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Second Edition

Analysis of
Synchronous
Machines

2012 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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2012 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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Second Edition

Analysis of
Synchronous
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Machines
T. A . Lipo

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the


Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

2012 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

K13792_FM.indd 3 5/22/12 11:23 AM


MATLAB and Simulink are trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc. and are used with permission. The MathWorks does
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software or related products does not constitute endorsement or sponsorship by The MathWorks of a particular peda-
gogical approach or particular use of the MATLAB and Simulink software.
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2012 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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Version Date: 20120515

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CONTENTS

Preface ..........................................................................................................xiii

Acknowledgments ........................................................................................... xv

Chapter 1 Winding Distribution in an Ideal Machine ................................... 1


1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 1
1.2 Winding Function................................................................................. 2
1.3 Calculation of the Winding Function ................................................... 8
1.4 Multipole Winding Configurations .................................................... 22
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1.5 Inductances of an Ideal Doubly Cylindrical Machine........................ 25


1.6 Calculation of Winding Inductances .................................................. 29
1.7 Mutual Inductance CalculationAn Example .................................. 32
1.8 Winding Functions for Multiple Circuits ........................................... 39
1.9 Analysis of a Shorted CoilAn Example ......................................... 46
1.10 General Case for C Circuits ............................................................... 49
1.11 Winding Function Modifications for Salient-Pole Machines ............ 53
1.12 Leakage Inductances of Synchronous Machines ............................... 64
1.12.1 Synchronous Machine Stator ................................................. 64
1.12.2 Synchronous Machine Rotor.................................................. 69
1.13 Practical Winding Design................................................................... 70
1.14 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 75
1.15 References .......................................................................................... 75

Chapter 2 Reference Frame Theory ............................................................. 77


2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 77
2.2 Rotating Reference Frames ................................................................ 78
2.3 Transformation of Three-Phase Circuit Variables to a Rotating
Reference Frame .............................................................................. 81
2.3.1 Vector Approach Applied to rL Circuits.............................. 81
2.3.2 Transformation Equations ...................................................... 84
2.3.3 System Equations in the dqn Coordinate System .............. 92
2.3.4 Power Flow in the dqn Equivalent Circuits ....................... 95
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2.4 Stationary Three-Phase rL Circuits Observed in a dqn


Reference Frame ................................................................................ 96
2.4.1 Example ............................................................................... 104
2.5 Matrix Approach to the dqn Transformation ............................... 112
2.5.1 Example ............................................................................... 117
2.6 The dqn Transformation Applied to a Simple Three-Phase
Cylindrical Inductor ......................................................................... 121
2.7 Winding Functions in a dqn Reference Frame ............................ 125
2.8 Direct Computation of dqn Inductances of a Cylindrical Three-
Phase Inductor.................................................................................. 131
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2.9 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 134


2.10 References........................................................................................ 134

Chapter 3 The dq Equations of a Synchronous Machine ........................ 137


3.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 137
3.2 Physical Description ........................................................................ 137
3.3 Synchronous Machine Equations in the Phase Variable or
as-, bs-, cs- Reference Frame........................................................... 138
3.3.1 Voltage Equations............................................................... 140
3.3.2 Flux Linkage Equations ...................................................... 142
3.4 Transformation of the Stator Voltage Equations to a Rotating
Reference Frame .............................................................................. 143
3.5 Transformation of Stator Flux Linkages to a Rotating Reference
Frame ............................................................................................... 144
3.6 Winding Functions of the Three-Phase Stator Windings in a dqn
Reference Frame .............................................................................. 146
3.7 Winding Functions of the Rotor Windings...................................... 148
3.7.1 d-Axis Amortisseur Winding Function................................ 148
3.7.2 q-Axis Amortisseur Circuit Winding Function.................... 155
3.7.3 Field Circuit Winding Function ........................................... 159
3.8 Calculation of Stator Magnetizing Inductances............................... 160
3.9 Mutual Inductances between Stator and Rotor Circuits .................. 164
3.10 dq Transformation of the Rotor Flux Linkage Equation ............... 167

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3.11 Power Input...................................................................................... 168


3.12 Torque Equation............................................................................... 169
3.13 Summary of Synchronous Machine Equations Expressed in
Physical Units .................................................................................. 171
3.14 Turns Ratio Transformation of the Flux Linkage Equations ........... 172
3.15 System Equations in Physical Units Using Hybrid Flux Linkages . 180
3.16 Synchronous Machine Equations in Per Unit Form ........................ 181
3.16.1 Base Quantities .................................................................... 181
3.16.2 Voltage Equations................................................................ 184
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3.16.3 Flux Linkage Equations ....................................................... 184


3.16.4 Electromagnetic Torque Equation ....................................... 185
3.16.5 Motional Equation ............................................................... 186
3.16.6 Power Equation.................................................................... 187
3.16.7 Summary .............................................................................. 188
3.17 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 190
3.18 References........................................................................................ 190

Chapter 4 Steady-State Behavior of Synchronous Machines .................... 193


4.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 193
4.2 dq Axes Orientation ....................................................................... 193
4.3 Steady-State Form of Parks Equations ........................................... 196
4.4 Steady-State Torque Equation ......................................................... 200
4.5 Steady-State Power Equation........................................................... 202
4.6 Steady-State Reactive Power ........................................................... 204
4.7 Graphical Interpretation of the Steady-State Equations................... 204
4.8 Steady-State Vector Diagram .......................................................... 207
4.9 Vector Interpretation of Power and Torque ..................................... 210
4.10 Phasor Form of the Steady-State Equations..................................... 216
4.11 Equivalent Circuits of a Synchronous Machine............................... 217
4.12 Solutions of the Phasor Equations ................................................... 221

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4.13 Solution of the Steady-State Synchronous Machine Equations


Using MathCAD .............................................................................. 223
4.14 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Characteristics............................... 226
4.15 Saturation Modeling of Synchronous Machines under Load .......... 233
4.16 Construction of the Phasor Diagram for a Saturated Round-Rotor
Machine............................................................................................ 237
4.17 Calculation of the Phasor Diagram for a Saturated Salient-Pole
Synchronous Machine...................................................................... 240
4.18 Zero Power Factor Characteristic and the Potier Triangle............... 241
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4.19 Other Reactance Measurements....................................................... 247


4.20 Steady-State Operating Characteristics............................................ 250
4.21 Calculation of Pulsating and Average Torque during Starting of
Synchronous Motors ........................................................................ 253
4.22 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 262
4.23 References........................................................................................ 263

Chapter 5 Transient Analysis of Synchronous Machines .......................... 265


5.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 265
5.2 Theorem of Constant Flux Linkages................................................ 265
5.3 Behavior of Stator Flux Linkages on Short-Circuit......................... 266
5.4 Three-Phase Short-Circuit, No Damper Circuits, Resistances
Neglected ......................................................................................... 267
5.5 Three-Phase Short-Circuit from Open Circuit, Resistances and
Damper Windings Neglected........................................................... 270
5.6 Short-Circuit from Loaded Condition, Stator Resistance and
Damper Winding Neglected ............................................................ 272
5.7 Three-Phase Short-Circuit from Open Circuit, Effect of
Resistances Included, No Dampers.................................................. 275
5.8 Extension of the Theory to Machines with Damper Windings........ 282
5.9 Short-Circuit of a Loaded Generator, Dampers Included................ 290
5.10 Vector Diagrams for Sudden Voltage Changes ............................... 291

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5.11 Effect of Exciter Response............................................................... 295


5.12 Transient Solutions Utilizing Modal Analysis................................. 297
5.13 Comparison of Modal Analysis Solution with Conventional
Methods............................................................................................ 306
5.14 Unsymmetrical Short-Circuits ......................................................... 310
5.15 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 312
5.16 References........................................................................................ 312

Chapter 6 Power System Transient Stability ............................................. 315


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6.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 315


6.2 Assumptions..................................................................................... 315
6.3 Torque Angle Curves....................................................................... 318
6.4 Mechanical Acceleration Equation in Per Unit Form...................... 320
6.5 Equal Area Criterion for Transient Stability.................................... 322
6.6 Transient Stability Analysis............................................................. 323
6.7 Transient Stability of a Two Machine System................................. 331
6.8 Multi-Machine Transient Stability Analysis.................................... 333
6.9 Types of Faults and Effect on Stability............................................ 338
6.10 Step-by-Step Solution Methods Including Saturation ..................... 340
6.11 Machine Model Including Saturation .............................................. 342
6.12 Summary Step-by-Step Method for Calculating Synchronous
Machine Transients.......................................................................... 347
6.13 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 348
6.14 References........................................................................................ 348

Chapter 7 Excitation Systems and Dynamic Stability ................................ 349


7.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 349
7.2 Generator Response to System Disturbances .................................. 350
7.3 Sources of System Damping............................................................ 352
7.4 Excitation System Hardware Implementations................................ 353

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CONTENTS

7.4.1 Basic Excitation System ...................................................... 353


7.4.2 Basic DC Exciter.................................................................. 353
7.4.3 Modeling of Saturation ........................................................ 357
7.4.4 AC Excitation Systems ........................................................ 362
7.4.5 Static Excitation Systems..................................................... 363
7.5 IEEE Type 1 Excitation System ...................................................... 364
7.6 Excitation Design Principles............................................................ 369
7.7 Effect of the Excitation System on Dynamic Stability .................... 374
7.7.1 Generator Operating with Constant Field Flux
Linkages............................................................................... 374
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7.7.2 Generator with Variable Field Flux Linkages ..................... 380


7.7.3 Closed-Loop Representation................................................ 386
7.7.4 Excitation Control of Other Terminal Quantities ................ 390
7.8 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 392
7.9 References........................................................................................ 394

Chapter 8 Naturally Commutated Synchronous Motor Drives ................ 395


8.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 395
8.2 Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) Synchronous Motor Drives ....... 395
8.3 Principle of Inverter Operation ........................................................ 397
8.4 Fundamental Component Representation ........................................ 399
8.4.1 Phasor Diagram.................................................................... 399
8.4.2 Inverter Operation................................................................ 401
8.4.3 Expression for Power and Torque........................................ 405
8.5 Control Considerations .................................................................... 406
8.5.1 Firing Angle Controller........................................................ 406
8.6 Starting Considerations.................................................................... 408
8.7 Detailed Steady-State Analysis........................................................ 408
8.7.1 Modes of Converter Operation ........................................... 411
8.7.2 State Equations.................................................................... 413
8.7.3 Conduction Mode 1 State Equations................................... 414
8.7.4 Commutation Mode 2 State Equations ............................... 417
8.7.5 Calculation of Initial Conditions......................................... 421

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CONTENTS

8.8 Time Step Solution .......................................................................... 424


8.9 Sample Calculations......................................................................... 425
8.10 Torque Capability Curves ................................................................ 427
8.11 Constant Speed Performance ........................................................... 432
8.12 Comparison of State Space and Phasor Diagram Solutions ............ 434
8.13 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 436
8.14 References........................................................................................ 437

Chapter 9 Extension of dq Theory to Unbalanced Operation ................. 439


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9.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 439


9.2 Source Voltage Formulation ............................................................ 439
9.3 System Equations to Be Solved ....................................................... 443
9.4 System Formulation with Non-Sinusoidal Stator Voltages ............. 446
9.5 Solution for Currents........................................................................ 451
9.6 Solution for Electromagnetic Torque............................................... 453
9.7 Example Solutions ........................................................................... 462
9.8 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 464

Chapter 10 Linearization of the Synchronous Machine Equations ........... 467


10.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 467
10.2 Parks Equations in Physical Units .................................................. 467
10.3 Linearization Process ....................................................................... 469
10.4 Transfer Functions of a Synchronous Machine ............................... 474
10.4.1 Transfer Function Inputs...................................................... 474
10.4.2 Transfer Function Outputs ................................................... 475
10.5 Solution of the State Space and Measurement Equations................ 479
10.6 Design of a Terminal Voltage Controller ........................................ 485
10.7 Design of a Classical Regulator....................................................... 492
10.8 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 496
10.9 References........................................................................................ 496

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CONTENTS

Chapter 11 Computer Simulation of Synchronous Machines.................... 497


11.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 497
11.2 Simulation Equations ....................................................................... 497
11.3 MATLAB Simulation of Parks Equations ................................... 500
11.4 Steady-State Check of Simulation ................................................... 503
11.5 Simulation of the Equations of Transformation............................... 507
11.6 Simulation Study.............................................................................. 519
11.7 Consideration of Saturation Effects ................................................. 520
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11.8 Air Gap Saturation ........................................................................... 525


11.9 Field Saturation................................................................................ 529
11.10 Approximate Models of Synchronous Machines............................. 531
11.11 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 543

Appendix 1 Identities Useful in AC Machine Analysis .............................. 547

Appendix 2 Time Domain Solution of the State Equation .......................... 549


A2.1 Reduction to Explicit Form.............................................................. 549
A2.2 Complex Eigenvalues ...................................................................... 552
A.2.3 References........................................................................................ 553

Appendix 3 Three-Phase Fault .................................................................. 555

Appendix 4 TrafunSM ................................................................................. 563

Appendix 5 SMHBSynchronous Machine Harmonic Balance ............... 571

Index............................................................................................................. 583

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PREFACE
The material in this book has evolved from a course taught yearly to senior/
graduate students entitled Theory and Control of Synchronous Machines at
the University of Wisconsin. Begun in 1980, the essence of the course material
has not changed substantially. However, the means by which the course is
taught has changed dramatically with the evolution of computing tools. The
ready availability of MATLAB and MATHCAD has rendered many of the
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traditional methods of problem solving, such as analog simulation, FORTRAN


programming, constructional phasor diagrams and so forth, to be mere
anecdotes. As a result of these powerful tools, over the years material has been
increasingly added to challenge the student and provide a deeper appreciation
of the underlying theory of the subject. In particular, the material contained in
Chapters 811 is rarely included in an introductory course and, if desired,
could easily be omitted from a 3-credit course on this subject. These chapters
are typically presented by the author as the background material for a lengthy
class problem near the end of the semester which serves to cap the students
learning experience. I might add, with some delight, that these computational
tools have even added to the fun of learning a challenging new subject.

Thomas A. Lipo
Madison, WI

MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. For product


information, please contact:
The MathWorks, Inc.
3 Apple Hill Drive
Natick, MA 01760-2098 USA
Tel: 508 647 7000
Fax: 508-647-7001
E-mail: info@mathworks.com
Web: www.mathworks.com

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2012 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is indebted to his many graduate students, some of whom have con-
tributed to the production of this book via their MSc. and Ph.D. theses. In addi-
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tion, numerous other graduate students have also assisted both through their
technical contributions as well as thorough proofreading of this text. The
author also wishes to thank the David Grainger Foundation for funding and
facilities provided at the University of Wisconsin. He is also indebted for facil-
ities provided by the Center for Applied Power Systems, Florida State Univer-
sity during final rewrite of the text. Finally, this book is dedicated to Christine
Lipo, wonderful and loving wife, who passed away August 18, 2004.

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