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FUELS and COMBUSTION 2. Liquid fuels

- a mixture of numerous
hydrocarbons and are obtained from
-any material that can be burned to release thermal
crude oil by distillation.
-in all fuels the two basic combustible elements are
carbon and hydrogen.

Classification of Fuel 3. Gaseous Fuels

1. Solid Fuels -As natural gas, oil derivatives (LPG),
- Are coal, chiefly anthracite and coke. acetylene, manufacture gas (from coal
-Coal contains varying amounts of oxygen, hydrogen, or oil residue) and biogas (from manure
nitrogen, sulfur, moisture, and ash. or sewage).

Analysis of Coal
Basis of Reporting Analysis
1. Proximate Analysis - The Bureau of Mines reports coal in the following
- Determines the percentage of moisture, volatile matter, manner:
fixed carbon, and ash.
- In some cases the percentage of sulfur is also obtained. 1. As Received or As Fired
2. Dry or Moisture Free
2. Ultimate Analysis 3. Moisture and Ash Free or Combustible
- ultimate analysis divides all the remaining part of the coal into 4. Moisture, Ash, and Sulfur Free
the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen in
percentages by weight.
- The ash content of the coal is independent of the type of analysis
and is therefore the same for both.

Sample Problem
1. Convert the proximate analysis of Cherokee County, Kansas coal given in
Table 5-1 to (a.) dry and (b.) to moisture and ash free. Composition of Fuels
-in all fuels the two combustible elements are carbon and
Proximate analysis of coal: (as fired) hydrogen, encountered either separately or in combinations
Moisture = 5.09% called hydrocarbons.
Volatile Matter = 34.47% - The general formula for all hydrocarbons is CnHm.
Fixed Carbon = 52.48%
Ash = 7.96%
2. Convert the ultimate analysis of Cherokee County, Kansas coal given in Table
5-1 to (a.) dry (b.) to moisture and ash free (c.) to moisture, ash, and sulfur free

Ultimate analysis of coal:

Carbon = 71.81% Sulfur = 3.34% Moisture = 5.09%
Hydrogen = 5.23% Nitrogen = 1.20%
Oxygen = 10.15% Ash = 8.27%

2. Alkenes or Olefins (CnH2n)

Types of Hydrocarbons -Chainlike hydrocarbons with double bonds

1. Alkanes or Paraffin (CnH2n+2)

- Chainlike hydrocarbons with purely single bonds

3. Alkines or Acetylenes (CnH2n-2)

-Chainlike hydrocarbons with one triple bond

Note: Hydrocarbons with chainlike structures are

Aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds

4. Cyclo-alkanes or Naphthenes (CnH2n)

-hydrocarbons with circular structures and purely single bonds
Note: Hydrocarbons with open
chain structures are Aliphatic
hydrocarbon compounds

5. Aromatics
- hydrocarbons with circular structures and double bonds

6. Alcohol
-is a chemical reaction in which certain elements of the fuel
-Alcohol are similar to paraffins with one of the hydrogen
combine with oxygen causing an increase n temperature of
atoms replaced with hydroxyl radical OH.
the gases.

Reactants Products

Fuel + Oxidizer Products


Balancing Chemical Equations 1. Methane (CH ) is burned with stoichiometric amount of


-Chemical equations are balanced on the basis of the air during a combustion process. Assuming complete
conservation of mass principle, which states that the total mass combustion, determine the airfuel and fuelair ratios.
of each element is conserved during a chemical reaction.
2. Propane fuel (C H ) is burned in the presence of air.
3 8

Assuming that the combustion is theoreticalthat is,

1 only nitrogen (N2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon
O2 + H2 H2O dioxide (CO2) are present in the productsdetermine
(a) the mass fraction of carbon dioxide and (b) the mole
and mass fractions of the water vapor in the products.

Properties of Fuels & Lubricants:

3. Octane (C H ) is burned with dry air. The volumetric analysis
8 18
1. Density and Specific Gravity
of the products on a dry basis is 9.21 percent CO , 0.61 2

percent CO, 7.06 percent O , and 83.12 percent N . Determine

2 2
Density =
(a) the air-fuel ratio and (b) the percentage of theoretical air
used. Specific Gravity =

4. A coal from Illinois which has an ultimate analysis (by mass) where: Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
as 67.40 percent C, 5.31 percent H , 15.11 percent O , 1.44
2 2
= 9.81 KN/m3
percent N , 2.36 percent S, and 8.38 percent ash (non-
= 1 kg/li
combustibles) is burned with 40 percent excess air. Calculate = 62.4 lb/ft3
the mass of air required per unit mass of coal burned and the
apparent molecular weight of the product gas neglecting the ash

2. oAPI & oBAUME Units:

." 3. Heating Value of Fuels:
( ) . " *+ , 1 %, 1, 2 3% 0
= #$ % ".&' a. Heating value of solid fuels, Qh:
Qh = 33,820C + 144,212(H - ) + 9,304S, kJ/kg
or ."
45 ".&' =789: ) ."
b. Heating value of liquid fuels:
= #$
( ) . " *+ , -,./ 0
Qh = 41,130 + 139.6 (oAPI), kJ/kg
% ".&'

Specific gravity with correction factors due to temperature

effect: Higher heating value - the heating value obtained when
water in the product of combustion is in the liquid state.
Lower Heating value - the heating obtained when the
SGt = #$ ".&' ; ( . < % ( ". & = >
water in the product of combustion is in the vapor state.
Calorimeter is use to measure the heating value of fuel.

Theoretical Air-Fuel Ratio for Solid Fuels :

1. The specific gravity of oil tested at 29.4' is 0.852. find its API in
7 degrees.
= 11.5C + 34.5(H - ) + 4.3S, kg air/kg fuel
? a. 35.98 b. 37.62 c. 32.98 d. 23.54
7 7
Actual Air-Fuel Ratio: = (Theoretical )(1 + e) 2. A diesel engine consumed 945 liters of fuel per day at 35'. If
the fuel was purchased at 15.6' and 30API at P29.00/li,
Given the following ultimate analysis:
determine the cost of fuel to operate the engine per day.
C = 70% O2 = 4% a. P5677.50 b. P4677.50 c. P48,088.90 d. P27,032.84
N2 = 5% S2 = 6%Moisture = 7% 3. A cylindrical tank 4 m long and 3 m diameter is used for oil
H2 = 3% Ash = 5% storage. How many days can the tank supply the engine having
Using 25% excess air, determine the actual air fuel ratio
27API with fuel consumption of 60 kg/hr.
a. 17.53 b. 5.84 c. 12.84 d. 19.84
A. 11.46 B. 24.85 C. 23.85 D. 26.85

4. A diesel power plant uses fuel with heating value of 45,038.8

kJ/kg. What is the density of fuel at 300C?
5. A 650 Bhp diesel engine uses fuel oil of 28 0API, fuel consumption
is 0.65 lb/Bhp-hr. Cost of fuel is P 7.95 per liter. For continuous
operation, (a) determine the minimum volume of cubical day tank in
cm 3, ambient temperature is 450C (b) determine the cost of fuel per
day at 45 0C.
6. A logging firm in Isabela operates a Diesel Electric Plant to supply
its electric energy requirements. During a 24 hours period, the plant
consumed 250 gallons of fuel at 80 0F and produced 2700 kW-hrs.
Industrial fuel used is 300API and was purchased at P3.00/li at 600F.
Determine the cost of fuel to produce one kw-hr and the overall
thermal efficiency of the plant.