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Introduction

Constructing a machine and gaining a greater understanding of physics


concepts that include potential energy, inertia, kinetic energy, momentum and
speed. The design process of this project is to pop a balloon with a needle.
Physics concepts will also be described in this report and demonstrated in the
machine. Potential energy, kinetic energy, inertia, speed and momentum are
the physics concepts described in this report.

Process
A plan was drawn multiple times until it was the most accurate. The plan was
analyzed and edited because it was originally inaccurate. The physic
concepts were labelled on where they were demonstrated. Different types of
energy were labelled onto where they were demonstrated. Sketches were
drawn onto the big board so less mistakes were made. Two wooden planks
were screwed into the board one diagonally below the other. A plastic cylinder
was then tied with wire, attached to the board also diagonally under the
wooden plank. Another small wooden plank was placed under the cylinder. A
pulley was screwed into the board. A small cardboard box was tied to some
rope wish was also attached to a small piece of wood. 2 hexagon nuts were
placed through the screw which was adjusted and screwed into the board.
Rope was glued to the bottom of the screw, to keep it stable. The rope was
tied to the bottom of the lever which was screwed at the bottom of the board.
Followed by a balloon secured with wire right above.

The machine failed 3 times, once with the car falling out of the box, another
with the screw not being stable, and lastly, the balloon not popping. These
were then fixed with minor adjustments.

Material Quantity Size Weight Dimensions Purpose

Hexagon Nut 2 Go down a screw,


landing on a lever with
weight making the
other side lift and pop
the balloon.
Wooden Plank 1 (sawed 2 pieces acting as an
into 4 inclined plane for the
pieces) wheel and axle (toy
car).

Third piece is for the


box to lay on.

Fourth piece is to help


lift 2 nuts.
Pulley 1 A car in a box
weighing down one
side, with the other
side lifting 2 nuts that
go down a screw.
Screw 1 For the 2 nuts to go
down, landing on a
lever.

Toy Car 1 Acting as the Wheel


and Axle.
Cardboard Plank 1 Acting as the Lever.

Small box 1 Letting the toy car fall


into the box which
weighs down the
pulley.
Plastic Tube 1 Acting as an inclined
plane.
Balloon 1 Being the purpose of
the machine, popping
the balloon.

Hypothesis
If a car is pushed down three inclined planes, then it will fall into a box which
weighs down one side of the pulley making the other side lift two nuts that fall
down a screw which lands and weighs down one side of the lever, making the
other side lift and pop a balloon.

Simple Machines
The following simple machines were used in the machine:
- 3 inclined planes
- a pulley
- a screw
- a wheel and axle
- a lever

The inclined planes were a pathway for the wheel and axle, including speed.
The pulley helped lift two nuts which went down a screw, then landed on a
lever that pops a balloon.

Physics Concepts

Collision and acceleration were the two concepts chose to demonstrate in the
machine. Collision is the meeting of particles or of bodies in which each
applies a force upon the other, causing the exchange of energy or
momentum. For example, in the machine, it is demonstrated that the wheel
and axle crashed into the box, causing the exchange of momentum.
The rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time is acceleration.
When the wheel and axle went down the inclined planes, acceleration was
demonstrated.

Physics Basic

Potential Energy
The energy possessed by a body by a virtue of its position relative to others,
stress within itself, electric damage, and other factors. Potential energy was
demonstrated as a pulley. The car in the box weighed down one side leaving
the other side lifted.

Kinetic Energy
Energy which a body possesses by being in motion. When the needle popped
the balloon, kinetic energy was demonstrated.

Inertia
A property of matter by which it continues in its existing state of rest or
uniform motion in a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external
force. The car falling into the box represented inertia.

Momentum
The quantity of motion of a moving body, measured as a product of its mass
and velocity. Momentum was demonstrated in the screw, when the 2 nuts
went through the screw.

Speed
The rate at which a body someone or something moves or operates or able to
move or operate. Speed was demonstrated when the wheel and axle (toy car)
went down three inclined planes.

Conclusion and Reflection


The machine helped gain a better understanding of physics work because the
machines were demonstrated. Simple machines were demonstrated to get a
better understanding on how physics concepts work. Potential energy, kinetic
energy, inertia, momentum and speed were all demonstrated in the machine.

If another machine were to be built, things that would be changed differently


will be, making a slight more complex machine to use the physics concepts
and simple machines in different ways. Another thing would be using a bigger
space to build the simple machines into, if possible. This way more machines
will be working on the board.