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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

Ethics
Ethics are standards of conduct and moral judgment used by the people.
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Moreover, an individual’s personal benefits about whether a behavior, action, or


decision is right or wrong. Further, although ethical behavior is in the eye of the
beholder, it usually refers to behavior that does not conform to generally accept
social norms. A society generally adopts formal laws that reflect the prevailing
ethical standards- the social norms- of its citizen.

Managerial Ethics

Managerial ethics are the standers behaviors that guide individual managers in
their work. Ethics can affect managerial work in any number of ways. There are
three areas that specially concern by managers.

The three basic areas of concern for managerial ethics are the relationships of
the firm to the employee, the employee to the firm, and the firm to other
economic agents. Managers need to approach each set of relationships from an
ethical and moral perspective.

Managers should attempt to apply judgment to the decisions they make. For
example, this useful framework for guideline ethical decision making suggests
that managers apply a set of criteria based on utility, rights, justice, and caring
when assessing decision options. The resulting analysis allows a manager to
make a clear assessment of whether or not a decision or policy is ethical.

Managers could suggest a three-step model for applying ethical judgments to


situations that may arise during the course of business activities. These steps
are:

(1) Gather the relevant factual information,


(2) Determine the most appropriate moral values, and
(3) Make an ethical judgment based on the rightness or wrongness of the
proposed activity or policy

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

How an Organization Treats its Employees

One important area of managerial ethics is the treatment of employees by the


organization. This area includes area such as hiring, firing, wages and working
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condition, and employee privacy and employee respect.

Both ethical and legal guidelines suggest that hiring and firing decisions should
be based on solely on an individual’s ability to perform the job. A manager who
discriminates against African-Americans in hiring is exhibiting both unethical
and illegal behavior. But consider the case of a manager who does not
discriminate in general, but occasionally hires a close friend or relative when
other applicants might be just as qualified. Although these hiring decisions may
not be illegal, they may be objectionable on ethical grounds.

Wages and working conditions, although tightly regulated, are also areas for
potential argument. For example, a manager playing an employee less than he
deserves, simply because the employee cannot afford quit.

Finally, most observers would also agree that an organization is obligated to


protect the privacy of its employees. The manner in which an organization
responds to and address issues associated with sexual harassment involves
employee privacy and related rights.

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

• Conflict of interest
• Secrecy and
confidentiality
• Honesty
Organization
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Employees
• Hiring and firing
• Wages and working
conditions
• Privacy and respect

Subject to ethical ambiguities


• Advertising and promotions
• Financial disclosure
• Ordering and purchasing
• Shipping and solicitations
• Bargaining and negotiator
• Other business relations

Economic Agents
• Customers
• Competitors
• Stockholders
• Suppliers
• Dealers
• Unions

Figure No: 1

How Employees treat the organization

There are numerous issues that how employees treat the organization, especially
in regard to conflict of interest secrecy and confidentiality. A conflict of interest
occurs when a decision potentially the individual to the possible determent of
the organization. To guard against such practice, most companies have policies
that forbid buyers from accepting gifts from suppliers. Exposing company
secrets is also clearly unethical. Employees who work for business in highly
competitive industries electronics, software, and apparel for example- might be
tempted to sell information about company plans to competitors. A third area of
concern is honesty in general. Relatively common problems in this area include

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

such activities as a business telephone to make personal long distance calls,


surfing the internet at work, staling supplies, and padding expense accounts.

Another disturbing trend is that more workers are calling sick simply to get
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extra time off. I n one recent survey, for instance between 2001 and 2002 the
number workers who reported taking more time off for personal needs increased
by 21 percent.

How Employees and Organization treat other Economic


Agent

Managerial ethics also come into play in the relationship between the firm and
its employee with other economic agents. As listed previously in Figure 1.1, the
primary agents of interest include customers, competitors, suppliers, dealers,
and unions. The behavior between the organization and these agents that may be
subject to ethical ambiguity include advertising and promotions, financial
disclosures, purchasing, Shipping, solicitation, bargaining, negotiator and other
business relationships.

For example, businesses in the pharmaceuticals industry have been under


growing fire because of the rapid escalation of the prices they charge for many
of their drugs. These firms counter that they need to invest more heavily in
research and cover these costs. Another area of concern in recent years involves
financial reporting by various e-commerce firms. Because of the complexities
inherent in valuing the assets and revenues of these firms, some of them have
been very aggressive in presenting their financial position in a highly positive.

Moral and Personal Development

There are three stages of moral & personal development:

Stage 1:
Beginning:
Follow rules to avoid punishment. Acts in own interest and obedience for
one’s own sake.
Stage 2:

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

Establishing:
Person lives up to expectation of others. Fulfills duties and obligations of
social system, and lives within guidelines of the law.
Stage 3: 2009
Post Establishing:
Individual follows self-chosen principles of what is justice and right is
also aware the others have different values and seeks solution to ethical
dilemmas.

Ethics is an Organizational Context

Action of peer manager and top managers, as well as the organization’s culture,
all contribute to the ethical context of the organization. The starting point in
understanding the ethical context of management is, of course, the individuals
own ethical standards. Some people, for example, would risk personal
embarrassment or lose their job before they would do something unethical.
Other people are much more easily swayed by the unethical behavior they see
around them and other situational factors, and they may even be willing commit
major crimes to further their own career or for financial gain. Organizational
practices may strongly influence the ethical standers of employees. Some
organizations openly permit unethical business practices as long as they are in
the firm’s best interests.

Managing Ethical Behavior

Organizations have emphasized ethical behavior on the part of employees. This


emphasis takes many forms, but any effort to enhance ethical behavior must
begin with top management. Organizations top managers establish the
organization’s culture and define what will and will not be acceptable behavior.

Code of Ethics: It is formal written statement of the values and ethical


standards that guide the firm’s actions. Firms must adhere to such codes if they
are to be of value. Managers must be prepared to confront their own conscience
and weigh the options available when making difficult ethical decisions
Gather the facts consisting
the act or policy

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

The act or policy is acceptable to the four ethical norms: 2009


• Utility:
Does it optimize the best for all constituencies?
• Rights:
Does it respect the rights and duties of the individuals
involved?
B • Justice:
Is the consistence with what is fair?
• Caring:
Is the consistence with my responsibility to care?

No No on one, Yes on
two, or
on all all
three
criteria criteria criteria

• Are there overriding factors?


• Is one criterion more
important?
• Are any incapacitating factors?
C • Pass double effect test?

N Ye
o s

The act or policy is not The act or policy is ethical

Figure No: 2

Emerging Ethical Issues in Organization

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

Ethical scandals have become almost commonplace in today’s world. Ranging


from business to sports to politics to the entertainment industry, these scandals
have rocked stockholder confidence and called into question the model moral
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integrity of our society.

Ethical Leadership: The basic premise behind ethical leadership is that leaders
serve as role models for others; their action is subject to scrutiny. If a senior
executive exercise questionable judgment, this sends a signal to others that such
action are acceptable. This leadership is expected to help set the tone for the rest
of the organization and to help establish both norms and a culture that reinforce
the importance of ethical behavior.

Ethical Issues in Corporate Governance: Management should ensure that the


business is being properly managed and the decisions made by its senior
management are in the best interests of shareholders and other stakeholders.
Management or board members need to some familiarity with both the firm and
its industry in order to function effectively, they also need to have sufficient
independence to carry out their oversight function.

Ethical Issues in Informational Technology

A final set of issues that has emerged in recent times involves information
technology. Among the specific questions in this area are individual rights to
privacy and the potential abuse if information technology by the individuals.
Indeed, online privacy becomes an issue as companies sort out the ethical and
management issues.

Moreover, management can address these concerns is to post a privacy on the


website. The policy should explain exactly what data the company collects and
who gets to see the data.

Furthermore, companies can offer Web surfers the opportunities to review and
correct information that has collected, especially medical and financial data.
Social Responsibility

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

Ethics relate to individual and their decisions and behaviors.


Organizations themselves do not have ethics, but relate to their
environment in ways that often involve ethical dilemmas and decisions.
These situations are generally referred to within the context of the
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organization’s responsibility. Specifically, social responsibility is the set
of obligations an organization has to protect and enhance the societal
context in which it functions.

Area of social responsibility:


1. Organizational Stakeholders
All organization has a variety of stakeholders who are directly affected by
the organization and who have a state in its performance. These are people
and organizations to whom an organization should be responsible.

Major stakeholder in organization:


• Customers
• Local community
• Suppliers
• Employees
• Interest groups
• Trade associations
• Owners/ Investors
• Courts
• Colleges and Universities
• Foreign government
• State government
• Local government
• Creditors

2. The Natural Environment


A second critical area of social responsibility relates to the natural
environment. Not long ago, many organizations indiscriminately dumped
sewage, waste products from production, and trash into streams and rivers,
into the air, and on vacant land. Now many laws regulate the disposal of
waste materials. In many instance; companies themselves have become more

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

socially responsible in their release of pollutants and general treatment of the


environment.
3. General social Welfare
Some people believe that in addition to treating constituents and the
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environment responsibility, business organizations also should promote the
general welfare of society. Examples include making contributions to
charities, philanthropic, organizations, and not-for-profit foundations and
associations; supporting museums, public radio and televisions and taking
role in improving public health and education.

Arguments for and Against Social Responsibility

There seems to be little disagreement about the need for organizations to be


socially responsible. In truth, though, those who oppose board interpretations of
social responsibility use several convincing arguments. Some of the more
salient arguments on both sides of this contemporary debate are summarizing
below.
Arguments for Social Responsibility Arguments against Social Responsibility

1. Business creates problems 1. The purpose of business in


and should therefore help society is to generate profit for
solve them. owners.

2. Corporations are citizens in 2. Involvement in social


our society. programs gives business too
Social much power.
Responsibilit
y
3. Business often has the
resources necessary to solve 3. There is potential for
the problems. conflict of interest.

4. Business is a partner in our 4. Business lacks the experts to


society, along with the manage social programs.
government and the general
population.

Figure no: 3

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

Arguments for Social Resposibility

People who argue in favour of social responsibilty claim that, because


organizations create many of the problems that need to be address, such as air
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and water pollution and resource depletion, they should play a major role in
solving them. While many people want everyone to see socilal responsibility as
a describle aim, there are in fact several strong arguments that can be used for
and against social responsibility. Hence, organizations and their managers
should carefully assess their own values, beliefs, and priorities when deciding
which stance and approch to take regarding social responsibilty.

Arguments against Social Responsibility

Some people argue that wedening the interpretation of social responsibility will
undermine the country economy by detracting from the basic mission of
business, to earn profits for owners. Another objection to deeping the social
responsibility of businesses points out tat corporations wield enormous power
and that their activity in social proframs gives them even more power. Still
another argument against soaial responsibility focues on the potential for
conflicts of interest.

Organizational Approaches to Social Responsibility

As we have seen, some people advocate a large social role for organizations and
others argue that the role is already too large. O rganizations adopt a wide range
of positions on social resposibility.

• Defensive Stance: the obstructionist stance is the defenslve stance,


whereby the organization does everything that required of it legally, but
nothig more. This approach is most consistent with the arguments used insist
that their job is to generate profits.

• Accomodative Stance: A firm that adopts an accomodative stance meets


its legal and ethical obligations but will also go beyond these obligations in
selected cases. Such firms voluntarily agree to participate in social programs,

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

but solicitors have too convince the organization that the programs are
worthy of its support.
• Proacative stance: The highest degree of social responsibility that a firm
can exhibit is the proactive stance. Firms adopt this approach take to heart
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the arguments in favour of social respomsibility. They view themselves as
citizens in a society and proactively seek opportunities to contribute.

Degree of social
Obstructionist Defensive Accomodative Procative
Stance stance stance stance

Responsibility

Lowest Highest

The Government and Social Responsibility

An especially important element of social responsibility is the relationship


between business and government. In planned economics the government
heavily regulates business activities, ostensibly to ensure that business supports
some overarching set of social ideas. And even in market economics there is
still considerable government control of business, much of it again directed at
making sure that social interests are not damaged by business interests.

• Direct regulation: The government most often directly influences


organizations through regulation, or the establisment of laws and rules that
dictate whwt organizations can and cannot do. This regulation usually
evoloves from societal beliefs about what businesses should or should not be
allowed to do.

• Indirect Regulation: Other forms of regulation are indirect. For ezample,


the government can indirectly influence the social resposibility of

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

organizations through its tax codes. In fact, the government can influence
hoe organizations spend their social responsibility taka by providing greater
or lesser tax incentives.
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How Organizations Influence Government

Organizations can influence their environment in many different ways. In


partticuler, businesses have four main methods of addressing governmenttal
pressures for more social resposibility.

The government influences business through


• Environmental protection legislation
The
• Consumer protection legislation
Governmen
t • Employee protection legislation
• Securities legislation
• Tax codes

Business influence the government through


• Personal contacts and networks
• Lobbying
• Political action comitiees
• Favors and other influence tactics Business

Figure No: 4

Personal Cotacts: Because many corporate exicutives and political leaders


travel in the same social circles, personal contacts and network offer one
method of influense. A businness exicutive, for example, may be able to contact
a politician directly and governmental pressures for more social rsponsibility.

Lobbying: Lobbying or the use of persons or groups to formally represent an


organization or group of organizations before political bodies is also an
effective way to influence the government.

Political Action Committees: Companies themselves cannot legally make


direct donations to political campaigns, so they influence the government

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

through political action committees. Political actions committees are special


organizations create to solicit money and then distribute it to political
candidates.
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Favors: finally, organizations sometimes rely on favors and other influence
tacties to gain support. Although these favors may be legal, they are still subject
to criticism.

Managing Social Responsibility

The demands for social responsibility placed on contemorary organizartions by


an increasingly sophisticated and educated public are probably stronger than
ever. There are pitfalls for managers who fail to adhere to high ethical standards
and for companies that try to circumvent their legal obligations. Organizations
therefore need to fashion an approach to social resposibility

Legal Complloance: Legal compllance is the extent t owhich the organization


confoms to lacal, state, federal, and international laws. The task of managing
lagal compliance is generally assigned to the approoriate functional managers.

Ethical Compliance: is the extent to which the members of the organization


follow basic ethical and legal standards of behavior. Organizations have
increased their efforts in this area-providing training in ethics and developing
guidelines and codes of conduct.

Philanthoropic Giving: Finally, philanthropic giving is the awarding of funds


or gifts to charities or other worthy causes or other social programs.

Whistle Blowing: Whistle blowing is the disclosure by an employee of illegal or


unethical conduct on the part of others within the organization. Whistle blowers
may have to proceed through a number of channels to be heard, and they may
even get fired for their efforts.

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Principles of Management; Course Code: MGT-111

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Evaluation social responsibility

Any organization that is serious about social responsibility must ensure that its
efforts are producing the desired benefits. More formally, an organization may
sometimes actually evaluate the effectiveness of its social responsibility efforts.
Additionally, some organizations occasionally conduct corporate social audits.
A corporate social audit is a formal and thorough analysis of the effectiveness
of a firm’s social performance. The audit is usually conducted by a task force of
high-level managers from within the firm.