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Research on Intelligent Alarm, Fault Diagnosis and Auxiliary Decision of Centralized

Monitoring and Control Information in Substation Based on Logic Coupling

Tan Wen-zhong1, Chen Hao1, Wang Can-lin1, Zhou Hui-juan2, Zou Ying-ping3
1.State Grid Hunan Electric Power Company , Changsha 410007, China, (+86)13973169811,
twzh953@aliyun.com, Corresponding Author

2. Changsha Electric Power Technical College, Changsha 410131, China,

3. College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China

ABSTRACT

When a grid fault occurs, it generates an amount of abnormal information which is 5-10 times the normal
information within milliseconds, which could submerge the useful monitoring information. Because the
monitoring information points of the current master station are independent from each other and lack intelligent
logic coupling function, the power grid monitors need to repeatedly check the different monitoring pages and
make decision by their personal experience. It causes great difficulty to the power grid monitors in fault
judgment and information treatment.
To solve the problems, the concept of state elements and logic coupling is presented. Intelligent logic
coupling of the discrete information of Smart Substation and the primary equipment of the master station in the
dispatch center is introduced to the fault diagnosis and its decision-making process. Also, the Paper defines the
type of Fuzzy Petri Nets based on a series of functions including State Logic, Time Window, Electrical Topology
and Characteristic Quantity. It reveals the status identification and its operation rules of the functions in the
three processes of pre-judgment, identification and decision making. Then, through a study on
abnormality/accidents information of the lines and the transformers in the master monitoring station, the paper
explains the logic coupling trigger mechanism of grid equipment abnormality and faults based on the
centralized control mode of dispatch-control integration.
The simulation results show that the method reduces more than 80% irrelevant information interfering
with the fault analysis in master station and avoids the need for the power grid monitors to keep checking and
refreshing the monitoring pages. The method has obvious advantages in accurately determining and dealing
with the grid equipment abnormality and faults, which substantially improves the efficiency of fault treatment
for the power grid monitors.

KEYWORDS: Smart Substation, State Elements, Power Grid Accident, Logical Coupling

0. Forewords
For the dispatch-control integrated master station system, there are three sources of data for the substations
[1]: the regular SCADA operation data; the non-real-time data generated by the automation system; the data from
the substation intelligent electronic equipment. A 500kV substation of typical design has over 4000 remote
monitoring information points that upload to the master monitoring station. Take a provincial power grid in
central China as an example. The monitoring master station is connected with 17 500kV substations. A team of
power grid monitors need deal with on average over 300 monitoring information points per hour; However,
when a fault occurs with the grid, it generates within milliseconds abnormal information which is 5-10 times
than in normal condition, which could submerge the useful monitoring information. As the monitoring
information points connected to the master station are independent from each other and lack of intelligent logic
coupling, the power grid monitors need to check the different monitoring pages back and forth and make
decision by their personal experience. It causes great difficulty for the monitors in fault judgment and
information treatment. Therefore, the research of the intelligent logic coupling functions of monitoring
information is very important to improve the efficiency of fault diagnosis and information treatment.
Literature[2] put forward the "migration" concept between the secondary equipment information of the
substation and the primary information of the master station in the dispatch center. However, there is no public
report on the research about the fault information logic coupling and intelligent alarm trigger mechanism, fault
diagnosis model and auxiliary decision-making based on IEC61850 and IEC61970.
1. Introduction of the coupling of the power grid information
1.1 Definition of information coupling in power grid
Based on Literature [2-3], we define the type of Fuzzy Petri Nets based on a series of functions including
State Logic, Time Window, Electrical Topology and Characteristic Quantity(STEC-FPN). It reveals the status
identification and its operation rules of the functions in the three processes of pre-judgment, identification and
decision making.
Definition1: Fuzzy Petri Nets system based on a series of functions including State Logic, Time Window,
Electrical Topology and Characteristic Quantity(STEC-FPNs), STEC-FPN ={Y (w) , T, P, F (x) }.
1) State element set W: {w(k)},the finite set of switching quantity information that can reflect the operation
state of substation equipment,W={w(k)},W=W1W2...Wn, and Wi={Wim}={Wim1,Wim2}(m=1,...,n)
means the state logic set for substation i. Wim1={wim1 (k) }Wim2={wim2 (k) } means the state logic set
for the secondary equipment and the primary equipment information of the space m in substation i,
wim1, 2 (k) [0,1],the value1 or 0 respectively represents normal or abnormal.
2) Time Window T: When the system analyzes the fault, it need make comprehensive judgment for related
signal of a period of time t , and the t is called the time window. T=T1T2...Tn, T1={t1}={t
(1) 1- } and Tn={tn}={t (n) 1- } , respectively express Substation 1 and n time window, T={t}={max
(t1, t2, ..., tn) }, t (0,T0) .
3) Electrical topology P: P=p{z1 (k) , tp}, tp represents the breaker status information, tp[0,1],tps value
1/0 respectively represent Normal / abnormal.
4) Characteristic Quantity Function F: F (x) =f{z1 (k) , z2 (i,u) , z3 (u,) } , which represents the relationship
between probability sequence of different lines and the fault characteristic derived by the result of state
coupling.
5) Logical operator: and respectively represent logic "and", "or" and "same or" operation.
Definition2:
Logical coupling: y ({w1 (k) }, {w2 (k) }) represents the logical coupling functions of the status elements of the
secondary equipment and the primary equipment information; the coupling operation Y (W1 (k)!, W2 (k)!)
represents the results of the coupling operation according to certain logic operation rules, which are the basis of
the fault pre-judgment.
Definition3: STEC-FPNs Status identity set M
Status identity set M: It describes the system dynamic behavior. Each state of the system corresponds to an
identity vector of the library; the collection of all the system states is denoted as M. In this paper, we use token
set {(p, (p))}to represent Mi; Mi(p)=(p) , the(p) is the token of library p. STEC-FPN involves the
processes of pre-judgment, identification and decision making: for the set of pre - judgment database WY,
(w){w} is a set of interval state element logic coupling MY (W); for the set of Fault feature fuzzy
identification database MT, (f)F (x) is a kind of Fuzzy number set MT (F); for the set of decision
database MJ, if MT (F) (0.5,1) and MY (W) =0, assistant decision set MJ(h) directly occurs through the
change of PJ.
Property1: STEC-FPNs operating rules
1) For Y (w) =0, if inference engine starts signal TL (w)=1, then change H (x) has the right to happen, denoted
as Mh;
2) For Y (w) =0, if inference engine starts signal TL (w) =0 and t (0,T0), then change F (x) has the right to
happen, denoted as MF;
3) if F (x) =0, then change J (x) has the right to happen, denoted as MJ.
1.2 The research object of information coupling of power grid
The intelligent substation based on IEC61850 standard uses the information sharing mode of the data bus. The
intelligent terminal and the interval layer are respectively provided by a data processing intelligent unit, which
may provide probable and necessary condition for logic coupling and information integration of the discrete
information generated by the intelligent terminal and equipment compartments in the process layer. Of the
monitoring information of master station, 80% are remote signal data from the interval layer; the coupling of the
interval data can relieve the pressure of the main station monitoring data processing.
This Paper, based on the examples of the line breaker and main transformer unit which operate as the key
equipment of the power grid and the main source of monitoring information of the main station, attempts to
analyze the logic coupling of the relevant information and explore the logic coupling trigger mechanism of grid
equipment abnormality and faults In order.
2. The logic coupling trigger mechanism of grid equipment abnormality
Take a 220kV line as an example. we deal with the equipment state elements (eg: the circuit breaker, line relay
protection, and so on) as abnormal characteristic quantity, on the other hand, we carry out hard logic correlation
and soft logic coupling operation, the specific coupling process is as follows:
2.1 Circuit breaker abnormity logic coupling Table 1
coupling
Circuit breaker state elements w1 (k) Coupling Judgment
operation
604 line switch SF6 low pressure alarm
604 line switch SF6 low pressure locking
w 1 (k)=0, 604 switch abnormal
604 line switch control circuit break w1 (k)
w 2 (k)=1, 604 switch normal

604 line switch pressure reducing and prohibited to reclose
2.2 Line protection device abnormity logic coupling table 2:
604 Line protection exception state element logic coupling coupling
Coupling Judgment
w2 (k) operation
604 Abnormal line protection device
604 line protection recloser locking w 1 (k)=0, 604 line protection
604 line protection device TA disconnection w 2 (k) abnormal
w 2 (k)=1, 604 line protection normal

604 line protection channel abnormal


W1 (k), W2 (k) represent the soft logic value of the state element, and its logic value "1/0" respectively
represents normal / abnormal ". Therefore, it can be extended that the main station layer spacing device
abnormal state element logic coupling algorithm is as follows:
y (w) = (w1 (k)) (w2 (k)) (1)
w1 (k)= w1 (1) w1 (2) w1 (k) (2)
w2 (k)= w2 (1) w2 (2) w2 (k) (3)
2.3 Master station equipment abnormity logic coupling criteria
According to the above logic coupling (1) of the abnormal state elements in the main station layer, the following
coupling abnormity criterion is obtained:
) w1 (k)= w1 (1) w1 (2) w1 (k) represents logic coupling of device element , and
w2 (k)= w2 (1) w2 (2) w2 (k) represents logic coupling of protection element .
) w1 (k)or w2 (k)=1/0, it indicates that the device is in the normal / abnormal state.
) y (w) =1/0, it indicates that the device interval is in the normal / abnormal state.
Based upon the interval and main transformer unit abnormity state element logic coupling algorithm (1), (2), (3)
and abnormal criteria I, II, III, Figure 1 below can be drawn from the main station spacing device status
correlation logic.
primary equipment
state element w11 Primary equipment
state element

logic coupling w1k!


primary equipment Master station equipment abnormal state
state element w1k logic coupling:
yw=w1kw2k
Secondary device state
element w21 Secondary equipment
state element

logic coupling
w2k
Secondary device state
element w2k
Figure 1: flow diagram of the main station interval equipment status correlation logic coupling
2.4 Master station equipment abnormity handling decision
According to the result of the above logic coupling, the following identification process is necessary before
taking further decision on the abnormal information.
2.4.1 Device state rule base
The following Table (3) is the rule base of the abnormity alarm of the master state element. It stores the
knowledge base that records equipment state abnormality information. The "abnormal reasons, warning
category, category of defect" represent three dimensions of the elements of a specific state description and
judgment.
Table 3: the structure of abnormal alarm rule base of main station equipment status element.
No Operation mode Abnormity reason Alarm type Defect category Disposal decision
h1 (x) h2 (x) h3 (x) h4 (x) J (x)

1 h1 (1) : h2 (1) : h3 (1) : h4 (1) : critical J (1) : exit sec-equipment


working primary ontology fault h4 (2) : serious J (2) : Change a running mode
2
h1 (2) : overhaul h2 (2) : h3 (2) : h4 (3) : commonly J (3) : Start abnormity
3 h1 (3) : sec-equipment abnormity handling process
inhibition h2 (3) : h3 (3) : J (4) : Start fault handling
4
h1 (4) : auxiliary device displacement process
debugging J (5) : Start defect disposal
process
2.4.2Coupling reasoning machine
The coupling reasoning machine uses the current state information, the coupling criteria and the knowledge base
to derive result based on abnormal information. This process mainly includes the reasoning algorithm and the
disposal strategy. The knowledge base is represented as a necessary result by the reasoning algorithm, and the
disposal strategy is to make a corresponding adjustment in advance according to the inevitable result of
abnormity development. The reasoning process is described as follows:
h (x) =h1 (x) h2 (x) h3 (x) h4 (x) (4)
2.4.3 Translator
The translator ranks by credibility the conclusions of abnormality or fault thru coupling reasoning, and tells
causes or provides handling recommendations about equipment abnormity or fault.
2.4.4 Example
Example 1: In a 220kV line, phase A of circuit breaker 604 tripped out due to a fault and then reclosed
successful ; then, the monitoring master station detects abnormity of the line 604 breaker low oil pressure
closing locking.
Its coupling decision-making steps are as follows:
According to the logic coupling decision: y(w)=w1 (k) =0, initial judgment is "line tripped, reclosed
successful, 604 circuit breaker abnormal".
According to abnormity logic coupling table 1, 2 , we can arrive at the conclusion that the abnormal state of
elements is "line 604 circuit breaker closing and locking under low oil pressure"
The abnormal operation mode: h1 (x) =h1 (1) "Operating"
The abnormal state element device properties: h2 (x) =h2 (1) "Primary body"
Alarm type for the abnormal state element: h3 (x) =h3 (1) "Abnormal"
The element defect category of the abnormal state: h4 (x) =h4 (1) "Critical"
Coupling reasoning and decision making: h (x) =h1 (x) h2 (x) h3 (x) h4 (x) =J (2) +J (5) , i.e. " open 604
circuit breaker + start critical defect disposal process".
3. Station fault information coupling mechanism
Fault information relates to different types of data, such as protective action, switch position, power flow, and
recording and so on. In order to facilitate the rapid processing of faults, we split the process information into two
processes: 1) Coupling pre-judgment: a monitor makes the initial report which is prejudgment directly from the
coupling result S(k)! (as shown in Table 4, 5, S(k)! =1/0 respectively on behalf of "normal / fault" state). 2)
Integrated final judgment: Based on the coupling pre-judgment results, to further determine the nature of the
fault combining with the process data and other features during the failure period This will be the basis for the
monitoring to make second, detailed report on the fault.
3.1 Line interval fault logic coupling table 4:
Coupling
Circuit breaker fault element logic coupling s1 (k) Coupling pre-judgment
operation
604 line switch interval fault signal
s1 (k) =1, normal
604 line main protection action s1 (k) =0, trip, reclosing succeed
604 line protection reclosing action S1 (k) s1 (k) =0, trip, reclosing unsuccessful
s1 (k) =0, trip, Missing phase operation

604 line protection A/B/C trip action s1 (k) =0, trip, Switch reject

3.2 Main transformer fault logic coupling table 5:


Main transformer fault element logic coupling s2 (k) Coupled Coupled pre-judgment
operation
Main transformer fault signal
s2 (k) =1,normal
Differential protection action
s2 (k) =0, Differential protection trip
Overload trip S2 (k)
s2 (k) =0, Non electricity protection trip

s2 (k) =0, Backup protection trip
Transformer Heavy Gas Operation
3.3 Fusion of multiple information sources
Identification of characteristics is based on the analysis process of the circuit breaker status, protection action,
node voltage phase angle, tidal current characteristics, which includes three aspects: 1) the protection and circuit
breaker action in the SCADA and RPMS system are logic coupled to get the feature Z1(k) of the protection and
circuit breaker action and fault component identification.2) The SCADA power flow information and the
WAMS node voltage information are coupled to get the Z2={z2(I, U) } of the characteristic information of the
branch current after the fault. 3)SCADA voltage change information and WAMS voltage phase angle
information coupled can obtain the node voltage phase angle feature information sequence set Z3={z3(U, )}
after faults. According to any one aspect of the above 1) 2) and the expected fault feature matching degree ,
we can identify the fault type.
On the basis of this, the decision process of multi-source information fusion of power network fault can be
obtained as following Figure 2:

switch action
RPMS Data Coupling result
z1k
protection action

SCADA Data Diagnostic results Fusion decision


Current
z2i,u F(X)

Voltage
WAMS Data Diagnostic results
z3u,
phase angle

Figure 2: decision of feature quantity information fusion


And ,F (x) =z1 (k) z2-3 (i,u, ) (5)
Among them, z2-3 (i,u, ) = max{z2 (i,u) } max{z3 (u,) } (6)
Property 2: Fusion rule of multi-information function F (x)
1) F (x) [0,1], and when z1(k) and z2-3(i,u, ) are pointing to the fault Lk simultaneously, if the logic operation
"" takes "true" ,then F(x) logic value is "1", otherwise F(x) logical is for "0" on behalf of the fault
identification results "false".
2) max {z2(i,u)}, max{z3(u,)} separately on respent the branch characteristic information z2(i,u), z3(u,) and
the highest feature matching branch of the expected faults .
4. The coupling fault reasoning model
Fault handling is the process of summarizing substation fault types and fault conditions and establishing fault
reasoning model and reasoning plan. The reasoning model mainly includes the following four parts.
4.1 Fault type G
The basic unit of fault includes component fault and combination fault. Component fault, for example: line fault,
bus fault, the main fault, etc. Combined fault is the combination of component faults in different conditions.
Complex fault can be decoupled into a combination of the basic unit of multiple faults.
4.2 Time window T
The T value is too short to cause the key signal missing, and causes low reliability of reasoning, but if it is too
long to lead to low recognition rate of information, and affects the efficiency of reasoning. generally it sets 3-
10s according to the experience value.
4.3 Coupling reasoning machine starting signal L
When the system is reasoning, a signal is needed as the starting condition of the reasoning machine . The main
signals of the system are composed of protection action, circuit breakers position change , fault signal and so
on.
4.4 Electrical topology TP
The cascading failure caused by the circuit breaking leads to the electrical topology evolution of the power grid.
The D5000 master control system can automatically identify the fault line according to the fault trend, breaker
position change, and build the coupling relationship of fault information between two ends of the transmission
line according to the topological start signal of TP (w) and fault start signal L (w).
Inference engine starting model: TL (w) = TP (w) L (w) (7)
Among them, TL (w) TP (w) L (w) [0,1], the logical value "1/0" represents "normal / abnormal".
5 . Application case
Example 2: as shown in Figure 3, A, B, C, D station and a 500kV local power grid connected by related lines:
8 5041 5042 5043 7
Station D
LAD36km LCD51km
Station A Station C

1 5011 5012 5013 2 6 5021 5022 5023 5

LAB27km LBC67km
3 5031 5032 5033
4
Station B

Figure 3:500kV schematic diagram of local power network


At some point, line LAB phase A permanent fault, station A, B, C protection acted, quickly removed the
fault, the primary and secondary equipment action, as shown in table 6.
Table 6: protection and circuit breaker action
protection Reclosing
NO Station Line circuit breaker action fault recorder
action action
5011: ABC ( off )
LAB RCS-931 distance:22km,
1 A 50115012 5012: AB( off ), C ( on ),
50115012 CSL101 current:3A
Phase C SF6 low pressure, locking
LAB RCS-931 distance:5km,
2 B 50315032 50315032: ABC ( off )
50315032 CSL101 current:6A
LBC distance:73km,
3 C WXH-802 50235022 50235022: ABC ( off )
50235022 current:1A
Through the SCADA remote communication and remote sensing information, PMU voltage and phase angle
information, protection action information of the RPMs and the multi-layer information coupling model, fault
diagnoses by three dimensions "time, space, features" ,and fault information coupling simulation results are
shown in Table 7.
Table 7: panoramic display of power grid fault information coupling decision-making process

Protection and Feature recognition trust


fault Fault judgment Coupling
coupling prediction switching action Branch
station WAMS J(X) decision
characteristic current

L AB TRIP,

SAB (4) =0, TRIP, protection


A 0.87 0.83 L AB A phase trip,
reclosing unsuccessful breaker act LAB and
reclosing unsuccessful ,
successful switch on
Fault point distance A station
L AB TRIP, both ends to
22km, A station 5012 C
SAB (4) =0, TRIP, protection overhaul
0.87 0.83 phase lock
reclosing unsuccessful breaker act
B successful

YBC (1) =0,


LBCWXH-802 B station LBC WXH-802
protection 0.41 0.37
abnormal protection exception , C
breaker rejecting act Exit b
station LBC external and
LBC protection station L BC
SBC (3) =0, TRIP, forward fault , TRIP,
C reclosure 0.41 0.37 WXH-802
reclosing successful reclosing successful
act successful protection

D station without exception,


D S,YD (4) =1,normal - 0.04 0.05
no fault

5. Conclusion
The simulation shows that logic coupling has obvious advantages in intelligent alarm, accurate judgment and
fast processing of the abnormal /fault in the monitoring master station:
1) According to the network equipment fault processing stages to extract the fault and abnormal information,
the method reduces more than 80% interference of the irrelevant information, several times to improve the
fault processing efficiency.
2) Establishing the master station monitoring information abnormity, fault conditions of the expected disposal
strategy, the method makes up for the lack of experience in abnormity and faults disposal.
3) According to the features of grid fault "matching node voltage phase angle, scanning branch power flow
changes", we previously establish contingency set of different branchs ,the method effectively avoids of
complex power grid fault online solution.
4) Decoupling the multi-station network fault into many single station faults and making the identification and
couple according to the three dimensions of time, space and characteristic quantity , the method improves
the identification degree of fault diagnosis effectively.
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