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Chapter 6

NATIONAL STRUCTURAL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES


VOLUME 1
BUILDINGS, TOWERS AND
OTHER VERTICAL STRUCTURES

SEVENTH EDITION, 2015

Ariel P. Santos, F.ASEP


Co-Chairman, Wood Committee
WOOD
the substance that trees are made
out of.
the hard, fibrous structural tissue
that is commonly found in the
stems and roots of the trees.
the material we obtain from trees.

TRIVIA: The term WOOD occurred 303 times in


Chapter 6 of NSCP 2015
TIMBER

TIMBER
the wood that is still attached to
the ground.
the wood with its bark still on.
Timber still has to be cut and
TIMBER processed for it to be sold for
TRIVIA: The term TIMBER construction purposes.
occurred 110
times in Chapter 6
in U.S. and Canada, timber usually
of NSCP 2015 refers to felled trees.
In NSCP 2015, Timber are square or
nearly square sawn lumber that is
not less than 125 mm wide.
LUMBER

LUMBER
rough lumber is the raw material,
which can be processed and then
used for a variety of functions.
finished lumber is the wood that
LUMBER has already been processed and
TRIVIA: The term LUMBER usually available in various sizes
occurred 139 times
in Chapter 6 of
than can be immediately used
NSCP 2015 without requiring much cutting or
shaping.
a relatively new term compared to
timber
Basic References

National Structural Code 0f the


Philippines 2010 (NSCP 2010)
TRIVIA: Many of the provisions and
tables date back to the 1st Edition
of the National Structural Code for
Buildings (NSCB 1972)

To keep with the times, sections


615 to 619 has been adopted
from the National Design
Specification for Wood
Construction (NDS 2015)
Sections 601 to 604

SECTION 601 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


SECTION 602 - NOTATIONS AND DEFINITIONS
NOTE: NOTATIONS HAS BEEN ADDED
SECTION 603 - MINIMUM QUALITY
SECTION 604 - DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
REQUIREMENTS
NOTE: Almost the same with NSCP 2010
With minor corrections to conform with the
NSCP 2015 updates
Tables were re-arranged so as they appear
right after the first time they were mentioned
as practically as possible
Sections 605 to 613

PART I - REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO ALL


DESIGN PROCEDURES
SECTION 605 - DECAY AND TERMITE PROTECTION
SECTION 606 - WOOD SUPPORTING MASONRY OR CONCRETE
SECTION 607 - WALL FRAMING
SECTION 608 - FLOOR FRAMING
SECTION 609 - EXTERIOR WALL COVERINGS
SECTION 610 - INTERIOR PANELING
SECTION 611 - SHEATHING
SECTION 612 - MECHANICALLY-LAMINATED FLOORS AND DECKS
SECTION 613 - POSTBEAM CONNECTIONS
NOTE: Almost the same with NSCP 2010
With minor corrections to conform with the NSCP 2015
updates
Tables were re-arranged so as they appear right after the first
time they were mentioned as practically as possible
Sections 614

PART II - REQUIREMENTS
APPLICABLE TO DESIGN OF
WIND AND EARTHQUAKE
LOAD-RESISTING SYSTEMS
SECTION 614 - WOOD SHEAR WALLS
AND DIAPHRAGMS
NOTE: The same with NSCP 2010
Section 615
DESIGN VALUES FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

615.1 General
615.2 Reference Design Values
615.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Value

Reference Design Values


( , , , , , )

Adjusted Reference Design Values


( , , , , , )
Section 615
DESIGN VALUES FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

615.2 Reference Design Values


Table 6.1 Working Stresses for Visually Stress-Graded
Unseasoned Structural Timber of Philippine Woods of
NSCP 2010
has been renamed as
Table 615.2-1 Reference Values for Visually Stress-Graded
Unseasoned Structural Timber of Philippine Woods
Table for Reference Values for 63% Stress Grade has
been restored
Table for References Values for additional species of
Philippine Woods has been placed immediately after
Table 615.2-1
Section 615
DESIGN VALUES FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

615.3.2 Load Duration Factor, CD


Table 615.3-1 Load Duration Factors1,

Load Duration Typical Design Loads


Permanent 0.9 Dead Load
Ten years 1.0 Occupancy Live Load
Seven days 1.25 Construction Load
One day 1.33 Earthquake Load
One day 1.33 Wind Load
(Connections and
Fasteners only)
Ten minutes 1.60 Wind Load (members)
Impact2 2.0 Impact Load
1 When using the Alternative Basic Load Combinations of
Chapter 2, the one-third increase shall not be used
concurrently with the Load Duration Factor, .
2 Load duration factor greater than 1.6 shall not apply to
structural members pressure-treated with water-borne
preservatives or fire retardant chemicals. The impact load
duration shall not apply to connections.
Section 615
DESIGN VALUES FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

615.3.3 Temperature Factor, Ct NEW


Table 615.3-2 Temperature Factor,

In Service
Reference
Moisture
Design Values
Conditions1 < <

, Wet or Dry 1.0 0.90 0.90

, , Dry 1.0 0.80 0.70

and Wet 1.0 0.70 0.50


1 Wet service condition for sawn lumber is defined as in service
moisture content greater than 19%. Wet service condition for
glued laminated timber is defined as in service moisture content
of 16% or greater.
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.1 General
616.2 Bending Members - General
616.3 Bending Members Flexure
616.4 Bending Members Shear
616.5 Bending Members - Deflection
616.6 Compression Members - General
616.7 Solid Columns
616.8 Tension Members
616.9 Combined Bending and Axial Loading
616.10 Design for Bearing
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

ERRATA: Section 616.3.3.8 should read like this.

This part is missing but can also


be found under Table 617.3-1
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.3.3 Beam Stability Factor, CL NOTE: There has been a mix-


up between the Slenderness
For laterally supported beams, CL = 1.0 Factor Adjustment for
616.3.3.8 When lateral support to compression Beams (NSCP 2001) and
side of beam may permit beam to buckle this Beam Stability Factor
laterally, the beam stability factor, , shall be Adjustment in the Fourth
Printing of NSCP 2010
calculated as follows:

+ +
=
. . .
where

= Reference bending design value multiplied by all applicable
adjustment factors except , , and , MPa
.
=

= where < 50

This factor CL is compatible with Column Stability Factor, Cp.


Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

= Reference modulus of elasticity value multiplied


Note:
NEW factors
by all applicable adjustment
= Reference modulus of elasticity for beam and
For value of , column stability
just refer to =
. . / .
Table 617.3-1 .
= Modulus of elasticity level exceeded by about
under 95% of the individual pieces
Section 617.3.1 = .
= Reference modulus of elasticity
= coefficient of variation in modulus of elasticity
= 0.25 for Visually graded sawn lumber
= 0.11 for Machine Stress Rate lumber
. = adjustment factor to convert values to a pure
bending basis
. = factor of safety
SAMPLE COMPARISON OF VALUES OF Fb
NSCP 2015 vs. NSCP 2001
18 =
BASIS OF GRAPH:
16
63% visually
14 stress-graded Guijo
NSCP 2001: Fb = 17.10 MPa
12
Adjustment factors
10 =
other than CL
NSCP 2015: taken as 1.0

8
E = 6,670 MPa
6
COVE =0.25
.
4 =

2 NSCP 2001
NSCP 2015
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60


+ +
= =
.
NSCP 2001 NSCP 2015
. .
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

Table 616.3-1 Effective Length, e , for Bending Members


Cantilever1 where < where
Uniformly distributed load = . = . +
Concentrated load at unsupported end = . = . +
Single Span Beam1,2 where < where
Uniformly distributed load = . = . +
Concentrated load at center with no intermediate lateral support = . = . +
Concentrated load at center with lateral support at center = .
Two equal concentrated loads at 1/3 points with lateral support at 1/3 points = .
Three equal concentrated loads at 1/4 points with lateral support at 1/4 points = .
Four equal concentrated loads at 1/5 points with lateral support at 1/5 points = .
Five equal concentrated loads at 1/6 points with lateral support at 1/6 points = .
Six equal concentrated loads at 1/7 points with lateral support at 1/7 points = .
Seven or more equal concentrated loads, evenly spaced, with lateral support at
points of load application
= .
Equal end moments = .
1 For single span or cantilever bending members with loading conditions not specified in Table 616.3-1:
= . where <
= . + where .
= . where > .
2 Multiple span applications shall be based on table values or engineering analysis .
Note: This table gives a very clear definition of effective length
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.4 Bending Members - Shear


Shear Design Equations: = in general;
Note:
= for rectangular section

For beams notched at tension face:

for rectangular section : = dn


d

for circular section : =

for gradual notch : = d dn

Note:
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.4 Bending Members - Shear


For beams notched at compression face of rect. section:

when e dn : =

when e > dn : =

For beams notched at compression face of rect. section: Unloaded Edge

when x < 5d : = d
de

when x 5d : =
d de d de

Note:
Unloaded Edge
Unloaded Edge
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.5 Bending Members - Deflection


616.5.2 Long-Term Loading
Total deflection, = +
where
= time dependent deformation (creep) factor
= 1.5 for seasoned lumber and glulam in dry service condition
= 2.0 for glulam in wet service condition
= 2.0 for unseasoned lumber or seasoned lumber in wet service cond.
= immediate deflection due to the long-term component of the design load, mm.
= deflection due to the short-term or normal component of the design load, mm.
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.6 Compression Members


Column refers to all types of compression
members, including members
forming part of trusses or other
structural components

Simple Solid Wood Columns consists of a


single piece or of pieces properly
glued together to form a single
member.
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

ERRATA: Section 616.7.1.5 should read like this.

all
should be
replaced

with

missing
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.7.1 Column Stability Factor, CP


For laterally supported columns, CP = 1.0

For laterally unsupported columns, when slenderness ratio, = , is < 50,


+ +
=

.
where =
c = 0.80 for sawn lumber
c = 0.85 for round timber poles
or piles
c = 0.90 for structural glulam
timber, structural
composite lumber, and
cross laminated timber
SAMPLE COMPARISON OF VALUES OF Fc
NSCP 2015 vs. NSCP 1992
12 BASIS OF GRAPH:
= 63% visually
10 stress-graded Guijo
Fc = 10.40 MPa
8 NSCP 1992: Adjustment factors
other than CP
6 taken as 1.0

= E = 6,670 MPa
4 NSCP 2015: COVE =0.25
.
=
2
NSCP 1992
NSCP 2015
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

NSCP 1992 NSCP 2015


+
+
= =
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.7.2 Tapered Columns


Use of drep :
= + .
where
= representative dimension for tapered column, mm
= the minimum dimension for that face of the column, mm
= the minimum dimension for that face of the column, mm
Value of (depends on column end support conditions):
= . when large end is fixed, small end unsupported or simply supported
= . when small end is fixed, large end unsupported or simply supported
= . when both ends are simply supported, tapered toward one end
= . when both ends are simply supported, tapered toward both ends
For all other support conditions:
= +
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.7.3 Round Columns


The design of a column of round cross section shall be based on
the design calculations for a square column of the same cross-
sectional area and having the same degree of taper.

TRIVIA:
The column stability factor for rectangular columns can be
used for other column shapes by substituting for in
computing .
. .
=
=

Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.8 Tension Members


Basic requirement:
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.9 Combined Bending and Axial Loading


616.9.1 Bending and Axial Tension

+ . and .

where:

= reference bending design value multiplied by all
applicable adjustment factors except , MPa.

= reference bending design value multiplied by all
applicable adjustment factors except , MPa.
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.9.1 Bending and Axial Compression

+ + .

and
+ .0

where: < =
. for either uniaxial edgewise
bending or biaxial bending

and < =
. for uniaxial flatwise bending or
biaxial bending
.
and < = for biaxial bending
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.10 Design for Bearing


616.10.3 Bearing at an Angle with the Grain
Hankinsons Formula:


=

where:
= angle between direction
of load and direction of
grain (longitudinal axis of
member), degrees

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

616.10 Design for Bearing


616.10.4 Bearing Area Factor, Cb
.
=
For some values of :
Table 616.10-1 Bearing Length Factor, lb 150 mm 75 mm
150
13 25 38 50 75 100 or
(mm) more

1.73 1.38 1.25 1.19 1.13 1.10 1.00


Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.1 General
617.2 Reference Design Values
617.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Values
617.4 Special Design Considerations
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.1.3 Definitions (This has been restored)


Dimension refers to lumber from 50 mm to 100 mm (nominal) thick, and 50 mm
(nominal) or more in width. Dimension lumber is further classified as Structural
Light Framing, Light Framing, Studs, and Joists and Planks.
Beams and Stringers refers to lumber of rectangular cross section, 125 mm (nominal)
or more thick, with width more than 50 mm greater than thickness, graded with
respect to its strength in bending when loaded on the narrow face.
Posts and Timbers refers to lumber of square or approximately square cross section,
125 mm x 125 mm (nominal) and larger, with width not more than 50 mm greater
than thickness, graded primarily for use as posts or columns carrying longitudinal
load.
Decking refers to lumber from 50 mm to 100 mm (nominal) thick, tongued and
grooved, or grooved for spline on the narrow face, and intended for use as a roof,
floor, or wall membrane, Decking is graded for application in the flatwise direction,
with the wide face of the decking in contact with the supporting members, as
normally installed.
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.1.4 Moisture Service Condition of Lumber NEW


Table 617.1-1(a) Wet Service Factor, Table 617.1-1(b) Wet Service Factor,
Visually Graded Sawn Lumber (MC > 19%) Glued Laminated Timber (MC > 16%)
Strength Property
Strength Property
and
and
All
Dimension 0.80 0.80 0.875 0.53 0.73 0.833 0.875
0.851 1.00 0.97 0.67 0.802 0.90 Species
Lumber
Timbers
1.00 1.00 1.00 0.67 0.91 1.00

Decking
0.852 0.67 0.90

1 When ( )( ) 8 MPa, =1.0


2 When ( )( ) 5 MPa, =1.0
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.2.6 Compression Perpendicular to Grain,

. = .

where
. = compression perpendicular to grain design value
at 0.5 mm deformation limit, MPa

= reference compression perpendicular to grain


design value at 1 mm deformation limit (as
tabulated in Tables 615.2-1 and 615.2-2), MPa

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

-
-
-
Load Duration Factor

Wet Service Factor

Temperature Factor
SAWN LUMBER
Section 617

-
-
-
-
-
-
Beam Stability Factor

-
-
-
-
Size Factor

-
-
-
-
-
-

Flat Use Factor

Incising Factor

-
-
-
-
-
-

Repetitive Factor
Column Stability
-
-
-
-
-

-
Table 617.3-1 Applicability of Adjustment Factors for Sawn Lumber

Factor
617.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Values

Buckling Stiffness
-
-
-
-
-
-

Factor
-
-
-
-
-
-

Bearing Area Factor


Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.3.6 Size Factor


617.3.6.1 Where the depth of a rectangular sawn lumber
bending member 125 mm or thicker exceeds 300 mm, the
reference bending design values, , shall be multiplied by the
following size factor:

=
where
= size factor
= depth of member, mm
617.3.6.2 For beams of circular cross section with a diameter
greater than 340 mm, or for 300 mm or larger square beams
loaded in the plane of the diagonal, the size factor shall be
determined in accordance with 617.3.6.1 on the basis of an
equivalent conventionally loaded square beam of the same
cross-sectional area.
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.3.7 Flat Use Factor,


Bending design adjusted by size factors are based on loads applied to narrow
face. When sawn lumber is used flatwise, (i.e. load applied to wide face) bending
design value, , shall also be multiplied by the following flat-use factors:
Table 617.3-2 Visually-Graded Sawn Lumber Table 617.3-3 Machine-Graded1 Sawn Lumber
Flat-use Factors, Flat-use Factors,
Width Thickness (breadth) Width Thickness (breadth)
(depth) 50mm & 100mm (depth) 50mm
75mm 50mm & 75mm 1.0
50 mm & 75 mm 1.0 - 100mm 1.1
100mm 1.1 1.0 125mm 1.1
125mm 1.1 1.05 150mm 1.15
150mm 1.15 1.05 200mm 1.15
200mm 1.15 1.05 250mm & wider 1.20
1 Refer to Section 622
250mm & wider 1.20 1.1
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.3.8 Incising Factor,


Many species readily accept preservative treatments, while others dont. For
species that are not easily treated, incising is used to make the treatment
effective.
Some design values for sawn lumber must be adjusted if incising is used to
increase the penetration of the preservatives. The incising factors, , to be
used shall be as follows:

Table 617.3-4 Incising Factor,

0.95 0.80 0.80 0.80 1.0

For compression perpendicular to grain as well as for non-incised treated


lumber, = . .
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.3.9 Repetitive Member Factor,


A repetitive member system is defined as one that has:
1. Three or more parallel members of Dimension lumber or
structural composite lumber;
2. Members spaced not more than 600 mm on center;
3. Members connected together by a load-distributing element such
as roof, floor, or wall sheathing that has been designed or has
been proven by experience to transmit the design load to
adjacent members without displaying structural weakness or
unacceptable deflection.
For a repetitive member system, the reference may be multiplied
by a repetitive member factor, = . . For all other framing
systems, = . .
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.3.11 Buckling Stiffness Factor,


Reference modulus of elasticity for beam and column stability, , shall be
permitted to be multiplied by the buckling stiffness factor, , as specified in
617.4.2. (Can be used for wood trusses because of increased stiffness to axial loads)
when 2.40 , shall be calculated as follows:

= +
where
= effective column length of truss compression chord, mm
= 0.62 for wood seasoned to 19% moisture content or less at the time
of plywood attachment
= 0.33 for unseasoned or partially seasoned wood at the time of
plywood attachment
= .
= 0.59 for visually graded lumber
= 0.75 for machine evaluated lumber (MEL)
= 0.82 for products with 0.11
when > 2.40 , shall be calculated based on = 2.40
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.4 Special Design Considerations


617.4.1 Stability of Bending Members
Alternative Design Consideration
(a) / ; no lateral support shall be required.
(b) < / ; the ends shall be held in position, as by full depth solid
blocking, bridging, hangers, nailing, or bolting to other framing
members, or other acceptable means.
(c) < / ; the compression edge of the member shall be held in line for
its entire length to prevent lateral displacement, as by adequate
sheathing or subflooring, and ends at point of bearing shall be held
in position to prevent rotation and/or lateral displacement.
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.4 Special Design Considerations


617.4.1 Stability of Bending Members
Alternative Design Consideration
(d) < / ; bridging, full depth solid blocking or diagonal cross bracing
shall be installed at intervals not exceeding 2.40 m, the compression
edge of the member shall be held in line as by adequate sheathing or
subflooring, and the ends at points of bearing shall be held in position
to prevent rotation and/or lateral displacement.
(e) < / ; both edges of the member shall be held in line for their entire
length and ends at points of bearing shall be held in position to
prevent rotation and/or lateral displacement.
617.4.1.3 If a bending member is subjected to both flexure and axial
compression, the depth to breadth ratio shall be no more than 5 to 1 if one
edge is firmly held in line. If under all combinations of load, the unbraced edge
of the member is in tension, the depth to breadth ratio shall be no more than 6
to 1.
Section 617
SAWN LUMBER

617.4.3 Notches
Notches shall be permitted provided it satisfy the following limitations

Figure 617.4-1 Notch Limitations for Sawn Lumber Beams


Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.1 General
618.2 Reference Design Values
618.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Values
618.4 Special Design Considerations
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.1.2 Definitions
The term structural glued laminated timber refers to an
engineered, stress rated product of a timber laminating plant,
comprising assemblies of specially selected and prepared wood
laminations bonded together with adhesives. The grain of all
laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally. The separate
laminations shall not exceed 50 mm in net thickness and are
permitted to be comprised of:
one piece
pieces joined end-to-end to form any length
pieces placed or glued edge-to-edge to make wider ones
pieces bent to curved form during gluing.
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.2.2 Orientation of Member


Reference design values for structural glued laminated timber are
dependent on the orientation of the laminations relative to the
applied loads. Subscripts are used to indicate design values
corresponding to a given orientation. The orientations of the
cross-sectional axes for
structural glued laminated
timber are shown in Figure
618.2-1. The x-x axis runs
parallel to the wide face of
the laminations. The y-y
axis runs perpendicular to
the wide face of the
laminations.
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.2.4 Bending, , ,
618.2.5 Compression Perpendicular to Grain, ,
618.2.6 Shear Parallel to Grain, ,
618.2.7 Modulus of Elasticity, , , ,
618.2.8 Radial Tension,
618.2.9 Radial Compression,
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Values


Table 618.3-1 Applicability of Adjustment Factors for Structural Glued Laminated Timber

Curvature Factor

Stress Interaction

Column Stability
Shear Reduction
Volume Factor1

Flat Use Factor


Beam Stability
Load Duration

Bearing Area
Temperature
Wet Service

Factor1
Factor

Factor

Factor

Factor

Factor

Factor

Factor
= x - - -
= x - - - - - - - -
= x - - - - - - -
= x - - - - - - - -
= x - - - - - - -
= x - - - - - - - -
= x - - - - - - - - -
= x - - - - - - - - -
1 The beam stability factor, , shall not apply simultaneously with the volume factor, , for structural glued laminated
timber bending members (see 618.3.6). Therefore, the lesser of these adjustment factors apply.
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.3.6 Volume Factor,


When structural glued laminated timber members are loaded in bending about
the x-x axis, the reference bending design values, , and , shall be
multiplied by the following volume factor:
.
= .
where
= length of bending member between points of zero moment, m
= depth of bending member, mm
= width (breadth) of bending member. For multiple piece width
layups, b = width of widest piece used in the layup. Thus, b 275
mm.
= 10 if specific value has not been established for the species used
The volume factor, , shall not apply simultaneously with the beam stability
factor, (see 616.3.3). Therefore, the lesser of these adjustment factors shall
apply.
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.3.7 Flat Use Factor,


When structural glued laminated timber is loaded in bending about the y-y axis
and the member dimension parallel to the wide face of the laminations, (see
Figure 618.3-1), is less than 300 mm, the reference bending design value, ,
shall be permitted to be multiplied by the flat use factor, , calculated by the
following formula:

=

Figure 618.3-1 Depth, , for Flat Use Factor


Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.3.8 Curvature Factor,


For curved portions of bending members, the reference bending design value
shall be multiplied by the following curvature factor:

where
= thickness of laminations, mm
= radius of curvature of inside face of member, mm

= for hardwoods

= for softwoods

The curvature factor shall not apply to reference design values in the straight
portion of a number, regardless of curvature elsewhere.
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.3.9 Stress Interaction Factor,


For the tapered portion of bending members tapered on the compression face,
the reference bending design value, , shall be multiplied by the following
stress interaction factor:

=
tan
+ +
where
= angle of taper, degrees
For members tapered on the compression face, the stress interaction factor,
, shall not apply simultaneously with the volume factor, , therefore, the
lesser of these adjustment factors shall apply.
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.3.9 Stress Interaction Factor,


For the tapered portion of the bending members tapered on the tension face,
the reference bending design value, , shall be multiplied by the following
stress interaction factor:

=
tan
+ +
where
= angle of taper, degrees

For members tapered on the tension face, the stress interaction factor, ,
shall not apply simultaneously with the beam stability factor, , therefore,
the lesser of these adjustment factors shall apply.
Taper cuts on the tension face of structural glued laminated timber beams are
not recommended.
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.3.10 Shear Reduction Factor,


The reference shear design values, and , shall be
multiplied by the shear reduction factor, = 0.72
where any of the following conditions apply:
Design of non-prismatic members.
Design of members subject to impact or repetitive
cyclic loading.
Design of members at notches (616.4.3.2).
Design of members at connections (616.4.3.3).
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.4 Special Design Considerations


618.4.1 Curved Bending Members with Constant Cross Section
618.4.1.3 The radial stress induced by a bending moment in a curved bending
member of constant rectangular cross section is:
=
where
= bending moment, Nm
= radius of curvature at center line of member, mm
Where the bending moment is in the direction tending to decrease curvature
(increase the radius), the radial stress shall not exceed the adjusted radial
tension design value perpendicular to the grain, , unless mechanical
reinforcing sufficient to resist all radial stresses is used. In no case shall
exceed (1/3) .
Where the bending moment is in the direction tending to increase curvature
(decrease the radius), the radial stress shall not exceed the adjusted radial
compressional design .
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.4 Special Design Considerations


618.4.2 Double-Tapered Curved Bending Members
618.4.2.1 The bending stress induced by a bending moment, , at the peaked
section of a double-tapered curved bending member (see Figure 618.4-1) shall
be calculated as follows:
=
where
= empirical bending stress shape
factor
= + .
= angle of roof slope, degrees
= bending moment, Nm
= depth at peaked section of
member, mm
The stress interaction factor from 618.3.9 shall apply for flexural design in the
straight-tapered segments of double-tapered curved bending members.
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.4 Special Design Considerations


618.4.2 Double-Tapered Curved Bending Members
618.4.2.3 The radial stress induced by
bending moment in a double-tapered
curved member shall be calculated as
follows:
=
where
= empirical radial stress factor
= . + . tan .
= empirical load-shape radial stress reduction factor
= . + . . + .
for uniformly loaded members where 0.3
= . for members subject to constant moment
= radius of curvature at center line of member, mm
= +
= radius of curvature of inside face of member, mm
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.4 Special Design Considerations


618.4.2.4 The deflection of double-tapered curved members shall be
determined in accordance with 616.5, except that the mid-span deflection of a
symmetrical double-tapered curved beam subject to uniform loads shall be
permitted to be calculated by the
following empirical formula:
=
where
= vertical deflection at midspan, mm
= + . + . .
The horizontal deflection at the supports of symmetrical double-tapered
curved beams shall be permitted to be estimated as

=
where = horizontal deflection at either support, mm
= and = +
Section 618
STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER

618.4 Special Design Considerations


618.4.4 Tapered Straight Bending Members
618.4.4.3 The deflection of tapered straight beams shall be determined in
accordance with 616.5, except that the maximum deflection of a tapered
straight beam subject to uniform loads shall be permitted to be calculated as
equivalent to the depth, , of an equivalent prismatic member of the
same width where:
=
where
= depth at the small end of the
member, mm
= empirical constant derived
from relationship of equations
for deflection of tapered
straight beams and prismatic
beams.
Sections 619 to 622

SECTION 619 - TIMBER CONNECTORS AND FASTENERS


The following tables are adopted from NDS 2015
Table 619.1-3 Split Ring Connector Reference Design Values
Table 619.1-4 Shear Plate Connector Reference Design Values
SECTION 620 - CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME
CONSTRUCTION DESIGN PROVISIONS
SECTION 621 - METAL PLATE-CONNECTED WOOD
TRUSS DESIGN
SECTION 622 - USE OF MACHINE-GRADED LUMBER
(MGL)
NOTE: Almost the same with NSCP 2010
With minor corrections to conform with the NSCP 2015
updates
Tables were re-arranged so as they appear right after the
first time they were mentioned as practically as possible
Sample Problem No. 1
Simply Supported Beam
Capacity Check Example (ASD)

A Mahogany, Big Leafed (80% Stress Grade)


4x16 (88mm x 380mm actual size), 6-
meter simple span supports a hoist located
at the center of the span. Taking into
account the weight of the beam, determine
the maximum allowable load on the hoist
based on bending. Assume normal load
duration. The beam is supported on a 2x4
(50mm x 100mm) top plate. Lateral support
is provided only at the ends of the member
and the ends are considered pinned.
Sample Problem No. 1
Simply Supported Beam
Capacity Check Example (ASD)
A Mahogany, Big Leafed (80% Stress Grade) 4x16 (88mm x 380mm actual size),
6-meter simple span supports a hoist located at the center of the span. Taking into
account the weight of the beam, determine the maximum allowable load on the
hoist based on bending. Assume normal load duration. The beam is supported on
a 2x4 (50mm x 100mm) top plate. Lateral support is provided only at the ends
of the member and the ends are considered pinned.
REFERENCE VALUES and Emin for Mahogany, Big leafed (80% Stress Grade)
From Table 615.2.1 Reference Values for Visually Stress-Graded Unseasoned Timber
For bending . . . . . . . . Fb = 16.5 MPa COVE = 0.25 for V.G. sawn lumber
For comp. grain . . . Fc = 10.5 MPa E0.05 = E [ 1 1.645 COVE ]
For comp. grain . . . Fc = 3.83 MPa E0.05 = 4,660 [ 1 - 1.645(0.25)]
For shear grain . . . Fv = 2.71 MPa E0.05 = 2,744 MPa
Elastic Modulus . . . . . E = 4,660 MPa Emin = E0.05 (1.03)/1.66
Note: Value for Emin to be computed Emin = 2744 (1.03) /1.66
based on Table 617.3-1 Emin = 1,703 MPa
Section 616
DESIGN PROVISIONS AND EQUATIONS

ERRATA: Section 616.3.3.8 should read like this.

This part is missing but can also


be found under Table 617.3-1
Sample Problem No. 1
Simply Supported Beam
Capacity Check Example (ASD)
A Mahogany, Big Leafed (80% Stress Grade) 4x16 (88mm x 380mm actual size),
6-meter simple span supports a hoist located at the center of the span. Taking into
account the weight of the beam, determine the maximum allowable load on the
hoist based on bending. Assume normal load duration. The beam is supported on
a 2x4 (50mm x 100mm) top plate. Lateral support is provided only at the ends
of the member and the ends are considered pinned.

APPLICABLE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR BEAMS


Load Duration Factor, CD = 1.0 (for normal load duration) Table 615.3-1
Wet Service Factors, CM = 0.85 (for Fb for dimension lumber) Table 617.1-1(a)
CM = 0.90 (for E for dimension lumber)
Temperature Factor, Ct = 1.0 (for T < 38C) Table 615.3-2
Beam Stability Factor, CL : Discussed on next slide (616.6)
Size Factor, CF : ( ) ( )
CF = 300
d
1/9 300 1/9
=
380
= 0.974 (617.2)

ADJUSTMENT FACTORS which are NOT APPLICABLE for this problem


Flat Use Factor, Cfu ; Incising Factor, Ci ; Repetitive Factor, Cr .

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

-
-
-
Load Duration Factor

Wet Service Factor

Temperature Factor
SAWN LUMBER
Section 617

-
-
-
-
-
-
Beam Stability Factor

-
-
-
-
Size Factor

-
-
-
-
-
-

Flat Use Factor

Incising Factor

-
-
-
-
-
-

Repetitive Factor
Column Stability
-
-
-
-
-

-
Table 617.3-1 Applicability of Adjustment Factors for Sawn Lumber

Factor
617.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Values

Buckling Stiffness
-
-
-
-
-
-

Factor
-
-
-
-
-
-

Bearing Area Factor


Sample Problem No. 1
Simply Supported Beam
Capacity Check Example (ASD)
A Mahogany, Big Leafed (80% Stress Grade) 4x16 (88mm x 380mm actual size), 6-meter
simple span supports a hoist located at the center of the span. Taking into account the
weight of the beam, determine the maximum allowable load on the hoist based on
bending. Assume normal load duration. The beam is supported on a 2x4 (50mm x
100mm) top plate. Lateral support is provided only at the ends of the member and the
ends are considered pinned. N/A N/A
1.20Emin Fb* = Fb(CD)(CM)(Ct) (CF) Emin = Emin(CM)(Ct)(Ci) (CT)
FbE =
RB2 = 16.5(1.0)(0.85) (1.0)(0.974) = 1703(0.90) (1.0)
(1533)
= 1.20 = 13.66 MPa = 1533 MPa
(21.43) 2
Fb* = Fb multiplied by all applicable Table 616.3-1: For u /d > 7
= 4.006 MPa adj. factors except Cfu, CV, and CL. e = 1.37 u + 3d
= 1.37 (6000)+ 3(380)
Beam Stability Factor, CL : = 9360 mm
1 +(FbE/Fb*) 1 +(FbE/Fb*) 2 FbE/Fb*
CL = - - 0.95 (616-6) ed
1.9 1.9 RB = (616-5)
b 2
2
1 +(4.006/ 13.66) 1 +(4.006/ 13.66) (4.006/ 13.66) 9360 (380)
= - - =
1.9 1.9 0.95 (88)2
= 0.2875 = 21.43
Sample Problem No. 1
Simply Supported Beam
Capacity Check Example (ASD)
A Mahogany, Big Leafed (80% Stress Grade) 4x16 (88mm x 380mm actual size), 6-meter
simple span supports a hoist located at the center of the span. Taking into account the
weight of the beam, determine the maximum allowable load on the hoist based on
bending. Assume normal load duration. The beam is supported on a 2x4 (50mm x
100mm) top plate. Lateral support is provided only at the ends of the member and the
ends are considered pinned.
Fb = Fb(CD)(CM)(Ct)(CL)(CF) wbeam L2 P L
Mmax = +
= 16.5(1.0)(0.85) (1.0)(0.2875)(0.974) 8 4
2
0.233 (6) P(6)
= 3.927 MPa P=? = +
8 4
= 1.05 + 1.5 P kN-m
fb = 6M2
6m bd
From Table 619.1-1: 6 (1.05+ 1.5P) x 106
3.927 =
Rel. den. for Mahogany, big leaf is 0.54. 88 (380) 2
Assume actual density is 10% higher Solving for P:
wbeam = 0.54 (1.1)(9.81)(0.1 x 0.4) P = 4.84 kN
Answer
= 0.233 kN/m
Sample Problem No. 2
Compression Member Analysis (ASD)

A 2x6 (38mm x 138mm actual size)


80% Stress Grade Pine interior bearing
stud, 4 meters long, sheathed on both
sides with gypsum board, carries roof
loads. Determine CP and the allowable
compressive stress Fc for the stud.
Assume studs are placed 400mm on
center and top and bottom plates are of
same grade and species. Determine
axial loads controlled by buckling and
allowed by bearing.
Sample Problem No. 2
Compression Member Analysis (ASD)

A 2x6 (38mm x 138mm actual size) 80% Stress Grade Pine interior bearing stud,
4 meters long, sheathed on both sides with gypsum board, carries roof loads.
Determine CP and the allowable compressive stress Fc for the stud. Assume studs
are placed 400mm on center and top and bottom plates are of same grade and
species. Determine axial loads controlled by buckling and allowed by bearing.

REFERENCE VALUES and Emin for Pine (80% Stress Grade)


From Table 615.2.1 Reference Values for Visually Stress-Graded Unseasoned Timber
For bending . . . . . . . . Fb = 14.7 MPa COVE = 0.25 for V.G. sawn lumber
For comp. grain . . . Fc = 8.29 MPa E0.05 = E [ 1 1.645 COVE ]
For comp. grain . . . Fc = 1.88 MPa E0.05 = 6,660 [ 1 - 1.645(0.25)]
For shear grain . . . Fv = 1.56 MPa E0.05 = 3,921 MPa
Elastic Modulus . . . . . E = 6,660 MPa Emin = E0.05 (1.03)/1.66
Note: Value for Emin to be computed Emin = 3921 (1.03) /1.66
based on Table 617.3-1 Emin = 2,433 MPa
Sample Problem No. 2
Compression Member Analysis (ASD)

A 2x6 (38mm x 138mm actual size) 80% Stress Grade Pine interior bearing stud,
4 meters long, sheathed on both sides with gypsum board, carries roof loads.
Determine CP and the allowable compressive stress Fc for the stud. Assume studs
are placed 400mm on center and top and bottom plates are of same grade and
species. Determine axial loads controlled by buckling and allowed by bearing.

APPLICABLE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR COMPRESSION MEMBERS


Load Duration Factor, CD = 1.0 (for normal load duration) Table 615.3-1
Wet Service Factors, CM = 1.0 (for Fc for dimension lumber) Table 617.1-1(a)
CM = 0.90 (for E for dimension lumber)
Temperature Factor, Ct = 1.0 (for T < 38C) Table 615.3-2
Column Stability Factor, CP : Discussed on next slide (616.6)

ADJUSTMENT FACTORS which are NOT APPLICABLE for this problem


Size Factor, CF ; Incising Factor, Ci ; Repetitive Factor, Cr .

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

-
-
-
Load Duration Factor

Wet Service Factor

Temperature Factor
SAWN LUMBER
Section 617

-
-
-
-
-
-
Beam Stability Factor

-
-
-
-
Size Factor

-
-
-
-
-
-

Flat Use Factor

Incising Factor

-
-
-
-
-
-

Repetitive Factor
Column Stability
-
-
-
-
-

-
Table 617.3-1 Applicability of Adjustment Factors for Sawn Lumber

Factor
617.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Values

Buckling Stiffness
-
-
-
-
-
-

Factor
-
-
-
-
-
-

Bearing Area Factor


Sample Problem No. 2
Compression Member Analysis (ASD)

A 2x6 (38mm x 138mm actual size) 80% Stress Grade Pine interior bearing stud, 4 meters
long, sheathed on both sides with gypsum board, carries roof loads. Determine CP and the
allowable compressive stress Fc for the stud. Assume studs are placed 400mm on center
and top and bottom plates are of same grade and species. Determine axial loads controlled
by buckling and allowed by bearing. N/A
N/A N/A
0.822Emin Fc* = Fc(CD)(CM)(Ct) (CF)
FcE = Emin = Emin(CM)(Ct)(Ci) (CT)
(e /d)2 = 14.7(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)
0.822 (2190) = 2433(0.90) (1.0)
= = 14.70 MPa = 2190 MPa
(29.0)2
= 2.141 MPa Fc = Fc multiplied by all applicable
*

c = 0.8 for sawn lumber adj. factors except CP. e 4000


=
Column Stability Factor, CP : d 138
2 = 29.0
1 +(FcE/Fc )
*
1 +(FcE/Fc ) FcE/Fc
* *
CP = - - c (616-14)
2c 2c
2
1 +(2.141 / 14.70) 1 +(2.141 / 14.70) (2.141 / 14.70)
= - -
(2 x 0.8) (2 x 0.8) 0.8
= 0.141
Sample Problem No. 1
Simply Supported Beam
Capacity Check Example (ASD)
A 2x6 (38mm x 138mm actual size) 80% Stress Grade Pine interior bearing stud, 4 meters
long, sheathed on both sides with gypsum board, carries roof loads. Determine CP and the
allowable compressive stress Fc for the stud. Assume studs are placed 400mm on center
and top and bottom plates are of same grade and species. Determine axial loads controlled
by buckling and allowed by bearing.
P=? Considering bearing on plates:
Note: Fc = 1.88 MPa
Fc = Fc(CD)(CM)(Ct)(CP) < Fc = 2.073 MPa
= 14.7(1.0)(1.0) (1.0)(0.141) + 9.5 38 + 9.5
= 2.073 MPa Cb = b =
b 38
Considering effect of buckling: = 1.25 N/A
P = A (Fc) 4m Fc = Fc (CM)(Ct)(Ci)(Cb)
= (38 x 138) (2.073)
= 10,870 N = 1.88(1.0)(1.0) (1.25)
= 10.87 kN = 2.35 MPa
Answer P = A (Fc )
= (38 x 138) (2.35)
= 12.32 kN
Answer