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Completed by:
College: DIATM, Durgapur
College ID No: CH/14/05
HPCL letter No: HR/oprns/36
With the blessings from the God, I would like to take this opportunity to express my
sincere gratitude and appreciation towards Hindustan Petroleum Corporation
Limited, Visakh Refinery for giving me a golden opportunity to undergo my
industrial training here. I would like to record my deep appreciation and sincere
gratitude towards M. Sudha Mohan (Sr. Manager HR) for accepting my letter and
granting me an opportunity to perform my training in this esteemed organization.

I would also like to thank my unit manager Mr. M. Jagannadha Rao for his
guidance in order to successful upon completion of my training. My further gratitude
is to all chemical engineers, team leaders and operators who had assisted me in
completing this training, especially in doing my project.

Moreover thanks to my team to widen my perspective on the real petrochemical

industry work. Last but not the least, not to forget my parents, friends and my
working partner who gave me the support towards the completion of this training
task. Thank you very much for the wonderful hands.
This is to certify that Mr.Soumen Mishra student (B.Tech, Chemical engineering)
of Durgapur Institute of Advanced Technology and Management, has
successfully completed his industrial training at HPCL, Visakh Refinery dated
from 15 06 2017 to 15 07 2017.

He has undergone training in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU 1). The
overall rating for his performance during the training is __________________.




FCCU 1, Visakh Refinery

Serial No. Contents Page. No.

1. Chapter 1 01
2. Chapter 2 04
3. Chapter 3 07
4. Chapter 4 13
5. Chapter 5 43
6. Chapter 6 45
7. Chapter 7 50
8. Chapter 8 53

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd., is a mega public sector undertaking under the
government of India and is second largest Integrated Oil company in India. This refinery is located
at latitude of 17'41'' North and longitude of 83'17'' East on an area taken on a 99 years lease from
Visakhapatnam port trust. Plant on the eastern side, Coromandal Fertilizers on the western side,
Residential colonies on the southern side, Andhra Petrochemicals Ltd., East Indian petroleum on
the northern side. HPCL has an additional Tankage Project (ATP), which is on the Northern side
of the refinery covering an area of 215 acres. The refinery has road access from the two sides on
the southern side one, from eastern side and from Northern side of the ATP area.
Visakh Refinery was established in 1957 as Caltex oil refining India Ltd., (CORIL). This was the
first oil refinery on the East Coast and the first major industry in the City of Visakhapatnam,
Hindustan Petroleum corporation came into being in mid 1974 after take over and the merging of
Erst while Esso and Lube India in 1976 and was subsequently merged with HPCL Kosan Gas
Company in 1978. HPCL thus came into being after merge four different organizations at different
parts of time.
Visakh Refinery covers an area of 515 acres of area is situated at Visakhapatnam, 1 km (North
west) from the foot of Yarada hills. The refinery is flanked by HPCL terminal & HPCL LPG
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd has nearly 20% refining capacity and the
market share and a commensurate market infrastructure. It operates two major refineries, one at
Mumbai of 5.5 MMTPA capacity and other at Visakhapatnam of 8.3MMPTA capacity. Its lube
refinery at Mumbai is the largest in the country with a capacity of 3,33,500TPA, which is nearly
40% of the countrys total lube refining capacity.
Visakh Refinery has an initial capacity of 0.675 MMPTA in 1957. The crude capacity was raised
to 1.5MMTPA through put level over a period of years by various modifications. The crude
processing capacity was further expanded to 4.5 MMTPA level during 1985 by commissioning
separate stream of 3.0 MMTPA CDU, FCCU and related utilities off site facilities at high seas (off
shore terminal tank) and associated tankage and product dispatch facilities by utilizing available
space in a integrated manner and these facilities was with state of all control system for better and
efficient operation.
In order to cater to the increased LPG consumption in the region refinery was instrumental in
developing first LPG import facilities on the east coast in 1987 . As a step towards surmounting
the frequent power distribution and to improve reliability of utilities, a Captive Power Plant (CPP)
of 14MW capacity was commissioned in 1991. Refinery in its effort for product value addition
and widening its product range commissioned.
Propylene Recovery Unit (PRU) in 1992. In order to adhere to meet stringiest environment norms
the refinery had set up Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) in 1993 and Sulphur Recovery Plant (SRU)
in 1994, with the second major expansion project VREP-II completed in 1999, crude capacity was
increased from 4.5MMTPA and secondary processing capacity increased from 1.0 MMTPA to
1.6MMTPA. To meet the additional power requirement of these new units CPP capacity was
augmented by 40 MW in 1999 by increasing total power generation capacity to 50MW. To meet
the stringent diesel fuel specifications Diesel Hydro Desulphurisation (DHDS) units was also
commissioned in 2000.
Visakha refinery is capable of processing both imported and indigenous crude. The corporation
serves all sections of National economy, Domestic, Agriculture, transport and Industries and also
the public utilities and special users like road, railway, power plant, Defense and Fertilizers.
HPCL markets entire range of petroleum products from the lightest of LPG to the heaviest of
Bitumen including 200 grades of tubes and greases. The product state of the refinery includes light
distillates, which constitutes 22 %Wt on crude basis consisting of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG),
Naphtha, Propylene, Gasoline/ Petrol, and Middle distillates which constitutes 52 Wt% on crude
basis consisting of Mineral Turpentine Oil (MTO), Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF), Jute Bleaching
Oil (JBO), Superior Kerosene Oil (SKO), High Speed Diesel (HSD), Wash Oil, Light Diesel Oil
(LDO), and Heavy ends constituting 18wt % on crude basis consisting of Fuel Oil (FO), Low
Sulfur Heavy Stock (LSHS) and Bitumen. The majority business in retail sales with volume of MS
and HSD accounting for 49% of the total followed by the industrial sales of over 30% HPCL is
one of the two companies in India which own cross country product pipelines. HPCL always takes
keen interest in the protection, preservation and the improvement of environment.
Crude Distillation Units:
Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units:
Product Treating Units:
CCR Plat former: 0.77 MMTPA
Cycle Max: 680 kg/hour
Environmental control facilities:
SWSU: 99.4 m3/hour
Over the past 50 years, Fluid Catalytic Cracking has developed into a major upgrading
process in the oil refining industry for the conversion of vacuum gas oils into more valuable
products ranging from light olefins to naphtha and middle distillates. The FCCU occupies a very
important place in a refinery because of its low cost conversion of heavy oils to lighter more
valuable products. The catalytic cracker is the principle source of light olefin feed to alkylation
units. The attractiveness of the FCC process is related to its flexibility in converting a variety of
feed stocks from a wide range of crudes and its favorable economics of operation.


Cracking is a phenomenon by which large oil molecules are decomposed into small lower
boiling molecules. At the same time certain of these molecules which are reactive, combine with
one another to give even large molecules than those present in the original stock. The more stable
molecules leave the system as cracked gasoline and reactive ones polymerize forming fuel oil and
even coke. Although primary objective in development of the cracking process had been to get
more of gasoline, all other oils having boiling ranges intermediate between fuel oil and gasoline
are also produced.
Dissociation of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons into smaller molecular weight
hydrocarbons through agency of heat is termed as THERMAL CRACKING. The cracking of
heavy hydrocarbons occurs through the formation of intermediate free radicals by the breaking of
a carbon-carbon bond or carbon-hydrogen bond at high temperature.

Decomposition of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons into smaller molecular weight
hydrocarbons in presence of catalyst is termed as CATALYTIC CRACKING.
The cracking of heavy gas oil occurs through the formation of intermediate positively charged
organic species called carbonium ions and carbonion ions in presence of catalyst at a moderate
temperature and pressure is known as catalytic cracking.
Catalytic cracking has many advantages over thermal cracking, some of which are listed below.
1. Catalytic cracking gives more stable products.
2. Catalytic cracking unit operates under less severe conditions.
3. Catalytic cracking gives high octane gasoline.
4. It yields less dry gas i.e., methane, ethane and ethylene.

The originally developed process of cracking was Thermal cracking. Use of catalyst for
cracking was first investigated by HOUNDRY in 1927. The first catalytic cracker built in 1936 in
the USA by Houndry had fixed bed of catalyst pellets made from natural treated clays. The process
was batch wise, and a series of reactors were employed, each one going through a cycle of reaction,
purging, regeneration and purging operations. The process had its inherent disadvantages of being
discontinuous and cumber some and moreover, each reactor was subjected to reducing and
oxidizing conditions in quick succession.
The advantage of a continuous process led to the development of the idea of moving
bed of catalyst. The Thermofor and Houndriflow catalytic cracking processes followed, where in
the pelleted catalyst was continuously withdrawn from the reactor by means of a mechanical
conveyor or gas pressure carried to the regenerator and brought back to the reactor, by similar
means after burning off the coke.
Heat liberated in the regenerator from the coke burn-off was gainfully utilized in heating
and cracking the oil feed in the reactor, however, the mechanical means employed put limit on the
amount of catalyst that could be circulated, which in turn meant less heat removal from the
regenerator. Lighter, costlier feed stocks which could vaporize with less heat had therefore to be
processed. The product distribution with lighter feedstock was also not favorable, tendency being
to produce more gas and gasoline.
A more radical development was made by shell. Standard Oil (N.J. And Indiana), Kellog,
Texas Co and UOP in the early 1940s devised a plant in which catalyst was used in the form of
finely divided powder. This type of catalyst can be kept in a fluid state by blowing air, gas or steam
through it, and so the name Fluid Catalytic cracking Unit. Moreover, by controlling the
particle size of the catalyst and the velocity of gas moving through it, a bed can be formed, which,
although in violent agitation has some of the properties of a static quantity of liquid.
The development of the fluid catalytic cracking unit has permitted much higher rates of
catalyst circulation, and thereby the use of heavier feed stocks of lower value, a point especially
important where viscosity of pour point considerations require destruction of heavier materials.
From the Operating point of view:
1. Heat evolved in the regeneration of the catalyst is efficiently used.
2. Reaction temperatures are well controlled.
3. Catalyst regeneration temperature is well controlled
4. The catalyst available today is strong and retains its activity on a high scale. The
reactions are usually uniform over a long period of time, and the product quality does not change
with the lengthy use of catalyst.

To reiterate the most important reason for the wide use of catalytic cracking is the greater
yield of high octane gasoline. The yield is better than with any other thermal operation. Also, the
gas produced consists mainly of the preferred propane and Butane hydrocarbons with less methane
and ethane. The formation of heavier oils and tars is minimized. The gasoline and the uncracked
cycle Oil are more saturated that those encountered in other thermal products mainly because the
concentration of Aromatics is higher.
The Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit catalytically cracks the vacuum Gas oil (side
streams) of VDU to various high priced hydrocarbons. In this process catalyst is used in the form
the very small spherical particles which behave as a fluid when aerated with vapour. The fluidized
catalyst is continuously circulated from the reaction zone to the regeneration zone. In addition to
promoting the catalytic action, the catalyst acts as the vehicle for the transfer of heat from one zone
to other. These two zones are the reactor and the regenerator.
FCCU consists of three sections Catalyst section, Fractionation section & Gas
concentration Unit which operate together in an integrated manner. The cracking section consists
of reactor and regenerator which together with J bends and close coupled riser form catalyst
circulation circuit. The catalyst travels up the riser to the reactor and disengages at cyclone inlet in
the flexi cracking process. The catalyst from the primary and secondary reactor cyclone diplegs
down through the stripper to the regenerator across the spent catalyst J bend and back to the riser.
The fresh feed and recycle streams known as combine feed enter the unit at the riser, where
they are vaporized and raised to the reactor temperature by hot catalyst. The mixture of oil vapor
and catalyst travels up the riser and continues until the oil vapors are disengaged at the primary
cyclone inlet. The cracked products in the vapour phase go to fractionators through the reactor
vapour line. Coke is deposited on the circulating catalyst in the reaction zone. The spent catalyst
flows from the reactor to the regenerator where coke is burnt off. The heat of combustion raises
the catalyst temperature to 650-730C range and supplies heat, most of which is transferred to the
endothermic reaction.
The coke deposited on the circulating catalyst in the reactor is burnt off in regenerator using
air from Air blower. Catalyst gets separated from the hydrocarbon vapours in the reactor and from
flue gases in the regenerator by means of set of cyclones provided at the top section of reactor and
The flue gas coming out regenerator is mixture of CO and CO2 gases which are burnt in
CO boiler for producing steam. The flue gases can be vented to atmosphere through stack
bypassing CO boiler.
In the fractionation section, the reactor vapours are fractionated into the products clarified
oil, Heavy cycle oil, Light cycle oil, un-stabilized gasoline and wet gas. The unit is also designed
to generate MP steam in the exchangers by transferring waste heat from slurry and HCO circulating
streams of fractionators section. Un-stabilized Gasoline and Wet Gas after compression are sent
to gas concentration unit for further separation. In Gas concentration section Gasoline, LPG and
Fuel gas are separated. The composition of each stream is controlled for maximum product value.
Gasoline and LPG are sent to Merox for further treatment. Fuel gas from GCU joins refinery fuel
gas system. Clarified oil/HCO is used as fuel oil component. Gasoline produced in FCCU is having
high octane number. LCO is used as HSD/LDO component.
The Fluid catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) is one of the most important and widely used
process unit aimed at maximizing the yield of light/middle distillates by cracking of heavy oils in
the presence of catalyst. The unit may be divided broadly into three sections:
1. Reactor Regeneration Section (R-R section)

2. Fractionation Section

3. Gas Concentration Unit.

The heavy oils (mainly Vacuum Gas oils) are cracked in the presence of a catalyst in the
reactor section of the unit. This cracking reaction cracks down the long chain, high molecular
weight hydrocarbons into lighter hydrocarbons. In course of the cracking reaction, coke is also
produced which remains on the catalyst particles and rapidly reduces its activity. In order to
maintain the catalyst activity at useful level, it is therefore necessary to regenerate the catalyst by
burning off the deposited coke. To achieve this, the catalyst continuously flows from the Reactor
to the regenerator where the deposited coke is burnt off in the presence of Oxygen (air). The
regenerated catalyst is removed from the regenerator and is lifted back into the reactor by reactor
feed. The regeneration of the catalyst is an exothermic process and thus provides necessary heat
for the cracking reaction, which is endothermic. The flow of catalyst between reactor and
regenerator is achieved through fluidization.
The cracked product from the reactor is distilled and separated into different product
streams of desired TBP cut range in the fractionation section. The net gas stream from the main
fractionators overhead condenser system is further processed in the Gas Concentration unit to
recover valuable LPG and naphtha range components. The non condensable gases are routed to
SRU for fuel gas network whereas LPG and stabilized naphtha are routed to storage after treatment.
The FLEXICRACKING process being utilized in the Visakh FCC Revamp is a catalytic
conversion process which converts vacuum gas oil feed to fuel gas, LPG, high Octane gasoline,
middle distillates, fuel blending stock and coke. These materials are withdrawn as products except
for coke, which is consumed internally in the process to produce heat for the cracking reaction.
The zeolite catalyst is typically a synthetic silica-alumina support matrix with added
zeolite, manufactured in the form of a fine powder with an average particlesize of around 73
microns. Cracking catalyst can also be synthetic silica solid support matrix with added zeolite,
or a clay based support matrix with added zeolite. Although the catalyst is a solid, it is maintained
in suspension or fluidized by reaction products, steam, or air in the vessels and catalyst transfer
lines. In this fluidized state, the catalyst behaves as a fluid and flows between the Reactor and
The Reactor is operated between about 490 to530C at approximately 1.3 kg/cm2 g. Feed
is introduced into the bottom of the reactor riser through steam atomized injection nozzles. When
the oil feed contacts the hot catalyst in the riser, it vaporizes and cracks, providing the lifting force
to carry the catalyst up into the riser. It vaporizes and essentially all of the conversion takes place
in the feed riser [short Contact Time (SCT) technology used in FCCU-1]. Oil vapours pass from
Reactor overhead to the fractionation section, where the products are separated .Catalyst with coke
deposited on it from the cracking reaction, passes down through a stripping section in the reactor
vessel where it is stripped with steam. This removes both the oil remaining on the surface and oil
vapours entrained between the particles of catalyst. The catalyst then flows through a transfer line
to the Regenerator.
In the Regenerator, coke is burnt off the catalyst with air in High temperature Regeneration
(HTR), partial CO burn mode of operation. The Regenerators operates with dense bed
temperatures of 675 -730C, and a dilute phase pressure of approximately 1.1 kg/cm2g. A CO
promoter can be used to assist the combustion of CO to CO2. The hot, regenerated catalyst flows
via an overflow well into the regenerated catalyst transfer line and is transferred back to the reactor
Flue gases pass up and out of the Regenerator through cyclones, which removes any
entrained catalyst. Combustion of residual CO is completed in a CO Boiler where steam is
The reactor effluent comprising of cracked hydrocarbon vapors, steam and non-
condensables enter the fractionator at the bottom of the quench section. The main column is a
vertical cylindrical vessel consisting of two sections, top section is the regular fractionator part and
the lower one is the desuperheating or quench section. The cracked vapors from the reactor are
cooled by circulating slurry pump around and part of the vapors condense. The entrained catalyst
if any in the cracked vapor is scrubbed by the slurry pump around stream. The column bottom
liquid which serves as slurry pump around and net bottom product is withdrawn from the
fractionator and pumped using slurry pumps.
Light cycle oil (LCO) is withdrawn from the chimney tray CT-1. This stream is split up into two
streams, LCO product and LCO PA. LCO PA stream is used as an internal reflux whereas LCO
PDT is stripped off using MP steam in a stripper and withdrawn as a product which joins Diesel
pool or cutter. Heavy cycle oil (HCO) is withdrawn from the chimney tray CT-2. This stream is
split up into two streams, HCO product and HCO PA. HCO PA stream is used as an internal reflux
whereas HCO PDT is stripped off using MP steam in a stripper and withdrawn as a product which
can be used as feed, dilutant to settler and also joins CLO which joins the FO pool.
The main fractionators overhead vapour consists of naphtha and lighter hydrocarbons
together with steam and non condensables. The overhead vapours from fractionator, along with
wash water and spill back stream from wet gas compressor are cooled in main fractionator air fin
cooler and finally in fractionator overhead trim condenser and the three-phase mixture of
noncondensables, hydrocarbon liquid and water from trim condensers is routed to main
fractionator O/H accumulator. A portion of the condensed hydrocarbon is returned to the top tray
of the fractionator as reflux and the remaining liquid is withdrawn as unstabilized naphtha/LPD.


The wet gas and unstabilized naphtha streams coming from the fractionator overhead
accumulator are the feed for gas concentration section. In this section, the wet gases (consisting of
light hydrocarbons and non-condensable), LPG and stabilized naphtha are separated.The net gases
are routed to SRU fuel gas network whereas LPG and stabilized naphtha are routed to storage after
FCC brings together heavy hydrocarbon feed with fluidized circulating catalyst. During
cracking reactions, carbon and hydrogen (i.e., Coke) is deposited on catalyst which reduces the
catalyst activity. This coke is
burnt in the regenerator, which generates the heat to sustain and continue the reaction and the
catalyst activity is also restored. Gas oil is portion of crude oil that boils in 330-550C range and
contains a mixture of paraffins, Naphthenes and Aromatics. About 50% of the feed consists of
saturated molecules (Paraffins and Naphthenes) and remaining molecules contain at least one
aromatic ring. Aromatic molecules have saturated side chains and/or naphthene rings attached to
Paraffins, Naphthenes and side chains can crack to smaller molecules whereas aromatic rings
cannot be cracked.
Type of molecules in Cracked products
Naphtha -----------------------Paraffins, Naphthenes, Olefins, and 1- Ring aromatics.
Heating Oil -------------------- 2- and 3- Ring aromatics.
Bottoms and Coke ------------4+ Ring aromatics.


Cracking reactions
Paraffins Olefins + Paraffins.
Naphthenes Olefins.
Aromatics Unsubstituted Aromatics + Olefins.
Olefins Smaller LPG Olefins.
Hydrogen Transfer
Olefins Paraffins.
Branched Olefins Branched Paraffins.
Olefins and Naphthenes Paraffins + Aromatics.
Naphthenes Cyclo Olefins and Aromatics.
Aromatics Heavy Aromatics.
Olefins Coke.
Olefins Branched Olefins.
Olefins Naphthenes.
Aromatics Heavy Hetrocyclic Aromatics (Coke).
Aromatics Different alkyl aromatics.
Hot VGO from CDUs and cold VGO from offsite tanks are received in the feed surge
drum. The feed surge drum is a horizontal vessel provided with local pressure, temperature and
level indications. Two level transmitters are provided for the drum, one for DCS level indication
and another for control purposes. An LP Steam connection is provided for the drum for start- up
and shutdown requirements. The vessel is provided with a boot wherein any water coming along
with the feed gets collected. The water is drained manually upon accumulation with the help of
interphase level indication, the surge drum floats with the main fractionator at LCO section through
a 6 line for pressure balancing and relieving purposes.
While the hot feed to the surge drum is a wild flow (i.e., as received from the upstream
unit), the flow of cold feed is regulated by the surge drum level controller. Temperature indicators
indicate the temperatures of the incoming hot and cold feeds respectively. A flushing oil line and
a start- up circulation line join this feed line to the surge drum for startup purposes. Fresh feed
pumps take suction from surge drum and pump VGO to the preheat train and then to the furnace.
A 4 connection is taken from the discharge of these pumps for use of VGO as pump seal flushing
fluid. Provision also exists to route VGO as torch oil from the feed pump discharge. Temperature
indicator in the pump suction measures the combined (hot and cold) feed temperature while the
fresh feed flow is measured by flow indicator on the pump discharge line. Feed pump is provided
with a spill back connection.
The preheat exchanger train consists of Feed/LCO exchanger. Feed/ CLO A, B, C, D
exchanger. Feed/LCO PA exchanger and Feed/Slurry PA A,B,C exchanger. In Feed/LCO
exchanger VGO on the shell side is heated to 129C by LCO on the tube side. This preheat
exchanger is used only for cold feed case when the temperature of the feed is 90C max. This
exchanger is by passed during hot feed operation. In Feed/CLO A,B,C,D exchanger, feed is heated
180C on the shell side by CLO on the tube side. It consists of two parallel banks of exchangers
with two shells each in series. Isolation facilities are provided for each bank. Only one bank needs
to be used during maximum distillate mode of operation. VGO is further heated in Feed/LCO PA
exchanger on the tube side to 208/160C (hot/cold feed cases) by LCO PA on the shell side. This
exchanger is bypassed when the unit operates under maximum naphtha mode. The feed VGO then
enters the final preheat exchanger Feed/Slurry PA A,B,C on the shell side and gets heated up to
340C by Slurry pump around on the tube side. All the three shell side and of this exchanger is
maintained at 3-4 ft/sec to prevent catalyst deposition and cokefouling. The maximum velocity is
limited to 10-12 ft/sec to avoid erosion by catalyst suspended in the Slurry stream. In addition to
local PGs the preheat train is provided with adequate number of TIs to measure the temperatures
of both shell and tube side fluids at each stage. Also TSVs are provided for each of the exchangers
(or banks) on the cold (VGO) side with their outlets to OWS.
Major equipments of this section are heater, steam drum and steam decoking pot.Description of
feed heater is divided in following sub sections:
1. Process System
2. Fuel System
3. Steam Generation System & Super Heater Coils
4. Steam Air Decoking System
VGO with HCO recycle stream enters at the top of the convection zone of the fired heater.
From the bottom of the convection zone, the coils are routed to the radiation zone. From radiation
zone, VGO comes out of the heater and enters Reactor. VGO is heated from 307C to 332C,
248C to 385C and 326C to 423 in ID, 2D &IN cases respectively before entering the Reactor.
Flow in each pass is regulated by individual pass flow controllers. These controllers get
input signal from respective flow transmitters and set point signal from a ratio controller.
Controller generate output signal and manipulates respective flow valves.
The ratio controller/pass balancer in APC functions such a way that the weighted average
temperature at the outlet of each pass is maintained almost the same. The pass balancer in APC
receives software input signal from Outlet temperature of individual passes and Current values of
heater pass flows. The output from the pass balancer regulates individual VGO flow through the
individual passes by manipulating the flow control valves located on the individual passes.
The distribution of VGO through each pass should be adjusted in such a way that the heat
duties and hence COT (Coil outlet temperature) of all the passes are more or less same. Depending
on heat duty variation, Pass flow will vary. In equality of flow through each pass to the extent of
10% can be tolerated while operating on manual mode or with pass balancer.
All the 2 passes join together at the outlet of radiation zone. TAH is provided at each pass
outlet along with DCS indication of temperature. Temperature indicator shows the intermediate
heating of VGO in the convection zone.Soot blowers, using MP steam are provided in convection
zone of the heater. Need of soot blowing will be indicated by poor heat pick up in convection
zone and increase in flue gas temperature.
Emergency steam, soot blower steam, and decoking steam connections are taken from 6
MP steam header. Flow indicators indicate decoking steam flow to individual passes.
Snuffing steam (furnace purging steam) is connected to convection zone and heater box
in order to extinguish Fire by steam blanketing. LP steam is used for this purpose. To facilitate
safe approach to emergency steam/ snuffing steam during an emergency scenario isolation valve
on steam line has been provided at a safe distance of at least 15 meters from heater.
FCCU I (R) furnace is natural draft furnace. Both the convection and radiation sections
are used for heating VGO. The combustion chamber houses the radiation section of the tubes. The
convection section provided at the top of radiation section serves to increase the thermal efficiency
of the furnace by utilizing further heat from the flue gas. It is a dual fired furnace i.e, either fuel
oil or fuel gas or both can be used.
Fuel gas from fuel Gas KOD is supplied by a 10 header. This is further branched into a
6 header to the Feed heater. This FG line is steam traced to avoid condensation of heavier
components. Carryover of liquid droplets of Hydrocarbon to the burner is avoided by routing FG
through KOD. To arrest carryover of foreign particles like rust etc., a 40 mesh strainer is provided
on the FG header. FG to main burners passes through a shut down valve whose open and close
position is indicated in control room. This SDV is connected to interlock logic. Flow indicator
indicates FG flow in DCS. A local PI and a TI are provided to indicate pressure and temperature
at field.
A 1 FG tapping upstream of shut down valve has been branched off for pilot burners.
This line has a local Pressure indicator. Pressure of pilot gas is manually adjusted. Low pressure
alarm will alert the operator when pilot gas pressure falls. Pressure indicator is provided in DCS
to monitor pilot gas pressure.
Fuel oil from battery limit is supplied by a 6 header. FO line is steam traced to maintain
temperature and avoid congealing.
Flow indicator is provided on main FO supply line and another flow indicator is provided
on the main FO return line from heater. Since this is a closed circuit through which FO circulation
is maintained, the net consumption of fuel oil is measured as the difference between the two. Fuel
oil supply line has a 100 mesh strainer. Shut down valve is provided on supply header and another
shut down valve is provided on the FO return header. Both open and close indications in control
room. Local PI and TI are provided in the supply line to show pressure and temperature of FO
supply. Low Low Pressure alarm has been provided on supply line. Actuation of this alarm shuts
Shut down valve and cuts off fuel firing to the furnace.
Since FO is normally a thick heavy liquid it needs to be always maintained in circulating
state. If it is left stagnant and unused in burners and piping, it can congeal the fact that tracing
steam of the FO circuit is on. Circulation in heater area (FO piping forming a closed circuit across
all passes called fuel oil ring) is maintained even when no fuel oil burner is in use. A ratio of 2:1
FO consumption to return is normally maintained to obtain a good control on firing and prevent
congealing of FO system. FO is drawn by individual burners through 3/4 lines from header and
balance quantity is sent to return line. When there is no need of FO firing in the heater, the
circulation can be maintained outside the furnace, through a 2 bypass line called Ring bypass.
When FO is fired, it is atomized or sprayed as a fine mist for realizing complete
combustion. The spraying of FO is done by de superheated MP steam in FO burners. Atomizing
steam is supplied to heater through a 3 header. Atomizing steam pressure is controlled by
differential pressure controller, taking pressure signal from FO supply and MP steam
simultaneously. Atomizing steam pressure is maintained about 1.0 --1.5kg/cm2 above FO
The heat carried out by flue gas is used to super heat MP steam & MP steam
generation.MP steam generated in ISBL is superheated in these super heater coils. MP steam from
the two steam generators namely slurry and HCO PA is carried through 10 header. Provision has
been given to route this steam directly to steam header bypassing the super heater coils. 8 line
with double block has been provided for bypassing. Local PI & TI provided for monitoring
pressure & temperature in field at the inlet of heater coil. Steam generated from steam drum also
joins at the heater inlet coil. Inside the heater 2 banks of coils are provided to superheat. At the
outlet of heater Pressure and Temperature indicators are provided to monitor pressure and
temperature in DCS. High & low- temperature alarms are also provided.
Pressure safety valves will take care of the overpressure on the heater coil. In case steam
has to be vented to atmosphere steam silencer is provided. For further recovery of heat from flue
gas steam generation system is provided. BFW (Boiler Feed Water) can be preheated by two ways.
This can be directly routed through the economizer coils by which it will preheat & enter into the
steam drum .On this line at the heater outlet one Temperature safety valve provided to take care of
the line. PI & TI will indicate pressure & temperature at heater outlet.
Otherwise BFW can be routed initially through the coil inside the steam drum & then
through the economizer coil. Steam drum heater coil outlet is provided Pressure and Temperature
indicators which indicate the pressure & temperature of BFW at drum outlet.
This preheated BFW will inter the steam drum from bottom. BFW is heated by down comer
& riser assembly. Two circulation lines (4 and 3) are provided for better heat recovery. 4 line
is provided at lower elevation for higher heat recovery from higher temperature of flue gas. 3 line
is at upper elevation than 4 which willcarry less amount of BFW, so less amount of heat is
required. Both the circulation lines are branched into 14 tubes of 2 size inside the heater.Steam
generated from steam drum passes through the demister pad in the steam drum to catch the water
entrainment in the steam.
STEAM AIR DECOKING (SAD) of feed heater tubes is done to remove coke deposit
from inside heater tubes with the help of steam and air. Removal of coke results in clean heater
tube internals and improves heater performance by better heat transfer to process fluid. SAD also
achieved low pressure drop through heater tubes and reduces chances of hot spot on heater tubes
.Need for steam air decoking of heater tubes is indicated by increased pressure drop and harder
This dedicated (SAD) arrangement comprises of Decoking drum. Piping and
instrumentation for plant air, Service water and MP steam. MP steam, connection to each pass
flow is provided to dislodge carbon deposit from inside the heater tubes. Local and control room
DCS mounted flow indications are provided on each steam connection. Plant air is required to
ignite the remaining coke film deposit clinging inner wall of tubes and achieve final cleaning.
Local and DCS mounted flow indicators are provided on main 3 plant air header.Service water
quench provision is give on Decoking drum to quench the contents before letting out to
To carry out SAD pass flow inlet and outlet of the Furnace are isolated from process
network and connected by means of swing elbows with the decoking network. Heater pass flow
outlets are connected to the decoking pot. While MP steam is introduced in the tubes it is fired
from outside. Thermal shock caused by the flame cracks the coke scales inside the tubes and
flowing steam dislodge them. These are carried to Decoking Pot after being quenched in the
decoking pot by service water. When no more coke is removable as indicated by relatively clear
color of effluent, air along with steam is introduced into pass flow to burn out the coke inside tube
while firing is on in the heater. Oxygen burns coke at high temperature. Burning of the coke is
indicated by increased tube metal temperature.
Number of passes selected for coke burning is largely dependent on limitations posed by
steam availability and piping network. Sudden release of coke may result in choking of the piping
handling effluent or may cause hot spots of the tube during burning. SAD of only one pass at a
time should be done if limitations in steam and SAD piping are experienced. Swing elbow has
been provided at the inlet and outlet of the heater passes, therefore steam and air decoking and can
be done either way.
There are four potential sources of feed to the FCCU-I Reactor as follows:
1. Vaccum Gas Oil (VGO) from the vaccum pipe still.
2. Vaccum Residue (VR) from the vaccum pipe still.
3. Heavy Cycle Oil (HCO) Recycle from the FCCU-R primaryfractionator.
4. Fractionator Bottoms Recycle from the FCCU-R fractionator slurrycircuit.
The VGO and HCO Recycle streams are blended before entering the reactor. The flow
rate of the feed to the Reactor, which is the blend of these streams, is measured by Flow indicator
before being steam atomized in the reactor feed nozzles. Provision is made to either manually or
either manually or automatically diverts the total Reactor feed back to the FCCU-I Main
fractionator during startup or emergency conditions.
Fractionator Bottoms Recycle will be fed normally through a dedicated Reactor feed
nozzle with its flow rate controlled by a Flow controller. This dedicated nozzle reduces the
potential for coking/fouling of the main feed nozzles due to incompatibility between the bottoms
recycle and the other feed components. However, provision has been made to divert the bottoms
recycle to the main feed nozzles as a backup to the normal routing.
The FCCU-R Reactor can actually be considered to consist of three sections:
1. The feed nozzles and feed riser section external to the Reactor vessel.
2. The upper section of the Reactor vessel, consisting of the inner section of the feed riser
and three pairs of internal cyclones which are close coupled to the feed riser termination. The
external and internal feed riser sections comprise the actual Reactor in which essentially all
conversion takes place.
3. The bottom section of the Reactor vessel contains the spent catalyst stripper. The
stripper contains 15 Shed rows to promote contacting between the catalyst and the stripping steam
which enters via spargers located under the shed rows.The various Reactor sections function to
provide the following:
1. Contacting of the oil feed with the regenerated catalyst.
2. Sufficient contact time with the catalyst in the external and internal
sections of the riser to yield the desired products.
3. Separation of the converted oil from the spent catalyst via two stage
cyclones contained within the Reactor vessel.
4.Steam stripping to remove oil vapor and oil on the surface of the spent
catalyst before it is sent to the Regenerator.

In the Reactor feed zone the total feed (VGO, VR, and HCO Recycle) is injected into the
external riser via six ER&E proprietary curved throat fan tip feed nozzles. As mentioned
previously, the total feed rate is controlled upstream in the preheat facilities. Feed distribution to
the individual feed nozzles in service is not normally directly controlled, and depends upon the
symmetrical layout specified as part of the design. Flow will distribute to balance the pressure drop
through each parallel feed nozzle circuit; although provision has also been made for some
balancing via the globe valves provided in the oil feed line to each individual feed nozzle.
Steam is injected into the oil feed line upstream of each feed nozzle to help promote
atomization of the feed within the nozzle. Feed injection steam is distributed to the individual feed
nozzles by the restriction orifices provided. If a nozzle is removed from oil feed service steam flow
is maintained through the steam purge restriction orifice to prevent plugging.
A dedicated feed nozzle is provided for the Fractionators Bottoms Recycle feed. Similar
to the total feed nozzles described above, steam is injected upstream of the nozzle to promote
atomization within the nozzle. Efficient feed contacting promoted by proper operation of the feed
nozzles is critical for optimum unit performance.
Oil exiting the feed nozzles is contacted with the hot regenerated catalyst from the
Regenerator. In order to ensure an even flow pattern and distribution of catalyst to the feed zone
and to minimize catalyst back- mixing, Fluffing Steam is injected into the riser a short distance
below the feed zone (at the top of the regenerated catalyst angle riser). Fluffing steam is injected
via the same nozzle that is used to route emergency steam to the riser. The Fluffing Steam is
injected at a constant rate controlled by the restriction orifice. The Fluffing steam flows through
the restriction orifice. This restriction orifice is sized to limit flow when the emergency valve is
open and does not affect the flow of Fluffing Steam .The Fluffing Steam flow also functions to
purge the emergency steam nozzle to keep the attached piping cool and to avoid plugging.
Provision has also been made to inject naphtha or other quench stock into the feed zone
to control riser temperature during start-up or other situations as needed. Quench flow is controlled
by Flow controller and the quench has been provided to two of the total feed nozzles. When
required, one or both of these nozzles can be dedicated to quench service. Injection steam is
maintained as in normal feed service.

As the feed from the nozzles contacts the hot regenerated catalyst, it vaporizes and begins
the cracking process. The vaporized oil, feed injection steam and cracked products provide the lift
to carry the catalyst up the feed riser. The first section of the riser is a shallow angle cone
connecting the feed zone and the increased diameter required in the upper riser section to handle
the higher vapor rate resulting from cracking the feed. The shallow angle cone provides a
smoothtransition that avoids areas of deceleration which can result in back mixing and lead to a
loss of conversion selectivity. The cracking reactions are completed as the Feed / catalyst mixture
moves up the external and internal sections of the feed riser. SCT (Short contact time) technology
minimizes the thermal and non selective cracking reactions that could occur in the reactor dilute
phase by rapidly separating the catalyst from the vapor stream using a close-coupled cyclone
system. Three parallel close-coupled sets of two stage cyclones are used for catalyst separation,
while the reactor effluent vapor passes overhead to the main fractionator for separation into
Spent catalyst separated from the reactor effluent vapor is recovered in the two stage
cyclones mentioned above. Vapor enters the cyclones via a transfer tunnel which close couples the
riser to the cyclone so that the catalyst is rapidly separated to prevent undesirable thermal and non-
selective cracking reactions from occurring in the Reactor dilute phase. The vapor enters the
primary cyclones tangentially in a horizontal direction. This imparts a cyclonic flow pattern to the
vapor and catalyst, resulting in a centrifugal force which forces the catalyst to the outer walls of
the cyclone. The cyclone flow pattern spirals downward, aiding the catalyst in sliding down the
walls to the conically shaped bottom of the cyclone, while the vapor then reverses and flows
upwards through the center of the cyclone to the secondary cyclone inlet. The vapor to the
secondary cyclone still contains some catalyst of smaller particle size than is separated in the
primary cyclone. Most of the remaining catalyst is removed in a similar manner in the second
stage. The relatively catalyst-free vapor then exits into a plenum chamber at the top of the reactor
and from there via the Reactor overhead line to the primary fractionators. Catalyst separated in
both cyclone stages is then routed to the Reactor stripping section via the cyclone dip legs. The
cyclone dip legs allow a column of catalyst to buildup, which provides the necessary static head
for the catalyst to enter the stripping zone. The trickle valves at the bottom of the dip legs prevent
bypassing of the cyclones during an upset by sealing the cyclone dip legs so that vapor cannot flow
up the dip legs which would result in increased catalyst losses.
Coke (that is, carbon and hydrogen in the form of high molecular weight hydrocarbons) is
deposited on the surface of the catalyst during cracking operation. The catalyst is regenerated by
returning it to the Regenerator where the coke is burned off. However, before it is returned to the
Regenerator it is important that the valuable strippable hydrocarbons (which consist of liquid
adsorbed on the surface and vapor trapped within the catalyst pores/void spaces between particles)
be removed from the spent catalyst and recovered
as product. Both forms are removed by stripping with steam in the Reactor Stripping section.
Spent catalyst enters the top of the stripping section via the annular apace between the internal
section of the feed riser and the outer wall of the stripping section. It then flows downward over
fifteen shed rows which promote contacting between the catalyst and stripping steam, which enters
via spargers underneath the bottom two shed rows. Stripping steam rate is set is set via Flow
controller with even distribution among the spargers being achieved via the restriction orifices in
the individual supply lines. As the steam flows counter-current to the catalyst, strippable
hydrocarbon is removed. Stripper level is not directly controlled and Depends upon the catalyst
inventory within the Reactor/Regenerator system. Regenerator inventory changes due to air rate
adjustment will be reflected in the stripper level. It is generally desirable to operate the stripper
with both dilute phase and dense phase stripping zones. The unit design was based upon
maintaining the stripper level at 75% full. The top dilute phase zone promotes rapid removal of
hydrocarbon vapor from the space surrounding the catalyst. This maximizes the steam partial
pressure in the lower dense phase stripping zone, which promotes desorption of the liquid
hydrocarbon adsorbed on the catalyst surface.
Depending upon the Regenerator operating mode (partial or full burn conditions), reactor
temperature is controlled by adjusting either the feed temperature for partial burn regeneration or the
catalyst circulation rate for full burn regeneration. Feed temperature is normally controlled by adjusting
firing in the preheat furnace. Catalyst circulation is controlled by the Reactor/Regenerator pressure
differential controller.
Reactor pressure is not directly controlled. It will be set by the pressure controller at the suction
of the gas compressor on the FCCU-R primary fractionator overhead plus the pressure drop from the
compressor suction back to the reactor vessel. It can be varied by adjusting the set point of the
compressor suction pressure controller.
The functions of the Regenerator, are to restore catalyst activity lost during the cracking
reactions due to (coke that is, carbon and hydrogen) build up on the catalyst, and to provide the heat
required for feed vaporization and for initiating and sustaining the endothermic cracking reaction in
the feed riser. Restoration of catalyst activity is accomplished by burning off the coke and any
hydrocarbon which was not completely stripped off in the Reactor stripping section. Complete removal
of the coke from the catalyst is not possible because some is deposited deep in the catalyst pores, and
coke burning is never 100% efficient in commercial units. The coke deep in the catalyst is called
trapped coke and the coke not removed because of combustion inefficiency is called burnable coke.
The burnable coke should be kept as low as possible. Most of the heat released during regeneration is
absorbed by the catalyst and is then transferred to the Reactor to supply heat for feed vaporization and
the cracking reactions. Catalyst enters the Regenerator via the spent cat riser which projects into the
dense catalyst bed a short distance above the grid. A flat circular plate located above the termination
of the spent catalyst riser acts to deflect and distribute the spent catalyst in the dense bed. The catalyst
leaves the Regenerator via an overflow well which is located diametrically opposite the spent cat riser.
Hence Regenerator level is not controlled and remains constant at the top of the overflow well. The
mass of catalyst in the Regenerator inventory can change, however, with changes in air flow to
regenerator. The change in Regenerator inventory will affect the reactor stripping section level, since
the Regenerator bed level is maintained by the overflow well. The overflow well is tapered to promote
vapor disengaging from the regenerated catalyst, and extends downward to join the regenerated catalyst
standpipe before passing through the grid.
The FCCU-1 Regenerator is designed to operate in a High Temperature Regeneration (HTR)
mode. Although Regenerator temperature is not directly controlled unit operations should be adjusted
to maintain temperatures in the range of 675 to 730C. (Note that although the design temperature of
the Regenerator internals is 760C, the operating temperature should be limited 730C to prevent
deactivation of the catalyst). This HTR Operating regime minimizes RCC, which helps to maintain
catalyst activity and avoid carbon buildup. It also helps to promote CO combustion within the bed,
avoiding afterburning or CO combustion in the dilute phase, which can lead to very high
temperatures causing mechanical damage. The lower end of the range is set by CO combustion kinetics,
while the upper limit is set by catalyst deactivating considerations. RCC levels of 0.05 to 0.20 wt%
can be expected over the HTR operating temperature(high to low end ) range, depending on the mode
of HTR regeneration (that is, full or partial burn).
With High Temperature Regeneration, the Regenerator may be operated in either a partial
burn or full burn mode. In a full burn operation, sufficient oxygen is available to completely combust
the coke to carbon dioxide. The Regenerator typically operates with a minimum of 1 vol % excess
oxygen in the full burn mode, and the carbon monoxide concentration is less than 500 ppm. In a partial
burn mode operation, insufficient oxygen is available to burn all of the coke to carbon dioxide and the
flue gas carbon monoxide content can be in the range of 2 to 12 vol % FCCU-1 has been designed to
normally operate in a partial burn operating mode, in partial burn, regenerator bed temperatures are
generally in the range 675to 730C . This operating temperature range maintains combustion in the
bed. However, the use of CO combustion promoter may be required in the operating range between
675 to 700C should excessive afterburning occur due to a reduction in the CO combustion kinetics.
CO combustion promoter is a catalyst additive that increases the rate of CO to CO2 combustion within
the regenerator dense bed. The use of combustion promoter enhances the combustion of CO at reduced
temperatures. Essentially all excess oxygen is consumed within the dense bed, and CO concentration
in the flue gas can range from about 1-2% (just short of complete CO-combustion) to levels as high as
10-20%.Typical RCC for the partial burn mode is 0.10 to 0.20 wt% slightly higher than for full burn
due to the depletion of available 02 within the dense bed, Other features of the partial burn are:
1. Available oxygen is used more efficiently; therefore , a partial burn is better applied to
operations where coke production is a primary limitation, This includes processing more feed at an air
constraint or processing feeds with higher coke production such as residues.
2. Some heat can be exported in the form of CO in flue gas for combustion in the CO Furnace.
3. CO content can be allowed to vary over a wide range, 1-2%min, to10-12% max. Permitting a
wide range of heat balance.
4. Carbon on regenerated catalyst will be slightly higher than in a full burn operation. This result
in a somewhat higher relative coke production compared to full burn.
The flue gas produced by the burning of the carbon and hydrocarbon on the spent catalyst
carries entrained catalyst out of the dense bed. This catalyst must be removed before the flue gas exits
the Regenerator vessel and flows to the CO boiler or atmosphere. Catalyst is recovered in six parallel
pairs of two stage cyclones. The flue gas rises through the Regenerator dilute phase and enters the
primary cyclones tangentially in a horizontal direction. The entrained catalyst is separated from the
flue gas in the two stages by centrifugal force as in the reactor cyclones. The catalyst is returned to the
dense bed via the cyclone dip legs and trickle valves, while the flue gas passes through a plenum and
then out via the Regenerator overhead line to the CO boiler or atmosphere.
Air is required in the FCCU for combustion of coke in the Regenerator. Some of the
combustion air is first used as control air in the spent cat riser to promote catalyst circulation form the
Reactor stripping section to the Regenerator. This control air is then utilized for carbon burning in the
Regenerator. The Main Air Blower, is a steam turbine driven centrifugal compressor which takes
suction from the atmosphere, and compresses both the air that is used as control air as well as the air
that goes directly to the Regenerator. The motor driven Control Air Blower, takes suction from the
discharge of the Main Air blower. The control air rate is set by Flow controller and will be determined
by catalyst circulation considerations.
Total air rate to the Regenerator is set by Flow controller. With the control air rate set per the above,
FC will adjust the rate of air which is sent directly to the Regenerator by varying the speed of the Main
Air Blower steam turbine drive. During normal operation, all of the air directly to the Regenerator
could be supplied via the secondary air line to the Regenerator air pre heater However, both the ,
primary and secondary lines to the pre heater could be used since both are measured to determine the
total air rate as long as the rates are within the normal operating range of the primary and secondary
air flow meters. Air flow is balanced between the primary and secondary air lines by the manually
operated butterfly valves which are provided. Note that during the firing of the Air Pre heater, the
primary air flow rate must be adjusted to always achieve 100%excess air firing to prevent excessive
temperatures which would damage the combustion zone.
Air sent directly to the Regenerator flows though the Air Pre heater and is then distributed to
the dense bed by a flat grid with a multitude of holes. A shroud (velocity reducer) is provided for the
exit of each grid hole to reduce the velocity of the air so as to avoid erosion and catalyst attrition.
Additional heat over and above that provided by feed preheat and carbon burning may be
required to keep the unit in heat balance during startup, shutdown or normal operation. This heat is
supplied by torch oil which is injected into the Regenerator dense bed through two retractable flat
pattern spray nozzles. The torch oil sprays extend a short distance into the dense bed about 600 mm
above the grid, and are located 180C apart. The oil is ignited by the hot catalyst in the presence of the
combustion air which exits the grid.
Torch oil rate is set by FC which is a split range controller. When the torch oil flow rate set
point is increased from zero, the split range controller first fully opens Flow controller B, which
provides atomizing steam to the torch oil nozzles. When the controller output reaches 50% of its full
range, Flow controller A begins to open and torch oil flow starts. The atomizing steam helps to convert
the torch oil into small droplets to ensure efficient burning. When the torch oil nozzles are not in
service, both the spray tip and the annular space around the tip are purged with steam for cooling and
to avoid plugging with catalyst. A TI point is provided above each torch oil nozzle to help detect
ignition when the nozzles are commissioned.
The Air Preheater, is integrally attached to the bottom of the Regenerator vessel. The preheater
is used to heat the Regenerator prior to catalyst addition, and to raise the dense bed temperature during
catalyst loading prior to using torch oil combustion to supply heat. It can also be used to dry the
refractory in the unit during the initial startup of the revamped unit or after subsequent turnarounds.
Air from the Main Air Blower enters the Air Preheater through the primary and secondary air
connections. The preheated air then exits the preheater past a deflector cap before entering the dense
bed via the grid. The deflector cap helps to prevent catalyst from dropping into the preheater and helps
to distribute the air uniformly under the grid. It also helps to avoid local overheating of the grid


Regenerator temperature is not directly controlled, but will equilibrate at a level set by the unit
heat and carbon balance. However, unit conditions must be set or adjusted to ensure that the
Regenerator operates in the High Temperature Regeneration (HTR) mode with dense bed temperature
between 675 and 730C. Maintaining the Regenerator temperature within this range ensures that CO
combustion will occur to the full extent possible within the limits of the combustion air rate. This
temperature range also minimizes the potential for Oxygen breakthrough in a partial burn operation
and CO breakthrough in a full burn operation, both of which will lead to afterburning in the dilute
phase. The use of CO combustion promoter may be required in the operating temperature range
between 675 to 700C should excessive afterburning occur due to a reduction in the CO combustion
kinetics. The use of combustion promoter will enhance the combustion of CO within the Regenerator
bed at reduced temperatures.
Regenerator pressure is also not directly controlled. The Regenerator will operate at a fixed
differential from the Reactor as determined by the set point for the Reactor/Regenerator pressure
differential controller. The set point of this controller will be adjusted as required to manipulate the
catalyst circulation rate between the Reactor and Regenerator.
Operation of the fluid catalytic cracking process takes advantage of the properties that the
cracking catalyst assumes when gas is introduced to a volume of catalyst. When the velocity of gas
through the catalyst exceeds what is termed the minimum fluidization velocity, the drag force on the
particles equals their weight and the particles become buoyant and float in the gas phase. At this
point the particles are said to be fluidized. Catalyst in a fluidized state behaves much like a liquid, and
builds up a static head proportional to its density and height. The density of the fluidized catalyst
depends upon the relative proportion of gas and solid at any particular point.The basic principle of
circulation control is that pressure build-up in dense beds and standpipes provides the driving force
for catalyst flow, while density reduction in up flow lines reduces the resistance to that flow. In
the standpipes, very little aeration is provided to offset the compression effect and maintain an
essentially constant density.
There are two catalyst circulation circuits in the unit: regenerated catalyst and spent
catalyst. These are described separately in the following Spent catalyst is recovered from the
reactor products and is returned to the stripping section of the Reactor vessel. The stripping steam
which flows countercurrent to the spent catalyst to remove strippable hydrocarbons also fluidizes
or aerates the catalyst. The fluidized catalyst in the stripper is relatively dense and pressure
increases from the top of the stripper to the bottom. The bottom of the stripper connects to the
spent catalyst transfer line. Directly below the stripper is a short vertical section of line which is
the spent catalyst standpipe. A small amount of aeration steam is added to the catalyst within the
standpipe to maintain it in a fluidized state and is carried with the catalyst as it moves down the
standpipe. The top of the spent catalyst angle riser connects to the spent catalyst vertical riser
which carries the spent catalyst into the Regenerator. Control air is injected at the bottom of the
spent cat riser via a torroidal header with five individual injection points. The amount of control
air which is added determines the density in the spent catalyst vertical riser:
Spent catalyst which enters the Regenerator is regenerated by burning off the coke. The
combustion air also acts to maintain the catalyst in a fluidized liquidlike state. An overflow well
is provided in the Regenerator into which the regenerated catalyst flows. This overflow well
maintains an essentially constant holdup volume of catalyst in the Regenerator. This requires that
regenerated catalyst must flow out of the Regenerator at the same rate that spent catalyst flows in.
Therefore Spent catalyst circulation rate establishes the overall catalyst circulation rate in the unit.
The overflow well is tapered to permit disengaging any entrained gas and connects to the
regenerated catalyst standpipe before passing through the Regenerator grid. The regenerated
catalyst standpipe serves the same function as the spent catalyst standpipe in allowing pressure to
increase in the vertical down flow leg. Instrument air is used to aerate the standpipe above the slide
valve in order to avoid the possibility of steam condensation and mud formation during startup,
when catalyst may be stagnant in the standpipe and cool down before establishing circulation.
Aeration air is controlled by restriction orifices. Steam aeration is used below the slide valve in
the J-bend and angle riser.
The horizontal connection between the regenerated catalyst standpipe and the vertical feed riser is
provided by another J-bend and angle riser. Aeration steam is added along the bottom of the angle
riser as controlled by restriction orifices.
Although catalyst circulation rate is very significant variable affecting FCCU-1
performance, there is no direct means of measuring the rate. However, modern distributed control
systems have the capability to perform process calculation from which the circulation rate can be
determined. Typically, the catalyst circulation rate is calculated based on a Regenerator heat
balance. A key input to the heat balance is the flue gas analysis. Having a calculated value of
catalyst circulation available, to the operator will be valuable to allow confirmation of the effect
of changes which are made in unit controls. However, if a calculated circulation rate is not
available, Reactor riser pressure drop is a good indicator of changes in circulation rate. If feed, and
steam rates (feed injection and aeration) are constant, an increase in the pressure differential over
the feed riser indicates an increase in circulation rate. There are three main parameters which can
be manipulated to adjust catalyst circulation rate in FCCU-1. These, are differential pressure,
control air and Reactor stripper holdup. The spent catalyst transfer line. Directly below the stripper
is a short vertical section of line which is the spent catalyst standpipe. A small amount of aeration
steam is added to the catalyst within the standpipe to maintain it in a fluidized state and is carried
with the catalyst as it moves down the standpipe. The top of the spent catalyst angle riser connects
to the spent catalyst vertical riser which carries the spent catalyst into the Regenerator. Control air
is injected at the bottom of the spent cat riser via a torroidal header with five individual injection
points. The amount of control air which is added determines the density in the spent catalyst
vertical riser:
Spent catalyst which enters the Regenerator is regenerated by burning off the coke. The
combustion air also acts to maintain the catalyst in a fluidized liquidlike state. An overflow well
is provided in the Regenerator into which the regenerated catalyst flows. This overflow well
maintains an essentially constant holdup volume of catalyst in the Regenerator. This requires that
regenerated catalyst must flow out of the Regenerator at the same rate that spent catalyst flows in.
Therefore Spent catalyst circulation rate establishes the overall catalyst circulation rate in the unit.
The overflow well is tapered to permit disengaging any entrained gas and connects to the
regenerated catalyst standpipe before passing through the Regenerator grid. The regenerated
catalyst standpipe serves the same function as the spent catalyst standpipe in allowing pressure to
increase in the vertical down flow leg. Instrument air is used to aerate the standpipe above the slide
valve in order to avoid the possibility of steam condensation and mud formation during startup,
when catalyst may be stagnant in the standpipe and cool down before establishing circulation.
Aeration air is controlled by restriction orifices. Steam aeration is used below the slide valve in
the J-bend and angle riser.
The horizontal connection between the regenerated catalyst standpipe and the vertical feed
riser is provided by another J-bend and angle riser. Aeration steam is added along the bottom of
the angle riser as controlled by restriction orifices.


Although catalyst circulation rate is very significant variable affecting FCCU-1
performance, there is no direct means of measuring the rate. However, modern distributed control
systems have the capability to perform process calculation from which the circulation rate can be
determined. Typically, the catalyst circulation rate is calculated based on a Regenerator heat
balance. A key input to the heat balance is the flue gas analysis. Having a calculated value of
catalyst circulation available, to the operator will be valuable to allow confirmation of the effect
of changes which are made in unit controls. However, if a calculated circulation rate is not
available, Reactor riser pressure drop is a good indicator of changes in circulation rate. If feed, and
steam rates (feed injection and aeration) are constant, an increase in the pressure differential over
the feed riser indicates an increase in circulation rate.There are three main parameters which can
be manipulated to adjust catalyst circulation rate in FCCU-1. These, are differential pressure,
control air and Reactor stripper holdup. Each is given below.
Differential pressure:
The primary means of controlling catalyst circulation rate in FCC-1 is to change the
difference in pressure between the Reactor and Regenerator dilute phases by adjusting PDC. For
any given operation at a fixed feed rate, Reactor pressure will be relatively constant as set by the
pressure controller on the suction of the FCCU-1 primary fractionators overhead gas compressor
and the pressure drop back to the Reactor. Therefore, differential pressure is changed by increasing
or decreasing Regenerator pressure via adjustments to the position of the slide valve in the
Regenerator overhead line. Increased differential provides additional driving force on the spent
catalyst standpipe and increases the spent catalyst circulation rate.
Control Air Rate:
Control air addition provides a lifting effect on the spent cat riser which promotes spent
catalyst circulation. However, it is not the variable which is manipulated to control circulation rate.
The control air rate is normally set and maintained constant for any particular operation while
differential pressure is the variable manipulated to control circulation. However, control air rate
may require adjustment to keep the regenerated catalyst overflow well level in a safe and operable
range (typically 50 to75%). For example, an increase in circulation rate may cause the regenerated
catalyst overflow level to increase to an unacceptably high level. This would infer that the
Reactor/Regenerator differential pressure is too high. In order to reduce the overflow well level at
the same circulation rate control air rate can be increased, which increases the lift on the spent
catalyst riser and allows the differential pressure to be decreased. A lower pressure differential will
drop the level in the regenerated catalyst overflow well.
Reactor Stripper Bed holdup:
An increase in Reactor stripper bed holdup has the same effect as increasing the
Reactor/Regenerator differential pressure. It increases the driving force on the spent catalyst stand
pipe, thereby increasing spent catalyst circulation. Since the Regenerator dense bed volume is
constant, the stripper bed will reflect changes in unit inventory. Catalyst inventory can change via
catalyst addition or withdrawal or due to changes in air rate to the Regenerator which affects the
density of the Regenerator bed. The desired stripper bed level should reflect the need to optimize
stripping efficiency by maintaining both dilute and dense phase stripping zones. With these other
issues influencing stripper bed level it can be inferred that it is a variable that is not readily
available for catalyst circulation control. However .its influence on the circulation rate should be
understood and the level maintained to balance all of the above considerations
In addition to the density in the spent catalyst riser which is manipulated via changes to the
control air rate, circulation control and stability depends upon the densities in the stand pipes, J-
bends and angle riser in both the spent and regenerated catalyst circuits, if these densities are
unstable, resulting in variable pressure buildup, which may affect catalyst circulation stability.
Aeration rates are controlled and adjusted primarily to ensure stable catalyst circulation, not to
control circulation rate.
Another factor affecting catalyst circulation is catalyst particle size distribution. Increases
in the proportion of small particles (40 microns and less) relative to larger particles (80 microns
and greater) will make the catalyst easier to circulate. An increase in heavier particles results in a
coarser catalyst which is more difficult to fluidize and may cause unstable circulation. Changes in
particle size may require changes to aeration rates, with larger, coarser catalyst requiring more
Blast steam connections are provided at the bottom of both the spent and regenerated catalyst J-
bends and at the top of the spent catalyst angle riser. Blast steam is not required in normal operation
and its use by the operators should be discouraged since it may upset catalyst circulation and
promote erosion and catalyst attrition. However, its use may be justified during startup to initiate
circulation and during special circumstances to address short term catalyst circulation problems.
An emergency steam connection is provided at the bottom of the feed riser. It will be automatically
cut-in during activation of any emergency system where feed is removed from the unit in order to
clear the riser of catalyst. It will also be utilized during startup or feed reintroduction in order to
provide lift to initiate catalyst circulation. As with blast steam, the emergency steam connection
is not needed during normal operation and use by the operators should be discouraged.

The reactor effluent comprising of cracked hydrocarbon vapors, steam and non-
condensables enter the fractionators at the bottom of the quench section. The main column is a
vertical cylindrical vessel with 4.25m inside diameter & 44.1m height. The column consists of two
sections top section is the regular fractionator part and the lower one is the desuperheating or
quench section. The quench zone has six disc and donut trays. Above them there are 36 seive trays.
The column shell is clad with 1 Cr Mo from bottom up to tray # 23 including the head. The
column has different design temperatures at different sections. From tray # 36 to tray # 24, the
design temp is 300C . From tray # 24 to tray #3 design temp is 350C and below tray #3, the
design temperature considered is 550C. The column design & operating pressure at top & bottom
section are 4.5 kg/cm2 a & 1.69 kg/cm2 a and 5.0 kg/cm2 a & 2.05 kg/cm2 a respectively. The
operating temp at top is 137C and at bottom it is 360C in the desuperheating section at the column
bottom. The cracked vapours from the reactor are cooled by circulating slurry pump around and
part of the vapours condense. The entrained catalyst if any in the cracked vapour is scrubbed by
the slurry pump around stream. The fractionator bottom has a high coking tendency. Coking is
further promoted by higher liquid temperature and long residence time. To maintain the
fractionator bottom temperature at 360C cold quench stream of slurry pump around is directly
mixed with the fractionators bottom liquid under column bottom temperature control. Further LP
steam is injected into the bottom liquid through a steam ring to counteract coke formation and to
maintain catalyst & coke particles in suspension. To ensure that large coke particles in the bottom
stream do not hamper the operation of the slurry pump around pumps coke trap is put around the
bottom nozzle to filter out such lumps. The coke trap is made of SS-410S having 132 slots on it.
The main column is provided with Level Transmitter with DCS high & low alarm facility and with
DCS low & high alarm facility& local indication: LSHH provides alarm in DCS in case of high
high level. The LTs are provided with FLO connections to clean out lines in case of choking.
The column bottom liquid which serves as slurry pump around and net bottom product is
withdrawn from the fractionator and pumped using slurry pumps. One pump is motor driven and
the other (standby) is extraction type steam turbine driven. In case of power failure, the column
bottom liquid can be evacuated using the turbine driven pump. The slurry from slurry pump goes
to feed/slurry PA exchanger where it is cooled to 286C /303C /270C in three different cases ID
(CF)/1D (HF)/2D, then it goes to slurry PA/MP steam generator where MP steam is generated
from BFW by taking heat from slurry stream. The slurry enters main fractionator again as quench
under flow and temperature controls. The slurry return temperature can be varied by bypassing
steam generator as required but too much bypassing will reduce slurry velocity through exchanger
and will result in choking. The slurry stream can enter the column at three locations:
1. On top of desuperheating trays (D#6) under total flow control.
2. In the middle of desuperheating section (D#4) under flow control.
3. At the column bottom as quench stock under temperature control.
Besides the quench stream most of the slurry stream will be returned on top of
desuperheating trays and the other flexibility has been kept to reduce localized hot spots to control
vapor temperature. The slurry from the slurry pump discharge is divided into three streams.
1. The first stream is added to the fractionator bottom as spill back.
2. The second stream is also divided into two streams:
One stream of slurry is added to the HCO (from the discharge of the HCO rundown pump)
to produce CLO. This slurry line can be bypassed directly to the CLO coolers, without producing
the CLO. CLO produced has about 0.2 wt % catalyst Fines and is cooled in FEED/CLO A/B/C/D
heat exchanger consisting of two parallel banks of exchangers each having two shells connected
in series. In normal operation, only one cooler bank is sufficient during emergency emptying out
operation, both the banks can be taken in line to reduce pumping time. CLO is then cooled by
means of sea water in CLO cooler. CLO is then pumped by CLO Booster pumps (at 14.3kg/cm2
g pressure) and is sent to fuel oil pool and to the slop in the shut down time. One start up connection
has also been provided from this line to facilitate cutter circulation during start-up/shut down.
Another stream of the slurry is sent to the reactor as reslurry where HCO is added to this line.
3. The third stream of slurry is called as SLURRY PA is exchanged with the feed, that is
FEED/SLUURY PA exchanger A, B, C. The slurry from the exchanger goes to the MP Steam
generator, where MP steam is generated from BFW by taking heat from slurry stream. The slurry
enters main fractionator as quench. Fractionator has been provided with Pressure and Temperature
indicators at different elevation to monitor the pressure & temperature profile of column.
HEAVY CYCLE OIL (HCO) is withdrawn from the column chimney tray CT-2 at a
temperature of 320C as indicated by Temperature indicator and sent to the HCO stripper. A part
of the HCO directly withdrawn from the column is sent to the Gas Concentration Unit Debutanizer
Reboiler by HCO PA pump. The HCO PA from Debutanizer Reboiler at a temp of 273C enters
HCO PA/MP Steam Generator, where it generates MP steam whose pressure is controlled by the
Pressure Controller with High and Low Pressure alarms at DCS. From the steam generator, HCO
PA is circulated back to column on tray #5 through duty controller.
The other part of HCO is stripped with MP steam in HCO stripper containing 6 Valve trays.
Stripper is provided with Level Controller for monitoring the level. Stripping steam is injected
through Flow Controller. Stripped lighters along with steam returns to main column through 12
vapour return line at tray#5. Stripped HCO from bottom of the stripper is pumped by HCO Product/
recycle pump. Two line ups are given for stripped HCO from discharge of the pump. One is a 6
recycle line which joins fresh feed upstream of furnace under flow controller and there is a routing
for the HCO to join at the reslurry stream to the reactor. The other one is a 2 product line joining
the CLO product line upstream of 4E52 through flow controller. When the unit is operating on
maximum distillate mode, stripped HCO is recycled back to reactor. However when operating on
maximum Naphtha mode, a small portion of HCO will be available as product(apart from the
recycle) which is routed to FO pool along with CLO product.


Light cycle oil (LCO) is withdrawn from the chimney tray CT-1 above tray 23 at 242C as
indicated by Temperature indicator through a 14 line. This stream is split up into two streams,
LCO product and LCO PA. LCO PA stream is pumped by LCO PA Pumps to the feed/LCO PA
exchanger. LCO PA stream then gets further cooled to 180 C in 04-E-66A, striper reboiler thereby
heating the stripper bottom liquid. Temperature indicator with low & high alarm facility indicates
LCO PA temp it then returns to column on 26th tray through a duty controller. The other stream
of LCO draw off is sent to the LCO stripper where the light ends are stripped off by medium
pressure steam injected at the bottom of the stripper through Flow Controller. LCO stripper
contains 6 valve trays of SS-410 material. LC with low/ high alarm controls stripper bottom level
actuating the level control valve on the stripper inlet line. A 2 fuel gas connection is given to the
stripper vapor line for startup purposes. The stripper vapor return line enters the column at tray #
26. Stripped LCO from the LCO stripper bottom at 240C is pumped by LCO product + lean oil
pump to, Rich oil/LCO exchanger and then to feed /LCO exchanger where it is cooled to175C
after that it is further cooled in LCO/BFW exchanger and LCO air fin cooler (to 65C) and finally
in LCO trim cooler (to 40C) by circulating sea water before being sent to storage. A portion of
LCO can be routed to offsite cutter header. Temperature Indicators gives temperatures at different
points of LCO circuit in DCS. A LCO stream from LCO trim coolers outlet is pumped by lean
sponge oil pumps and is sent as absorbent to Sponge Absorber routing cutter stock as quench to
reactor during startup by taking suction from the unit flushing oil header.
Piping provision has been given to route LCO to RFO or HFO or VB Tar through CLO rundown
line. From LCO trim cooler a 6 line has been taken for booster pump suction as CLO B/L pressure
is 13 kg/cm2 this booster pump is required to boost LCO into CLO header. Flow Transmitter will
indicate the flow of LCO in CLO rundown header.
The main fractionator overhead vapor consists of naphtha and lighter hydrocarbons
together with steam and non condensables. Overhead vapors are withdrawn at temp.
138/132/132C for ID/2D/1N cases respectively and at 1.69 kg/cm2 pressure through 30
overhead pipe. The overhead vapors from fractionator, along with wash water and spill back stream
from wet gas compressor are cooled to 65C in main fractionator air cooler and finally in
fractionator overhead trim condenser to 40C.
A stop switch (Push Button) is provided at grade level for each air cooler fan motor. The
trim condenser consists of two parallel banks each having two shell connected in series. Facilities
exist for isolating any one bank for cleaning/maintenance. The three-phase mixture of
noncondensables, hydrocarbon liquid and water from trim condensers outlet is routed to main
fractionator O/H Accumulator. A portion of the condensed hydrocarbon is returned to the top tray
of the fractionator as top reflux through main fractionator reflux pumps.
The remaining liquid from accumulator is pumped through unstabilized naphtha pumps to
WGC inter cooler. For unit start-up, piping provision has been made to draw naphtha from offsite
into the accumulator drum. Piping flexibility is also given to take this offsite naphtha to the suction
of stabilized naphtha pumps and use it as quench naphtha stream during start-up. The sour water
from the accumulator boot is pumped by fractionator sour water pumps on interface level control.
The sour water is normally routed to the inlet of compressor after cooler as wash water.
The water after separation in the HP receiver is routed on its own pressure to the inlet of
compressor inter cooler. The net water separated in the interstage knockout drum is sent out to
SWS unit for treatment. Provision to route the accumulator sour water directly to the inlet of inter
cooler overhead air cooler is provided. DM water is used as makeup water at Inter cooler suction
for meeting the wash water requirement.
While the make-up water rate is regulated by Flow controller (total wash water flow), The
gases from main column overhead accumulator contains various contaminants like ammonia,
ammonia salts, chlorides which cause corrosion, plugging & fouling problems in GCU ,A wash
water stream is provided to dissolve these contaminants. Service water is injected as wash water
at the shell of O/H Trim coolers A/B/C/D. Injected water after dissolving the contaminants collects
in the water boot of the accumulator.
The net gas from the accumulator flows to the WGC through suction knockout drum. The
main fractionator overhead pressure is controlled by two independent pressure controllers. In the
case of fall in pressure in the accumulator, one of the pressure controller actuate the compressor
spill back control valve and recycle of the gas from WGC discharge begins. In the case of rise in
pressure in the accumulator, then PV will close fully to allow maximum gas evacuation from the
system. If the pressure continues to rise the flare valve starts opening and the excess gas is flared
to keep the pressure within allowable limits. Pressure Safety valve are provided to take care of the
overpressure of the accumulator. 2 depressurization line is provided in case of depressurizing the
vessel during shutdown.


The wet gas and unstabilised naphtha streams coming from the fractionator overhead
accumulator are the feed for gas concentration section. The main purpose of wet gas compressor
is to compress the uncondensed gas from the fractionators overhead for the recovery of mainly
LPG and stabilized naphtha. In this section, the wet gases (consisting of light hydrocarbons and
non-condensable) are separated. The net gases are routed to SRU fuel gas network whereas LPG
and stabilized naphtha are routed to storage after treatment.
The wet gas from accumulator is first flashed in compressor suction KOD to remove any
condensate. Compressor suction KOD drum is provided to knockout any liquid carry over along
with the vapors. This drum is having stainless steel wire mesh blanket at the top, which acts as a
demister. From compressor suction KOD drum, vapors free from liquid go to WGC first stage
compressor suction. Compressed gas from first stage goes to inter stage cooler. Before entering
the cooler it meets with unstabilised naphtha from unstabilised naphtha pump and sour water is
also added as wash water before entering the inter stage cooler. After cooling in inter stage cooler,
cooled products flow to compressor inter stage receiver. The inter stage pump takes suction from
the bottom of the inter stage receiver. This bottom liquid is pumped / added to the WGC second
stage discharge. The top fraction of the inter stage receiver goes to the WGC second stage
compressor suction. Compressed gas from the second stage goes to the after cooler. Before
entering the cooler it meets with the bottom liquid of the inter stage receiver, wash water, primary
absorber bottoms and the top fraction of stripper. After cooling in the after cooler, cooled products
flow to HP receiver. The top fraction of the HP receiver containing C1, C2 and some amount of
the naphtha components flow to Primary Absorber. The bottoms of the HP receiver containing
LPG, naphtha and some amount of C1, C2 components goes to Stripper.
Sour water is accumulated in different accumulator boots. This water is used as wash water
in the exchangers or sent to SWSU for treatment. Sour water from accumulator boot is pumped by
sour water pumps, which can be used as wash water in three exchangers Air fin cooler, inter cooler,
after cooler. Boot level will be controlled by LV. DM water make up line is connected at the
bottom of the boot to maintain the level. After cooler wash water will be collected in HP receiver.
From HP receiver sour water can be routed either to inter cooler or directly to SWSU for treatment.
Boot level of HP receiver will be controlled by LV. On low low level switch activation, Shut down
valve will close to prevent hydrocarbon carryover to SWSU. Inter cooler wash water will be
collected in compressor inter stage drum. From inter stage drum sour water will be routed to SWS
Uncondensed gas from HP receiver enters the primary absorber column below the 1st tray.
The absorber consists of 36 valve trays and operates at a top pressure and temperature of 15.3
kg/cm2 a & 45C and bottom pressure and temperature of 15.6 kg/cm2 a &51.5C. The valve trays
are of SS 410S material and the column shell is of carbon steel. A portion of stabilized naphtha
from naphtha rundown pump is fed to primary absorber as absorbent. This absorbent is discharged
from the chiller package (cooling the naphtha by means of propane) because absorber conditions
are low temperature and high pressure.
Stabilized naphtha is chosen for better recovery of LPG components. The absorbent enters
the column at a temp of 38C and the feed also enters the column at a temp of 38C. The column
is provided with alarms in DCS. The naphtha recycle rate is fixed in such a way so as to achieve
the desired recovery of C3 components. Low naphtha recycle rate will result in insufficient
absorption leading to loss of LPG components to fuel gas. Too high naphtha recycle rates will
result in high absorption of LPG components but at the same time the absorption of undesirable
light components such as C1 and C2 s will also increase. Temperature indicators will indicate the
tray # 19 & # 36 temperature respectively. The overhead gases from primary absorber flow to the
sponge absorber column for separation of any light components. The absorber bottom is pumped
by primary absorber bottom pump and joins the compressor 2nd stage discharge stream at after
cooler inlet. The bottoms pump is provided with methanol seal pot with high pressure & low level
alarm indication in DCS for its mechanical seal flushing. One LP steam connection is provided to
primary absorber for start-up / shut down purposes
Chiller package is installed in order to increase the efficiency of primary absorber. To
favourise absorption, temperature in primary absorber to be decreased so chiller is installed.
Two streams of liquid propane refrigerant goes from receiver towards Stabilized Naphtha
Recycle Cooler & Primary Absorber Inter Cooler. The shell side refrigerant is throttled via control
valve and the refrigerant turns to liquid/vapor mixture. The level of liquid refrigerant is maintained
inside coolers. The Stabilized Naphtha Recycle Cooler & Primary Absorber Inter Cooler shell side
refrigerant gets evaporated with the effect of latent heat by taking from tube side process fluid.
The tube side process fluid becomes sub cooled. The vaporized refrigerant from the coolers
goes to the compressor suction port via suction KOD. Within the Compressor refrigerant vapors
come in contact with the circulating synthetic lubrication oil. The circulating synthetic lubrication
oil aids compression while lubricating and keeping the discharge temperature of refrigerant within
the limit. The compressed gas/oil mixture discharges from the compressor to the Oil Tank
Separator. The oil separated from the mixture of oil and the vapor refrigerant up to 100ppm.In Oil
tank separator, the refrigerant passes overhead through a mesh blanket (demister pad) where
entrained oil is removed. The oil is recycled to the compressor through the Lube oil circuit.
Refrigerant is then passed through Secondary Oil separator where oil is removed up to 10 ppm
from coalescing element. Oil build up in secondary oil separator is transferred back to the
compressor suction. Remaining entrained oil in vapor refrigerant will settle in coolers and the same
shall be recovered in the oil reclaimer. The coalescing element in secondary oil separator get
chocked which will increase the pressure drop across the vessel. An alarm will be generated at 0.3
kg/cm differential pressure. The vapor refrigerant leaves secondary oil separator and enters the
shell side of condenser where it exchanges heat with cooling water and condenses. The condensed
liquid from condenser enters receiver. It completes the refrigeration cycle. The condenser and
compressor discharge pressures are influenced by changes in condensing temperature. The
condensing temperature is a function of the refrigerant flow, cooling water flow and inlet water
temperature. Therefore, the condensing temperature will vary with process and cooling water
fluctuations. Another factor that affects condensing is the presence of non-condensables. Presence
of non-condensable gas will reduce surface area available for heat transfer, thus reducing
exchanger capacity. Reducing exchanger capacity will result in a higher condenser pressure and
therefore higher compressor discharge pressure. Hot process fluid from process will enter tube side
inlet of Stabilized Naphtha recycle cooler & Primary Absorber Inter Cooler. Process fluid will
flow back to process after heat transfer with refrigerant.

Sponge Absorber operates at a top pressure and temperature of 15.0 kg/cm2 a and 40.2C
and bottom pressure and temperature of 15.2 kg/cm2a and 45.5C The trays are of SS410S material
and column shell is of CS. It has got 20 valve trays. Feed to the column enters below tray No. #1.
Heavier components of the absorbed gases from primary absorber are further removed which
otherwise will condense in the fuel gas system. LCO (Lean Oil) is used as the absorbent in the
column which absorbs the heavy components at a temp of 40C. The lean oil is pumped by lean
sponge oil pumps and enters the column above tray # 20. Temperature indicator shows the feed
temperature. Sponge absorber is provided with Pressure Safety valve A/B of set pressure18.4
kg/cm2 g discharging to flare. The overhead gas from sponge absorber is acidic containing H2S
which is sent to sulfur recovery Unit (SRU). Temperature and flow indicators show the temp &
flow of the overhead gas flowing to SRU. The sponge absorber bottoms (Rich oil) flow under
column pressure to Rich oil/LCO exchanger where it is heated to 199C by LCO. This Rich oil
flows to the main column top (tray no # 27) for recovery of absorber Naphtha components. One
CBD &OWS connection is provided at column bottom to drain the column during shut down. To
monitor the column temperatures, temperature indicators on tray # 6.Tray #5.and overhead vapor
line are provided respectively. Two local PIs will give the bottom & top pressure of column.
Stripper is a column operating at a top pressure and temperature of 16.0 kg/cm2 a & 49C
and bottom pressure and temperature of 16.3 kg/cm2 a &140C, the column is having 36 valve
trays of SS-410S and the main column shell is of CS. The liquid from HP receiver, is pumped by
stripper feed pumps. The stripper feed enters the column above the 36th tray at 38C the column
is designed to remove the undesirable light hydrocarbons from the liquefied C3+ hydrocarbon
stream to control the vapour pressure of LPG product. Stripper is having LSH and LSL with alarm
facility in DCS. The stripper bottom flows under the column pressure to Debutanizer column. The
energy for separation in this column is provided by reboilers A and B, where the hot fluids are
LCO PA & Stab. naphtha. The temperature of the reboiler return stream (140C) is given by
temperature indicator. The amount of heat supplied through the Reboiler is such that it eliminates
any absorbed C1 and C2 from the bottom product. The stripper reboiler is of once through
horizontal thermo siphon type having two shells connected in series and stacked. Stabilized
naphtha from debutanizer is used in reboiler B for heating medium. LCO PA is used in reboiler A
for heating. Stripper is having two PSV with a set pressure of 19.0 kg/cm2 g discharging to flare.
The overhead vapors from stripper join the compressor 2nd stage discharge stream upstream of
after cooler. stripper is provided with temperature indicator. High & low pressure alarm is provided
to the stripper.
Debutanizer operates at a top pressure and temperature of 12.3/9.7/11.7 kg/cm2 a and 65C
and bottom pressure and temperature of 12.7/10.1/12.1 kg/cm2 a & 202/177/188C . The column
has 40 valve trays of SS410S and column shell is of CS. The feed from stripper bottom enters the
column in any one of the trays # 22, 25 or 20 depending upon the feed quality.
For IN case lighter components will be higher. So tray #25 to be taken in line. The feed
tray will be mainly decided upon the sampling of the gas of compressor suction KOD. For light
gas top tray will be take in line . For heaviest gas bottom tray # 25 will be taken in line. The column
bottom is reboiled in Debutaniser reboiler by HCO PA stream. Debutanizer is provided with
different PIs & TIs to monitor the pressure & temperature of the column. The naphtha from
debutanizer bottom is first cooled in stripper reboiler B to about 130C. It is further cooled in air
fin cooler and then in trim cooler to 38C.
The cooled naphtha is pumped by stabilized naphtha product/recycle pumps. A portion of
the pump discharge is recycled to the primary absorber as absorbent. A 3 take-off from this
absorbent line serves as quench stream to reactor. The naphtha quench to reactor is intermittent in
nature used only when required. It is mixed with the combined feed stream upstream of the riser
feed injection nozzle. To handle this quench requirement during start-up, when stabilized naphtha
would not be available, provision is given for this CRN product pump to take suction directly from
the fractionator overhead accumulator. To protect the pump during such an operation, a minimum
flow circulation line is provided from the pump discharge to accumulator. The balance naphtha
from the pump discharge is routed as product to Merox Unit for further treatment. In addition to a
slop connection, a start-up circulation line to accumulator is provided. A 2 connection for WGC
wash purposes is taken at downstream of trim cooler before the pump suction.
The overhead vapors from debutanizer top is condensed in overhead condensers by sea
water. 2 equalizing line is a pressure balance line between the debutanizer top and debutanizer
overhead accumulator. This is to maintain pressure same as that of debutanizer top. The out let of
the condenser is collected in the debutanizer drum. The LPG product pumps, pump the condensed
LPG from debutanizer drum to ATU. One part of the LPG is sent as top reflux to the debutanizer
by the debutanizer reflux pumps.


CO laden flue gas from FCCU I Regenerator, containing CO. CO2 SO2, N2, O2, H2O
vapor and catalyst fines enter the CO furnace through pressure control slide valve, orifice chamber
and two port slide valve,. In CO furnace, complete combustion of CO is ensured in the presence
of a support burner firing fuel gas (preferably). The combustion products from CO furnace directly
enter the Boiler, where potential heat (i.e. heat of reaction and sensible heat) is recovered by
generating 40 TPH HP steam. Supplementary auxiliary firing is also essential in Auxiliary
combustion chamber to make up this steam generation. The flue gas is finally cooled down to a
temperature 280-850C before venting to atmosphere at 60m elevation through a ground mounted
steel-stack. The CO boiler is designed to generate 40 TPH of HP steam at supply pressure of 38
kg/cm2g and temperature of 3710C with support fuel (i.e. preferably fuel gas) firing required for
complete combustion of CO and additional auxiliary fuel (i.e. LSHS/Fuel oil/Fuel gas) firing. The
CO boiler is also capable of producing steam at same capacity, pressure and temperature on full
auxiliary fuel firing mode in the absence of any gas. The ground mounted stack is also designed
to handle hot CO gas on bypass operation of the CO-boiler by changing the gas passage in Two
Port Slide Valve. In case of bypassing of the CO gas, the guillotine dampers located downstream
of TPSV and downstream of Gilled Ring economizer are to be closed manually to ensure no
leakage of CO gas to the Boiler. The guillotine dampers are designed for 100% of sealing and
provided with sealing air arrangement. Additionally, blinds are to be provided along with these
guillotine dampers, to ensure safety for maintenance of the Boiler. A plan exists for installation of
wet gas scrubber on flue gas circuit at downstream of the CO-Boiler system (i.e. after gilled ring
economizer) to remove the oxides of sulfur (SO2+SO3) from flue gas before venting it to
atmosphere through a separate stack.
The CO furnace is a cylindrical vessel of 4m ID (net) / 9.5 m length (TL-TL) attached
horizontally to the CO boiler such that the combustion products directly enter the boiler. The
furnace is internally lined with two layers of refractories. The furnace is equipped with three
number of CO-burners and one number of support burner. CO burners are provided on the circular
shell of the CO furnace, firing tangentially to make a whirlpool, thereby increasing the CO gas
residence time in furnace. Support burner is provided along the central axis of the furnace, firing
refinery fuel gas to maintain steady combustion of CO gas. Support burner is also suitable for
firing of LSHS & Fuel oil and provided with a pilot burner firing fuel continuously at all cases of
operation of the boiler. The maximum temperature of the furnace is maintained around 10000C,
by controlling the support burner firing duty and combustion air flow to CO furnace. The CO
boiler is a vertical, water tube boiler with membrane wall type construction. It has a rectangular
cross section and operated on natural circulation principle. The membrane wall evaporative shell
houses the super heater and evaporator (Fahnen) tube bundles Economizer tubes are provided
above the Fahnen tubes in metallic shell casing. Flue gas from the boiler 2450C maximum is
further cooled down to 180-1850C in a cast iron gilled ring economizer, located downstream of
the CO boiler. Flue gases from the gilled ring economizer exit to atmosphere at 60m elevation
through the grade mounted stack. The boiler is provided with a combustion chamber for auxiliary
fuel firing, which made by water wall tubes. All the water walls of auxiliary combustion chamber
and provided with separate Risers and Distributors for water circulation and all the water circuit
operate on natural circulation principle.
The super heater tube bundles are located just on top of the radiation chamber and followed
by FAHNEN 1 and then by FAHNEN II (1ST and 2nd evaporative tube bundles ) respectively.
The boiler system is provided with one number of steam drum, operating pressure of 43 Kg.cm2g.
Externally mounted boiler feed water preheater is provided to preheat BFW to 1650C (coming out
from gilled ring economizer) before entering onto economizer to avoid acid dew point corrosion
in the cold end of economizer tube bundle. Saturated steam from steam drum is used as heating
medium for BFW preheater & steam condensate returns to the steam drum by gravity. The boiler
is provided with 12 numbers of retractable type soot blowers at different elevation with 2nos of
soot blowers at each plane. Additionally, two nos. retractable type soot blowers are provided in
gilled economizer. The soot blowers are motor driven and provided with automatic logic sequential
control system.
A pump is a device that moves fluids, or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps
can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct
lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. PUMPS are classified into two types-
1. Centrifugal pumps
2. Positive displacement pumps.


Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic
energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from
an engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis
and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber
(casing), from where it exits.
Common uses include water, sewage, petroleum and petrochemical pumping. The reverse
function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine, converting potential energy of water pressure
into mechanical rotational energy.
In this class of pumps a definite volume of liquid is trapped in a chamber, which is
alternately filled from the inlet and emptied at a higher pressure through the discharge. There are
two sub classes of positive displacement pumps-reciprocating and rotary. In reciprocating pumps,
the chamber is a stationary cylinder that contains a piston or plunger; in rotary pumps, the chamber
moves from inlet to discharge and back to the inlet.
10.2 VALVES:
A valve may be defined as a mechanical device by which the flow of liquid or gas may be
started, stopped or regulated by a movable part that opens, shuts or partially obstructs one or more
ports or passage ways. Depending on functions the valves are classified as shut off, throttling,
check valves and relief valves.
1. Any valve that is either fully open or fully closed during plant operation is known as shut off
or block Valve.
2. The valve whose purpose is to regulate flow and/or pressure ore known as throttling Valves.
3. Check valves ore used to avoid reverse flow of material.
4. Pressure relief valves are used for controlling pressures in the pipe line and equipment.


(1) Gate Valve:
Gate Valves work best when fully opened or fully closed. When the valve is partially
opened, the disc is subjected to severe erosion by the fluid moving with high velocity through the
restricted opening and it becomes so worn that flow con no longer be stopped completed.
(2) Globe Valve:
A globe valve, different from ball valve, is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a
pipeline consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally
spherical body. Globe valves are named for their spherical body shape. These valves ore used for
controlling flow or to stay partially open to impose a certain pressure drop.
MOC: Bronze. Iron, Steel, SS and Special Alloy.
(3) Butterfly Valve:
It can be used for on/off services as well as for controlling the flow by placing the disc in
any intermediate position. It can be opened or closed quickly as compared to gate valve.
(4) Diaphragm Valve:
It is used for corrosive liquids which controls flow by a movement of a diaphragm.
Upstream pressure, downstream pressure, or an external source (e.g., pneumatic, hydraulic etc.)
can be used to change the position of the diaphragm.
(5) Ball valve:
Ball valves are quarter turn, straight-through valves that have a round closer element with
matching rounded seats that permit uniform sealing stress. Ball valves are used in situations where
tight shut off required. Ball vales are able transfer gases, liquids, and liquids with suspended solids.
(6) Check valve:
A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve is a valve that normally
allows fluid to flow through it in only one direction. Check valves are two-port valves, meaning
they have two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave. Check
valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any external control;
accordingly, most do not have any valve handle or stem. The bodies (external shells) of most check
valves are made of plastic or metal. An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure
which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate.
(7) Plug Valve:
The valve can be completely opened or closed by giving a quarter turn only. The pressure
drop is fairly low.
(8) Relief Valve:
They are used for automatic relief of excessive pressure. In these types the disc is held
against the seat by a spring set to yield when the pressure in the vessel or pipe line, exceeds safe
working pressure.
(9) Shut off valve:
Safety shutoff valves are used to stop/ permit the flow of material.
(10) Needle valve:
A needle valve is a type of valve having a small port and a threaded, needle-shaped plunger.
It allows precise regulation of flow, although it is generally only capable of relatively low flow
A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium
to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing Or they may be in direct
Shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common
type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-
pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large
pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid
flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is
called a tube bundle, two fluids, of different starting temperatures, flow through the heat
exchanger. One flows through the tubes (the tube side) and the other flows outside the tubes but
inside the shell (the shell side). Heat is transferred from one fluid to the other through the tube
walls, either from tube side to shell side or vice versa. The fluids can be either liquids or gases on
either the shell or the tube side. In order to transfer heat efficiently, a large heat transfer area should
be used, leading to the use of many tubes. In this way, waste heat can be put to use. This is an
efficient way to conserve energy.
This is the most used exchanger because of flexibility of operation and more options suiting
specific needs. These exchangers constitute chillers, reboilers, condensers, evaporators, water
coolers. These exchangers can be classified based on
1. Passes
2. Construction.
Classification Based on passes:
1-1pass, 1-2passes, 2-4passesetc.
More tube side passes are necessary for high fluid velocities for good heat transfer rate. But more
the tube side passes, more expensive is the unit.
Based on construction:
Fixed head:Both the tube sheets are fixed to the shell Used as condensers. They cannot
withstand higher than 250 0F (120 0C) of temperature difference due to problem of differential
expansion of the tubes.E.g.: CO2 final cooler, condenser OH acid gas.
Floating head: Tube sheet floats in shell. Back cover can be removed to expose tube ends.
It can withstand high temperature differentials. It can handle dirty fluids; ease of cleaning. Internal
gasket can offer danger of leaking.E.g.: hot and cold exchangers.
Steam jet Ejectors are based on the ejector-venturi principal and operate by passing motive
steam through an expanding nozzle. The nozzle provides controlled expansion of the motive steam
to convert pressure in to velocity which creates a vacuum within the body chamber to draw in and
entrain gases or vapors. The motive steam and suction gas are then completely mixed and then
passed through the diffuser or tail, where the gases velocity is converted in to sufficient pressure
to meet the predetermined discharge pressure.
Primary advantages over other vacuum pumps can be seen below:
1. No Moving Parts - Ejectors are exceedingly simple and reliable. There are no moving
parts to wear or break in a basic ejector.
2. Low Cost - Units are small in relation to the work they do and cost is correspondingly
3. Versatile - Various piping arrangements permit adapting to environmental conditions.
4. Self-Priming - Ejectors are self-priming. They operate equally well in continuous or
intermittent service.
5. Easy to Install - Relatively light in weight, ejectors are easy to install, and require no
foundations. Even multi stage units are readily adaptable to existing conditions.
6. Corrosion and Erosion Resistant - Because they can be made of practically any
workable material, or coated with corrosion-resistant materials, ejectors can be made highly
resistant erosion and corrosion.
7. High Vacuum Performance - Ejectors can handle air or other gases at suction pressures

A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from fluid flow and converts
it into useful work.A turbine is a turbo machine with at least one moving part called a rotor
assembly, which is a shaft or a drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that
they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are wind mills and
water wheels.
Gas, steam and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and
controls the working fluid. A working fluid contains potential energy and kinetic energy. The fluid
may be compressible or incompressible.
Impulse turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid or gas jet. The
resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There
is no pressure change of the fluid or gas in the turbine blades, as in case of steam or gas turbines
the pressure drop takes place at nozzles. Before reaching the turbine, the fluids pressure head is
changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Newton's second law describes
the transfer of energy for impulse turbine.
The Instrumentation is an art and science of applying measuring device or measuring and
controlling devices to an object or a combination of objects (a system) for the purpose of
determining the identity and/or magnitude of certain varying Physical or Chemical quantities and
offer for the controlling these quantities within the specified limitations.
Petrochemical industry is a large scale & continuous process industry. The important
process variables are temperature, pressure, flow, level and PH. These have to be measured at plant
level, indicate and record the date, usually associated with control the variable by comparing with
reference value. Different types of measurements techniques are possible to measure a physical
variable. But a proper selection must be made to suit the application. Each technique has its own
advantages and disadvantages. All the physical variables have to be indicated to estimate the
present process conditions. These must be recorded for future reference also. As the process is of
large scale, different variables have to display at the remote locations. Additional devices are used
to do this. The signal transmission is of pneumatic type. So at transmitter of receiver i/p converters
will be used. Pressure regulators had to use to maintain constant pressure supply to all the
The controlling actions are done mostly by pneumatic values. Butterfly values, ball values,
spring diaphragm values and solenoid values are mostly used in these plant.

(A) Temperature gauges :
This is the industrial version of mercury in glass thermometer. The mercury is contained
in a steel bulb joined to a mechanism exactly like pressure bourdon, which actuates the pointer
(B) Thermocouples:
Thermocouple depends for their operation on the EMF generated is based on the metals
used for junction. These can be used up to 1400oC.
(C) RTD: (Resistance temperature detector)
In RTD, the temperature was measured by detecting the change of resistance when
subjected to temperature. Platinum is the most common material for making RTD can be used up
to 6000C movement.

(A) Bourdon tube:
It consists of a tube, having one end seal tight pressure and other end is being exposed for
pressure measurement. The tubes are made in following configuration depending largely on static
pressure and instrument span.
1 C type.
2 Helical type.
3 Spiral type.
When, the pressure applied to tube, sealed end moves in a manner to straighten out the
tube. A pinion arrangement is provided for indicating the pressure.
(B) Bellows type sensor:
Bellows are used when the pressure range is low, because they offer greater surface area
to measured pressure. The bellows provide linear displacement as output liner to pressure input.
(C) Diaphragm capsule:
The diaphragm capsule also used to measure low pressures. Where pressure is applied, the
diaphragm will give displacement and pressure should be within its elastic limits. The
displacement of diaphragm coupled to movement mechanism for indication.
There are different types of flow measuring devices.
1. Differential pressure measuring devices (head type flow meter).
2. Positive displacement meters.
3. Electromagnetic type flow meter.

In differential pressure type flow meter, orifice based flow meters are more common. It is
because, the device is relatively cheap, easy to install, require the device is relatively cheap, easy
to install, require virtually no maintenance an offer acceptable level of accuracy and repeatability.
However, the pressure loss across orifice is high &almost on recoverable, increasing the pump
over head both pressure & finally other instruments are venturimeters, where there is three
sections converging, throat, diverging, which are not alike sharp obstruction in orifice. So, the
pressure drop across venturi is small.
In positive displacement meters, like oval year meters, oval shaped gears used as the
measuring system. They will deliver a specific quantity of fluid per rotation and used to measure
flow of viscous fluids. In turbine type flow meter, a turbine will be placed in the longitudinal axis
of the pipeline. The turbine will rotate solely by the action of flowing fluid and its rotation is used
to measure flow rate.
In electromagnetic flow meter, the flowing liquid should be conductive the liquid flow in
a magnetic field will generate an EMF proportional to flow velocity. These flow meters, did not
obstruct the flow.
The flow meters stated above, are flow quantity type flow meter. For mass flow
measurement, there is a need of density factor which to be multiplied to H.
This method depends on Archimedes principle. In level transmitters a displacer is partially
immersed in the liquid to be measure. The displacer will apparently lose weight as level rises &
gain weight as level falls. The amount of weight change results in the force applied to the actuating
arm and the balanced position will be the measure of level.
(A) Float actuated sensor:
In these a bloat is rest on the liquid surface. The float and instrument drive mechanism
connected through a spring- loaded wind up wheel with sufficient tension. As the level increases
float will rise and spring motor will wind back & also drive the instrument gear mechanism. The
linkages can read the movement of float. This is generally used for oil storage tanks.
(B) Differential pressure cell:
A differential pressure sensor can be used to measure level indirectly. A liquid level
provides a pressure head at datum line. By measuring the pressure at datum line with a known
specific gravity the level can be measured. In open tank LP leg of cell is open to atmosphere and
in close tanks the LP leg is connected to the top of the vessel.
The control valves referred to as final control element. These are different type of control
values, the difference being mainly confined to the shape of the plug & the in which the device is
operated. Generally the diaphragm type actuator is the most common type of actuator. Piston type
actuators also used. The actuator moves the plug in the body, there by controlling flow or pressure.
The valve types are globe valve, butterfly valve and ball valve etc. The characteristics of a valve
can be defined as the relationship of the flow through the valve. travel of valve plug at a constant
differential pressure.
The characteristics of the valves are
i. Quick opening
ii. Linear
iii. Equal percentage.

To achieve the required characteristic, it is necessary to shape the plug by continuing or

floating. The control value actuator operates generally with 3-15 psi of pneumatic signal. The
control value actuators can be
1. Air to open type.
2. Air to close type.
Visakh refinery every day process and handles different type of crude oils, liquid and
gaseous petroleum products which are highly inflammable volatile in nature and are required to
be handled with due care. Fire prevention, fire protection and firefighting are three distinct aspects
very closely related to each other.
Fire prevention: It means adoption of safe practices at the design stage.
Fire protection: It involves provision of different facilities that help in immediate handling
of fire emergencies effectively.
Fire fighting: It is physical in nature, as it is handled with the help of fire protection
Fire can be prevented to a large extent by having knowledge about the causes of fire, so
that action can be taken to prevent the combination of events that result in fire.
Fire chemistry
Fire is a combustion process intense enough to emit heat and light. Combustion is an
exothermic, self-sustaining reaction. Basic requirement for a fire to occur is oxygen. Heat and Fuel
represented as Fire Triangle but it is recognized that chain reaction is also required for a fire to
continue, represented as Fire tetrahedron.
Limiting any one or more of the factors of fire tetrahedron can do extinguishments of fire.
These are classified as:
1. Starvation: Elimination of fuel.
2. Smothering: Reducing O2% to below 15%.
3. Cooling: Removal of temperature.
4. Chemical flame inhibition: Breaking combustion reaction.

Classification of fire Fire involves Extinguishing media

Class A fire Materials such as paper, Water
wood, Plastics etc.,
Class B fire Oils Water, DCP, CO2, Halon
and Foam
Class C fire Gases Water, DCP, CO2,
Class D fire Metals Special powders.


A. Reactor:-
Problems Corrective Actions
Reactor cyclone failure. Minimizing Reactor velocity
Review new methods in cyclone design & repair

B. Regenerator:-
Problems Corrective Actions
Plenum chamber failure. Minimizing cut feed rate
Minimizee regenerator velocity

Hole in overflow well Alter regenerated catalyst standpipe aeration

Maximize Control air or minimize air to grid
Check operation is within design

C. Fractionator:-
Problems Corrective Actions
Fractionator bottoms too light. Lower heat removal from tower bottoms
consistent with coking cosiderations.
Maximize HCGO recycle.
Consider equipment changes.
Coking in SPA & bottoms circuit. Consider changing the pump screen size.
Check for leakage or injection of extraneous
streams into tower bottom.
Excessive corrosion in overhead system. Increase wash water rates.

D. Catalyst:-
Problems Corrective Actions
Catalyst contamination. Consider lowering metals in feed by adjusting
crude tower operation.
Catalyst replacement program.
Feed segregation.
Sodium on Catalyst. Minimize sources of sodium input to system.
Sintering of Catalyst. Catalyst replacement.
Minimize sodium input with sea water or salt
in feed.
Coarse Catalyst. Minimize catalyst losses by lowering
regenerator velocity.
Change to finer catalyst.
Attrition. Eliminate or reduce high velocity steam
Follow up on fresh catalyst.