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Symposium

Algorithmic approach in the diagnosis of uveitis

S R Rathinam, Manohar Babu1

Uveitis is caused by disorders of diverse etiologies including wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious Access this article online
causes. Often clinical signs are less specific and shared by different diseases. On several occasions, uveitis Website:
represents diseases that are developing elsewhere in the body and ocular signs may be the first evidence of www.ijo.in
such systemic diseases. Uveitis specialists need to have a thorough knowledge of all entities and their work DOI:
up has to be systematic and complete including systemic and ocular examinations. Creating an algorithmic 10.4103/0301-4738.114092
approach on critical steps to be taken would help the ophthalmologist in arriving at the etiological diagnosis. PMID:
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Key words: Algorithmic approach, differential diagnosis, naming and meshing, uveitis Quick Response Code:

Uveitis is caused by disorders of diverse etiologies including Etiological diagnosis of uveitis starts with the first step
wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious causes. The of elaborate history followed by systemic examination and
inflammatory process primarily affects the uveal tissues with ocular examination to reach a clinical conclusion. Subsequently
subsequent damage to the retina, optic nerve and vitreous. list of differential diagnosis is created in order to decide on
On several occasions, it reflects diseases that are developing laboratory investigations to rule out or rule in the possible
elsewhere in the body and uveitis may be the first evidence etiology. Sometimes other sub specialty consultation may be
of such systemic diseases, generating a challenge to the required such as rheumatologist, infectious disease specialist,
ophthalmologist in reaching the etiological diagnosis. Besides, pulmonologist or dermatologist.
because several entities share common clinical symptoms and
signs, the etiological diagnosis may prove to be a difficult History Taking
task.[1] Uveitis specialists need to have a thorough knowledge Uveitis work up starts with an elaborate history-taking.[1,3-6]
of all entities and their work up has to be complete including Subsequently meticulous systemic and ocular examination
systemic and ocular examinations. In addition to the above will offer a clinical conclusion. It is estimated that over 70%
mentioned challenges, India presents unique problems of diagnosis can be made on the basis of detailed medical
because of varying socio-economic, demographic and history and thorough clinical work up alone. Systemic
morbidity patterns. The prevalence and severity of diseases history offer possible systemic disease association with
in economically deprived population differ from those in rest ocular involvement. It is often the clinical acumen of the
of the world[2] because of lack of good primary health care, ophthalmologist that points out the diagnosis, that is further
poor affordability and poor compliance. Our ophthalmologist confirmed or ruled out by a tailored laboratory approach.[1]
may also have to meet the added challenge of handling these Table 1 shows the details that need to be collected for a
problems in addition to managing uveitis per se The present thorough history taking. Description of each variable is given
chapter is to define an algorithmic approach in the diagnosis in detail below.
of uveitis. Algorithms solve problem by showing the critical
Age
pathways to be taken. Steps in building an Algorithm include
the following: Several conditions have a predilection for certain age groups.
Defining the problem and deriving a clinical diagnosis by Juvenile arthopaties and parasitic uveitis are the most common
entities in patients younger than 16 years of age.[7] In general
naming technique given by Nozik.[1]
uveitis secondary to infections is common in extremes of age
Reviewing all possible causes of the condition and
and immunological diseases are common in middle age.[2] Some
comparing with existing known uveitis patterns also known
of the examples are:
as meshing technique.
Children: Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Toxocariasis.
Proving the diagnosis by presenting diagnostic modalities
Young adults: Behcets, Human Leukocyte Associated
in a logical manner. antigen B27 associated uveitis, Fuchs uveitis.
Old age: Vogt Koyanagi Haradas (VKH) syndrome, Herpes
Uveitis Service, Aravind Eye Hospital & PG Institute of Ophthalmology, Zoster Ophthalmicus, Tuberculosis and Leprosy.
Madurai, 1Uveitis Service, Aravind Eye Hospital, Salem, India Gender
Correspondence to: Dr. S. R. Rathinam, Aravind Eye Hospital & PG. Several conditions have a predilection for specific gender as
Institute of Ophthalmology, 1, Anna Nagar, Madurai - 625 020, Tamil given below.[2]
Nadu, India. E-mail: rathinam@aravind.org Males-Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiters, Behcets, Sympathetic
Manuscript received: 23.07.12; Revision accepted: 17.12.12 ophthalmia.
256 IndianJournalofOphthalmology Vol. 61 No. 6

Table 1: History in uveitis factors include HIV related ocular disorders, leptospirosis and
trematode granuloma in children.[9-12]
Demography
Age Systemic conditions
Gender Collagen vascular disorders are best examples for non-infectious
Race
systemic disease which can cause severe ocular morbidity.
Other examples include sarcoidosis, Behcets syndrome,
Residence
Reiters syndrome and VKH syndrome. Tuberculosis, leprosy,
Occupation
syphilis are common systemic infections that can cause
Ocular history uveitis.[11] Other recently reported systemic infections such
Laterality as Chikungunya and West Nile Virus diseases can also cause
Primary symptom ocular inflammation.[13,14] Endogenous endophthalmitis is more
Duration common in diabetics, renal failure and immuno suppressed
Onset patients. In addition patients who received intravenous fluid
Severity prior to onset of uveitis may also suffer from endogenous
Course
endophthalmitis.
Associated findings Ocular symptoms
Systemic history Pain, redness and photophobia are the important symptoms
All systemic problem for anterior uveitis, while floaters with or without decrease
Associated other diseases in vision is important for intermediate and posterior uveitis.
Treatment history Pain on ocular movement is seen in posterior scleritis or
A detail history on dosage of drugs that patient is already taking in orbital inflammatory diseases. Sudden bilateral loss of
vision would indicate either VKHs syndrome or Sympathetic
Response to treatment
ophthalmia.[2-5]
Treatment complications
Compliance of the patient Extraocular Examination
Miscellaneous
The physical signs of extra ocular disease can add evidence
Injury
to support the etiological diagnosis. Frequently, the
Surgery
findings may have escaped recognition by the patient or, if
Migration recognized, may have been deemed insignificant. Thus, it
Exposure to risk factors specific to the diagnosis, e.g.: Syphilis, HIV, is important for the ophthalmologist to routinely evaluate
leptospirosis, trematode eye disease patients for evidence of extra ocular disease. Table 2 gives
some examples of systemic clinical signs one may see in
Females-Rheumatoid arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid specific uveitis cases.
Arthritis.
Ocular Examination
Race
A comprehensive eye examination is a requirement for
Demographic characteristics, such as race and ancestry, can
all patients with uveitis, beginning with an assessment of
be predispositions to the development of specific conditions, the patients best-corrected visual acuity. A good day light
for example: examination and external examination with torch light is
Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiters Caucausians.[1] essential in every patient. Often clues on infectious diseases
Sarcoid-Pigmented race. like Hansens disease or Herpes can be obtained on adnexal
VKH syndrome, Behcets syndrome Orientals. examination. Common ocular signs that help in the diagnosis
Socio economic history are given in Table 3.
Recreational activities such as swimming in open water Conjunctiva, episclera, sclera and pupillary examination
reservoirs may expose the individuals to water borne diseases Examination of the anterior surface of the eye should first be
that may eventually result in uveitis. The best example is performed in ambient illumination for subtle color differences.
leptospirosis and trematode granulomas. Patients who own Inflammation of the conjunctiva and episclera appear bright
dogs or cats or are handlers of these animals may be exposed to red in daylight and more in the fornix. In cases of uveitis, the
the intestinal parasites. Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canii congestion of the perilimbal area is more than the palpebral and
occur after ingestion of contaminated food sources or contact forniceal conjunctiva. Scleritis will present with dilation of deep
with soil. Plumbers and sewer workers are at an increased risk vascular plexus which is better seen with red free illumination
of leptospirosis, which is transmitted by a spirochete in sewage with tenderness on palpation. Examination of pupil gives clue
water and urine of rats, cattle or other animals.[8] Some of the regarding some of the etiological conditions and structural
examples of zoonotic diseases are: alterations as a result of inflammation.[1]
Cat-Toxoplasmosis.
On slit lamp examination, uveitis can be classified either
Dog-Toxocariasis,
as granulomatous or non-granulomatous [causes mentioned
Cattle-Leptospirosis, cysticercosis.
in Table 4]. Rarely keratic precipitates (KP) may be uniformly
Pigs-Cysticercosis, Leptospirosis.
distributed as seen in Fuchs uveitis, Possner Schlossman
Best examples to be concerned about exposure to risk syndrome, sarcoid uveitis and lens induced uveitis.
June 2013 (Uveitis) Rathinam and Babu: Diagnosis of uveitis 257

Table 2: Systemic signs Table 3: Ocular signs


Poliosis Vogt Koyanagi Haradas syndrome, Anatomical location Condition
Sympathetic ophthalmia
Forehead and adnexa
Loss of hair Systemic lupus erythematosus, Vogt
Vesicles Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
Koyanagi Haradas syndrome, and Syphilis
Poliosis VKH
Hypo-pigmentation of Leprosy, sympathetic ophthalmia, and
Nodules Sarcoid, Leprosy
the skin Vogt Koyanagi Haradas syndrome
Madarosis Leprosy
Rash Vasculitic disease, systemic lupus
erythematosus, Adamantiates Behcets Conjunctiva
disease, Syphilis Granulomas Forigen body granulomas
Erythema nodosum- Inflammatory bowel disease, Sarcoid
tender violaceous Sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and Behcets Cornea
subcutaneous nodules in disease Dendritic Viral uveitis
lower extremities keratitis,superficial
Scaling of the skin Systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic punctate keratitis
arthritis, Syphilis, and Reiters syndrome Sclero kerato uveitis Syphilis, tuberculosis, Hansens and viral
Discoid lesions Systemic lupus erythmatosus, Exposure and Leprosy
Sarcoidosis, leprosy and tuberculosis neurotropic keratitis
Nail abnormalities Psoriatic arthritis, Reiters syndrome, and Band keratopathy Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis
vasculitis Iris/pupil
Oral and genital lesions Behcets disease, Reiters and syphilis Miotic and irregular Posterior synechiae (but the response of
Oral ulcers alone Systemic lupus erythematosus and pupils the pupil to light and near is symmetric)
inflammatory bowel disease Relative affarent Asymmetric disc involvement as a result
Urethral discharge Reiters syndrome, syphilis, herpes pupillary defect of disc edema due to uveitis or optic
simplex, and gonococcal urethritis atrophy as a result of chronic uveitis
Epididymitis Behcets disease, Tuberculosis Sectoral iris atrophy Herpetic uveitis (irregular constriction of
Prostatitis Reiters syndrome, ankylosing pupil)
spondylitis, and gonococcal disease AR pupil Neurosyphilis
Nephritis vasculitis (Wegeners granulomatosis Gonioscopic evaluation
SLE, Behcet) sarcoidosis, tuberculosis Peripheral Anterior Sarcoid, Tuberculosis
Arthralgias and arthritis Seronegative spondyloarthropathies, Synechiae
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Behects, Iris nodules Sarcoid, Tuberculosis
sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hyphema Herpetic
relapsing polychondritis leprosy reactions Foreign body Traumatic uveitis
Cartilage loss Relapsing polychondritis, syphilis, and VKH: Vogt Koyanagi Haradas, AR: Argyll Robertson Pupil
gonococcal disease, leprosy, Wegeners
granulomatosis
Nasopharyngeal Wegeners granulomatosis, sarcoidosis, The SUN* Working Group Grading Scheme[15] for anterior
manifestations including Whipples disease, and mucormycosis. chamber cells and flare:
sinusitis
Bladder (cystitis) Whipples disease and Reiters disease Anterior chamber cells
Grade Cells in Field
Lymph nodes Tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, lymphoma
0 <1
Neuropathy Leprosy, Herpes zoster, sarcoidosis,
0.5+ 1-5
multiple sclerosis, syphilis, and sarcoidosis
1+ 6-15
Hearing loss Vogt Koyanagi Haradas syndrome
2+ 16-25
sarcoidosis
3+ 26-50
Respiratory symptoms Tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, Wegeners
4+ >50
granulomatosis (sinusitis)
Flare gives evidence of only previous inflammation or breakdown
Bowel disease Whipples disease, Crohns disease, of blood aqueous barrier.
ulcerative colitis Flare Description
Fever Collagen vascular disease, tuberculosis 0 Complete absence
leptospirosis 1+ Faint flare (barely detectable)
SLE: Sytemic Lupus Erthematosus 2+ Moderate flare (iris and lens details clear)
3+ Marked flare (iris and lens details hazy)
4+ Intense flare (fixed coagulated aqueous
Anterior chamber reaction humor with considerable fibrin)
The presence of cells and flare in the anterior chamber is a *Standardization of uveitis nomenclature (SUN)
marker for inflammation of iris and ciliary body. The field size
recommended for examination is a slit beam of 1 mm by 1 mm Iris
for the grading of anterior chamber cells and flare. Examination of iris may include the presence of posterior
258 IndianJournalofOphthalmology Vol. 61 No. 6

Table 4: Causes of non-granulomatous and granulomatous Anterior chamber angle


uveitis Gonioscopic evaluation may reveal peripheral anterior
Non-granulomatous uveitis Granulomatous uveitis
synechiae sufficient to account for elevated intraocular
pressure (IOP). Additionally, one may find angle KP, a small
Sero-negative arthropathy Tuberculosis
hypopyon which was invisible on slit lamp examination, and
and uveitis
inflammatory debris, suggesting an additional mechanism of
Traumatic Sarcoidosis
IOP elevation from occlusion of filtering trabecular meshwork.
Behcets syndrome Syphilis Abnormal iris vessels, neovascularization or fine branching
Leptospirosis Leprosy vessels as seen in Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis, are
EarlySarcoidosis Herpetic easily identified by gonioscopy, and their presence can direct
Early tuberculosis VKH appropriate therapy. In cases in which traumatic uveitis is
suspected, angle recession and presence of foreign body
Early Syphilis Sympathetic ophthalmia
may be seen.
Lens induced uveitis
Parasitic Lens
Viral Important lenticular findings include cataract. The most
Non-granulomatous unilateral Non-granulomatous bilateral common type of cataract in uveitis patients is the posterior
uveitis uveitis subcapsular opacity. Anterior lens changes may also occur,
HLA B27 uveitis Leptospirosis
often in association with lens capsule thickening at a site of iris
adhesion. Anterior lens opacities following extreme elevations
Traumatic uveitis Behcets, syndrome
in IOP (glaukome flecken) provide insight into a history of
Behcets, syndrome TINU acute uveitis glaucoma.
Fuch heterochromic uveitis
Intraocular pressure
Leptospirosis
The IOP in patients with uveitis is most commonly decreased
Drug induced uveitis
owing to impaired production of aqueous by the non-
Unilateral granulomatous Bilateral granulomatous uveitis
pigmented ciliary body epithelium.
uveitis
Viral anterior uveitis Vogt Koyanagi Haradas The factors that can affect IOP include the accumulation of
syndrome inflammatory material and debris in the trabecular meshwork,
Lens induced uveitis Sympathetic ophthalmia inflammation of the trabecular meshwork (trabeculitis),
Sarcoid Sarcoid obstruction of venous return, and steroid therapy.
Syphilis Syphilis The causes of elevated IOP include:
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Posner-Schlossmans syndrome.
Parasitic Phaco anaphylaxis Herpetic uveitis.
VKH: Vogt Koyanagi Haradas, TINU: Tubulo Interstitial Nephritis Uveitis
Toxoplasmosis.
syndrome, HLA: Human Leukocyte Antigen Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis.
Sarcoidosis.
Iridocyclitis with secondary angle closure glaucoma.
synechiae which when extensive may produce seclusio In patients with uveitis, anterior chamber reaction should
pupillae, sometimes leading to formation of iris bombe and be assessed before the instillation of fluorescein to prevent
angle-closure glaucoma. Iris atrophy is a diagnostic feature obscuration of anterior chamber details due to a greenish hue
of herpetic uveitis. Varicella zoster virus generally produces caused by the dye after penetrating the anterior chamber.
sector iris atrophy due to a vascular occlusive vasculitis,
Indirect ophthalmoscopy
whereas herpes simplex virus usually produces patchy iris
atrophy. Other causes of atrophy include anterior segment When initiating indirect ophthalmoscopy it is important to
direct the illumination beam into the patients eye without
ischemia, Hansens disease, trauma and previous attacks
the concomitant use of the condensing lens. The red reflex
of angle-closure glaucoma. Granulomas may be prominent
is then evaluated in the primary position. This technique
in the iris stroma or the choroid. Iris nodules are most
gradually allows the patients retina to become light-adapted,
commonly seen at the pupillary margin are described as
before exposure to the strong concentrated light delivered
Koeppes nodules whereas those on the surface of iris are by the condensing lens, thereby increasing patients comfort
called as Busaccas nodules. Sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, VKH and cooperation with the examination. More important is the
syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia and syphilis can show iris valuable information that the examiner obtains if the quality
nodules. Normal radial iris vessels can be seen dilated in acute and nature of the red reflex changes. For example, if there is
inflammation producing iris hyperemia as in rubeosis irides; an area of active chorioretinitis in one quadrant the red reflex
however, they disappear when inflammation is controlled. is replaced by a yellowish reflex. If a choroidal hemorrhage or
Hetero-chromia of iris can be either hypochromic (abnormal tumor is present in a given area the red reflex is dark only in
eye is lighter than fellow eye) as seen in Fuchs heterochromic that area. In addition this review of the red reflex may disclose
iridocyclitis or hyperchromic (abnormal eye is darker than highly elevated masses as well as intravitreal changes such as
fellow eye) as seen in melanosis of iris. foreign bodies, membranes, and parasites.
June 2013 (Uveitis) Rathinam and Babu: Diagnosis of uveitis 259

Vitreous Systematic Work Up


In active vitritis, cells appear white and are evenly distributed
Once history is taken and complete systemic examination is done,
between the liquid and formed vitreous. Old cells are small
a specific name can be assigned to the clinical entity by using a
and pigmented, whereas debris tends to be pigmented but
set of descriptive terminologies in uveitis[1] [Table 5]. Descriptive
larger in size. Active cells can be found in locations that can
name can now be compared to the known uveitis patterns. The
be helpful diagnostically. A localized pocket of vitritis may
above two steps are known as Naming and Meshing Step.[1]
suggest underlying focal retinal or retinochoroidal disease.
Focal accumulation of inflammatory cells around vessels is seen Probable list of etiologies or causes [Table 6a-e] are
in active retinal vasculitis. Inflammatory cells that accumulate constructed and this is known as differential diagnosis (DD).
in clumps (snow balls) may precipitate on to the inferior After arriving at a DD we look for investigations to confirm
peripheral retina as seen in intermediate uveitis, associated or rule out the specific diagnoses. Table 7 is an algorithm
with sarcoidosis. Cells may accumulate in the retrovitreal showing systematic workup in uveitis. A comprehensive
space following contraction of vitreous fibrils and posterior
vitreous detachment.
Table 5: Descriptive terminologies in uveitis
Pars plana
Age Severity
Examination of the peripheral retina and pars plana for
Paediatric Mild
snowbanking usually requires scleral depression or use of a
three-mirror Goldmann contact lens. Exudation, fibroglial band Young adults Moderate
formation and revascularization are pathologic processes that Geriatric Severe
occur at the pars plana. Chronology Pathology
Acute Non-granulomatous
Retina and choroid
Acute recurrent Granulomatous
Retinitis presents with a yellow-white appearance and
poorly defined edges, often associated with hemorrhage and Chroni
exudation. Involvement may be focal or multifocal. Retinal Anatomical Pattern
vasculitis is usually seen in retinitis and may be seen in Anterior Focal
Wegeners granulomatosis, Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus,
Intermediate Multifocal
viral retinitis including herpitic group of infections or newly
recognized viruses including Chikungunya or West Nile Posterior
virus infections[14,15] Phlebitis may be seen in Leptospirosis or Retinitis Disseminated
Sarcoidosis. Choroiditis Diffuse
Choroidal inflammation can also be focal or multifocal. Pan uveitis
It is not frequently associated with vitritis due to intact Laterality Etiological
retinal pigment epithelial cells that prevents inflammatory Unilateral Infectious
cell migration. The inflamed choroid may appear thickened
Unilateral alternating Immunologic
and prominent infiltrates and granulomas may be present.
Decomposition of the retinal pigment epithelium can alter the Bilateral Traumatic
permeability of the blood-ocular barrier, resulting in retinal Symmetrically bilateral Masquerade
detachment. It should be highlighted that tuberculosis and Asymmetrically bilateral Idiopathic
sacoidosis can cause both focal and multifocal choroiditis.

Optic disc Table 6a: Causes of Anterior uveitis


Optic disc inflammation can occur with or without other signs
Causes of Anterior uveitis: Causes of Anterior uveitis:
of uveitis. Optic disc involvement takes the form of papillitis Ocular diseases Systemic diseases
or disc edema, neovascularization, infiltration, and cupping.
Neovascularisation occurs in ischemic states and is characterized Non- Infectious Non- Infectious
by fragile vessels that are easily ruptured. Sarcoidosis and infectious uveitis infectious
leukemia can infiltrate the disc tissue, producing an appearance uveitis
similar to papillitis. Optic neuritis can occur in multiple Traumatic Herpetic Seronegative Tuberculosis
sclerosis. arthropathy*
Lens induced Tubercular Sarcoidosis Syphilis
Macula Fuchs Parasitic Masquerade Leprosy
Chronic inflammation can lead to the following pathologies heterochromic syndrome
at macula uveitis
Cystoid Macular Edema. Post-operative Fungal Collagen Leptospirosis
Macular lamellar holes. Post-traumatic infection vascular
Retina Pigment Epithelial clumping. disease
Choroidal Neo-Vascular Membrane *HLA B 27 related uveitis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiters syndrome,
Exudative macular detachment. Psoriatic arthropathy, Inflammatory bowel syndrome
260 IndianJournalofOphthalmology Vol. 61 No. 6

Table 6b: Causes of posterior uveitis and pan uveitis


Bacterial Fungal Viral Parasitic Non-infections
Tuberculosis Nocardia CMV retinitis Toxoplasmosis Sarcoidosis
Syphilis Asteroides Herpes simplex Toxocara canis VKH
Lymes disease Candidiasis Herpes zoster Cysticercosis Sympathetic ophthalmia
Leptospirosis Histoplasmosis Chikungunya Onchocerca volvulus Behcets
Brucellosis Cryptococcus neoformans West nile virus
Septic retinitis Aspergillosis
CMV: Cyto Megalo Virus, VKH: Vogt Koyanagi Haradas

Table 6c: Causes of retinal vasculitis


Bacterial Viral Vasculitis in Immunologic disorders Vasculitis-Idiopathic uveitis
Leptospirosis Measles (SSPE) Systemic lupus erythematosus Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy
Lymes disease CMV Polyarteritis Nodosa GHPC
Bacterial Endophthalmitis Herpes Simplex Wegeners Granulomatosis Multifocal choroiditis,
Tuberculosis Herpes zoster Sjogrens syndrome pan uveitis syndrome
Syphilis Miscellaneous Giant cell arteritis Fungal
Rickettsia Chikungunya[13] Takayasus Disease Candidiasis
West nile virus[14] Dermatomyositis Parasitic
Behcets syndrome Toxoplasmosis
Multiple Sclerosis Toxocarasis
Relapsing Polychondritis DUSN
HLA-B27 associated uveitis
SSPE: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, HLA: Human Leukocyte Antigen, DUSN: Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis, GHPC: Geographic Helicoid
Peripapillary Choroidopathy, CMV: Cytomegalovirus

Table 6d: Causes of retinal vasculitis according to size of Table 6e: Causes of joint pain in ocular inflammation
vessels
Non-infectious Infectious
Veins Arteries Capillaries
Seronegative arthropathies Leptospirosis
Sarcoidosis Polyarteritis nodosa Whipples disease Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Syphilis
Behcets syndrome Wegener Crohns disease Collagen vascular diseases Lymes disease
Eales disease granulomatosis Polychondritis Wegeners granulomatosis Tuberculosis
Multiple sclerosis Systemic Lupus Behcets syndrome Behcets syndrome Erethema Nodosum Leprosum
Erythematosus of Lepromatous.leprosy
Toxoplasmosis Syphilis
Syphilis Chikungunya
Tuberculosis Leptospirosis
Leptospirosis West nile virus infection West nile virus infection

Table 7: Systematic work up


Descriptive naming Example unilateral/bilateral: Granulomatous/non-granulomatous:
Acute/chronic, Anterior/ Pan uveitis: mild or severe

Meshing Comparison with the existing diagnosis

General and specific lab testing To evaluate the patient for treatment; to rule in/rule out diagnosis

Specialist consultation To confirm the systemic disease and start the treatment

Therapy General and specific treatment

Follow-up Evaluation for the course and effectiveness of treatment


June 2013 (Uveitis) Rathinam and Babu: Diagnosis of uveitis 261

(Table 8 Continued)
Table 8: Differential diagnosis of various clinical signs in
uveitis Glaucoma in the absence of synechiae
Hypopyon Sarcoidosis
HLA B27 uveitis Toxoplasmosis
Behcets, syndrome Viral uveitis
Leptospirosis Fuchs heterochromic uveitis
Phacolysis Phaco anaphylaxis
Endophthalmitis Lens protein uveitis
Post-operative uveitis Low Tension in uveitis
Leukemia Bilateral exudative retinal detachment
Hyphema Ciliary detachment
Fuchs heterochromic uveitis Retinal detachment induced uveitis
Viral uveitis Ciliary shock in acute uveitis
Syphilis Traumatic and perforated globe
Gonococcal uveitis Post-operative
Leukemia Optic disc edema in uveitis
Irregular Anterior chamber depth Vogt Koyanagi Haradas syndrome
Iris cyst Sympathetic ophthalmia
Sub luxated lens Leptospirosis
Peripheral anterior synechiae Pars planitis
Ruptured lens capsule with released cortex in one side Juxta papillary choroiditis
Ciliary body tumour Multiple sclerosis
Iris atrophy Neuro retinitis
Viral uveitis (Herpes zoster and simplex) HLA: Human Leukocyte Antigen, ICE: Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome
Traumatic
Post-laser atrophy work up takes the clinician to the list of differential diagnosis
Post-operative uveitis [Table 8] and then to a laboratory work up before the treatment
Hansens uveitis is finalised.
Fuchs heterochromic uveitis
Anterior segment ischemia Acknowledgements
Essential Iris atrophy We greatly acknowledge Dr. Rathika, Aravind eye hospital, and
ICE syndrome Dr. Tulika Kar, Dehra Dun for their patient assistance in preparation
Vitreous cells and opacities of the manuscript.

Inflammatory cells
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13. Lalitha P, Rathinam S, Banushree K, Maheshkumar S, Vijayakumar
Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.
R, Sathe P. Ocular involvement associated with an epidemic
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