bridge circuit as the feedback in a furnace over which the
network. { 'brij as-s'lad-sr) products of combustion
flow. { 'brij,w6l)
bridge pier [civ ENG] The
main support for a bridge, bridging amplifier |ELECTR]
upon which the bridge Amplifier with an input
superstructure rests; impedance sufficiently high so
constructed of masonry, steel, that its input may be bridged
timber, or concrete founded across a circuit without sub-
on firm ground below river stantially affecting the signal
mud. { 'brij ,pir) level of the circuit across
which it is bridged. { 'brij-irj
bridge rectifier [ELECTR] A
full-wave rectifier with four
elements connected as a bridging connection
bridge circuit with direct |ELECTR] Parallel connection
voltage obtained from one pair by means of which some of
of opposite junctions when the signal energy in a circuit
alternating voltage is applied may be withdrawn frequently,
to the other pair. {[brij ^ek- with imperceptible effect on
t^fT-sr) the normal operation of the
circuit. { 'brij-irj k^nek-shsn )
bridge trolley [MECH ENG]
Either of the wheeled bridging loss |ELECTR] LOSS
attachments at the ends of resulting from bridging an
the bridge of an overhead impedance across a
traveling crane, permitting the transmission system;
bridge to move backward and quantitatively, the ratio of the
forward on elevated tracks. { signal power delivered to that
'brij ,tral-e ) part of the system following
the bridging point, and Briggs pipe thread See
measured before the bridging, American standard pipe
to the signal power delivered thread. { ]brigz 'pip ,thred )
to the same part after the
brightness temperature See
bridging. { 'brij-irj ,16s )
blackbody temperature. {
bridle |ENG] A pumping unit 'brTt-nss ,tem-pre-ch3r)
cable that is looped over the
brine cooler [MECH ENG] The
horse head and then
unit for cooling brine in a
connected to the carrier bar;
refrigeration system; the brine
supports the polished-rod
usually flows through tubes or
clamp. { 'bfid-sl )
pipes surrounded by
bridled-cup anemometer evaporating refrigerant. { 'brTn
[ENG] A combination cup ,kul-3r)
anemometer and pressure-
Brinell number [ENG] A
plate anemometer, consisting
hardness rating obtained from
of an array of cups about a
the Brinell test; expressed in
vertical axis of rotation, the
kilograms per square
free rotation of which is
millimeter. { bre'nel ,n3m-bsr)
restricted by a spring
arrangement; by adjustment Brinell test [ ENG ] A test to
of the force constant of the determine the hardness of a
spring, an angular material, in which a steel ball 1
displacement can be obtained centimeter in diameter is
which is proportional to wind pressed into the material with
velocity. { ]brid-3ld [ksp an- a standard force (usually 3000
s'mam-sd-sr) kilograms); the spherical
surface area of indentation is
Briggs equalizer [ENG] A
measured and divided into
breathing device consisting of
the load; the results are
head harness, mouthpiece,
expressed as Brinell number.
nose clip, corrugated
{ bre'nel ,test)
breathing tube, an equalizing
device, 120 feet (37 meters) of briquetting [ENG] 1. The
reinforced air tubes, and a process of binding together
strainer and spike. { ]brigz 'e- pulverized minerals, such as
kwsjTz-sr) coal dust, into briquets under
pressure, often with the aid of (Btu^^,). 2. A unit of heat
a binder, such as asphalt. 2. energy that is equal to 1/180
A process or method of of the heat needed to raise 1
mounting mineral ore, rock, or pound of air-free water from
metal fragments in an 32F (0C) to 212F (100C) at
embedding or casting a constant pressure of 1
material, such as natural or standard atmosphere; it is
artificial resins, waxes, metals, found experimentally to be
or alloys, to facilitate handling equal to 1055.79 joules. Also
during grinding, polishing, and known as mean British
microscopic examination. { bri thermal unit (Btumean). 3. A unit
'ked-irj ) of heat energy whose
magnitude is such that 1
brisance index [ ENG ] The
British thermal unit per pound
ratio of an explosive's power
equals 2326 joules per
to shatter a weight of graded
kilogram; it is equal to exactly
sand as compared to the
1055.05585262 joules. Also
weight of sand shattered by
known as international table
TNT. { brs'zans ]in,deks )
British thermal unit (Btu,T). {
British imperial pound [ 'brid-ish 'thsr-msl ,ytl*n3t}
MECH ] The British standard of
brittle ness [MECH] That
mass, of which a standard is
property of a material
preserved by the government.
manifested by fracture without
{ 'brid-ish im'pir-e-si 'paund )
appreciable prior plastic
British thermal unit deformation. { 'brid-sl-nss )
[THERMO] Abbreviated Btu. 1.
brittle temperature [THERMO]
A unit of heat energy equal to
The temperature point below
the heat needed to raise the
which a material, especially
temperature of I pound of air-
metal, is brittle; that is, the
free water from 60 to 61 F at
critical normal stress for
a constant pressure of 1
fracture is reached before the
standard atmosphere; it is
critical shear stress for plastic
found experimentally to be
deformation. { 'brid-sl ,tem-
equal to 1054.5 joules. Also
known as sixty degrees
Fahrenheit British thermal unit Brix degree [CHEM ENG] A
unit of the Brix scale. { 'briks laboratory test in which the
do,gre ) unsaturated hydrocarbons
present in a crude oil are
Brix scale [CHEM ENG] A
determined by mixing a
hydrometer scale for sugar
sample with bromine; the
solutions indicating the
lower the rate of bromine ab-
percentage by weight of sugar
sorption, the more paraffinic
in the solution at a specified
the test sample. { 'br6,men
temperature. { 'briks ,skal)
broach [MECH ENG] A
bromine value |CHEM ENG] An
multiple-tooth, barlike cutting
expression representing the
tool; the teeth are shaped to
number of centigrams of
give a desired surface or
bromine absorbed by 1 gram
contour, and cutting results
of oil under test conditions; an
from each tooth projecting
indication of the degree of
farther than the preceding
unsaturation of a given oil. {
one. { broch )
'br6,men ,val-yu )
broaching [ ENG ] 1. The
brooming |civ ENG] A method
restoration of the diameter of a
of finishing uniform concrete
borehole by reaming. 2. The
surfaces, such as the tops of
breaking down of the walls
pavement slabs or floor slabs,
between two contiguous drill
by dragging a broom over the
holes, [MECH ENG] The
surface to produce a grooved
machine-shaping of metal or
texture. { 'bru-mirj )
plastic by pushing or pulling a
broach across a surface or brown acid |CHEM ENG] Oil-
through an existing hole in a soluble petroleum sulfonate
workpiece. { 'broch-irj) found in sludge following
sulfuric acid treatment of
broaching bit See reaming
petroleum products. { [braun
bit. { 'broch-irj bit)
[as-sd )
broken-color work See
brown smoke [ENG] Smoke
antiquing. { [bro-ksn jkal* 5T
with less particu-lates than
black smoke; comes from
bromine test [CHEM ENG] A burning fossil fuel, usually fuel
oil. {]braun [smok ) operating speed and power
factor. { 'brash ,shif*tir) ,mod-
Brunton See Brunton
compass. { 'brant-sn )
BSD See barrels per stream
Brunton compass (ENG] A
compact field compass, with
sights and reflector attached, B size ( ENG ] 1. One of a
used for geological mapping series of sizes to which
and surveying. Also known as trimmed paper and board are
Brunton; Brunton pocket manufactured; for size BN,
transit. { 'brant-sn ,kam-p3s ) with N equal to any integer
from 0 to 10, the length of the
Brunton pocket transit See
shorter side is 2~N/2 meters,
Brunton compass. { 'brant-sn
and the length of the longer
,pak-3t 'tran-zst)
side is 2(I~N|/2 meters, with
brush (ELEC] A conductive both lengths rounded off to the
metal or carbon block used to nearest millimeter. 2. Of a
make sliding electrical contact sheet of paper, the dimen-
with a moving part. { brash ) sions 11 inches by 17 inches
(279 millimeters by 432
brush hopper (IND ENG] A millimeters). { 'be ,sTz )
rotating brush that wipes
quantities of eyelets, rivets, BT See bathythermograph.
and other small special parts
Btu See British thermal unit.
past shaped openings in a
chute. { 'brash ,hap-3r) bu See bushel.
brush rake (MECH ENG] A bubble cap (CHEM ENG] A
device with heavy-duty tines metal cap covering a hole in
that is fixed to the front of a the plate within a distillation
tractor or other prime mover tower; designed to permit
for use in land clearing. { vapors to rise from below the
'brash ,rak) plate, pass through the cap,
and make contact with liquid
brush-shifting motor (ENG] A
on the plate. { 'bsb-sl ,kap )
category of alternating-current
motor in which the brush bubble-cap plate (CHEM ENG]
contacts shift to modify One of the devices in large-
diameter fractional distillation fractional distillation. Also
columns that are designed to known as bubble-cap tray. {
produce a bubbling action to 'bsb-sl ,tra )
exchange the vapor bubbles
bubble-tray column (CHEM
flowing up the column. { 'bsb-
ENG] A fractionating column
sl ,kap ,plat)
whose plates are formed from
bubble-cap tray See bubble bubble caps. { 'bsb-sl ,tra
tray. { 'bsb-sl ]kap ,tra) ,kal*3m )
bubble mold cooling (ENG] In bubble tube (ENG] The glass
plastics injection molding, tube in a spirit level
cooling by means of a containing the liquid and
continuous liquid stream bubble. { 'bob-al ,tiib )
flowing into a cavity equipped
buck (BUILD] The frame into
with an outlet at the end
which the finished door fits. {
opposite the inlet. { 'bob-si
bsk )
,mold ,ku-lir))
bucket (ENG] 1. A cup on the
bubble test (ENG]
rim of a Pelton wheel against
Measurement of the largest
which water impinges. 2. A re-
opening in the mesh of a filter
versed curve at the toe of a
screen; determined by the
spillway to deflect the water
pressure needed to force air
horizontally and reduce
or gas through the screen
erosiveness. 3. A container
while it is submerged in a
on a lift pump or chain pump.
liquid. { 'bsb-sl ,test)
4. A container on some bulk-
bubble tower (CHEM ENG ] A handling equipment, such as
plate tower used in distillation, a bucket elevator, bucket
with plates containing bubble dredge, or bucket conveyor.
caps. 5. A water outlet in a turbine.
6. See calyx. { 'bsk-st)
bubble tray (CHEM ENG] A
perforated, circular plate bucket carrier See bucket
placed within a distillation conveyor. { 'bsk-st ,kar-e-sr)
tower at specific places to
bucket conveyor (MECH
collect the fractions of
ENG] A continuous bulk
petroleum produced in
conveyor constructed of a known as bucket ladder;
series of buckets attached to bucket-line dredge; ladder-
one or two strands of chain or bucket dredge; ladder dredge.
in some instances to a belt. { 'bsk-st ,lad-3r ,drej )
Also called bucket carrier. {
bucket-ladder excavator
'bsk-st ksn'va-sr)
See trench excavator. { 'bsk-
bucket dredge ( MECH ENG ] A st ,lad*3r 'ek-sks-vad-sr)
floating mechanical excavator
bucket-line dredge See
equipped with a bucket
bucket-ladder dredge. { 'bsk-
elevator. { 'bsk-st ,drej )
st ,1m ,drej )
bucket elevator (MECH ENG] A
bucket loader |MECH ENG] A
bucket conveyor operating on
form of portable, self-feeding,
a steep incline or vertical
inclined bucket elevator for
path. Also known as elevating
loading bulk materials into
conveyor. { 'bsk-st ]el-3,vad-
cars, trucks, or other con-
veyors. { 'bsk-st ,lod-3r)
bucket excavator (MECH
bucket temperature [ENG]
ENG] An elevating scraper,
The surface temperature of
that is, one that does the work
ocean water as measured by
of a conventional scraper but
a bucket thermometer. { 'bsk-
has a bucket elevator
st [tem-pra-chor)
mounted in front of the bowl. {
'bsk-st ]ek-sks,vad-3r) bucket thermometer [ENG] A
thermometer mounted in a
bucket ladder See bucket-
bucket and used to measure
ladder dredge. { 'bsk-at , lad -
the temperature of water
drawn into the bucket from the
bucket-ladder dredge (MECH surface of the ocean. { 'bsk-st
ENG] A dredge whose digging thsr'mam-sd-sr)
mechanism consists of a lad-
bucket-wheel excavator
derlike truss on the periphery
[MECH ENG] A continuous
of which is attached an
digging machine used
endless chain riding on
extensively in large-scale
sprocket wheels and carrying
stripping and mining.
attached buckets. Also
Abbreviated BWE. Also known structural support for a
as rotary excavator. { 'bsk-st furnace wall. { 'b3k,sta )
,wel 'ek-sk^vad-sr)
buffer [ELEC] An electric
Buckingham's equations circuit or component that
[MECH ENG] Equations which prevents undesirable
give the durability of gears and electrical interaction between
the dynamic loads to which two circuits or components.
they are subjected in terms of [ELECTR] 1. An isolating circuit
their dimensions, hardness, in an electronic computer
surface endurance, and used to prevent the action of a
composition. { 'bsk-ig-smz driven circuit from affecting
i'kwa-zhsnz ) the corresponding driving
circuit. 2. See buffer
buckle plate [ civ ENG ] A
amplifier, [ENG] A device,
steel floor plate which is
apparatus, or piece of material
slightly arched to increase
designed to reduce
rigidity. { 'bsk-sl Plat)
mechanical shock due to
Buckley gage [ENG] A impact. { 'bsf-sr)
device that measures very
buffered FET logic [ELECTR] A
low gas pressures by sensing
logic gate configuration used
the amount of ionization
with gallium-arsenide field-
produced in the gas by a
effect transistors operating in
predetermined electric
the depletion mode, in which
current. { 'bsk-le ,gaj)
the level shifting required to
buckling [ENG] Wrinkling or make the input and output
warping of fibers in a voltage levels compatible is
composite material, [MECH] achieved with Schottky barrier
Bending of a sheet, plate, or diodes. Abbreviated BFL. {
column supporting a compres- 'bsf-srd ;ef|e|te 'laj-ik )
sive load. { 'bok-lirj)
buffing [ENG] The smoothing
buckling stress [MECH] Force and brightening of a surface
exerted by the crippling load. { by an abrasive compound
'bok-lirj ,stres ) pressed against it by a soft
wheel or belt. { 'bof-irj)
buckstay [MECH ENG] A
buffing wheel [DES ENG] A structure for human
flexible wheel with a surface occupancy and use. { 'bil-dig )
of fine abrasive particles for
building-block approach
buffing operations. { 'bof-irj
[IND ENG] A technique for
development of a set of
bug [ELECTR] 1. A standard data by creating
semiautomatic code-sending fixed groups or modules of
telegraph key in which work elements that may be
movement of a lever to one added together to obtain time
side produces a series of values for elements and
correctly spaced dots and entire operations. { 'bild-irj
movement to the other side ,blak 3,proch )
produces a single dash. 2. An
building code [civ ENG] Local
electronic listening device,
building laws to promote safe
generally concealed, used for
practices in the design and
commercial or military
construction of a building. {
espionage, [ENG] 1. A defect
'bil-dirj ,kod )
or imperfection present in a
piece of equipment. 2. See building dock [civ ENG] A
bullet. { bog ) type of graving dock or basin,
usually built of concrete, in
buggy See concrete buggy. {
which ships are constructed
'bsg-e )
and then floated out through
buhrstone mill [MECH ENG] A a caisson gate after flooding
mill for grinding or pulverizing the dock. { 'bil-dig ,dak)
grain in which a flat siliceous
building envelope [civ ENG]
rock (buhrstone), generally of
The interior, enclosed space
cellular quartz, rotates against
of a building. { 'bil-dig 'en-
a stationary stone of the
velop )
same material. { 'b3r,ston ,mil
) building footprint See
footprint. { 'bil-dig ,fut, print)
build [ELECTR] TO increase in
received signal strength. { bild building line [civ ENG] A
) designated line beyond which
a building cannot extend. {
building [civ ENG] A fixed
'bil-dig ,lm ) bulk cargo [IND ENG] Cargo
which is loaded into a ship's
buildup index See fire-
hold without being boxed,
danger meter. { 'bil,d3p
bagged or hand stowed, or is
,in,deks )
transported in large tank
built-in beam See fixed-end spaces. { [bslk 'kar,go )
beam. { ]bilt,in 'bem )
bulk density [ENG] The mass
built-up beam [ENG] A of powdered or granulated
structural steel member that is solid material per unit of
fabricated by welding or volume. { ]bslk 'den-ssd-e )
riveting rather than being
bulk diode |ELECTR] A
rolled. { 'bilt,3p 'bem )
semiconductor microwave
built-up edge [ENG] Chip diode that uses the bulk
material adhering to the tool effect, such as Gunn diodes
face adjacent to a cutting and diodes operating in
edge during cutting. { 'bilt,3p limited space-charge-
'ej ) accumulation modes. {[bslk
'dl ,inmost
built-up roof [BUILD] A roof
constructed of several layers bulk effect |ELECTR] An
of felt and asphalt. { 'bilt,3p effect that occurs within the
'ruf) entire bulk of a semiconductor
material rather than in a
bulb angle [DES ENG] A steel localized region or junction. {
angle iron enlarged to a 'bslki'fektj
bulbous thickening at one
end. { 'bslb .ag-gsl ) bulk-effect device |ELECTR] A
semiconductor device that
bulge forming [ENG] A depends on a bulk effect, as in
process by which contours Gunn and avalanche devices.
are formed on the sides of { 'balk i'fekt di'vTs )
tubular work-pieces by
exerting pressure inside the bulk factor [ENG] The ratio of
tube to force expansion into a the volume of loose powdered
die clamped around the or granulated solids to the vol-
exterior. { 'bslj ,f6rm-ir) ) ume of an equal weight of the
material after consolidation
into a voidless solid. { 'balk bulk material [IND ENG]
,fak*tar) Material purchased in uniform
lots and in quantity for
bulk-handling machine
distribution as required for a
[MECH ENG] Any of a
project. {[balk majtir-e-al)
diversified group of materials-
handling machines designed bulk micromachining [ENG]
for handling unpackaged, di- A set of processes that
vided materials. { 'balk ,hand- enable the three-dimensional
lir) ms'shen ) sculpting of single-crystal
silicon to make small
bulkhead line [civ ENG] The
structures that serve as
farthest offshore line to which
components of
a structure may be
microsensors. { [balk ^T-kro-
constructed without
mo'shen-ir) )
interfering with navigation. {
'balk ,hed ,1m ) bulk modulus See bulk
modulus of elasticity. { ]bslk
bulkhead wharf [ civ ENG ] A
'maj-s-lss )
bulkhead that may be used as
a wharf by addition of mooring bulk modulus of elasticity
appurtenances, paving, and [MECH] The ratio of the
cargo-handling facilities. { compressive or tensile force
'b3lk,hed ,worf) applied to a substance per
unit surface area to the
bulking value [CHEM ENG]
change in volume of the
The relative ability of a
substance per unit volume.
pigment or other substance to
Also known as bulk modulus;
increase the volume of paint. {
compression modulus;
'bal-kirj ,val*yu )
hydrostatic modulus; modulus
bulk insulation [ENG] A type of compression; modulus of
of insulation that retards the volume elasticity. { [balk
flow of heat by the 'maj*,*l3s sv i,las'tis*3d*e )
interposition of many air
bulk rheology [MECH] The
spaces and, in most cases,
branch of rheology wherein
by opacity to radiant heat. {
study of the behavior of matter
[balk in-ss'la-shsn )
neglects effects due to the
surface of a system. {[balk movement of solids such as
re'al-3-je) grain, sand, gravel, coal, or
wood chips. {[balk 'tranz,port)
bulk photoconductor
[ELECTR] A photocon-ductor bulldozer [MECH ENG] A
having high power-handling wheeled or crawler tractor
capability and other unique equipped with a reinforced,
properties that depend on the curved steel plate mounted in
semiconductor and doping front, perpendicular to the
materials used, j ground, for pushing excavated
materials. { 'bill ,doz-3r)
bulk resistor [ELECTR] An
integrated-circuit resistor in bullet [ ENG ] 1. A conical-
which the n-type epitaxial nosed cylindrical weight,
layer of a semiconducting attached to a wire rope or
substrate is used as a line, either notched or seated
noncriti-cal high-value to engage and attach itself to
resistor; the spacing between the upper end of a wire line
the attached terminals and core barrel or other
the sheet resistivity of the retrievable or retractable
material together determine device that has been placed
the resistance value. { 'balk in a borehole. Also known as
ri'zis-tsr) bug; go-devil; overshot. 2. A
scraper with self-adjusting
bulk strain [MECH] The ratio
spring blades, inserted in a
of the change in the volume
pipeline and carried forward
of a body that occurs when
by the fluid pressure, clearing
the body is placed under
away accumulations or debris
pressure, to the original
from the walls of a pipe. Also
volume of the body. { 'balk
known as go-devil. 3. A
,stran )
bullet-shaped weight or small
bulk strength [ MECH ] The explosive charge dropped to
strength per unit volume of a explode a charge of
solid. {[balk 'strerjkth ) nitroglycerin placed in a bore-
hole. Also known as go-devil.
bulk transport [MECH ENG ] 4. An electric lamp covered by
Conveying, hoisting, or a conical metal case, usually
elevating systems for
at the end of a flexible metal which swings the derrick in a
shaft. 5. See torpedo. { 'btil-st) vertical plane. { 'bill ,wel)
bullet drop [MECH ] The Bulygen number [THERMO] A
vertical drop of a bullet. { 'bul- dimensionless number used in
st ,drap) the study of heat transfer
during evaporation. { 'biil-o-jon
bull gear [DES ENG] A bull
wheel with gear teeth. { 'bill
,gir) bump contact |ELECTR] A
large-area contact used for
bulling bar [ENG] A bar for
alloying directly to the
ramming clay into cracks
substrate of a transistor for
containing blasting charges
mounting or interconnecting
which are about to be
purposes. { 'bomp ,kan,takt)
exploded. { 'bul-irj ,bar)
bumper [ENG] 1. A metal bar
bull nose [BUILD] A rounded
attached to one or both ends
external angle, as one used
of a powered transportation
at window returns and
vehicle, especially an
doorframes. { 'bul ,noz )
automobile, to prevent
bull-nose bit See wedge bit. { damage to the body. 2. In a
'bill ,noz ,bit) drilling operation, the support-
ing stay between the main
bull-nose plane [DES ENG] A foundation sill and the engine
small rabbet plane used to block. 3. In drilling, a fishing
smooth or shape joints or tool for loosening jammed
other places that cannot be cable tools. { 'bom-por)
reached by larger planes. {
]btil ,noz 'plan ) bumping See chugging. {
'bom-pig )
bull wheel [MECH ENG] 1. The
main wheel or gear of a bund |civ ENG] An
machine, which is usually the embankment or embanked
largest and strongest. 2. A thoroughfare along a body of
cylinder which has a rope water; the term is used
wound about it for lifting or particularly for such structures
hauling. 3. Awheel attached to in the Far East. { bond)
the base of a derrick boom
bundling machine |MECH bunkering and fuel-oil bunker-
ENG] A device that ing. { 'bog-kor-ir))
automatically accumulates
bunny suit (ENG] Protective
cans, cartons, or glass
clothing worn by an individual
containers for semiautomatic
who works in a clean room to
or automatic loading or for
prevent contamination of
shipping cartons by
equipment and materials. {
assembling the packages into
'bon-e ,sut)
units of predetermined count
and pattern which are then Bunsen burner ( ENG ] A type
machine-wrapped in paper, of gas burner with an
film paperboard, or adjustable air supply. { 'bon-
corrugated board. { 'bond-lig son 'bor-nor)
mo'shen )
Bunsen ice calorimeter (
bund wall (ENG] A retaining ENG ] Apparatus to gage heat
wall designed to contain the released during the melting of
contents of a tank or a storage a compound by measuring the
vessel in the event of a increase in volume of the
rupture or other emergency. { surrounding ice-water solution
'bond ,wol) caused bythe melting of the
ice. Also known as ice
bunker (civ ENG] A bin, often
calorimeter. { 'bon-son 'Ts kal-
elevated, that is divided into
compartments for storing
material such as coal or sand. buoy (ENG] An anchored or
(MECH ENG ] A space in a moored floating object, other
refrigerator designed to hold a than a lightship, intended as
cooling element. { 'bog-kor) an aid to navigation, to attach
or suspend measuring
bunkering (ENG] Storage of
instruments, or to mark the
solid or liquid fuel in
position of something beneath
containers from which the fuel
the water. { boi)
can be continuously or
intermittently withdrawn to buoyancy-type density
feed a furnace, internal transmitter ( ENG ] An
combustion engine, or fuel instrument which records the
tank, for example, coal specific gravity of a flowing
stream of a liquid or gas, Also known as intrusion
using the principle of alarm. { 'bor-glor o]larm )
hydrostatic weighing. { 'boi-
buried set-point method
on-se ,tTp 'den-sod-e
(CONT SYS] A procedure for
guiding a robot manipulator
buoy sensor (ENG ACOUS] A along a template, in which
hydrophone used as a sensor low-gain servomechanisms
in buoy projects; some apply a force along the edge
hydrophone arrays are of the template, while the
designed for telemetering. { manipulator's tool is parallel
'boi ,sen-sor) to, and buried below, the
template surface. { 'ber-ed
burden (ELEC] The amount
'set,point ,meth-od )
of power drawn from the
circuit connecting the burn (ENG] TO consume fuel. {
secondary terminals of an born )
instrument transformer,
burn cut See parallel cut. {
usually expressed in volt-
'born ,kot)
amperes, (ENG] 1. The dis-
tance from a drill hole to the burner (CHEM ENG] A furnace
more or less vertical surface where sulfur or sulfide ore are
of rock that has already been burned to produce sulfur
exposed by blasting or dioxide and other gases,
excavating. 2. The volume of (ENG] 1. The part of a fluid-
the rock to be removed by burning device at which the
blasting in a drill hole. { 'bord- flame is produced. 2. Any
on ) burning device used to soften
old paint to aid in its removal.
burglar alarm (ENG] An alarm
3. A worker who operates a
in which interruption of electric
kiln which burns brick or tile. 4.
current to a relay, caused, for
A worker who alters the
example, by the breaking of a
properties of a mineral
metallic tape placed at an
substance by burning. 5. A
entrance to a building,
worker who uses a flame-
deenergizes the relay and
cutting torch to cut metals,
causes the relay contacts to
(MECH ENG] A unit of a steam
operate the alarm indicator.
boiler which mixes and ignited by a flame held close
directs the flow of fuel and air to its surface; used to test
so as to ensure rapid ignition safety of kerosine and other
and complete combustion. { illuminating oils. { 'bor-nirj
'bor-nor) ,point)
burner windbox (ENG] A burning quality (ENG] Rated
chamber surrounding a performance for a burning oil
burner, under positive air as determined by specified
pressure, for proper ASTM (American Society for
distribution and discharge of Testing and Materials) tests. {
secondary air. { 'bor-nor 'bor-nirj ,kwal- od-e )
'wind,baks )
burning-quality index | ENG ]
burnettize (ENG] TO saturate Prediction of burning
fabric or wood with a solution performance of furnace and
of zinc chloride under heater oils; derived from
pressure to keep it from ASTM (American Society for
decaying. { bor'nedjz ) Testing and Materials)
distillation, API (American
burn-in (ELECTR] Operation of
Petroleum Institute) gravity,
electronic components before
paraffinicity, and volatility. {
they are applied in order to
'bsr-nirj jkwal*ad*e ,in,deks )
stabilize their characteristics
and reveal defects. (ENG] See burnish [ ENG ] T O polish or
freeze. { 'born ,in ) make shiny. { 'bsr-nish )
burning (ENG] The firing of burnisher [ENG] A tool with a
clay products placed in a kiln. hard, smooth rounded edge
{ 'bor-nirj ) or surface; used for finishing
the edges of scraper blades,
burning index See fire-
for smoothing or polishing
danger meter. { 'bor-nig
plastic or metal surfaces, or
]in,deks )
for other applications
burning point (ENG] The requiring manipulation by
lowest temperature at which a rubbing. { 'bsr-ns-shsr)
volatile oil in an open vessel
burnout [ELEC] Failure of a
will continue to burn when
device due to excessive heat
produced by excessive connections between load
current, [ENG] An instance of a circuits and each of the
device or a part overheating polarities (in direct-current
so as to result in systems) or phases (in
destruction or damage. { alternating-current systems) of
'b3rn,aut) the source of electric power.
2. See busbar, [ELECTR] One
Burnside boring machine
or more conductors in a
[MECH ENG] A machine for
computer along which
boring in all types of ground
information is transmitted
with the feature of controlling
from any of several sources
water immediately if it is
to any of several
tapped. { 'b3rn,sTd 'bor-irj
destinations, [ENG] A motor
ms'shsn )
vehicle for carrying a large
bursting strength [MECH] A number of passengers, {bos)
measure of the ability of a
bus cable [ELECTR] An
material to withstand pressure
electrical conductor that can
without rupture; it is the
be attached to a bus to extend
hydraulic pressure required to
it outside the computer
burst a vessel of given
housing or join it to another
thickness. { 'bsr-stig ,strerjkth
bus within the same
computer. { 'bos ,ka-b3l)
burst pressure [MECH] The
bushel [MECH] Abbreviated
maximum inside pressure that
bu. 1. A unit of volume (dry
a process vessel can safely
measure) used in the United
withstand. { 'bsrst ,presh-3r)
States, equal to 2150.42 cubic
burton [ MECH ENG ] A small inches or approximately
hoisting tackle with two blocks, 35.239 liters. 2. A unit of
usually a single block and a volume (liquid and dry
double block, with a hook measure) used in Britain,
block in the running part of the equal to 2219.36 cubic inches
rope. { 'bsrt-sn ) or 8 imperial gallons (approxi-
mately 36.369 liters). { 'bush-
bus [ELEC] 1. A set of two or sl )
more electric conductors that
serve as common bush hammer [MECH ENG] A
hand-held or power-driven hydrogen chloride promoter.
hammer that has a serrated { 'byu,tan 'va-psr ,faz ^sam-s-
face containing pyramid- re'za-shsn )
shaped points and is used to
butt [BUILD] The bottom or
dress a concrete or stone
cover edge of a shingle, [DES
surface. { 'bush ,ham-3r)
ENG] The enlarged and
bushing [DES ENG] See squared-off end of a
nipple, [ELEC] See sleeve. [ connecting rod or similar link
MECH ENG ] A removable piece in a machine. { bst)
of soft metal or graphite-filled
butterfly damper See butterfly
sintered metal, usually in the
valve. { 'bad*ar,flT ,dam*par)
form of a bearing, that lines a
support for a shaft. { 'bush-irj ) butterfly nut See wing nut. {
'bad*ar,flT ,nat)
Butamer process [ CHEM ENG
] A method of iso-merizing butterfly valve [ENG]
normal butane into isobutane Avalvethat utilizes aturn-able
in the presence of hydrogen disk element to regulate flow
and a solid, noble-metal in a pipe or duct system, such
catalyst; used to prepare raw as a hydraulic turbine or a
material in a gasoline ventilating system. Also
alkylation process. { 'byud-s- known as butterfly damper. {
msr ,pras-as} 'bad-ai^fTr ,valv )
butane dehydrogenation Butterworth filter [ELECTR]
[CHEM ENG] A process to An electric filter whose pass
remove hydrogen from butane band (graph of transmission
to produce butene or versus frequency) has a
butadiene. { 'byu,tan de,hT- maximally flat shape. { 'bod-
dra-js'na-shsn ) sr.wsrth 'fil-tar)
butane vapor-phase Butterworth head [MECH
isomerization [CHEM ENG] A ENG] A mechanical hose head
process to isomerize normal with revolving nozzles; used to
butane into isobutane in the wash down shipboard
presence of aluminum storage tanks. { 'bsd-sr
chloride catalyst and ,w3rth ,hed )
butt fusion [ENG] The joining to the base wafer of an alloy-
of two pieces of plastic or junction transistor. Also
metal pipes or sheets by known as dot. 2. The
heating the ends until they container that holds the
are molten and then pressing carbon granules of a carbon
them together to form a microphone. Also known as
homogeneous bond. { 'bat carbon button. { 'bat*an)
,fyu-zh3n )
button bit |DES ENG] A drilling
butt gage [ ENG ] A tool used bit made with button-shaped
to mark the outline for the tungsten carbide inserts. {
hinges on a door. { 'bst ,gaj ) 'bat* on ,bit)
butt joint [ELEC] A connection button die |DESENG] A mating
formed by placing the ends of member, usually replaceable,
two conductors together and for a piercing punch. Also
joining them by welding, known as die bushing. { 'bst-
brazing, or soldering. [ENG] A sn ,dT)
joint in which the parts to be
button head |DES ENG] A
joined are fastened end to
screw, bolt, or rivet with a
end or edge to edge with one
hemispherical head. { 'b3t-
or more cover plates (or other
3n,hed )
strengthening) generally
used to accomplish the buttress |civ ENG] A pier
joining. { 'bat joint) constructed at right angles to
a restraining wall on the side
buttock lines [ENG] The lines
opposite to the restrained
of intersection of the surface
material; increases the
of an aircraft or its float, or of
strength and thrust resistance
the hull of a ship, with its
of the wall. { 'bs-tres )
longitudinal vertical planes.
Also known as buttocks. { buttress dam |civ ENG] A
'bsd-sk ,lmz ) concrete dam constructed as
a series of buttresses. { 'bs-
buttocks See buttock lines. {
tres ,dam )
'bsd-sks )
buttress thread |DES ENG] A
button [ELECTR] 1. A small,
screw thread whose forward
round piece of metal alloyed
face is perpendicular to the 'bT,pas )
screw axis and whose back
bypass channel (civ ENG ] 1.
face is at an angle to the axis,
A channel built to carry
so that the thread is both
excess water from a stream.
efficient in transmitting power
Also known as flood relief
and strong. { 'bs-tres ,thred )
channel; floodway. 2. A
buzz |CONT SYS] See dither. channel constructed to divert
|ELECTR] The condition of a water from a main channel. {
combinatorial circuit with feed- 'bT,pas ,chan-3l )
back that has undergone a
bypass filter (ELECTR] Filter
transition, caused by the
which provides a low-
inputs, from an unstable state
attenuation path around some
to a new state that is also
other equipment, such as a
unstable. { bsz )
carrier frequency filter used to
BWE See bucket-wheel bypass a physical telephone
excavator. repeater station. { 'bT,pas
BWG See Birmingham wire
gage. bypass valve (ENG] A valve
that opens to direct fluid
BX cable |ELEC] Insulated
elsewhere when a pressure
wires in flexible metal tubing
limit is exceeded. { 'bT,pas
used for bringing electric
power to electronic
equipment. {]be]eks [ka-bsl) by-product (ENG] A product
from a manufacturing process
bypass |civ ENG] A road
that is not considered the
which carries traffic around a
principal material. { 'bT,prad-
congested district or
temporary obstruction. |ELEC]
A shunt path around some c See calorie.
element or elements of a
C See capacitance; capacitor;
circuit, (ENG] An alternating,
usually smaller, diversionary
flow path in a fluid dynamic C2 See command and control.
system to avoid some device, { 'se 'tii )
fixture, or obstruction. {
C3 See command, control, insulation. { 'ka-bsl )
and communications. { 'se
cable buoy [ENG] A buoy
used to mark one end of a
cab |ENG] In a locomotive, submarine underwater cable
truck, tractor, or hoisting during time of installation or
apparatus, a compartment for repair. { 'ka-bsl ,boi )
the operator. { kab )
cable conveyor |MECH ENG]
cabinet file |DES ENG] A A powered conveyor in which
coarse-toothed file with flat a trolley runs on a flexible,
and convex faces used for torque-transmitting cable that
woodworking. { 'kab-s-nst ,fTl ) has helical threads. { 'ka-bsl
cabinet hardware |DES ENG]
Parts for the final trim of a cable drilling [ENG] Rock
cabinet, such as fastening drilling in which the rock is
hinges, drawer pulls, and penetrated by percussion, at
knobs. { 'kab-s-nst [hard the bottom of the hole, of a bit
,wer) suspended from a wire line
and given motion by a beam
cabinet saw |DES ENG] A
pivoted at the center. { 'ka-bsl
short saw, one edge used for
,dril*ir) )
ripping, the other for
crosscutting. { 'kab-s-nst ,so ) cable duct [ENG] A pipe,
either earthenware or
cabinet scraper |DES ENG] A
concrete, through which
steel tool with a contoured
prestressing wires or electric
edge used to remove
cable are pulled. { 'ka-bsl
irregularities on a wood
surface. { 'kab-s-nst ,skrap-3r)
cable-laid [DES ENG]
cable |DES ENG] A stranded,
Consisting of three ropes with
ropelike assembly of wire or
a left-hand twist, each rope
fiber. |ELEC] Strands of
having three twisted strands. {
insulated electrical
'ka-bsl ,lad )
conductors laid together,
usually around a central core, cableman [ENG] A person
and surrounded by a heavy who installs, repairs, or
otherwise works with cables. { cable vault [civ ENG] A
'ka-bsl-msn ) manhole containing electrical
cables, [ELEC] Vault in which
cable railway [MECH ENG] An
the outside plant cables are
inclined track on which rail
spliced to the tipping cables. {
cars travel, with the cars fixed
'ka-bsl ,volt)
to an endless steel-wire rope
at equal spaces; the rope is cableway [MECH ENG] A
driven by a stationary transporting system consisting
engine. { 'ka-bsl ]ral,wa ) of a cable extended between
two or more points on which
cable release [ENG] A wire
cars are propelled to transport
plunger to actuate the shutter
bulk materials for construction
of a camera, thus avoiding
operations. { 'ka-bsl.wa )
undesirable camera
movement. { 'ka-bsl ri'les ) cableway carriage [MECH
ENG] A trolley that runs on
cable-stayed bridge [civ
main load cables stretched
ENG] A modification of the
between two or more towers. {
cantilever bridge consisting of
'ka-bs^wa 'kar-ij )
girders or trusses cantilevered
both ways from a central caboose [ENG] A car on a
tower and supported by freight train, often the last
inclined cables attached to the car, usually for use by the
tower at top or sometimes at train crew. { ks'biis )
several levels. { 'ka-bsl ,stad
cab signal [ENG] A signal in a
,brij )
locomotive that informs the
cable-system drill See churn engine operator about
drill. { 'ka-bsl jsis* torn ,dril) conditions affecting train
movement. { 'kab ,sig-n3l)
cable-tool drilling [ENG] A
drilling procedure in which a cadastral survey [civ ENG] A
sharply pointed bit attached to survey made to establish
a cable is repeatedly picked property lines. { ks'das-trsl)
up and dropped on the bottom
cage [MECH ENG] A frame for
of the hole. { 'ka-bsl ft til
maintaining uniform
,dril*ig )
separation between the balls
or rollers in a bearing. Also powder into a solid mass by
known as separator. { kaj ) heat, pressure, or water. {
'kak-irj )
cage mill [MECH ENG]
Pulverizer used to disintegrate cal See calorie.
clay, press cake, asbestos,
Cal See kilocalorie.
packing-house by-products,
and various tough, gummy, calandria | CHEM ENG ] One
high-moisture-content or low- of the tubes through which
melting-point materials. { 'kaj the heating fluid circulates in
,mil) an evaporator. { ks'lan-dre-s )
cairn [ENG] An artificial calandria evaporator See
mound of rocks, stones, or short-tubevertical evaporator. {
masonry, usually conical or ks'lan-dre-s i'vap-^rad-sr)
pyramidal, whose purpose is
to designate or to aid in identi- calcimeter (ENG] An
fying a point of surveying or of instrument for estimating the
cadastral importance. { kern ) amount of lime in soils. {
caisson | civ ENG ] 1. A
watertight, cylindrical or calcination (CHEM ENG] A
rectangular chamber used in process in which a material is
underwater construction to heated to a temperature
protect workers from water below its melting point to
pressure and soil collapse. 2. effect a thermal
A float used to raise a sunken decomposition or a phase
vessel. 3. See dry-dock transition other than melting. {
caisson. { 'ka ,san ) ,kal* ss'na-shsn )

caisson foundation |civ calcine (ENG] 1. To heat to a

ENG] A shaft of concrete
high temperature without
placed under a building fusing, as to heat unformed
column or wall and extending ceramic materials in a kiln, or
down to hardpan or rock. Also to heat ores, precipitates,
known as pier foundation. { concentrates, or residues so
'ka,san foun'da-shsn ) that hydrates, carbonates, or
other compounds are
caking | ENG ] Changing of a decomposed and the volatile
material is expelled. 2. To ,k3rv)
heat under oxidizing
calibration markers (ENG] On
conditions. { 'kal,sTn )
a radar display, electronically
calcining furnace (ENG] A generated marks which
heating device, such as a provide numerical values for
vertical-shaft kiln, that raises the navigational parameters
the temperature (but not to the such as bearing, distance,
melting point) of a substance height, or time. { 'kal-^bra-
such as limestone to make shsn ,mar-k3rz )
lime. Also known as calciner.
California polymerization
{ 'kal,sin-ig ,fer*n3s )
(CHEM ENG] A polymerization
calefaction (ENG] 1. process for converting C3C4
Warming. 2. The condition of olefins to motor fuel by utilizing
being warmed. { [kal-3[fak- a catalyst of phosphoric acid
sh3n ) on quartz chips. { ]kal-3]for-
ny3 p3,lim-3-re'za-shsn )
calender (ENG] 1. To pass a
material between rollers or caliper (DES ENG] An
plates to thin it into sheets or instrument with two legs or
to make it smooth and glossy. jaws that can be adjusted for
2. The machine which measuring linear dimensions,
performs this operation. { 'kal- thickness, or diameter. { 'kal-
sn-dsr) s-psr)
calibrating tank (ENG] A tank caliper gage (DES ENG] An
having known capacity used to instrument, such as a
check the volumetric accuracy micrometer, of fixed size for
of liquid delivery by positive- calipering. { 'kal-s-psr ,gaj )
displacement meters. Also
calk See caulk. { kok)
known as meter-proving tank.
{ 'kal-3,brad-ir) ,tar)k) Callendar and Barnes'
continuous-flow calorimeter
calibration curve (ENG] A
(ENG] A calorimeter in which
plot of calibration data, giving
the heat to be measured is
the correct value for each
absorbed by water flowing
indicated reading of a meter
through a tube at a constant
or control dial. { 'kal-^bra-shsn
rate, and the quantity of heat relating temperature and
is determined by the rate of resistance of platinum, ac-
flow and the temperature cording to which the
difference between water at temperature is the sum of a
ends of the tube. {]kal -on -dor linear function of the
on 'barnz ksn'tin ys-wss ,flo resistance of platinum and a
kal-s'rim-sd-sr) small correction term, which is
a quadratic function of
Calendar's compensated air
temperature. { 'kal-sn-dsrz
thermometer (ENG] A type of
i'kwa-zhsn )
constant-pressure gas
thermometer in which errors Callendar's thermometer
resulting from temperature See platinum resistance
differences between the thermometer. { 'kal-sn-dsrz
thermometer bulb and the thsr'mam-sd-sr)
connecting tubes and
calorie (THERMO] Abbreviated
manometer used to maintain
cal; often designated c. 1. A
constant pressure are
unit of heat energy, equal to
eliminated by the con-
4.1868 joules. Also known as
figuration of the connecting
International Table calorie (IT
tubes. { [kal-sn-dsrz ]kam-
calorie). 2. A unit of energy,
p3n,sad-3d 'er ths^mam-sd-
equal to the heat required to
raise the temperature of I
Calendar's equation gram of water from 14.5 to
(THERMO] 1. An equation of 15.5C at a constant pressure
state for steam whose of 1 standard atmosphere;
temperature is well above the equal to 4.1855 0.0005
boiling point at the existing joules. Also known as fifteen-
pressure, but is less than the degrees calorie; gram-calorie
critical temperature: (V b) = (g-cal); small calorie. 3. A unit
(RT/j?) - (fl/T), where V is the of heat energy equal to 4.184
volume, R is the gas constant, joules; used in
T is the temperature, p is the thermochemistry. Also known
pressure, n equals 10/3, and as thermochemical calorie. {
a and b are constants. 2. A 'kal-s-re )
very accurate equation
calorific value ( ENG ]
Quantity of heat liberated on fundamental unit of
the complete combustion of a measurement is the joule or
unit weight or unit volume of the calorie (4.184 joules). {
fuel. {]kal-3]rif-ik 'val-yu) kal-s'rim-s-tre )
calorifier (ENG] A device that calyx | ENG ] A steel tube that
heats fluids by circulating is a guide rod and is also
them over heating coils. { used to catch cuttings from a
ks'lor-s.fT-sr) drill rod. Also known as
bucket; sludge barrel; sludge
calorimeter (ENG] An
bucket. { 'ka,liks )
apparatus for measuring heat
quantities generated in or calyx drill (ENG] A rotary core
emitted by materials in drill with hardened steel shot
processes such as chemical for cutting rock. Also known
reactions, changes of state, as shot drill. { 'ka,liks ,dril )
or formation of solutions. {
cam (MECH ENG ] A plate or
cylinder which communicates
calorimetric test ( ENG ] The motion to a follower by means
use of a calorimeter to of its edge or a groove cut in
determine the thermochemical its surface. { kam )
characteristics of propellants
cam acceleration (MECH
and explosives; properties
ENG] The acceleration of the
normally determined are heat
cam follower. { 'kam ak-sel-
of combustion, heat of
s'ra-shsn )
explosion, heat of formation,
and heat of reaction. { k3[16r- camber (DES ENG] Deviation
3[me-trik 'test) from a straight line; the term
is applied to a convex,
calorimetry [ENG] The
edgewise sweep or curve, or
measurement of the quantity
to the increase in diameter at
of heat involved in various
the center of rolled materials.
processes, such as chemical
{ 'kam-bsr)
reactions, changes of state,
and formations of solutions, or camber angle (MECH ENG]
in the determination of the The inclination from the
heat capacities of substances; vertical of the steerable
wheels of an automobile. { cam nose (MECH ENG] The
'kam-bsr ,ar)-g3l ) high point of a cam, which in a
reciprocating engine holds
cam cutter (MECH ENG ] A
valves open or closed. { 'kam
semiautomatic or automatic
,noz )
machine that produces the
cam contour by swinging the cam pawl (MECH ENG] A pawl
work as it revolves; uses a which prevents a wheel from
master cam in contact with a turning in one direction by a
roller. { 'kam ,k3d-3r) wedging action, while
permitting it to rotate in the
cam dwell (DES ENG] That part
other direction. { 'kam ,pol)
of a cam surface between the
opening and closing Campbell-Stokes recorder
acceleration sections. { 'kam (ENG] A sunshine recorder in
,dwel) which the time scale is
supplied by the motion of the
cam engine (MECH ENG] A
sun and which has a spherical
piston engine in which a cam-
lens that burns an image of
and-roller mechanism seems
the sun upon a specially
to convert reciprocating
prepared card. { [kam-sl
motion into rotary motion. {
[stoks ri 'kord-sr)
'kam ,en-J3n )
camp ceiling (BUILD] A ceiling
camera study See
that is flat in the center portion
memomotion study. { 'kam-ra
and sloping at the sides. {
,st3d-e )
'kamp ,se-litj)
cam follower (MECH ENG] The
cam profile (DES ENG] The
output link of a cam
shape of the contoured cam
mechanism. { 'kam ,fal*3*w3r)
surface by means of which
cam mechanism (MECH ENG] motion is communicated to
A mechanical linkage whose the follower. Also known as
purpose is to produce, by pitch line. { 'kam ,pro,fTl)
means of a contoured cam
camshaft (MECH ENG] A
surface, a prescribed motion
rotating shaft to which a cam
of the output link. { 'kam ^ek-
is attached. { 'kam,shaft )
^niz-sm )
can (DES ENG] A cylindrical canned pump (MECH ENG] A
metal vessel or container, watertight pump that can
usually with an open top or a operate under water. { [kand
removable cover. { kan ) 'pomp )
canal (civ ENG] An artificial cannibalize (ENG] TO remove
open waterway used for parts from one piece of
transportation, waterpower, or equipment and use them to
irrigation, (DES ENG] A groove replace like, defective parts in
on the underside of a corona. a similar piece of equipment
{ ks'nal) in order to keep the latter
operational. { 'kan-
canalization (ENG] Any
system of distribution canals canonical equations of
or conduits for water, gas, motion See Hamilton's
electricity, or steam. { ^an-sl- equations of motion. {ks'nan-
s'za-shsn ) s-ksl i'kwa-zhsnz sv 'mo-shsn
cancellation circuit (ELECTR]
A circuit used in providing canonical form (CONT SYS] A
moving-target indication on a specific type of dynamical
plan position indicator scope; system representation in
cancels constant-amplitude which the associated matrices
fixed-target pulses by possess specific row-column
subtraction of successive structures. { ks'nan-s-ksl ,form
pulse trains. { kan-ss'la-shsn )
canonically conjugate
canister See charcoal variables ( MECH ] A gen-
canister. { 'kan-s'stsr) eralized coordinate and its
conjugate momentum. {
canned motor (MECH ENG] A
ks'nan-s-kle ]kan-J3-gst 'ver-
motor enclosed within a
e-s-bslz )
casing along with the driven
element (that is, a pump) so canonical momentum See
that the motor bearings are conjugate momentum. {
lubricated by the same liquid ks'nan-s-ksl ms'ment-sm )
that is being pumped. { [kand
canonical transformation
(MECH] A transformation which { 'kant-sl.e-vsr [brij )
occurs among the coordinates
cantilever footing |civ ENG]
and momenta describing the
A footing used to carry a load
state of a classical dynamical
from two columns, with one
system and which leaves the
column and one end of the
form of Hamilton's equations
footing placed against a
of motion unchanged. Also
building line or exterior wall. {
known as contact
'kant-sl.e-vsr 'fud-irj )
transformation. { ks'nan-s-
ksl ^ranz-fer'ma-shsn ) cantilever retaining wall |civ
ENG] A type of wall formed of
cant file (DES ENG] A fine-
three cantilever beams: stem,
tapered file with a triangular
toe projection, and heel
cross section, used for
projection. { 'kant-sl.e-vsr
sharpening saw teeth. { 'kant
ri'tan-ig wol)
cantilever spring | MECH ENG
cant hook (DES ENG] A lever
] A flat spring supported at
with a hooklike attachment at
one end and holding a load at
one end, used in lumbering.
or near the other end. { 'kant-
{ 'kant ,huk)
sl.e-vsr ,sprirj )
cantilever (ENG] 1. A beam or
cantilever vibration |MECH]
member securely fixed at one
Transverse oscillatory motion
end and hanging free at the
of a body fixed at one end. {
other end. 2. In particular, in
'kant-sl.e-vsr vT'bra-shsn )
an atomic force microscope a
very small beam that has a tip canting |MECH] Displacing
attached to its free end; the the free end of a beam which
deflection of the beam is used is fixed at one end by
to measure the force acting subjecting it to a sideways
on the tip. { 'kant-sl.e-vsr) force which is just short of that
required to cause fracture. {
cantilever bridge |civ ENG] A
fixed bridge consisting of two
spans projecting toward each canting strip See water table.
other and joined at their ends { 'kant-ig .strip )
by a suspended simple span.
cant strip |BUILD] 1. A strip
placed along the angle capacitance bridge |ELEC] A
between a wall and a roof so bridge for comparing two
that the roofing will not bend capacitances, such as a
sharply. 2. A strip placed Schering bridge. { ks'pas-s-
under the edge of the lowest tsns .brij )
row of tiles on a roof to give
capacitance level indicator
them the same slope as the
(ENG] A level indicator in
other tiles. { 'kant .strip )
which the material being
cap | ENG ] A detonating or monitored serves as the
blasting cap. {kapj dielectric of a capacitor
formed by a metal tank and an
capacitance |ELEC] The ratio
insulated electrode mounted
of the charge on one of the
vertically in the tank. { ks'pas-
conductors of a capacitor
s-tsns [lev-sl 'in-ds.kad-sr)
(there being an equal and
opposite charge on the other capacitance meter (ENG] An
conductor) to the potential instrument used to measure
difference between the capacitance values of
conductors. Symbolized C. capacitors or of circuits
Formerly known as capacity. containing capacitance. {
|ENG] In a closed feedwater ks'pas-s-tons .med-sr)
heater, the volume of water
required for proper operation
intrusion detector (ENG] A
of the drain control valve. {
boundary alarm system in
ks'pas-s-tsns )
which the approach of an
capacitance altimeter [ENG] intruder to an antenna wire
An absolute altimeter which encircling the protected area a
determines height of an few feet above ground
aircraft aboveground by changes the antenna-ground
measuring the variations in capacitance and sets off the
capacitance between two alarm. {ks'pas-s-tsns [p-s.rad-
conductors on the aircraft sd in'tru-zhsn di'tek-tsr)
when the ground is near
capacitance standard See
enough to act as a third
standard capacitor. { ks'pas-
conductor. { ks'pas-s-
s-tsns .stan-dsrd )
capacitive coupling (ELEC] dielectric and which
Use of a capacitor to transfer introduces capacitance into a
energy from one circuit to circuit, stores electrical
another. { ks'pas-s-tsns .ksp- energy, blocks the flow of
lig ) direct current, and permits the
flow of alternating current to a
capacitive electrometer
degree dependent on the
(ENG] An instrument for
capacitor's capacitance and
measuring small voltages; the
the current frequency. Sym-
voltage is applied to the plates
bolized C. Also known as
of a capacitor when they are
condenser; electric
close together, then the
condenser. { ks'pas-sd-sr)
voltage source is removed
and the plates are separated, capacitor bank (ELEC] A
increasing the potential number of capacitors
difference between them to a connected in series or in
measurable value. Also parallel. { ks'pas-sd-or .barjk)
known as condensing elec-
capacitor color code ( ELEC]
trometer. { ko]pas-3d-iv
A method of marking the
value on a capacitor by
capacitive pressure means of dots or bands of
transducer (ENG] A meas- colors as specified in the
urement device in which Electronic Industry
variations in pressure upon a Association color code. {
capacitive element ks'pas-sd-sr 'ksl-sr ,kod )
proportionately change the
capacitor hydrophone (ENG
element's capacitive rating
ACOUS] A capacitor
and thus the strength of the
microphone that responds to
measured electric signal from
waterborne sound waves. {
the device. { ks]pas-3d-iv
ks'pas-sd-sr 'hT-dra.fon )
'presh-sr tranz.du-ssr)
capacitor loudspeaker See
capacitor (ELEC] A device
electrostatic loudspeaker. {
which consists essentially of
ks'pas-sd-sr 'laud.spek-sr)
two conductors (such as
parallel metal plates) capacitor microphone (ENG
insulated from each other by a ACOUS] A microphone
consisting essentially of a the available capacity of an
flexible metal diaphragm and apparatus or industrial plant
a rigid metal plate that to store, process, treat,
together form a two-plate air manufacture, or produce.
capacitor; sound waves set {ks'pas-sd-e ,fak-trome
the diaphragm in vibration,
cap crimper [ENG] A tool
producing capacitance
resembling a pliers that is
variations that are converted
used to press the open end of
into audiofrequency signals by
a blasting cap onto the safety
a suitable amplifier circuit.
fuse before placing the cap in
Also known as condenser
the primer. { 'kap ,krim-p3r)
microphone; electrostatic
microphone. { ks'pas-sd-sr cape chisel [DES ENG] A
'mT-krs.fon ) chisel that tapers to a flat,
narrow cutting end; used to
capacitor pickup (ENG
cut flat grooves. { 'kap ,chiz-3l
ACOUS] A phonograph pickup
in which movements of the
stylus in a record groove cape foot [MECH] A unit of
cause variations in the length equal to 1.033 feet or
capacitance of the pickup. { to 0.3148584 meter. { 'kap
ks'pas-sd-sr 'pik-sp ) ,fut)
capacity See capacitance. { capillarity correction [ENG]
ks'pas-sd-e ) AS applied to a mercury
barometer, that part of the
capacity correction (ENG]
instrument correction which is
The correction applied to a
required by the shape of the
mercury barometer with a
meniscus of the mercury. {
nonadjust-able cistern in
,kap-3'lar-3d-e k^rek-shsn )
order to compensate for the
change in the level of the capillary collector [ENG] An
cistern as the atmospheric instrument for collecting liquid
pressure changes. { ks'pas- water from the atmosphere;
sd-e ks'rek-shsn ) the collecting head is
fabricated of a porous material
capacity factor |IND ENG] The
having a pore size of the order
ratio of average actual use to
of 30 micrometers; the
pressure difference across the between the pipe exterior and
water-air interface prevents air the socket within it, forming a
from entering the capillary sys- tight fit. { 'kap-3,ler-e ,fid*ig )
tem while allowing free flow of
capillary tube [ENG] A tube
water. { 'kap-3,ler-e ks'lek-tsr)
sufficiently fine so that
capillary drying [ENG] capillary attraction of a liquid
Progressive removal of into the tube is significant. {
moisture from a porous solid 'kap-3,ler-e ,tub )
mass by surface evaporation
capillary viscometer [ ENG ] A
followed by capillary
long, narrow tube that is used
movement of more moisture
to measure the laminar flow of
to the drying surface from the
fluids. { 'kap-3,ler-e vis'kam-
moist inner region, until the
surface and core stabilize at
the same moisture capital amount factor [ IND
concentration. { 'kap-3,ler-e ENG ] Any of 20 common
'drT-irj ) compound interest formulas
used to calculate the
capillary electrometer [ENG]
equivalent uniform annual
An electrometer designed to
cost of all cash flows. { 'kap-
measure a small potential
st-sl s'maunt ,fak-t3r)
difference between mercury
and an electrolytic solution in capital budgeting [ IND ENG ]
a capillary tube by measuring Planning the most effective
the effect of this potential use of resources to obtain the
difference on the surface highest possible level of
tension between the liquids. sustained profits. { 'kap-st-sl
Also known as Lippmann 'bsj-sd-ig )
electrometer. { 'kap-s, ler-e
ijek'tram-sd-sr) capital expenditure [IND ENG]
Money spent for long-term
capillary fitting [ENG] A pipe additions or improvements
fitting having a socket-type and charged to a capital
end so that when the fitting is assets account. { 'kap-st-si
soldered to a pipe end, the ik'spen-di-chsr)
solder flows by capillarity
along the annular space capped fuse [ENG] A length
of safety fuse with the cap or unscrewed. { 'kap-tiv 'fas-sn-
detonator crimped on before sr)
it is taken to the place of use.
captive test [ENG] A hold-
{ 'kapt 'fyuz )
down test of a propulsion
capping [ENG] Preparation subsystem, rocket engine, or
of a capped fuse. { 'kap-ig ) motor. { 'kap-tiv 'test)
cap screw [DES ENG] A screw capture area [ENG ACOUS]
which passes through a clear The effective area of the
hole in the part to be joined, receiving surface of a
screws into a threaded hole in hydrophone, or the available
the other part, and has a power of the acoustic energy
head which holds the parts divided by its equivalent
together. { 'kap ,skru ) plane-wave intensity. { 'kap-
chsr ,er-e-3)
capstan [ENG] A shaft which
pulls magnetic tape through capturing [ENG] The use of a
a machine at constant torquer to restrain the spin
speed. { 'kap-stsn ) axis of a gyro to a specified
position relative to the spin
capstan nut [DES ENG] A nut
reference axis. { 'kap-chs-rig )
whose edge has several
holes, in one of which a bar car See automobile. { kar)
can be inserted for turning it. {
Caratheodory's principle
'kap-stsn ,nst)
[THERMO] An expression of the
capstan screw [DES ENG] A second law of
screw whose head has thermodynamics which says
several radial holes, in one of that in the neighborhood of
which a bar can be inserted any equilibrium state of a
for turning it. { 'kap-stsn ,skru ) system, there are states
which are not accessible by a
capsule [ENG] A boxlike
reversible or irreversible adia-
component or unit, often
batic process. Also known as
sealed. { 'kap-ssl)
principle of inaccessibility. {
captive fastener [DES ENG] A ^ar-^ta-s'ddr-ez 'prin-ss-psl)
screw-type fastener that does
carbide tool [DES ENG] A
not drop out after it has been
cutting tool made of tungsten, carbon dioxide, stored under
titanium, or tantalum carbides, 800-900 pounds per square
having high heat and wear inch (5.5-6.2 megapascals) at
resistance. { 'kar,bTd ,tul) normal room temperature. {
]kar-bsn dT'ak,sTd 'fir ik'stig-
carbometer [ ENG ] An
instrument for measuring the
carbon content of steel by carbon hydrophone |ENG
measuring magnetic ACOUS] A carbon microphone
properties of the steel in a that responds to waterborne
known magnetic field. { sound waves. {[kar-bsn 'hT-
kar'bam-sd-sr) dre,fon )
carbonation [CHEM ENG] The carbon knock |MECH ENG]
process by which a fluid, Premature ignition resulting in
especially a beverage, is knocking or pinging in an
impregnated with carbon internal combustion engine
dioxide. { ^ar-bs'na-shsn ) caused when the accumula-
tion of carbon produces
carbon bit [DES ENG] A
overheating in the cylinder. {
diamond bit in which the
'kar-bsn ,nak)
cutting medium is inset
carbon. { [kar-bsn [bit) carbon microphone |ENG
ACOUS] A microphone in
carbon burning rate [CHEM
which a flexible diaphragm
ENG] The weight of carbon
moves in response to sound
burned per unit time from the
waves and applies a varying
catalytic-cracking catalyst in
pressure to a container filled
the regenerator. { [kar-bsn
with carbon granules, causing
'born-irj ,rat)
the resistance of the
carbon canister See charcoal microphone to vary
canister. {ikar-bsn 'kan-s-stsr) correspondingly. { [kar-bsn
'mT-kr^fon )
carbon dioxide fire
extinguisher |CHEM ENG] A carbon-pile pressure
type of chemical fire transducer (ENG] A
extinguisher in which the measurement device in which
extinguishing agent is liquid variations in pressure upon a
conductive carbon core with a fixed electrode and a
proportionately change the movable electrode, so that
core's electrical resistance, motion of the movable
and thus the strength of the electrode varies the resist-
measured electric signal from ance of the granules. { 'kar-
the device. { 'kar-bsn ,pTl bsn tranz'dii-ssr)
'presh-sr tranz ,d(i-s3r)
carburetion |CHEM ENG] The
carbon residue |CHEM ENG] process of enriching a gas by
The quantity of carbon adding volatile carbon com-
produced from a lubricating pounds, such as
oil heated in a closed hydrocarbons, to it, as in the
container under standard manufacture of carbureted
conditions. { 'kar-bsn 'rez-3,du water gas. |MECH ENG] The
) process of mixing fuel with air
in a carburetor. { ^ar-bs'ra-
carbon-residue test |CHEM
shsn )
ENG] A destructive-distillation
method for estimation of carburetor |CHEM ENG] An
carbon residues in fuels and apparatus for vaporizing,
lubricating oils. Also known as cracking, and enriching oils in
Conradson carbon test. { 'kar- the manufacture of
bsn 'rez-3,du ,test) carbureted water gas. |MECH
ENG] A device that makes and
carbon resistance
controls the proportions and
thermometer | ENG ] A highly
quantity of fuel-air mixture fed
sensitive resistance
to a spark-ignition internal
thermometer for measuring
combustion engine. { 'kar-
temperatures in the range
0.05-20 K; capable of
measuring temperature carburetor icing |MECH ENG]
changes of the order 10~5 The formation of ice in an
degree. { 'kar-bsn ri]zis-tsns engine carburetor as a
th3r,mam-sd-sr) consequence of expansive
cooling and evaporation of
carbon transducer | ENG ] A
gasoline. { 'kar-b^red-sr J-sig)
transducer consisting of
carbon granules in contact card |ELECTR] A printed circuit
board or other arrangement of cardioid microphone |ENG
miniaturized components that ACOUS] A microphone having
can be plugged into a a heart-shaped, or cardioid,
computer or peripheral device. response pattern, so it has
{ kard) nearly uniform response for a
range of about 180 in one
Cardan joint See Hooke's
direction and minimum
joint. { 'kar,dan joint)
response in the opposite
Cardan motion |MECH ENG] direction. { 'kard-e,6id 'mT-
The straight-line path kr^fon )
followed by a moving
cardioid pattern |ENG] Heart-
centrode in a four-bar
shaped pattern obtained as
centrode linkage. { 'kar,dan
the response or radiation
'mo-shsn )
characteristic of certain
Cardan shaft |MECH ENG] A directional antennas, or as
shaft with a universal joint at the response characteristic of
its end to accommodate a certain types of microphones.
varying shaft angle. { 'kar,dan { 'kard-e,6id ,pad-3rn )
card key access |ENG] A
Cardan's suspension |DES physical security system in
ENG] An arrangement of rings which doors are unlocked by
in which a heavy body is placing a badge that contains
mounted so that the body is magnetically coded informa-
fixed at one point; generally tion in proximity to a reading
used in a gyroscope. { device; some systems also
'kar,danz sss'pen-shsn ) require the typing of this
information on a keyboard. {
card-edge connector |ELEC] 'kard ,ke 'ak,ses )
A connector that mates with
printed-wiring leads running to car dump |MECH ENG] Any
the edge of a printed circuit one of several devices for
board on one or both sides. unloading industrial or railroad
Also known as edgeboard cars by rotating or tilting the
connector. { 'kard ,ej ks'nek- car. { 'kar ,d3mp )
car-following theory [ENG] A
mathematical model of the divided by its temperature
interactions between motor equals 0. Also known as
vehicles in terms of relative Clausius theorem. { kar]not
speed, absolute speed, and 'kloz-e-os i,kwa-zh3n )
separation. { 'kar^al-s-wir)
Carnot cycle |THERMO] A
,the-3-re )
hypothetical cycle consisting
cargo boom |MECH ENG] of four reversible processes in
Along spar extending from the succession: an isothermal
mast of a derrick to support or expansion and heat addition,
guide objects lifted or an isentropic expansion, an
suspended. { 'kar-go ,bum ) isothermal compression and
heat rejection process, and
cargo mill |IND ENG] A sawmill
an isentropic compression. {
equipped with docks so the
kar'no ,si-k3l)
product can be loaded directly
onto ships. { 'kar-go ,mil ) Carnot efficiency |THERMO]
The efficiency of a Carnot
cargo winch | MECH ENG ] A
engine receiving heat at a
motor-driven hoisting machine
temperature absolute T, and
for cargo having a drum
giving it up at a lower
around which a chain or rope
temperature absolute T2;
winds as the load is lifted. {
equal to (T, - T2)flV { kar'no
'kar-go ,winch )
i'fish-sn-se )
carillon | ENG ] A musical
Carnot engine |MECH ENG]
instrument played from a
An ideal, friction-less engine
keyboard with two or more full
which operates in a Carnot
chromatic octaves of fine bells
cycle. { kar'no 'en-jsn )
shaped for homogeneity of
timbre. { 'kar-3,lan ) Carnot number |THERMO] A
property of two heat sinks,
Carnot-Clausius equation
equal to the Carnot efficiency
|THERMO] For any system
of an engine operating
executing a closed cycle of
between them. {kar'no ^sm-
reversible changes, the
integral over the cycle of the
infinitesimal amount of heat Carnot's theorem |THERMO]
transferred to the system 1. The theorem that all
Carnot engines operating carriage [ENG] 1. A device
between two given that moves in a predetermined
temperatures have the same path in a machine and carries
efficiency, and no cyclic heat some other part, such as a
engine operating between two recorder head. 2. A mecha-
given temperatures is more nism designed to hold a paper
efficient than a Carnot engine. in the active portion of a
2. The theorem that any printing or typing device, for
system has two properties, example, a typewriter
the thermodynamic tempera- carriage, [MECH ENG] A
ture T and the entropy S, structure on an industrial
such that the amount of heat truck or stacker that supports
exchanged in an infinitesimal forks or other attached
reversible process is given equipment and travels
bydQ = TdS; the vertically within the mast. {
thermodynamic temperature is 'kar-ij )
a strictly increasing function
carriage bolt [DES ENG] A
of the empirical temperature
round-head type of bolt with a
measured on an arbitrary
square neck, used with a nut
scale. { kar'noz 'thir-sm )
as a through bolt. { 'kar-ij ,bolt
carousel |MECH ENG] A )
rotating transport system that
carriage stop [MECH ENG] A
transfers and presents
device added to the outer
workpieces for loading and
way of a lathe bed for
unloading by a robot or other
accurately spacing grooves,
machine. { ,kar-3'sel)
turning multiple diameters
carpenter's level |DES ENG] A and lengths, and cutting off
bar, usually of aluminum or pieces of specified thickness. {
wood, containing a spirit 'kar-ij ,stap)
level. { 'kar-psn-tsrz ,lev-3l)
carrier [MECH ENG] Any
car retarder [ENG] A device machine for transporting
located along the track to materials or people. { 'kar-e-
reduce or control the velocity sr)
of railroad or mine cars. {[kar
carrier line [ELEC] Any
transmission line used for attached to the yoke is rotated
multiple-channel carrier fast. { 'kar ,shak-3r)
communication. { 'kar-e-sr .lTn
car stop [ENG] An appliance
used to arrest the movement
carrier pipe [ ENG ] Pipe used of a mine or railroad car. {
to carry or conduct fluids, as 'kar ,stap )
contrasted with an exterior
Cartesian-coordinate robot [
protective or casing pipe. {
CONT SYS ] A robot having
'kar-e-sr ,pTp )
orthogonal, sliding joints and
carrousel [ IND ENG ] In an supported by a nonrotary
assembly-line operation, a base as the axis. { kar'te-zhsn
conveyor that moves objects ko]drd-3n-3t 'ro,bat)
in a complete circuit on a
Cartesian diver manostat
horizontal plane. { ka-rs'sel)
[ENG] Preset, on-off-control
carrying capacity [ELEC] manometer arrangement by
The maximum amount of which a specified low
current or power that can be pressure (high vacuum) is
safely handled by a wire or maintained via the rise or
other component. { 'kar-e-ig submergence of a marginally
ks'pas-sd-e) buoyant float within a liquid
mercury reservoir. { kar'te-
carry-over [CHEM ENG]
zhan jdTvar 'man-3,stat)
Unwanted liquid or solid
material carried by the cartridge [ENG] A cylindrical,
overhead effluent from a waterproof, paper shell filled
fractionating column, with high explosive and
absorber, or reaction vessel. { closed at both ends; used in
'kar-e ,0-vsr) blasting, [ENGACOUS] See
phonograph pickup; tape
car shaker [MECH ENG] A
cartridge. { 'kar-trij )
device consisting of a heavy
yoke on an open-top car's cartridge filter [ENG ] A filter
sides that actively vibrates for the clarification of process
and rapidly discharges a load, liquids containing small
such as coal, gravel, or sand, amounts of solids; turgid liquid
when an unbalanced pulley flows between thin metal
disks, assembled in a vertical [ ELECTR ] See avalanche.
stack, to openings in a central [ENG] An arrangement of
shaft supporting the disks, and separation devices, such as
solids are trapped between isotope separators,
the disks. { 'kar-trij ,fil-tor) connected in series so that
they multiply the effect of each
cartridge starter [MECH ENG]
individual device. { ka'skad )
An explosive device which,
when placed in an engine and cascade compensation |
detonated, moves a piston, CONT SYS ] Compensation in
thereby starting the engine. { which the compensator is
'kar-trij ,stard-3r) placed in series with the
forward transfer function. Also
car tunnel kiln [ENG] A long
known as series
kiln with the fire located near
compensation; tandem
the midpoint; ceramic ware is
compensation. { ka'skad kam-
fired by loading it onto cars
pon'sa-shon )
which are pushed through the
kiln. { 'kar 'tsn-sl ,kil) cascade control |CONT SYS]
An automatic control system
Casale process [CHEM ENG]
in which various control units
A process that employs
are linked in sequence, each
promoted iron oxide catalyst
control unit regulating the
for synthesis of ammonia
operation of the next control
from nitrogen and hydrogen.
unit in line. { ka'skad ksn.trol )
{ k3,sal*e ,pras-3s )
cascade cooler |CHEM ENG]
cascade [ELEC] An electric-
Fluid-cooling device through
power circuit arrangement in
which the fluid flows in a
which circuit breakers of
series of horizontal tubes, one
reduced interrupting ratings
above the other; cooling
are used in the branches, the
water from a trough drips over
circuit breakers being assisted
each tube, then to a drain.
in their protection function by
Also known as serpentine
other circuit breakers which
cooler; trickle cooler. { ka'skad
operate almost
instantaneously. Also known
as backup arrangement, cascaded [ENG] Of a series
of elements or devices, settler units, counterflowing to
arranged so that the output of heavy material, in such a
one feeds directly into the manner that fresh liquid
input of another, as a series of contacts treated heavy
dynodes or a series of airfoils. material, and spent (used)
{ ka'skad-sd ) liquid contacts fresh
(untreated) heavy material. {
cascade impactor (ENG] A
ka'skad [mik-ssr iset'lar)
low-speed im-paction device
for use in sampling both solid cascade pulverizer (MECH
and liquid atmospheric ENG] A form of tumbling
suspensoids; consists of four pulverizer that uses large
pairs of jets (each of lumps to do the pulverizing. {
progressively smaller size) ka'skad 'psl-v^nz-sr)
and sampling plates working
cascade system ( MECH ENG ]
in series and designed so that
A combination of two or more
each plate collects particles of
refrigeration systems
one size range. { ka'skad
connected in series to
produce extremely low
cascade limiter (ELECTR] A temperatures, with the
limiter circuit that uses two evaporator of one machine
vacuum tubes in series to used to cool the condenser of
give improved limiter another. { ka'skad ,sis-t3m )
operation for both weak and
cascade tray ( CHEM ENG ] A
strong signals in a frequency-
fractionating apparatus that
modulation receiver. Also
consists of a series of parallel
known as double limiter. {ka
troughs arranged in stairstep
'skad 'lim-sd-sr)
fashion. { ka'skad ,tra )
cascade mixer-settler (CHEM
cascading (ELEC] An effect
ENG] Series of liquid-holding
in which a failure of an
vessels with stirrers, each
electrical power system
connected to an unstirred
causes this system to draw
vessel in which solids or
excessive amounts of power
heavy immiscible liquids settle
from power systems which are
out of suspension; light liquid
interconnected with it, causing
moves through the mixer-
them to fail, and these member around the opening
systems cause adjacent of a door or window, (DES
systems to fail in a similar ENG] The outer portion of a
manner, and so forth, (MECH tire assembly consisting of
ENG] An effect in ball-mill fabric or cord to which rubber
rotating devices when the is vulcanized. (MECH ENG] A
upper level of crushing fire-resistant covering used to
bodies breaks clear and falls protect part or all of a steam
to the top of the crop load. { generating unit. { 'ka,sir) )
ka'skad-ig )
casing nail (DES ENG] A nail
cascading drain (MECH ENG] about half a gage thinner than
A flow of water into the a common wire nail of the
closed shell of a feedwater same length. { 'ka,sir) ,nal)
heater from a water source
casing shoe (ENG] A ring
maintained at a higher
with a cutting edge on the
pressure. { ka'skad-irj 'dran )
bottom of a well casing. {
case (ENG] An item designed 'ka,sir) ,shu )
to hold a specific item in a
cassette ( ENG ] A light-tight
fixed position by virtue of
container designed to hold
conforming dimensions or
photographic film or plates,
attachments; the item which it
(ENG ACOUs] A small,
contains is complete in itself
compact container that holds
for removal and use outside
a magnetic tape and can be
the container. { kas )
readily inserted into a
case bay (BUILD] A division of matching tape recorder for
a roof or floor, consisting of recording or playback; the
two principal rafters and the tape passes from one hub
joists between them. { 'kas ,ba within the container to the
) other hub. { ks'set)
casement window ( BUILD ] A cast (ENG] 1. To form a liquid
window hinged on the side or plastic substance into a
that opens to the outside. { fixed shape by letting it cool in
'kas-msnt 'win-do ) the mold. 2. Any object which
is formed by placing a
casing (BUILD] A finishing
castable substance in a mold front wheels. 2. A wheel
or form and allowing it to which is free to swivel about
solidify. Also known as an axis at right angles to the
casting. { kast ) axis of the wheel, used to
support trucks, machinery, or
Castaing-Slodzian mass
furniture. { 'kas-tor)
analyzer See direct-imaging
mass analyzer. { [kas -tag cast-film extrusion See chill-
[slo-zhsn ,mas 'an-3,lTz-3r) roll extrusion. {]kast jfilm
ik'stru-zhon )
castellated bit (DES ENG] 1. A
long-tooth, sawtooth bit. 2. A Castigliano's principle See
diamond-set coring bit with a Castigliano's theorem. { ^as-
few large diamonds or hard til'ya-noz ,prin-s3-p3l )
metal cutting points set in the
Castigliano's theorem |MECH
face of each of several
] The theorem that the
upstanding prongs separated
component in a given
from each other by deep
direction of the deflection of
waterways. Also known as
the point of application of an
padded bit. { 'kas-t3,lad*3d
external force on an elastic
body is equal to the partial
castellated nut (DES ENG] A derivative of the work of
type of hexagonal nut with a deformation with respect to
cylindrical portion above the component of the force in
through which slots are cut so that direction. Also known as
that a cotter pin or safety wire Castigliano's principle. { ^as-
can hold it in place. { 'kas- til'ya-noz ,thir-3m )
t3,lad-3d 'not)
casting See cast. { 'kast-ig )
caster (ENG] 1. The
casting area [ENG] In plastics
inclination of the kingpin or
injection molding, the
its equivalent in automotive
moldable area of a
steering, which is positive if
thermoplastic material for a
the kingpin inclines forward,
given thickness and under
negative if it inclines backward,
given conditions of molding. {
and zero if it is vertical as
'kast-irj ,er*e*3 )
viewed along the axis of the
casting strain |MECH] Any reactor. { 'kad-sl-sst ,strip-
strain that results from the
cooling of a casting, causing
casting stress. { 'kast-irj ,stran catalytic activity |CHEM ENG]
) The ratio of the space velocity
of a catalyst being tested, to
casting stress |MECH ] Any
the space velocity required
stress that develops in a
for a standard catalyst to give
casting due to geometry and
the same conversion as the
casting shrinkage. { 'kast-iq
catalyst under test. { ]kad-
,stres )
3l]id-ik ak'tivsd-e )
Castner cell |CHEM ENG] A
catalytic converter |CHEM
type of mercury cell used in
ENG] A device that is fitted to
the commercial production of
the exhaust system of an
chlorine and sodium. { 'kast-
automotive vehicle and
nsr ,sel)
contains a catalyst capable of
Castner process |CHEM ENG] converting potentially polluting
A process used industrially to exhaust gases into harmless
make high-test sodium or less harmful products. {
cyanide by reacting sodium, [kad-3l[id-ik ksn'vsrd-sr)
glowed charcoal, and dry
catalytic cracker See
ammonia gas to form
catalytic cracking unit. { [kad-
sodamide, which is converted
3l[id-ik 'krak-sr)
to cyanamide immediately;
the cyana-mide is converted catalytic cracking |CHEM ENG]
to cyanide with charcoal. { Conversion of high-boiling
'kast-nsr ,pras-3s ) hydrocarbons into lower-
boiling types by a catalyst. {
cast setting See mechanical
]kad-3l[id-ik 'krak-iq )
setting. { 'kast ,sed-ig )
catalytic cracking unit |CHEM
catalyst stripping |CHEM
ENG] A unit in a petroleum
ENG] Introduction of steam to
refinery in which a catalyst is
remove hydrocarbons
used to carry out cracking of
retained on the catalyst; the
hydrocarbons. Also known as
steam is introduced where the
catalytic cracker. { [kad-3l[id-ik
spent catalyst leaves the
'krak-lrj ,yu* not) in a ball mill in which some,
leaving the top of the crop
catalytic hydrogenation
load, fall with impact to the toe
|CHEM ENG] Hydro-genating by
of the load. { 'kad-^rak-tir) )
means of catalysts such as
nickel or palladium. { [kad- catastrophic failure (ENG] 1.
3l[id-ik ^T-dre-js'na-shsn ) A sudden failure without
warning, as opposed to
catalytic polymerization
degradation failure. 2. A
|CHEM ENG] Polymerization of
failure whose occurrence can
monomers to form high-
prevent the satisfactory
molecular-weight molecules
performance of an entire
in the presence of catalysts. {
assembly or system. { ^ad-
]kad-3l]id-ik ps.lim-s-re'za-
s'straf-ik 'fal-ysr)
shsn )
catch (DES ENG] A device
catalytic reforming |CHEM
used for fastening a door or
ENG] Rearranging of
gate and usually operated
hydrocarbon molecules in a
manually from only one side,
gasoline boiling-range
for example, a latch. { kach )
feedstock to form
hydrocarbons having a higher catch basin (civ ENG] 1. A
antiknock quality. basin at the point where a
Abbreviated CR. { [kad-3l[id- street gutter empties into a
ik re'for-mirj ) sewer, built to catch matter
that would not easily pass
cat-and-mouse engine
through the sewer. 2. A well
(MECH ENG] A type of rotary
or reservoir into which surface
engine, typified by the Tschudi
water may drain off. { 'kach
engine, which is an analog of
,ba-s3n )
the reciprocating piston
engine, except that the pistons catching diode (ELECTR]
travel in a circular motion. Diode connected to act as a
Also known as scissor short circuit when its anode
engine. { ]kat on 'maus ,en- becomes positive; the diode
J3n ) then prevents the voltage of a
circuit terminal from rising
cataracting |MECH ENG ] A
above the diode cathode
motion of the crushed bodies
voltage. { 'kach-iq ,dT,od } naphtha-reforming process
with a catalyst of platinum-
catchwater (civ ENG] A ditch
silica-alumina which results in
for catching water on sloping
very high hydrogen purity. {
land. { 'kach,w6d-3r)
'kat,f6r-mir) )
cat cracker (CHEM ENG] A
cathetometer [ENG] An
refinery unit where catalytic
instrument for measuring
cracking is done. { 'kat ,krak-
small differences in height, for
example, between two
catenary suspension (ENG] columns of mercury. { ^ath-
Holding a flexible wire or s'tam-sd-sr)
chain aloft by its end points;
cathode |ELEC] The terminal
the wire or chain takes the
at which current leaves a
shape of a catenary. { 'kat-
primary cell or storage
3,ner-e sss'pen-shsn )
battery; it is negative with
caterpillar (MECH ENG] A respect to the device, and
vehicle, such as a tractor or positive with respect to the
army tank, which runs on two external circuit. |ELECTR] 1.
endless belts, one on each The primary source of
side, consisting of flat treads electrons in an electron tube;
and kept in motion by toothed in directly heated tubes the
driving wheels. { 'kad-sr.pil-sr) filament is the cathode, and in
indirectly heated tubes a
caterpillar chain (DES ENG] A coated metal cathode
short, endless chain on which surrounds a heater.
dogs (grippers) or teeth are Designated K. Also known as
arranged to mesh with a negative electrode. 2. The
conveyor. { 'kad-3r,pil-or terminal of a semiconductor
,chan ) diode that is negative with
caterpillar gate (civ ENG] A respect to the other terminal
steel gate carried on crawler when the diode is biased in
tracks that is used to control the forward direction. {
water flow through a spillway. 'kath,od )
{ 'kad-3r,pil-3r ,gat) cathode efficiency |CHEM
catforming (CHEM ENG] A ENG] The proportion of current
used for completion of a given bridge. { 'kat,wok)
process at the cathode. {
caul (ENG] A sheet of metal
'kath,od i,fish*3n*se )
or other material that is
cathode-ray tube |ELECTR] heated and used to equalize
An electron tube in which a pressure during fabricating
beam of electrons can be plywood, shaping surface
focused to a small area and veneer, and hot-pressing
varied in position and composite materials, {kolj
intensity on a surface.
caulk (ENG] TO make a seam
Abbreviated CRT. Originally
or point airtight, watertight, or
known as Braun tube; also
steamtight by driving in
known as electron-ray tube. {
caulking compound, dry pack,
'kath,od ]ra ,tub )
lead wool, or other material.
cathodic inhibitor |CHEM Also spelled calk. { kok)
ENG] A compound, such as
caulking iron (DES ENG] A
calcium bicarbonate or
tool for applying caulking to a
sodium phosphate, which is
seam. { 'kok-irj J-srn )
deposited on a metal surface
in a thin film that operates at causality (MECH] In classical
the cathodes to provide mechanics, the principle that
physical protection over the the specification of the
entire surface against dynamical variables of a
corrosive attack in a system at a given time, and of
conducting medium. { ks'thad- the external forces acting on
ik in'hib-sd-sr) the system, completely
determines the values of
catwalk (ENG] A narrow,
dynamical variables at later
raised platform or pathway
times. Also known as
used for passage to otherwise
determinism. { kd 'zal-sd-e )
inaccessible areas, such as a
raised walkway on a ship causal system (CONT SYS] A
permitting fore and aft system whose response to an
passage when the main deck input does not depend on
is awash, a walkway on the values of the input at later
roof of a freight car, or a times. Also known as non-
walkway along a vehicular anticipatory system; physical
system. { 'ko-zsl ,sis-t3m ) sns )
causticization (CHEM ENG] A cavings See slough. { 'kavirjz
process for converting an )
alkaline carbonate into lime. {
cavitation (ENG] Pitting of a
'kos-ts-ss'za-shsn )
solid surface such as metal or
caustic treater ( CHEM ENG ] concrete. { ^avs'ta-shsn )
A vessel containing a strong
cavitation resistance
alkali through which solutions
inducer (MECH ENG] In liquid
are passed for removal of
flows through rotating
undesirable substances, for
machinery, an axial flow pump
example, sulfides,
with high-solidity blades that is
mercaptans, or acids. { 'ko-
used in front of a main pump
stik ,tred-3r)
in order to increase the inlet
cautious control (CONT SYS] head and thereby prevent
A control law for a stochastic cavitation in the downstream
adaptive control system which impeller. { ,kav3]ta-sh3n
hedges and uses lower gain ri'sis-tons in,du-s3r)
when the estimates are un-
cavity frequency meter (ENG]
certain. { 'ko-shss ksn'trol)
A device that employs a cavity
cave (ENG] A pit or tunnel resonator to measure
under a glass furnace for microwave frequencies. {
collecting ashes or raking the 'kavsd-e 'fre-kwsn-se ,med-3r)
fire. { kav )
cavity impedance (ELECTR]
Cavendish balance (ENG] An The impedance of the cavity
instrument for determining the of a microwave tube which
constant of gravitation, in appears across the gap
which one measures the between the cathode and the
displacement of two small anode. { 'kavsd-e im'ped-sns
spheres of mass m, which are )
connected by a light rod
cavity magnetron (ELECTR] A
suspended in the middle by a
magnetron having a number
thin wire, caused by bringing
of resonant cavities forming
two large spheres of mass M
the anode; used as a
near them. { 'kavsn-dish 'bal-
microwave oscillator. { 'kav constant size; gives
sd-e 'mag-n^tran ) information concerning quality
level, its variability, and
cavity radiator (THERMO] A
evidence of assignable causes
heated enclosure with a small
of variation. { 'se ,chart )
opening which allows some
radiation to escape or enter; CCR process See cyclic
the escaping radiation catalytic reforming process. {
approximates that of a ,se,se'ar ,pras-os )
blackbody. { 'kavsd-e 'rad-
CD-4 sound See compatible
discrete four-channel sound.
cavity resonance (ENG {]se]de 'for ,saund )
ACOUs] The natural resonant
ceiling (BUILD) The covering
vibration of a loudspeaker
made of plaster, boards, or
baffle; if in the audio range, it
other material that constitutes
is evident as unpleasant
the overhead surface in a
emphasis of sounds at that
room. { 'se-lig )
frequency. { 'kavsd-e 'rez-sn-
sns ) ceiling light (ENG) A type of
cloud-height indicator which
cavity wall (BUILD] A wall
uses a searchlight to project
constructed in two separate
vertically a narrow beam of
thicknesses with an air space
light onto a cloud base. Also
between; provides thermal
known as ceiling projector. {
insulation. Also known as
'se-lig ,lTt)
hollow wall. { 'kavsd-e ,wol )
ceiling projector See ceiling
c axis (MECH ENG] The angle
light. { 'se-lirj pro'jek-tor)
that specifies the rotation of a
machine tool about the z axis. ceilometer (ENG) An
{ 'se ,ak-s3s ) automatic-recording cloud-
height indicator. { se'lam-od-
CCD See charge-coupled
cell (ELEC) A single unit of a
C chart ( IND ENG ] A quality-
battery, ( IND ENG ) A
control chart showing number
manufacturing unit consisting
of defects in subgroups of
of a group of work stations
and their interconnecting 1 foot (0.3048 meter) per
materials-trans port second in 1 second. { 'se-lo )
mechanisms and storage
Celsius degree (THERMO)
buffers. { sel)
Unit of temperature interval or
cellular cofferdam (civ ENG) difference equal to the kelvin.
A cofferdam consisting of { 'sel-se-os di'gre)
interlocking steel-sheet piling
Celsius temperature scale
driven as a series of
(THERMO) Temperature scale
interconnecting cells; cells
in which the temperature Qc in
may be of circular type or of
degrees Celsius (C) is
straight-wall diaphragm type;
related to the temperature Tk
space between lines of pilings
in kelvins by the formula 0e =
is filled with sand. { 'sel-yo-lor
Tk - 273.15; the freezing point
'k6f-or,dam )
of water at standard
cellular horn See multicellular atmospheric pressure is very
horn. { 'sel-yo-lor 'horn ) nearly 0C and the
corresponding boiling point is
cellular manufacturing (IND
very nearly 100C. Formerly
ENG) A type of manufacturing
known as centigrade
in which equipment is
temperature scale. { 'sel-se-os
organized into groups or cells
'tem-pro-chor ,skal)
according to function and
intermachine relationships. { cementation (ENG) 1.
]sel-yo-lor ,man-o'fak-chor-ig ) Plugging a cavity or drill hole
with cement. Also known as
cellular striation (ENG)
dental work. 2. Consolidation
Stratum of cells inside a
of loose sediments or sand by
cellular-plastic object that
injection of a chemical agent
differs noticeably from the cell
or binder. { ,se ,men'ta-shon )
structure of the remainder of
the material. { 'sel-yo-lor strl'a- cement gun ( MECH ENG ) 1. A
shon ) machine for mixing, wetting,
and applying refractory
celo (MECH ) A unit of
mortars to hot furnace walls.
acceleration equal to the
Also known as cement injec-
acceleration of a body whose
tor. 2. A mechanical device
velocity changes uniformly by
for the application of cement center (IND ENG) A
or mortar to the walls or roofs manufacturing unit con-
of mine openings or building taining a number of
walls. { si'ment ,gon ) interconnected cells. { 'sen-
cement injector See cement
gun. { si'ment in 'jek-torj center-bearing swing
bridge (civ ENG) A type of
cement kiln (ENG) A kiln used
swing bridge that has a single
to fire cement to less than
large bearing on a pier, called
complete melting. { si'ment
the pivot pier, in the
waterway. { sen-tor ,ber-irj
cement mill (MECH ENG) A 'swig ,brij )
mill for grinding rock to a
center drill (ENG) A two-
powder for cement. { si'ment
fluted tool consisting of a
twist drill with a 60
cement pump (MECH ENG) A countersink; used to drill
piston device used to move countersink center holes in a
concrete through pipes. {si workpiece to be mounted
'ment ,pomp) between centers for turning or
grinding. { 'sen-tor ,dril)
cement silo ( ENG ) A silo
used to store dry, bulk center gage (DES ENG) A
cement. { si'ment 'sT,lo ) gage used to check angles;
for example, the angles of
cement valve (MECH ENG) A cutting tool points or screw
ball-, flapper-, or clack-type threads, or the angular
valve placed at the bottom of position of cutting tools. {
a string of casing, through 'sen-tor ,gaj )
which cement is pumped, so
that when pumping ceases, center-gated mold (ENG) A
the valve closes and prevents plastics injection mold with
return of cement into the the filling orifice
casing. { si 'ment ,valv ) interconnected to the nozzle
and the center of the cavity
centare See centiare. { area. { 'sen-tor ,gad-od 'mold
'sen,tar) )
centering (civ ENG) A curved, a body by a static fluid in
temporary support for an arch which it is submerged or
or dome during a casting or floating; located at the centroid
laying operations. { 'sen-to- of displaced volume. { 'sen-tor
rig) ov 'boi-on-se )
centering machine (MECH center of force (MECH) The
ENG) A machine for drilling point toward or from which a
and countersinking work to be central force acts. { 'sen-tor
turned on a lathe. { 'sen-to-rig ov 'tors )
ma'shen )
center of gravity |MECH ] A
centerless grinder (MECH fixed point in a material body
ENG) A cylindrical metal- through which the resultant
grinding machine that carries force of gravitational attraction
the work on a support or blade acts. { 'sen-tor sv 'grav-sd-e)
between two abrasive wheels.
center of inertia See center of
{ 'sen-tor-los 'grin-dor)
mass. { 'sen-tor sv i'nsr-shs )
center line (ENG) A line that
center of mass | MECH ] That
represents an axis of
point of a material body or
symmetry on a plane figure
system of bodies which moves
such as a plan for a structure
as though the system's total
or a machine. { 'sen-tor ,lm )
mass existed at the point and
center of attraction (MECH ) all external forces were
A point toward which a force applied at the point. Also
on a body or particle (such as known as center of inertia;
gravitational or electrostatic centroid. { 'sen-tor sv 'mas )
force) is always directed; the
center-of-mass coordinate
magnitude of the force
system (MECH| A reference
depends only on the distance
frame which moves with the
of the body or particle from
velocity of the center of mass,
this point. { 'sen-tor ov o'trak-
so that the center of mass is
shon )
at rest in this system, and the
center of buoyancy (MECH) total momentum of the
The point through which acts system is zero. Also known
the resultant force exerted on as center of momentum
coordinate system. { 'sen-tor sv ss'spen-shsn )
sv 'mas ko'ord-nst ,sis-t3m )
center of twist | MECH ] A
center-of-momentum point on a line parallel to the
coordinate system See cen- axis of a beam through which
ter-of-mass coordinate any transverse force must be
system. { 'sen-tor sv ms'men- applied to avoid twisting of the
tsm ko'drd-nst ,sis-t3m ) section. Also known as
shear center. { 'sen-tor sv
center of oscillation |MECH ]
Point in a physical pendulum,
on the line through the point center plug | DES ENG ] A
of suspension and the center small diamond-set circular
of mass, which moves as if all plug, designed to be inserted
the mass of the pendulum into the annular opening in a
were concentrated there. { core bit, thus converting it to a
'sen-tor sv ,as-3'la-sh3n ) noncoring bit. { 'sen-tor ,plsg )
center of percussion |MECH] center punch | DES ENG ] A
If a rigid body, free to move tool similar to a prick punch
in a plane, is struck a blow at but having the point ground to
a point O, and the line of an angle of about 90; used to
force is perpendicular to the enlarge prick-punch marks or
line from O to the center of holes. { 'sen-tor ,ponch )
mass, then the initial motion
center square |DES ENG] A
of the body is a rotation about
straight edge with a sliding
the center of percussion
square; used to locate the
relative to O; it can be shown
center of a circle. { 'sen-tor
to coincide with the center of
oscillation relative to O. { 'sen-
tor sv psr'kssh-sn ) centiare |MECH] Unit of area
equal to 1 square meter. Also
center of suspension
spelled centare. { 'sen-te,ar)
|MECH] The intersection of the
axis of rotation of a pendulum centibar |MECH] A unit of
with a plane perpendicular to pressure equal to 0.01 bar or
the axis that passes through to 1000 pascals. { 'sent-3,bar)
the center of mass. { 'sen-tor
centigrade heat unit
|THERMO] A unit of heat column of mercury 1
energy, equal to 0.01 of the centimeter high, having a
quantity of heat needed to density of 13.5951 grams per
raise 1 pound of air-free cubic centimeter, when the
water from 0 to 100C at a acceleration of gravity is equal
constant pressure of 1 to its standard value (980.665
standard atmosphere; equal to centimeters per second per
1900.44 joules. Symbolized second); it is equal to
CHU; (more correctly) 1333.22387415 pascals; it
CHUmean. { 'sent-3,grad 'het differs from the dekatorr by
,yu-n3t) less than 1 part in 7,000,000.
Abbreviated cmHg. Also
centigrade temperature
known as centihg. { 'sent-
scale See Celsius tempera-
3,med-3r sv 'msr-kys-re )
ture scale. { 'sent-3,grad 'tem-
pra-chsr ,skal) central control |SYS ENG]
Control exercised over an
centigram |MECH] Unit of
extensive and complicated
mass equal to 0.01 gram or
system from a single center. {
10~ 5 kilogram. Abbreviated
'sen-tral ksn'trol)
eg. { 'sent-3,gram )
central force |MECH] A force
centihg See centimeter of
whose line of action is always
mercury. { 'sen,tig or ]sent-
directed toward a fixed point;
e,ach'je )
the force may attract or repel.
centiliter |MECH ] A unit of { 'sen-tral 'fdrs )
volume equal to 0.01 liter or to
central gear |MECH ENG] The
10~5 cubic meter. { 'sent-
gear on the central axis of a
planetary gear train, about
centimeter |MECH] A unit of which a pinion rotates. Also
length equal to 0.01 meter. known as sun gear. { 'sen-
Abbreviated cm. { 'sent- tral 'gir)
central heating |civ ENG] The
centimeter of mercury |MECH] use of a single steam or hot-
A unit of pressure equal to the water heating plant to serve a
pressure that would support a group of buildings, facilities, or
even a complete community center of force, in the effective
through a system of potential governing the radial
distribution pipes. { 'sen-tral motion of a particle of
'hed-ig ) nonvanishing angular
momentum in a central force
centralized traffic control
field, which results from the
|civ ENG] Control of train
centrifugal force and prevents
movements by signal
the particle from reaching the
indications given by a train
center of force, or causes its
director at a central control
Schrodinger wave function to
point. Abbreviated CTC. {
vanish there in a quantum-
'sen-tra,lTzd 'traf-ik ksn'trol)
mechanical system. { ,sen'trif-
central orbit |MECH] The i-g3l 'bar-e-sr)
path followed by a body
centrifugal brake |MECH ENG]
moving under the action of a
A safety Device on a hoist
central force. { 'sen-tral 'or-
drum that applies the brake if
the drum speed is greater
centrifugal |MECH] Acting or than a set limit. { ,sen'trif*i*
moving in a direction away gal 'brak)
from the axis of rotation or the
centrifugal casting [ENG] A
center of a circle along which
method for casting metals or
a body is moving. { ,sen 'trif-i-
forming thermoplastic resins in
which the molten material
centrifugal atomizer |MECH solidifies in and conforms to
ENG] Device that atomizes the shape of the inner surface
liquids with a spinning disk; of a heated, rapidly rotating
liquid is fed onto the center of container. { ^en'trif-i-gal 'kast-
the disk, and the whirling irj )
motion (3000 to 50,000
centrifugal clarification
revolutions per minute) forces
|MECH ENG] The removal of
the liquid outward in thin
solids from a liquid by
sheets to cause atomization. {
centrifugal action which
,sen'trif-i-g3l 'ad-^mTz-sr)
decreases the settling time of
centrifugal barrier |MECH ] A the particles from hours to
steep rise, located around the minutes. { ^en'trif-i-gal
,klar*i*fa'ka*shan ) lers. { ,sen'trif*i*g3l ka'lek-tar)
centrifugal classification centrifugal compressor |
|MECH ENG] Atype of MECH ENG ] A machine in
centrifugal clarification which a gas or vapor is
purposely designed to settle compressed by radial
out only the large particles acceleration in an impeller
(rather than all particles) in a with a surrounding casing,
liquid by reducing the and can be arranged
centrifuging time. { multistage for high ratios of
,sen'trif*i*g3l compression. { ^en'trif-i-gal
,klas*a*fa'ka*shan ) kam'pres-ar)
centrifugal classifier |MECH centrifugal discharge
ENG] A machine that elevator |MECH ENG] A high-
separates particles into size speed bucket elevator from
groups by centrifugal force. { which free-flowing materials
,sen'trif*i*g3l 'klas-a,fT-ar) are discharged by centrifugal
force at the top of the loop. {
centrifugal clutch |MECH
^en'trif-i-gal 'dis,charj ^l-a^ad-
ENG] A clutch operated by
centrifugal force from the
speed of rotation of a shaft, as centrifugal extractor |CHEM
when heavy expanding friction ENG] A device for separating
shoes act on the internal components of a liquid
surface of a rim clutch, or a solution, consisting of a series
flyball-type mechanism is of perforated concentric rings
used to activate clutching in a cylindrical drum that
surfaces on cones and disks. rotates at 2000-5000
{ ,sen 'trif-i-gal 'klach ) revolutions per minute
around a cylindrical shaft;
centrifugal collector |MECH
liquids enter and leave
ENG] Device used to separate
through the shaft; they flow
particulate matter of 0.1 -1000
radially and concurrently in the
micrometers from an
rotating drum. { ,sen'trif*i*g3l
airstream; some types are
simple cyclones, high-
efficiency cyclones, and impel- centrifugal fan | MECH ENG ] A
machine for moving a gas, centrifugal governor (MECH
such as air, by accelerating it ENG] A governor whose
radially outward in an impeller flyweights respond to
to a surrounding casing, centrifugal force to sense
generally of scroll shape. { speed. { ,sen'trif*i*gal 'gav-a-
^en'trif-i-gal 'fan ) nar)
centrifugal filter (ENG] An centrifugal molecular still
adaptation of the centrifugal (CHEM ENG] A device used for
settler; centrifugal action of a molecular distillation; material
spinning container segregates is fed to the center of a hot,
heavy and light materials but rapidly rotating cone housed
heavy materials escape in a chamber at a high
through nozzles as a thick vacuum; centrifugal force
slurry. { ^en'trif-i-gal 'fil*tar) spreads the material rapidly
over the hot surface, where
centrifugal filtration (MECH
the evaporable material goes
ENG] The removal of a liquid
off as a vapor to the
from a slurry by introducing
condenser. { ,sen'trif*i*gal
the slurry into a rapidly
ma'lek-ya-lar 'stil)
rotating basket, where the
solids are retained on a centrifugal moment (MECH]
porous screen and the liquid The product of the magnitude
is forced out of the cake by the of centrifugal force acting on a
centrifugal action. { body and the distance to the
,sen'trif*i*gal fil'tra-shan ) center of rotation. {
,sen'trif*i*gal 'mo-mant)
centrifugal force ( MECH ] 1.
An outward pseudo-force, in a centrifugal pump (MECH ENG]
reference frame that is rotat- A machine for moving a liquid,
ing with respect to an inertial such as water, by accelerating
reference frame, which is it radially outward in an
equal and opposite to the impeller to a surrounding
centripetal force that must act volute casing. { ,sen'trif*i*gal
on a particle stationary in the 'pamp )
rotating frame. 2. The reaction
centrifugal sedimentation
force to a centripetal force. {
(CHEM ENG] Removing solids
,sen'trif*i*gal 'fors )
from liquids by causing centrifugal tachometer
particles to settle through the (MECH ENG] An instrument
liquid radially toward or away which measures the
from the center of rotation instantaneous angular speed
(depending on the solid-liquid of a shaft by measuring the
relative densities) by use of a centrifugal force on a mass
centrifuge. { ,sen'trif*i*gal rotating with it. { ,sen'trif*i*gal
,sed*a*man'ta*shan ) ta'kam-ad-ar)
centrifugal separation ( centrifuge (MECH ENG] 1. A
MECH ENG ] The separation of rotating device for separating
two immiscible liquids in a liquids of different specific
centrifuge within a much gravities or for separating
shorter period of time than suspended colloidal particles,
could be accomplished solely such as clay particles in an
by gravity. { ,sen'trif*i* gal aqueous suspension,
,sep'a'ra*shan ) according to particle-size
fractions by centrifugal force.
centrifugal settler (CHEM
2. A large motor-driven
ENG] Spinning container that
apparatus with a long arm, at
separates solid particles from
the end of which human and
liquids; centrifugal force
animal subjects or equipment
causes suspended solids to
can be revolved and rotated
move toward or away from the
at various speeds to simulate
center of rotation, thus
the prolonged accelerations
concentrating them in one
encountered in rockets and
area for removal. {
spacecraft. { 'sen-tr^fyiij )
,sen'trif*i*gal 'set-lar)
centrifuge refining |CHEM
centrifugal switch (MECH
ENG] The use of centrifuges
ENG ] A switch opened or
for liquids processing, such as
closed by centrifugal force;
separation of solids or
used on some induction
immiscible droplets from liquid
motors to open the starting
carriers, or for liquid-liquid
winding when the motor has
solvent extraction. { 'sen-
almost reached synchronous
tr^fyiij ri'fln-ir) )
speed. { ,sen'trif*i*gal 'swich )
centripetal |MECH] Acting or
moving in a direction toward centroid See center of mass.
the axis of rotation or the { 'sen,troid )
center of a circle along which
centroid of asymptotes
a body is moving. { ,sen'trip-
|CONT SYS] The intersection of
3d-3l ) asymptotes in a root-locus
diagram. { 'sen,troid sv 'as-
centripetal acceleration
sm^od-ez )
|MECH ] The radial component
of the acceleration of a cepstrum vocoder |ENG
particle or object moving ACOUS] A digital device for
around a circle, which can be reproducing speech in which
shown to be directed toward samples of the cepstrum of
the center of the circle. Also speech, together with pitch
known as radial information, are transmitted to
acceleration. { ^en'trip-sd-sl the receiver, and are then
ik^el-s'ra-shsn ) converted into an impulse
response that is convolved
centripetal force |MECH] The
with an impulse train gener-
radial force required to keep a
ated from the pitch
particle or object moving in a
information. { 'sep-trem
circular path, which can be
shown to be directed toward
the center of the circle. { ceramic capacitor | ELEC ] A
^en'trip-sd-si 'fors ) capacitor whose dielectric is a
ceramic material such as
centrobaric |MECH] 1.
steatite or barium titanate, the
Pertaining to the center of
composition of which can be
gravity, or to some method of
varied to give a wide range of
locating it. 2. Possessing a
temperature coefficients. {
center of gravity. { ]sen-tro
ss'ram-ik ks'pas-sd-sr)
ceramic cartridge |ENG
centrode |MECH ] The path
ACOUS] A device containing a
traced by the instantaneous
piezoelectric ceramic element,
center of a plane figure when
used in phonograph pickups
it undergoes plane motion. {
and microphones. { ss'ram-
'sen,trod )
ik 'kar-trij )
ceramic earphones See ceraunograph |ENG] An
crystal headphones. { ss'ram- instrument that detects radio
ik 'ir,fonz ) waves generated by lightning
discharges and records
ceramic glaze |ENG] A glossy
their occurrence. { ss'ron-
finish on a clay body obtained
by spraying with metallic
oxides, chemicals, and clays Cermak-Spirek furnace | ENG
and firing at high temperature. ] An automatic re-verberatory
{ ss'ram-ik 'glaz ) furnace of rectangular form
divided into two sections by a
ceramic microphone |ENG
wall; used for roasting zinc
ACOUS] A microphone using
and quicksilver ores.
a ceramic cartridge. { ss'ram-
{]s3r,mak [spir-ek .fsr-nss )
ik 'mT-kr^fon )
cermet resistor |ELEC] A
ceramic pickup |ENG
metal-glaze resistor,
ACOUS] A phonograph pickup
consisting of a mixture of
using a ceramic cartridge. {
finely powdered precious
ss'ram-ik 'pik-sp )
metals and insulating
ceramic radiant | ENG ] A materials fired onto a ceramic
baked-clay component of a substrate. { 's3r,met ri'zis-tsr)
gas heating unit which
Cerruti's problem See
radiates heat when
Boussinesq's problem. {
incandescent from the gas
se'rii-dez ,prab-l3m )
flame. { ss'ram-ik 'rad-e-snt)
certainty equivalence
ceramics |ENG] The art and
control |CONT SYS] An optimal
science of making ceramic
control law for a stochastic
products. { ss'ram-iks )
adaptive control system which
ceramic tool |DES ENG] A is obtained by solving the
cutting tool made from control problem in the case of
metallic oxides. { ss'ram-ik known parameters and
,tul) substituting the known
parameters with their
ceramic transducer See estimates. { 'ssrt-sn-te
electrostriction transducer. { i'kwivs-lsns ksn'trol)
ss'ram-ik tranz'du-sor)
cesium magnetometer |ENG] cfs See cusec.
A magnetometer that uses a
eg See centigram.
cesium atomic-beam
resonator as a frequency chain |civ ENG] See
standard in a circuit that engineer's chain; Gunter's
detects very small variations chain. |DES ENG] 1. A flexible
in magnetic fields. { 'se-ze-sm series of metal links or rings
^ag-ns'tam-sd-sr) fitted into one another; used
for supporting, restraining,
cesspit See cesspool. {
dragging, or lifting objects or
transmitting power. 2. A mesh
cesspool |civ ENG] An of rods or plates connected
underground tank for raw together, used to convey
sewage collection; used objects or transmit power. {
where there is no sewage chan )
system. Also known as
chain belt |DES ENG] Belt of
cesspit. { 'ses,pul)
flat links to transmit power. {
cetane index |CHEM ENG] An 'chan ,belt)
empirical method for finding
chain block | MECH ENG ] A
the cetane number of a fuel
tackle which uses an endless
based on API gravity and
chain rather than a rope, often
the mid boiling point. {
operated from an overhead
'se,tan ,in,deks )
track to lift heavy weights
cetane number |CHEM ENG] especially in workshops. Also
The percentage by volume of known as chain fall; chain
cetane (cetane number 100) in hoist. { 'chan ,blak )
a blend with a-
chain bond |civ ENG] A
methylnaphthalene (cetane
masonry bond formed with a
number 0); indicates the
chain or bar. { 'chan ,band )
ability of a fuel to ignite
quickly after being injected chain conveyor |MECH ENG]
into the cylinder of an engine. A machine for moving
{ 'se,tan ^sm-bsr) materials that carries the
product on one or two endless
CFIA See component-failure-
linked chains with crossbars;
impact analysis.
allows smaller parts to be used to feed, carry, and burn
added as the work passes. { a noncoking coal in a furnace,
'chan ksn'va-sr) control the air for combustion,
and discharge the ash. { 'chan
chain course |civ ENG] A
,grat ,stok-3r)
course of stone held together
by iron cramps. { 'chan ,kors ) chain hoist See chain block. {
'chan ,hoist )
chain drive |MECH ENG] A
flexible device for power chaining |civ ENG] In land
transmission, hoisting, or surveying, measuring
conveying, consisting of an distance by means of a
endless chain whose links chain or tape. { 'chan-irj )
mesh with toothed wheels
chain pump | MECH ENG ] A
fastened to the driving and
pump containing an endless
driven shafts. { 'chan ,driv )
chain that is fitted at intervals
chain fall See chain block. { with disks and moves through
'chan ,fol ) a pipe and raises sludge. {
'chan ,p3mp )
chain-float liquid-level gage
[ENG] Float device to measure chain radar system [ENG] A
the level of liquid in a vessel; number of radar stations
the float, suspended from a located at various sites on a
counterweighted chain draped missile range to enable
over a toothed sprocket, rises complete radar coverage
or falls with the liquid level, during a missile flight; the
and the chain movement turns stations are linked by data
the sprocket to position a and communication lines for
calibrated depth-indicator. { target acquisition, target
'chan [flot 'lik-wsd [lev-sl ,gaj ) positioning, or data-recording
purposes. { [chan 'ra,dar ,sis-
chain gear JMECH ENG] A
t3m )
gear that transmits motion
from one wheel to another by chain riveting [ENG] Riveting
means of a chain. { 'chan ,gir) consisting of rivets one
behind the other in rows along
chain grate stoker |MECH
the seam. { 'chan ,riv*3d*ir) )
ENG] A wide, endless chain
chain saw [ MECH ENG ] A adjacent chambers in a ring or
gasoline-powered saw for oval through which the fire
felling and bucking timber, moves, taking several days to
operated by one person; has make a circuit; waste gas
cutting teeth inserted in a from the fire preheats ware in
sprocket chain that moves chambers toward which the
rapidly around the edge of an fire is moving, while
oval-shaped blade. { 'chan ,so combustion air is preheated
) by ware in chambers already
fired. { 'cham-bsr ,kil)
chain tongs [DES ENG] A tool
for turning pipe, using a chain chamber process [CHEM
to encircle and grasp the ENG] An obsolete method of
pipe. { 'chan ,tarjz ) manufacturing sulfuric acid in
which sulfur dioxide, air, and
chain vise [DES ENG] A vise
steam are reacted in a lead
in which the work is
chamber with oxides of
encircled and held tightly by
nitrogen as the catalyst. {
a chain. { 'chan ,vTs )
'cham-bsr ,pras-3s )
chaldron [MECH] 1. A unit of
chamber test [ENG] A fire test
volume in common use in the
developed specifically for floor
United Kingdom, equal to 36
coverings that measures the
bushels, or 288 gallons, or
speed and distance of the
approximately 1.30927 cubic
spread of flames under
meters. 2. A unit of volume,
specified conditions. { 'cham-
formerly used for measuring
bsr ,test)
solid substances in the United
States, equal to 36 bushels, chamfer [ENG] TO bevel a
or approximately 1.26861 sharp edge on a machined
cubic meters. { 'chdl-dran ) part. { 'cham-fer)
chamber [civ ENG] The space chamfer angle [DES ENG] The
in a canal lock between the angle that a beveled surface
upper and lower gates. { makes with one of the original
'chamber) surfaces. { 'cham-fer ,ar)-g3l )
chamber kiln [ENG] A kiln chamfering [MECH ENG]
consisting of a series of Machining operations to
produce a beveled edge. Also temperatures because of con-
known as beveling. { 'cham-fe- gealing. { 'chan-sl )
rir) )
channeler See channeling
chamfer plane [DES ENG] A machine. { 'chan-sl-91}
plane for chamfering edges of
channel FET microphone
woodwork. { 'cham-fer ,plan )
[ENG ACOUS] A microphone
change gear [ MECH ENG ] A in which a membrane is used
gear used to change the as the gate to a field-effect
speed of a driven shaft while transistor (FET) located just
the speed of the driving below it, and motion of the
remains constant. { 'chanj membrane modulates the
,gir) current between the source
and drain of the transistor. {
changing bag [ENG] An
[chan-sl [fet 'mT-kr^fon or
enclosure of lightproof
material used for operations
such as loading of film holders channeling machine [MECH
in daylight. { 'chanj-ir) ,bag ) ENG] An electrically powered
machine that operates by a
channel [CHEM ENG] In
chipping action of three to five
percolation filtration, a portion
chisels while traveling back
of the clay bed where there is
and forth on a track; used for
a preponderance of flow, [civ
primary separation from the
ENG] A natural or artificial
rock ledge in marble,
waterway connecting two
limestone, and soft sandstone
bodies of water or containing
quarries. Also known as
moving water, [ELECTR] 1. A
channeler. { 'chan-sl-ir)
path for a signal, as an audio
ms'shen )
amplifier may have several
input channels. 2. The main channel iron |DES ENG] A
current path between the metal strip or beam with a U-
source and drain electrodes shape. { 'chan-sl J-srn )
in a field-effect transistor or
channel process JCHEM ENG]
other semiconductor device,
A carbon-black process in
[ENG] The forming of cavities
which iron channel beams are
in a gear lubricant at low
used as depositing surfaces
for carbon black. { 'chan-sl characteristic |ELECTR] A
,pras-3s ) graph showing how the
voltage or current between
chaos See chaotic behavior. {
two terminals of an electronic
'ka,as )
device varies with the voltage
chaotic behavior | MECH ] The or current between two other
behavior of a system whose terminals. { ,kar-ik-ts'ris-tik)
final state depends so
characteristic length |MECH]
sensitively on the system's
A convenient reference length
precise initial state that the
(usually constant) of a given
behavior is in effect
configuration, such as overall
unpredictable and cannot be
length of an aircraft, the
distinguished from a random
maximum diameter or radius
process, even though it is
of a body of revolution, or a
strictly determinate in a
chord or span of a lifting
mathematical sense. Also
surface. { ,kar-ik-t3'ris-tik
known as chaos. { ka'ad-ik
'lerjkth )
characterization factor
Chapman-Jouguet plane
|CHEM ENG] A number which
|MECH] A hypothetical, infinite
expresses the variations in
plane, behind the initial shock
physical properties with
front, in which it is variously
change in character of the
assumed that reaction (and
paraffinic stock; ranges from
energy release) has effectively
12.5 for paraffinic stocks to
been completed, that reaction
10.0 for the highly aromatic
product gases have reached
stocks. Also known as Watson
thermodynamic equilibrium,
factor. { ,kar-ik-t3-re'za-sh3n
and that reaction gases,
streaming backward out of
the detonation, have reached charcoal canister |MECH
such a condition that a for- ENG] In an evaporative control
ward-moving sound wave system, a container filled with
located at this precise plane activated charcoal that traps
would remain a fixed distance gasoline vapors emitted by
behind the initial shock. { the fuel system. Also known
[chap-msn zhii]gwa ,plan ) as canister; carbon canister. {
'char,k6l 'kan-s'stsr) 3. The material or part to be
heated by induction or
charcoal test |CHEM ENG] A
dielectric heating. 4. The
determination of the natural
measurement or weight of
gasoline content of natural
material, either liquid, pre-
gas by adsorbing the gasoline
formed, or powder, used to
on activated charcoal and
load a mold at one time during
then recovering it by
one cycle in the manufacture
distillation. { 'char,kol ,test)
of plastics or metal. |MECH
charge |ELEC ] 1. A basic ENG] 1. In refrigeration, the
property of elementary quantity of refrigerant
particles of matter; the charge contained in a system. 2. To
of an object may be a positive introduce the refrigerant into a
or negative number or zero; refrigeration system. { charj )
only integral multiples of the
charge collector |ELEC] The
proton charge occur, and the
structure within a battery
charge of a body is the
electrode that provides a path
algebraic sum of the charges
for the electric current to or
of its constituents; the value
from the active material. Also
of the charge may be inferred
known as current collector. {
from the Coulomb force
'charj ks.lek-tsr)
between charged objects.
Also known as electric charge conservation See
charge, quantity of electricity. conservation of charge. {
2. To convert electrical 'charj ,kan-s3r'va-sh3n )
energy to chemical energy in
charge-coupled device
a secondary battery. 3. To
|ELECTR] A semiconductor
feed electrical energy to a
device wherein minority
capacitor or other device that
charge is stored in a spatially
can store it. |ENG] 1. A unit of
defined depletion region
an explosive, either by itself
(potential well) at the surface
or contained in a bomb,
of a semiconductor and is
projectile, mine, or the like, or
moved about the surface by
used as the propellant for a
transferring this charge to
bullet or projectile. 2. To load
similar adjacent wells.
a borehole with an explosive.
Abbreviated CCD. { 'charj
iksp-sld di'vTs ) charging current |ELEC] The
current that flows into a
charge-coupled image
capacitor when a voltage is
sensor |ELECTR] A device in
first applied. { 'char-jig ,k3r-
which charges are introduced
when light from a scene is
focused on the surface of the charging pump |CHEM ENG]
device; image points are Pump that provides
accessed sequentially to pressurized fluid flow for the
produce a television-type input of another unit, such as
output signal. Also known as to a triplex pump that requires
solid-state image sensor. { positive pressure. { 'char-jig
'charj [ksp-sld 'im-ij ,sen-s3r) ,p3mp )
charge density |ELEC] The chart comparison unit |ENG]
charge per unit area on a A device that permits
surface or per unit volume simultaneous viewing of a
in space. { 'charj ,den-s3d-e ) radar plan position indicator
display and a navigation chart
charge-mass ratio | ELEC ]
so that one appears
The ratio of the electric
superimposed on the other.
charge of a particle to its
Also known as autoradar plot.
mass. { ,charj ,mas 'ra-sho)
{ 'chart ksm'par-3-ssn ,yu*ri3t)
charge quantization |ELEC]
chart datum See datum
The principle that the electric
plane. { 'chart ,dad-3m )
charge of an object must
equal an integral multiple of a chart desk [ENG] A flat
universal basic charge. { surface on which charts are
'charj ,kwan-t3'za-sh3n ) spread out, usually with
storage space for charts and
charge-transfer device
other navigating equipment
JELECTR] A semiconductor
below the plotting surface. {
device that depends upon
'chart ,desk )
movements of stored charges
between predetermined loca- chart recorder [ENG] A
tions, as in charge-coupled recorder in which a dependent
and charge-injection devices. { variable is plotted against an
'charj ,tranz-f3r di'vTs ) independent variable by an
ink-filled pen moving on plain straighten and clean threads
paper, a heated stylus on on screws or pipes. { chas )
heat-sensitive paper, a light
chase mortise [ DES ENG ] A
beam or electron beam on
mortise with a sloping edge
photosensitive paper, or an
from bottom to surface so that
electrode on electrosensi-tive
a tenon can be inserted when
paper. The plot may be linear
the outside clearance is small.
or curvilinear on a strip chart
{ 'chas ,m6rd-3s )
recorder, or polar on a circular
chart recorder. { 'chart ri'kord- chaser [ENG] A thread-cutting
sr) tool with many teeth. { 'chas-
charitable [ENG] A flat
surface on which charts are chase ring [MECH ENG] In
spread out, particularly one nobbing, the ring which
without storage space below restrains the blank from
the plotting surface, as in spreading during hob sinking.
aircraft and VPR (virtual PPI { 'chas ,rirj )
reflectoscope) equipment. {
'chart ,ta*bal ) chasing tool [DES ENG] A
hammer or chisel used to
chase [BUILD] A vertical decorate metal surfaces. {
passage for ducts, pipes, or 'chas-ig ,tul)
wires in a building, [DES ENG]
A series of cuts, each having chassis [ENG] 1. A frame on
a path that follows the path of which the body of an
the cut before it; an example automobile or airplane is
is a screw thread, [ENG] 1. mounted. 2. A frame for
The main body of the mold mounting the working parts of
which contains the molding a radio or other electronic
cavity or cavities. 2. The device. { 'chas-e )
enclosure used to shrink-fit chassis ground [ELEC] A
parts of a mold cavity in place connection made to the metal
to prevent spreading or dis- chassis on which the
tortion, or to enclose an components of a circuit are
assembly of two or more parts mounted, to serve as a
of a split-cavity block. 3. To common return path to the
power source. { 'chas-e measured has been balanced
,graund ) by the pressure head
resulting from tilting of the
chassis punch [DES ENG] A
entire apparatus. { 'chad-ok
hand tool used to make
,gaj )
round or square holes in
sheet metal. { 'chas-e ,psnch check [ENG] A device
) attached to something in
order to limit the movement,
chatter [ELEC] Prolonged
such as a door check. { chek)
undesirable opening and
closing of electric contacts, as check dam [civ ENG] A low,
on a relay. Also known as fixed structure, constructed of
contact chatter, [ENG] An irreg- timber, loose rock, masonry,
ular alternating motion of the or concrete, to control water
parts of a relief valve due to flow in an erodable channel or
the application of pressure irrigation canal. { 'chek ,dam )
where contact is made
checkerboard regenerator
between the valve disk and
[ENG] An open-checkerwork
the seat, [ENG ACOUS]
arrangement of firebrick in a
Vibration of a disk-recorder
high-temperature chamber
cutting stylus in a direction
that absorbs heat during a
other than that in which it is
batch processing cycle, then
driven. { 'chad-sr)
releases it to preheat fresh
chattering [CONT SYS] A combustion air during the
mode of operation of a relay- down cycle; used, for
type control system in which example, in the steel industry
the relay switches back and with open-hearth and heat-
forth infinitely fast. { 'chads-rig treating furnaces. { 'chek-
) 3r,bord ri'jen-^rad-sr)
Chattock gage [ENG] A form checker plate [ENG] A type
of micromano-meter in which of slip-resistant floor plate
observation of the interface with a distinctive raised
between two immiscible pattern that is used for
liquids is used to determine walkways and platforms. {
when the pressure to be 'chek-sr ,plat )
checkers [ENG] Open )
brickwork in a checkerboard
check valve [MECH ENG] A
regenerator allowing for the
device for automatically
passage of hot, spent gases. {
limiting flow in a piping system
'chek-srz )
to a single direction. Also
check fillet [BUILD] A curb set known as nonreturn valve. {
into a roof to divert or control 'chek ,valv)
the flow of rainwater. { 'chek
cheesebox still [CHEM ENG]
One of the first types of
checkout [ENG] A sequence vertical cylindrical stills
of actions to test or examine designed with a vapor dome. {
a thing as to its readiness for 'chez,baks ,stil)
incorporation into a new phase
cheese head [DES ENG] A
of use or as to the perfor-
raised cylindrical head on a
mance of its intended
screw or bolt. { 'chez ,hed )
function. { 'chek,aut)
chemical engineering [ ENG ]
check rail [BUILD] A rail,
That branch of engineering
thicker than the window, that
serving those industries that
spans the opening between
chemically convert basic raw
the top and bottom sash;
materials into a variety of
usually beveled and rabbeted.
products, and dealing with the
See guardrail. { 'chek ,ral )
design and operation of
check stop [BUILD] A narrow plants and equipment to
length of wood or metal that is perform such work; all
installed to hold a sliding products are formed in
element in place, such as the chemical processes involving
lower part of a sash of a chemical reactions carried out
double-hung window. { 'chek under a wide range of
,stap ) conditions and frequently
accompanied by changes in
check study [IND ENG] A
physical state or form. { 'kem-
review of a job or operation in
i-ksl ,en*J3'nir*ir) )
part or in its entirety to
evaluate the validity of a chemical film dielectric
standard time. { 'chek ,st3d-e |ELEC] An extremely thin layer
of material on one or both pumping action is based on
electrodes of an electrolytic evaporation of a metal whose
capacitor, which conducts vapor then reacts with the
electricity in only one direction chemically active molecules in
and thereby constitutes the the gas to be evacuated. {
insulating element of the 'kem-i-ksl 'T-sn ,p3mp )
capacitor. { 'kem-i-ksl ,film
chemically sensitive field-
,dT-3'lek-trik )
effect transistor [ELECTR] A
chemical fire extinguisher field-effect transistor in which
|CHEM ENG] Any of three types the ordinary gate electrode is
of fire extinguishers replaced by a chemically
(vaporizing liquid, carbon sensitive membrane so that
dioxide, and dry chemical) the gain of the transistor
which expel chemicals in solid, depends on the concentration
liquid, or gaseous form to of chemical substances. {
blanket or smother a fire. { 'kem-ik-le ]sen-ssd-iv 'feld
'kem-i-ksl 'fir ik'stirj-gwish-or) ijfekt tran,zis-t3r)
chemical force microscope chemical process industry
[ENG] A modification of the [CHEM ENG] An industry in
atomic force microscope in which the raw materials
which an organic monolayer undergo chemical conversion
on the probe tip that termi- during their processing into
nates with specific chemical finished products, as well as
functional groups is sensitive (or instead of) the physical
to specific molecular conversions common to
interactions between these industry in general; includes
groups and those on the the traditional chemical,
sample surface. {[kem-o-kol petroleum, and petrochemical
,fors 'mT-kr^skop ) industries. { [kem-i-ksl 'pra-
sss ,in-d3-stre )
chemical hygrometer See
absorption hygrometer. { chemical pulping [CHEM
'kem-i-ksl hT'gram-sd-sr) ENG] Separation of wood fiber
for paper pulp by chemical
chemical ion pump [CHEM
treatment of wood chips to
ENG] A vacuum pump whose
dissolve the lignin that
cements the fibers together. { 'kem-i-ksl thsr'mam-sd-sr)
'kem-i-ksl 'polp-irj)
chemurgy [CHEM ENG] A
chemical reactor [CHEM branch of chemistry
ENG] Vessel, tube, pipe, or concerned with the profitable
other container within which a utilization of organic raw
chemical reaction is made to materials, especially
take place; may be batch or agricultural products, for
continuous, open or packed, nonfood purposes such as for
and can use thermal, paints and varnishes. { 'ke-
catalytic, or irradiation msr-je )
actuation. { 'kern-i-ksl re'ak-
cherry picker [MECH ENG] Any
of several small traveling
chemical similitude [CHEM cranes, especially one used
ENG] A procedure used to to hoist a passenger on the
ensure satisfactory operation end of a boom. { 'cher-e ,pik-
of a full-scale chemical 3r )
process by comparison with
Chicago boom [MECH ENG] A
pilot plant data. { 'kem-i-ksl
hoisting device that is
ss'mil-^tud )
supported on the structure
chemical sterilization [ ENG ] being erected. { shs'ka-go
The use of bactericidal ,bum )
chemicals to sterilize
Chicago caisson [civ ENG] A
solutions, air, or solid
cofferdam about 4 feet (1.2
surfaces. { 'kem-i-ksl ^ter-s-
meters) in diameter lined with
ta'za-shsn )
planks and sunk in medium-
chemical thermometer [ENG] stiff clays to hard ground for
A filled-system temperature- pier foundations. Also known
measurement device in which as open-well caisson. {
gas or liquid enclosed within shs'ka-go 'ka,san )
the device responds to heat
Child-Langmuir equation
by a volume change (rising or
See Child's law.
falling of mercury column) or
by a pressure change (open- Child-Langmuir-Schottky
ing or closing of spiral coil). { equation See Child's law. {
[child [lag-myur 'shat,ke Method of extruding plastic
i'kwa-zhsn ) film in which the film is cooled
while being drawn around two
Child's law [ ELECTR] A law
or more highly polished chill
stating that the current in a
rolls, inside of which there is
thermionic diode varies
cooling water. Also known as
directly with the three-halves
cast-film extrusion. { 'chil ,rol
power of anode voltage and
ek'stru-zhsn )
inversely with the square of
the distance between the chimney [BUILD] A vertical,
electrodes, provided the hollow structure of masonry,
operating conditions are such steel, or concrete, built to
that the current is limited only convey gaseous products of
by the space charge. Also combustion from a building.
known as Child-Lang-muir [ELECTR] A pipelike enclosure
equation; Child-Langmuir- that is placed over a heat sink
Schottky equation; Langmuir- to improve natural upward
Child equation. { 'chlldz ,16 ) convection of heat and
thereby increase the dissipat-
Chile mill [MECH ENG] A
ing ability of the sink. {
crushing mill having vertical
'chim,ne )
rollers running in a circular
enclosure with a stone or iron chimney apron [BUILD] A
base or die. Also known as flashing made of a nonferrous
edge runner. { 'chil-e ,mil) metal, such as copper, that is
built into the masonry of the
chiller [CHEM ENG] Oil-
chimney and the roofing
refining apparatus in which
material at the place where
the temperature of paraffin
the roof is penetrated by the
distillates is lowered
chimney. { 'chim-ne ,a-pran )
preparatory to filtering out the
solid wax components. { 'chil- chimney bar [BUILD] A
sr) wrought-iron or steel lintel
which is supported by the
chill roll [ENG] A cored roll
sidewalls and carries the
used in chill-roll extrusion of
masonry above the fireplace
plastics. { 'chil ,rol)
opening. Also known as
chill-roll extrusion [ENG] turning bar. { 'chim,ne ,bar)
chimney cap | civ ENG ] A cap on the upper part of the
rotary device fitted to a cutting iron of a carpenter's
chimney and moved by the plane designed to give the
wind so that the chimney is tool rigidity and also to break
turned away from the wind to up the wood shavings. { 'chip
permit the escape of smoke ,kap )
while rain or snow is pre-
chip capacitor | ELECTR] A
vented from entering the
single-layer or multilayer
chimney. { 'chim-ne ,kap)
monolithic capacitor
chimney core | MECH ENG ] constructed in chip form, with
The inner section of a double- metallized terminations to
walled chimney which is facilitate direct bonding on
separated from the outer hybrid integrated circuits. {
section by an air space. { 'chip ks'pas-sd-sr)
'chim,ne ,kor)
chip log |ENG] Aline, marked
chip |ELECTR] 1. The shaped at intervals (commonly 50 feet
and processed semiconductor or 15 meters), that is paid out
die that is mounted on a sub- over the stern of a moving
strate to form a transistor, ship and is pulled out by a
diode, or other semiconductor drag (the chip), to determine
device. 2. An integrated the ship's speed. { 'chip ,lag )
microcircuit performing a
chipper |ENG] A tool such as
significant number of functions
a chipping hammer used for
and constituting a subsystem.
chipping. |MECH ENG] A ma-
Also known as microchip. {
chine with revolving knives for
reducing large pieces of wood
chip breaker | DES ENG ] An to chips. { 'chip-sr)
irregularity or channel cut into
chipping hammer |ENG] A
the face of a lathe tool behind
hand or pneumatic hammer
the cutting edge to cause
with chisel-shaped or pointed
removed stock to break into
faces used to remove rust
small chips or curls. { 'chip
and scale from metal sur-
faces. { 'chip-ig ,ham-3r)
chip cap |DES ENG] A plate or
chip resistor |ELECTR] A
thick-film resistor constructed ,ej 'arj-gol)
in chip form, with metallized
chisel-tooth saw (DES ENG] A
terminations to facilitate direct
circular saw with chisel-
bonding on hybrid integrated
shaped cutting edges. { 'chiz-
circuits. { 'chip ri'zis-tsr)
sl 'tilth 'so)
chirp radar [ENG] Radar in
Chladni's figures (MECH]
which a swept-fre-quency
Figures produced by sprinkling
signal is transmitted, received
sand or similar material on a
from a target, then
horizontal plate and then
compressed in time to give a
vibrating the plate while hold-
narrow pulse called the chirp
ing it rigid at its center or
signal. { 'chsrp ,ra,dar)
along its periphery; indicate
chisel |DES ENG] A tool for the nodal lines of vibration. {
working the surface of various 'klad,nez ,fig-ysrz )
materials, consisting of a
chloralkali (CHEM ENG] Either
metal bar with a sharp edge
of the products of the
at one end and often driven
industrial electrolysis of
by a mallet. { 'chiz-sl )
sodium chloride, that is,
chisel bit See chopping bit. { sodium hydroxide or
'chiz-sl ,bit) chlorine. { klor'al-ks.lT)
chisel bond (ENG] A chloralkali process (CHEM
thermocompression bond in ENG] An industrial chemical
which a contact wire is process based on the
attached to a contact pad on a electrolysis of sodium chloride
semiconductor chip by for the production of sodium
applying pressure with a hydroxide and chlorine. {
chisel-shaped tool. { 'chiz-sl ^lor'al-ksjT ,pra-S3S)
,band )
chlorinator (CHEM ENG] The
chisel-edge angle (DES ENG] apparatus used in
The angle included between chlorinating. { 'klor-^nad-sr)
the chisel edge and the
choke ( ELEC ] An inductance
cutting edge, as seen from
used in a circuit to present a
the end of the drill. Also
high impedance to
known as web angle. { 'chiz-sl
frequencies above a specified either one or two choppers. {
frequency range without 'chap-sr 'am-pl^fT-sr)
appreciably limiting the flow of
chopper-stabilized amplifier
direct current. Also known as
( ELECTR] A direct-current
choke coil, (MECH ENG] TO
amplifier in which a direct-
increase the fuel feed to an
coupled amplifier is in parallel
internal combustion engine
with a chopper amplifier. {
through the action of a choke
[chap-sr [sta-bsjTzd 'am-pl^fl-
valve. See choke valve. {
chopper transistor (ELECTR]
choke coil See choke. { 'chok
A bipolar or field-effect
transistor operated as a
choked neck (DES ENG] repetitive "on/off" switch to
Container neck which has a produce square-wave
narrowed or constricted modulation of an input signal.
opening. { ]chokt 'nek) { 'chap-sr tran'zis-tsr)
choke valve (MECH ENG] A chopping (ELECTR] The
valve which supplies the removal, by electronic means,
higher suction necessary to of one or both extremities of a
give the excess fuel feed wave at a predetermined
required for starting a cold level. { 'chap-ig )
internal combustion engine.
chopping bit (MECH ENG] A
Also known as choke. { 'chok
steel bit with a chisel-shaped
,valv )
cutting edge, attached to a
chopper (ENG] Any knife, axe, string of drill rods to break up,
or mechanical device for by impact, boulders, hardpan,
chopping or cutting an object and a lost core in a drill hole.
into segments. { 'chap-sr) Also known as chisel bit. {
'chap-irj ,bit )
chopper amplifier (ELECTR] A
carrier amplifier in which the chop-type feeder (MECH ENG]
direct-current input is filtered Device for semi-continuous
by a low-pass filter, then feed of solid materials to a
converted into a square-wave process unit, with intermittent
alternating-current signal by opening and closing of a
hopper gate (bottom closure) dots on the film. { ,kran-o'sT-
by a control arm actuated by kl3|graf)
an eccentric cam. { 'chap, tip
chronograph | ENG ] An
instrument used to register the
chord | civ ENG] The top or time of an event or graphically
bottom, generally horizontal record time intervals such as
member of a truss. { kdrd ) the duration of an event. {
chordal thickness |DES ENG]
The tangential thickness of a chronometric data | ENG ]
tooth on a circular gear, as Data in which the desired
measured along a chord of quantity is the time of
the pitch circle. { 'kord-al 'thik- occurrence of an event or the
nss ) time interval between two or
more events. { 'kran-3,me-trik
chrome tanning |CHEM ENG]
'dad-s )
Tanning treatment of animal
skin with chromium salts. chronometric radiosonde
{[krom 'tan-irj) [ENG] A radiosonde whose
carrier wave is switched on
chromoradiometer | ENG ] A
and off in such a manner that
radiation meter that uses a
the interval of time between
substance whose color
the transmission of signals is a
changes with x-ray dosage. {
function of the magnitude of
the meteorological elements
chronocyclegraph |IND ENG] being measured. { [kran-3[me-
A device used in micromotion trik 'rad-e-o,sand )
studies to record a complete
chronometric tachometer
work cycle by taking still
(ENG] A tachometer which
pictures with long exposures,
repeatedly counts the
the motion paths being traced
revolutions during a fixed
by small electric lamps
interval of time and presents
fastened to the worker's
the average speed during the
hands or fingers; time is
last timed interval. {[kran-
obtained by interrupting the
3]me-trik ts'kam-sd-sr)
light circuits with a controlled
frequency which produces chronothermometer (ENG] A
thermometer consisting of a suspended from a flexible
clock mechanism whose cable, to which a reciprocating
speed is a function of motion is imparted by its
temperature; automatically suspension from an oscillating
calculates the mean beam or sheave, causing the
temperature. { ]kran-6- bit to be raised and dropped.
thsr'mam-sd-sr) Also known as American
system drill; cable-system
CHU See centigrade heat unit.
drill. { 'chsrn ,dril)
CHUmean See centigrade
churn shot drill (MECH ENG] A
heat unit.
boring rig with both churn and
chuck (DES ENG] A device for shot drillings. { 'chsrn ,shat
holding a component of an ,dril)
instrument rigid, usually by
chute (ENG] A conduit for
means of adjustable jaws or
conveying free-flowing
set screws, such as the
materials at high velocity to
workpiece in a metalworking
lower levels. { shut)
or woodworking machine, or
the stylus or needle of a chute spillway (civ ENG] A
phonograph pickup. { chsk) spillway in which the water
flow passes over a crest into a
chucking (MECH ENG] The
sloping, lined, open channel;
grasping of an outsize
used for earth and rock-fill
workpiece in a chuck or jawed
dams. { [shut 'spil,wa )
device in a lathe. { 'chok-irj )
C3I See command, control,
chucking machine (MECH
communications, and
ENG] A lathe or grinder in
intelligence. { 'se 'thre 'T )
which the outsize workpiece is
grasped in a chuck or jawed cinetheodolite (ENG] A
device. { 'chok-irj ms'shen ) surveying theodolite in which
35-millimeter motion picture
churn drill (MECH ENG]
cameras with lenses of 60- to
Portable drilling equipment,
240-inch (1.5- to 6.1 -meter)
with drilling performed by a
focal length are substituted for
heavy string of tools tipped
the surveyor's eye and
with a blunt-edge chisel bit
telescope; used for precise
time-correlated observation of and installation actions to
distant airplanes, missiles, upgrade a communications
and artificial satellites. circuit to meet an operational
{jsin*3*the'ad*3,lTt) requirement; includes the
reduction of noise, the
Cipolletti weir (civ ENG]
equalization of phase and
Trapezoidal weir in which the
level stability and frequency
sides of the notch slope are
response, and the correction
one horizontal to four vertical;
of impedance discontinuities,
used to measure water flow in
but does not include normal
open channels, especially
maintenance and repair
streams and rivers. { chip-
activities. { 'ssr-kst ksn'dish-s-
s'led-e 'wer)
nir) )
circle shear (MECH ENG] A
circuit diagram (ELEC] A
shearing machine that cuts
drawing, using standardized
circular disks from a metal
symbols, of the arrangement
sheet rolling between the
and interconnections of the
cutting wheels. { 'ssr-ksl
conductors and components
of an electrical or electronic
circuit See electric circuit. { device or installation. Also
'ssr-kst) known as schematic circuit
diagram; wiring diagram. {
circuit analyzer See volt- 'ssr-kst ,dT-3,gram )
ohm-milliammeter. { 'ssr-kst
,an-3,lTz-3r) circuit element See
component. { 'ssr-kst \e\-5-
circuit board See printed msnt)
circuit board. { 'ssr-kst ,bord )
circuit interrupter (ELEC] A
circuit breaker (ELEC] An device in a circuit breaker to
electromagnetic device that remove energy from an arc in
opens a circuit automatically order to extinguish it. { 'ssr-kst
when the current exceeds a ,in-t3,r3p-t3r)
predetermined value. { 'SOT-
feat ,brak-3r) circuit loading (ELEC] Power
drawn from a circuit by an
circuit conditioning (ELECTR] electric measuring instrument,
Test, analysis, engineering,
which may alter appreciably Continuous-length opening
the quantity being measured. { with circular cross section
'ssr-kst ,lod*ir) ) through which liquid or gas
can be made to flow. { 'SOT-
circuit protection |ELECTR]
kys-lsr 'chan-sl )
Provision for automatically
preventing excess or circular-chart recorder
dangerous temperatures in a [ENG] Graphic pen-and-ink
conductor and limiting the recorder where measured
amount of energy liberated values are drawn onto a
when an electrical failure rotating circular chart by the
occurs. { 'ssr-kst pre'tek-shsn backward and forward
) movement of a pivoted pen
actuated by the input signal
circuitry |ELEC] The complete
(such as temperature,
combination of circuits used in
pressure, flow, or force) from
an electrical or electronic
an instrument transmitter. {
system or piece of equipment.
'ssr-kys-lsr ,chart ri'kdrd-sr)
{ 'ssr-ks-tre )
circular cutter |MECH ENG] A
circuit testing |ELEC] The
rotating blade with a square
testing of electric circuits to
or knife edge used to slit or
determine and locate an
shear metal. { 'ssr-kys-lsr
open circuit, or a short circuit
or leakage. { 'ssr-kst ,tes-tir) )
circular form tool [DES ENG]
circuit theory |ELEC] The
A round or disk-shaped tool
mathematical analysis of
with the cutting edge on the
conditions and relationships in
periphery. { 'ssr-kys-tar ,form
an electric circuit. Also known
as electric circuit theory. {
'ssr-kst ,the-3-re) circular inch |MECH ] The
area of a circle 1 inch (25.4
circular burner |ENG] A fuel
millimeters) in diameter. {
burner having a round
'ssr-kys-tar 'inch )
opening. { 'ssr-kys-lsr 'bsrn-
sr) circular mil |MECH] A unit
equal to the area of a circle
circular channel [ENG]
whose diameter is 1 mil
(0.001 inch); used chiefly in circular cone. { 'ssr-kys-lsr
specifying cross-sectional 'skan-irj )
areas of round conductors.
circular spike [ENG] A metal
Abbreviated cir mil. { 'SOT-kys-
timber connector fitted with a
lsr 'mil)
circular series of sharp teeth
circular motion |MECH ] 1. that dig into the wood,
Motion of a particle in a preventing lateral motion, as a
circular path. 2. Motion of a bolt is tightened through the
rigid body in which all its wood and the spike. { 'ssr-kys-
particles move in circles about lsr 'spTk)
a common axis, fixed with
circular velocity |MECH] At
respect to the body, with a
any specific distance from the
common angular velocity. {
primary, the orbital velocity re-
'ssr-kys-lsr 'mo-shsn )
quired to maintain a const
circular pitch |DES ENG] The ant-radius orbit. { 'ssr-kys-lsr
linear measure in inches vs'las-sd-e )
along the pitch circle of a gear
circulating fluid [ENG] A fluid
between corresponding points
pumped into a borehole
of adjacent teeth. { 'SOT-kys-
through the drill stem, the flow
lsr 'pich )
of which cools the bit and
circular plane |DES ENG] A transports the cuttings out of
plane that can be adjusted for the borehole. { 'sor-kyojad-irj
convex or concave surfaces. { 'flu-sd )
'SOT-kys-lsr 'plan )
circulating pump [CHEM ENG]
circular saw |MECH ENG] Any Pump used to circulate
of several power tools for process liquid out of and back
cutting wood or metal, having into a process system, as in
a thin steel disk with a the circulation of distillation
toothed edge that rotates on a column bottoms through an
spindle. { 'ssr-kys-lsr 'so ) external heater, or the
circulation of storage tank
circular scanning | ENG ]
bottoms to mix tank contents.
Radar scanning in which the
{ 'ssr-kysjad-ir) 'pomp )
direction of maximum
radiation describes a right circulating system [CHEM
ENG] Fluid system in which bo'ram-od-or)
the process fluid is taken
civil engineering [ENG] The
from and pumped back into
planning, design, construction,
the system, as in the circula-
and maintenance of fixed
tion of distillation column
structures and ground facilities
bottoms through an external
for industry, transportation,
heater. { 'ssr-kysjad-ir) 'sis-
use and control of water, or
torn )
occupancy. { 'siv-ol en-jo'nir-
circulation area [BUILD] The irj)
area required for human traffic
cladding [ENG] Process of
in a building, including
covering one material with
permanent corridors,
another and bonding them
stairways, elevators,
together under high pressure
escalators, and lobbies. { ^sr-
and temperature. Also known
kys-'la-shsn ,er-e-3 )
as bonding. { 'klad-irj )
circumferentor [ ENG ] A
clamp [ DES ENG ] A tool for
horizontal compass used in
binding or pressing two or
surveying that has arms
more parts together, by
diametrically placed with
holding them firmly in their
vertical slit sights in them. {
relative positions. See
clamping circuit. { klamp )
cir mil See circular mil.
clamping coupling [MECH
cistern [civ ENG] A tank for ENG] A coupling with a split
storing water or other liquid. { cylindrical element which
'sis-torn ) clamps the shaft ends
together by direct
cistern barometer [ENG] A
compression, through bolts or
pressure-measuring device in
rings, and by the wedge
which pressure is read by the
action of conical sections; not
liquid rise in a vertical, closed-
considered a permanent part
top tube as a result of system
of the shaft. { 'klamp-irj ,k3p-
pressure on a liquid reservoir
lir) )
(cistern) into which the
bottom, open end of the tube clamping gripper [CONT SYS]
is immersed. { 'sis-torn A robot element that uses
two-link movements, parallel- clamshell grab See
jaw movements, and clamshell bucket. { 'klam
combination movements to ,shel ,grab )
grasp and handle objects. {
clamshell snapper (MECH
'klamp-irj 'grip-sr)
ENG] A marine sediment
clamping plate [ENG] A plate sampler consisting of
on a mold which attaches the snapper jaws and a footlike
mold to a machine. { 'klamp- projection which, upon striking
ig ,plat) the bottom, causes a spring
mechanism to close the jaws,
clamping pressure |ENG] In
thus trapping a sediment
injection and transfer-molding
sample. { 'klan^shel ,snap-3r)
of plastics, the pressure ap-
plied to keep the mold closed Clapeyron-Clausius
in opposition to the fluid equation See Clausius-
pressure of the molding Clapeyron equation. {kla-pa-
material. { 'klamp-irj ,presh- ron ]kloz-e-3s i,kwa-zh3n )
Clapeyron equation See
clamp screw |DES ENG] A Clausius-Clapeyron equation. {
screw that holds a part by kla-pa-ron i'kwa-zhsn )
forcing it against another
Clapeyron's theorem ( MECH
part. { 'klamp ,skru )
] The theorem that the strain
clamp-screw sextant (ENG] A energy of a deformed body is
marine sextant having a equal to one-half the sum
clamp screw for controlling the over three perpendicular
position of the tangent screw. { directions of the displacement
'klamp ,skru ,seks-t3nt) component times the
corresponding force
clamshell bucket (MECH
component, including
ENG] A two-sided bucket used
deforming loads and body
in a type of excavator to dig in
forces, but not the six
a vertical direction; the bucket
constraining forces required to
is dropped while its leaves are
hold the body in equilibrium. {
open and digs as they close.
kla-pa-ronz ,thir-3m )
Also known as clamshell grab.
{ 'klan^shel ,b3k-3t) clapper box (MECH ENG] A
hinged device that permits a suspended solids in a liquid,
reciprocating cutting tool (as determined by visual or
in a planer or shaper) to clear optical methods. { 'klar-sd-e )
the work on the return stroke.
Clark process (CHEM ENG]
{ 'klap-sr ,baks )
Softening of water by adding
clarification (CHEM ENG] The alkaline solutions of calcium
removal of small amounts hydroxide so that the acid
(usually less than 0.2%) of fine carbonates are converted to
particu-late solids from liquids normal carbonates. { 'klark
(such as drinking water) by ,pras-3s )
methods such as gravity
clasp (DES ENG] A releasable
sedimentation, centrifugal
catch which holds two or more
sedimentation, filtration, and
objects together. { klasp )
magnetic separation. { ^ar-s-
fe'ka-shsn ) clasp lock (DES ENG] A spring
lock with a self-locking
clarifier (ENG] A device for
feature. { 'klasp ,lak)
filtering a liquid. { 'klar-3,fT-3r)
clasp nut (DES ENG] A split
clarifying agent See fining. {
nut that clasps a screw when
'klar-3,fT-ir) ,a-jsnt)
closed around it. { 'klasp ,nst)
clarifying centrifuge (MECH
class A push-pull sound
ENG] A device that clears
track (ENG ACOUS] Two
liquid of foreign matter by
single photographic sound
centrifugation. { 'klar-3,fT-ir)
tracks side by side, the
'sen-tra,fyuj )
transmission of one bei