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5, MAY 2011 1587

Impacts of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Voltage
Sags on DFIG-Based Wind Turbines Considering
Phase-Angle Jump, Voltage Recovery,
and Sag Parameters
Mansour Mohseni, Student Member, IEEE, Syed M. Islam, Senior Member, IEEE,
and Mohammad A. S. Masoum, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents a new analysis into the impacts I. INTRODUCTION
of various symmetrical and asymmetrical voltage sags on doubly
HE past decade has seen the emergence of wind as the
fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines. Fault ride-
through requirements are usually defined by the grid codes at
the point of common coupling (PCC) of wind farms to the power
T most dynamically growing energy source and doubly fed
induction generators (DFIGs) as the most popular technology
network. However, depending on the network characteristics and used in wind energy conversion systems. The DFIG concept
constraints, the voltage sag conditions experienced at the wind gen-
has several advantages as compared to the fixed-speed genera-
erator terminals can be significantly different from the conditions
at the PCC. Therefore, it is very important to identify the voltage tors, including maximized power capture, reduced mechanical
sags that can practically affect the operation of wind generators. stresses on the turbine, and reduced acoustical noise. In ad-
Extensive simulation studies are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink dition, this technology is more economically viable than the
to investigate the transient overshoots and ripples that appear in full-converter variable-speed concept since it employs voltage-
the rotor current and dc-link voltage when the DFIG is subjected
to various types of (a)symmetrical faults. For the first time, the
source converters (VSCs) rated at 30%–35% of the generator
impacts of phase-angle jump and operational constraints of cir- size for the rotor speed variation range of ±25% [1], [2]. Note
cuit breakers are examined. Furthermore, the influences of sag that in the full-converter wind generators, the gearbox can be
parameters including type, initial point-on-wave instant, depth, eliminated to reduce the cost and complexity of the system.
and impedance angle are investigated. Complementary theoretical The DFIG concept suffers from a sheer vulnerability to the grid
analyses are also presented to support the validity of observations
faults and special countermeasures must be taken to safeguard
made in the simulation studies.
it against various voltage sag conditions.
Index Terms—Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), fault In the past, the wind power penetration level was extremely
ride-through (FRT) capability, phase-angle jump, sag parameters,
small compared to the conventional generation systems, and
voltage sag recovery.
grid codes did not include any connection requirements for
wind energy conversion systems. Therefore, wind generators
NOMENCLATURE were allowed to disconnect from the grid during the fault, using
Vectors and Symbols an active resistance called “crowbar” [2]. However, this ap-
α, ψ Impedance angle, fault current angle. proach can cause serious stability problem in power networks
ti , tf Initial and final point-on-wave instants. with a high integration level of wind generation systems. To
V, I, Φ Voltage, current, and flux space vectors. avoid this problem, system operators in many countries have
Subscripts recently established more stringent connection requirements for
s, r Stator and rotor windings. wind generators integrated into the transmission or distribution
+, − Positive- and negative-sequence components. networks. Specifically, modern grid codes define the voltage-
Superscripts time profiles, for which wind farms must remain connected to
g, r Arbitrary and rotor reference frames. the grid, commonly referred to as the fault ride-through (FRT)
requirements [3]. Fig. 1 shows a practical example of the FRT
specifications required by Spanish system operators, REE, for
wind generators connected to the transmission system (V ≥
66 kV) [4]: a wind farm shall remain connected to the transmis-
Manuscript received April 30, 2010; revised August 11, 2010; accepted sion system under the sag conditions when the voltage measured
October 4, 2010. Date of current version June 29, 2011. Recommended for
publication by Associate Editor Z. Chen.
at the high-voltage (HV) terminals of the grid-connected trans-
The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineer- former remains above the dashed line for two-phase-to-ground
ing, Curtin University of Technology, Perth 6101, Australia (e-mail: mansour. faults and above the solid line for other types of faults. It is clear
mohseni@postgrad.curtin.edu.au; s.islam@curtin.edu.au; m.masoum@curtin.
that Point C, with 20% remnant voltage, is the most severe sag
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online condition requested by the Spanish Grid Code.
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Achieving recent FRT requirements is a significant technical
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2010.2087771
issue for wind generator manufacturers. To fulfill this objective,
0885-8993/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE

age to the transmission-level voltage. and impedance angle) on the peak values of the fault conditions has been comprehensively investigated in the rotor current and dc-link voltage. trips and circuit breakers isolate the fault. Section III circuit breakers. The gap becomes even more evident in [15]. wind turbine have not been investigated in the literature.1588 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. T1 represents the ulation studies are carried out for the voltage sag conditions that step-up transformer that is located in the nacelle of each wind cannot be practically experienced at the DFIG terminals. where sim. FRT requirements of wind farms at the PCC—Spanish Grid Code. turbine to increase the low-level voltages generated at the DFIG over. e. can be . This would help to accurately identify the real. gates the influence of sag parameters (type. Symmetrical Faults and Phase-Angle Jump amine very limited sag conditions. submarine ac cables configurations.” on the operation of DFIG-based wind farms have transforms used in one of the largest offshore wind farms in not been explored in the literature. This section also examines the effects of phase-angle control techniques can be suggested to address these problems jump and voltage-recovery process. Initial works were mainly aimed to develop reduced-order models for DFIG-based wind turbines in network II. have focused on the detailed transient response and FRT capa- bility of DFIGs under asymmetrical sag conditions [13]–[20].g. the voltage at the point ies were presented to support the work. initial point-on-wave The operation of DFIG-based wind turbines under various instant. utmost importance. The FRT capability of DFIG-based wind turbines sub. the wind farm. 26. MAY 2011 Fig. In this way. 5. This section aims to phase faults. wind farm. tems. Simulink and is subjected to various sag conditions to investi- dict the evolution of electrical and mechanical variables under gate the transient overshoots and steady-state ripples that appear different sag conditions. which cannot adequately The voltage-divider model can be used to formulate the volt- represent the broad range of FRT requirements specified in grid age sag conditions caused by three-phase faults in radial sys- codes. at the HV side of T2. According to Fig. the difficulties of success. 2. More. but terminals to the medium voltage used in the collection grid of also its phase angle can be affected by faults in the grid. This paper aims to address the aforementioned shortcomings a thorough insight into the FRT specifications and what they and thoroughly examine the impacts of various (a)symmetrical practically request at the wind generators terminals is of the voltage sags on the operation of DFIG-based wind turbines. jected to three-phase faults has been studied in [10] and [11]. considering the transformers’ the effects of transformers’ configuration. i. In terminals under different types of faults. it is known that not only the magnitude of the voltage. which will be used to analyze the simulation results. the fundamental frequency response of the DFIG under three-phase grid voltage will drop to the lower levels until a protection device faults. Following this. have been shown in Fig. Section II presents the characterization and classification of straints of power networks must be taken into account including various voltage sag conditions. The main shortcoming is that most of the reported studies ex.. referred to as “phase. and modifications to the conventional faults. will be used to increase the collection-grid volt- Detrimental impacts of this phenomenon. characterize and classify the voltage sag conditions caused by mental impacts on the DFIG [12]–[14]. Voltage divider model (italic figures are the real parameters for Horns– Rev Wind Farm and “N ” is the total number of wind turbines).e. and fault-clearing mechanism of current zero-crossing operation of circuit breakers. Therefore. are more likely to occur and could have more detri. voltage-recovery process and sag parameters on DFIG-based Fig. the wind generator is simulated in MATLAB/ transient models of wind generators can be incorporated to pre. During this interval. 1. 2 [22]. Finally. phase-to.. further insight [23]. In this figure. Finally. A. The relevant features and operational con. 2. as shown in Fig. last decade [5]–[20]. presents a brief theoretical study of the DFIG system under grid istic voltage sag conditions that are expected at wind generator faults. CHARACTERISTIC AND CLASSIFICATION OF VOLTAGE SAGS stability studies [5]–[9]. depth. impedance angle of the grid. the effects of of common coupling (PCC). a large ticularly for wind farms directly connected to the distribution step-up transformer (T2). NO. 2 to provide briefly discussed in [21]. it was shown that asymmetrical faults. Real parameters for the angle jump. VOL. wind generators connected to the same bus as the faulted feeder However. In cascade to the nacelle transformers. detailed Section IV. but no theoretical or simulation stud. This type of model is restricted to the When a fault occurs at some points in the power network. sized at the nominal capacity of the systems or offshore wind farms with ac submarine cables [21]. recent works different types of faults in the grid. These problems have been the world. Section V investi- and enhance the FRT capability of wind generators. in the rotor current and dc-link voltage under different types of ful FRT will be identified. par. Horns Rev. and the natural used in offshore wind farms. will experience a voltage sag condition.

two-phase to ground. ground fault occurs between phases a and b. δ = arg(Vsag ) = arg(Zf ) − arg(Zs + Zf ). whereas. 2.g. while the pole of the circuit breakers can only B. α = −20◦ . and Zf is the impedance between the PCC and fault location. the zero-sequence component in the secondary side (see Bus 1 ators. However. the relation between the sag magnitude and the corresponding On the other hand. The coupling transformer angle. and α = −60◦ . the wind vectors depending on the network impedance angle. grid faults that types of voltage sags (types B to G) can appear at the PCC involve more than two phases (e. the phase-angle jump would be very small. and −60◦ (the minimum value for wind farms located of Table I. In [22]. Therefore. However.e. and G will be observed phase-angle jump for various impedance angles. It is not practical to consider individual characteristics (T2) is usually connected in Y Δ configuration. the circuit breaker i. It can be seen only if the transformers’ configurations are taken into account. phase-angle jump can be established for any specific impedance due to the transformers’ configuration.. the impedance combination (known as impedance angle).MOHSENI et al. voltage sag experienced at the wind generator terminals during quently.: IMPACTS OF SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL VOLTAGE SAGS 1589 defined as follows: Zf Vsag = Vs (1) Zf + Zs where Vs is the prefault voltage. F. three-phase faults cause large sudden variations of the voltage phase angles. to generator must be subjected to the sag types of A. a unique relationship between the sag magnitude and its asymmetrical faults can be substantially different from the PCC. This is because when the circuit breaker operates and angle of the characteristic voltage (Vsag ) define the remnant in one phase. it can be observed that the “λ” value varies depending on the fault distance. Thus. and G.. (2) TABLE I For the conventional transmission systems. As a result. sag-type A propagates unchanged throughout the network can first operate in the zero crossing point of phase a. six of the corresponding phase current. Point B in Fig. Asymmetrical Faults and Voltage Sag Classification function and isolate the fault at the natural zero-crossing points If an asymmetrical fault occurs in the power network. the fault will develop into another type and the voltage and phase-angle jump. (Vsag = 0. Three-phase sags are normally characterized by the magnitude of the remnant voltage and the duration. Fault Clearance and Voltage-Recovery Process and C. it has been full voltage recovery will take place with the operation of circuit demonstrated that the transformers’ configuration cannot affect breakers in other faulted phases. −20◦ (typical value for distribution of the nacelle transformer. If (2) is rewritten with Zf /Zs = λej α . the “α” parameter is fixed for any given source-–fault from the PCC toward Bus 1 and Bus 2 in Fig. e. This phenomenon is referred to as “phase-angle jump” and is defined by Fig. Afterward. It is clear that sag types B and E cannot reach the offshore with submarine/underground AC cables)..g. is defined based on the configuration for transmission systems). three- and the wind generator terminals [22]. respectively. B2 (Vsag = 0. the three-phase fault causes not only a drop in the voltage magni- tudes. Points B1 (Vsag = 0. as listed in the last two columns systems). it is concluded that to thoroughly examine the operation Code (e. It is known that the protection relays might trip at any time during the fault. if the X/R ratios of the impedance Zs and Zf are different. 3 shows generator terminals as they include zero-sequence components. the sag type at Bus 2. and B3 F. 1) are mapped to different voltage of DFIG-based wind turbines under fault conditions. and three-phase-to-ground faults) will be cleared in two of various sag types are given in the Appendix. D. both Zs = Rs + VOLTAGE SAG PROPAGATION INSIDE THE WIND FARM jXs and Zf = Rf + jXf are mainly formed by overhead trans- mission lines and large transformers.g. if a two-phase-to- the voltage sag conditions caused by three-phase grid faults. the X/R ratio of the source impedance is noticeably larger than the Zf impedance. However. Fig. then the . therefore. Zs is the source impedance at PCC. that the voltage sag conditions specified in the Spanish Grid Finally. C. The magnitude or three steps. Similar comments can be made about Points A C.6|−−31◦ ) for α = 0◦ . For example.6|−0◦ ). Conse. for wind farm connected to the distribution systems or offshore wind farms with high- voltage submarine cables. 3. this paper focuses on the typical impedance in Fig.6|−−12◦ ). including 0◦ (the most common value wind generator terminals. C∗ .. experienced at the angles proposed by [22]. respectively. The phasor expressions phase. sag types D. Voltage sag magnitude versus phase-angle jump for various impedance angles. D∗ . 2). but also a sudden change in the phase angle of the three- phase voltage. which filters out of each network for testing the FRT capability of wind gener.

dt dt tal frequency. Fig.and rotor-voltage vectors in the arbitrary frame can respectively. 4(a) shows the “Γ-form” equivalent circuit of the machine “tf 2 ” and “tf 3 ” will be included to represent the instants that that has been used in this paper for the DFIG modeling [27]. In cascade to the power control loop. be the most popular technique used in DFIG-based wind tur- In [24]. VOL.1590 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Note that the final point-on-wave instant (tf 1 ) is be defined as follows: defined according to the fault current angle (ψ) and the other two recovery instants (tf 2 and tf 3 ) are delayed by 60◦ . The outer power control loop It can be seen that the three-phase faults that generate type A is employed to achieve an independent control of the electri- voltage sags can be cleared in five different ways (involving two cal torque (active power) and the machine excitation (reactive or three steps). MAY 2011 TABLE II VOLTAGE-RECOVERY SEQUENCES AND FAULT CLEARANCE INSTANTS WITH IDENTICAL FAULT CURRENT ANGLES FOR DIFFERENT SAG TYPES single-phase-to-ground fault in phase b will be cleared. the rotor-voltage vector in the arbitrary frame former. NO. In DFIG-based wind turbines. The flux space vectors are defined as follows: III. the second and third phases of the circuit breaker clear the fault. This control approach is structured in a hierarchi- possibilities of voltage recovery are listed. given in Table II. where Lm and Lσ are the magnetizing and leakage inductances. respectively. In Table II. 90◦ . (7) . from a four-quadrant pulse width modulation (PWM) converter with controllable voltage magnitude and frequency. syn- E. Vrg = Rr Igr + Lσ + + j(ω − ωr ) · (Lσ Igr + Φgs ). scripts “s” and “r” distinguish quantities or parameters on the stator and rotor sides. fourteen types of sags corresponding to different bines [25]. or dΦgs Vsg = Rs Igs + + jω · Φgs (3) 120◦ with respect to tf 1 . the d-axis of the synchronous point-on-wave instant that the fault occurs and “tf 1 ” is the final frame is aligned with the stator-flux space vector. dIgr dΦgs Consequently. If the fault is to be cleared in two or three steps. via is obtained as follows: slip rings. [26]. rotating anti- point-on-wave instant that the first pole of the circuit breaker clockwise at the speed of ω s (ω = ω s ). cal double-closed-loop strategy. “ti ” is the initial this field-oriented control method. clears the fault. It can be seen that the voltage- recovery instant is discrete and nearly constant for any network where “ω” is the angular speed of the arbitrary frame. while the generator operates at variable speeds. The typical value of the fault current dt angle is equal to 75◦ –85◦ for overhead transmission systems and dΦgr Vrg = Rr Igr + + j(ω − ωr ) · Φgr (4) 45◦ –60◦ for distributions systems or transmission systems with dt submarine/underground cables. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DFIG UNDER GRID FAULTS Φgs = Lm (Igs + Igr ) = Lm Igm (5) This section presents the theoretical analysis of the DFIG operation under various types of voltage sags to support the Φgr = Lσ Igr + Lm (Igs + Igr ) (6) validity of simulation studies. For will be cleared in a single way. two-phase-to-ground faults that generate types power) [25]. and faults that generate other sag types pling parts will be used to control the rotor current vector. whereas the three-phase wound rotor is supplied. The stator. or G voltage sags can be cleared in two different ways chronous frame PI current regulators with feed-forward decou- (involving two steps). and sub- with a given fault current angle ψ [24]. 26. the stator winding is directly connected to the nacelle trans- Using (5) and (6). F. 5. the stator remains constant at the grid fundamen. leading The stator-flux-oriented vector control has so far proven to to the full voltage recovery.

it rotates at the speed of the stator flux are aligned in the opposite directions. assume that a symmetrical three-phase fault occurs in and type of the sag as well as the phase-angle jump value and the the grid and the stator voltage drops to zero. where Vro = . r dΦrs Vro = = jsωs Φrs . As a result. The corresponding EMF is equal to j(2 − one). be capable of controlling the rotor current through the stator-flux trajectory at the beginning and the end of the fault. the stator-forced flux. and the voltage-recovery parameters will be examined. (8) dt dt It is seen from (8) that the rotor voltage is jointly defined by two components: the electromagnetic force (EMF) induced by the stator-flux space vector. Fig. transient faults affect the DFIG in different ways and large phase-angle overcurrents with magnified amplitudes can flow in the rotor jumps has large detrimental impacts on the DFIG-based wind winding.: IMPACTS OF SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL VOLTAGE SAGS 1591 The Vr vector can be expressed in the rotor frame by substi- tuting ω = ω r in (7)   r r r dIrr r dΦrs Vr = Vro + Rr Ir + Lσ . the EMF induced in the rotor winding can be calcu. range (typically less than ±0.5 pu). The nominal output voltage of frequency of (2 − s)f s in the rotor winding.and negative-sequence components. The Under asymmetrical grid faults. it exponentially decays to zero discontinuity in the stator-flux trajectory.3 pu). a natural the RSC must be large enough to dominate the induced EMF. [29]. the stator-flux space vec- tor rotates at the slip frequency with respect to the rotor winding. Similar comments can be made for partial voltage sags with The simulation analysis is conducted using MAT- depth p. or in other words. a negative-sequence compo- DFIG technology is to be used in applications with limited slip nent will be added to the three-phase stator-voltage waveform. then. machine slip and rotates slowly with the frequency of sω s . suddenly drops to (1 − p)Φs at the fault occurrence ulated network with the parameters given in the Appendix. the effects of initial point-on-wave instant the RSC if no protection scheme is incorporated. EFFECTS OF VOLTAGE SAGS ON DFIG will appear in the rotor winding. Referring to Fig. if with a speed proportional to the stator time constant (τ s = the positive and negative sequences of the stator flux are aligned Lm /Rs ) [28]. just after the fault occurrence instant to avoid sudden changes the largest value of the natural flux will be needed to avoid the in the stator-flux trajectory. Moreover. the induced EMF is proportional to the flux continuity at the fault start and clearance instants. and the voltage drops across Rr and Lσ . In such an ω r in the rotor winding. s)ω s Φs − that will be imposed on the rotor winding impedance and calculate. a natural component with the dt frequency of (1 − s)ω s must be incorporated to guarantee the According to (9).. Therefore. In such an extreme initial point-on-wave instant. Parameters Rr and Lσ are usually very small. imposed by the grid LAB/Simulink. the forced-flux space the natural EMF component can be severely large because it is vectors can be identical before and after the fault and no natural proportional to (1 − s). Fig. (b) Equivalent circuit lated by of the machine viewed in the rotor frame.MOHSENI et al. i. Thus. 4(b). It will be shown that symmetrical and asymmetrical grid this frequency is small (typically less than 0. This would generate a transient EMF extreme case. which is equal to the vector component with the initial value of |Φs 0 | = ω r Φs = (1 − summation of positive. Therefore. the adopted field-oriented vector control scheme. the stator-forced flux. extensive simulation studies are carried out to transient overvoltages are imposed on the impedance formed examine the operation of DFIG under different types of voltage by Rr + jω r Lσ . This natural response is needed the minimum possible amplitude just after the sag instant. Moreover. Vrr ≈ Vro r [28]. therefore. the first term in (8) can be neglected as compared to the induced EMF. with some safety margin. Under normal operation conditions. Thus. the rotor voltage will This voltage sequence (Vs − ) generates a flux component ro- be equal to a reduced fraction of the stator voltage (the turn ratio tating clockwise at the speed of (2 − s)ω s with respect to the between the stator and rotor windings is assumed to be equal to rotor winding [29]. (a) “Γ-form” equivalent circuit of the machine. The highest natural flux response case. these In this section. has s)ω s Φs in the rotor winding. the initial value of in the same direction at the fault instant. (9) instantaneously change. it is very likely that the natural response will be observed in the flux trajectory. 4. the stator-flux space vector becomes fixed with respect to would appear when the positive and negative components of the stationary frame. EMF exceeds the voltage rating of the rotor-side converter just after the fault occurrence. as shown in Fig. thus. This generates larger current ripples at the needed at the converter output. 5 shows the schematic diagram of the sim- voltage. This can easily destroy the semiconductor switches in turbines. the maximum voltage of Rr + j(2 − s)ω s Lσ . This can be used to design the rotor side converter (RSC). On the other hand. In this case. 4(b). the stator flux is a state variable that cannot stator-flux-oriented vector controller is adopted in the RSC to . flux component must be incorporated to insure the continuity of and in turn. Despite the decaying nature. The instant. The initial value of the natural flux component depends on depth Now. Since the impedance of the rotor winding at sags. the controllability of the converter will be lost temporarily and severe overvoltages IV. However.e.

The most severe transients 20 msec. given in Table III. while the from 1. Note that the GSC capability to transfer the DFIG transient response. link voltage at the fault clearance instant vary depending 1) Fig. show the effects grid.2 0◦ ). Therefore. The correspond. For the theoretical analysis of simu- active power has been further decreased during the fault lation results. and tions are the stator voltage. 5. and dc-link voltage the type A3 develops to type E2a . 6 (d)–(e).1592 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. a programmable voltage source recovery process. Schematic circuit diagram of the simulated network. the partially The DFIG operation under asymmetrical faults is examined scaled GSC does not have enough capacity to immediately by imposing a 60% type-C voltage sag at the wind generator ter- transfer the superfluous power from the capacitor to the minals. NO.2 pu. 4) Fig. 4). possibilities of voltage recovery. Therefore. However. the dc-link voltage temporarily increases of the initial point-on-wave instant and phase-angle jump on the to 1. and then type Bb before [13]–[16]. rotor current. a large natural flux A. According to Table II (rows 2 and that the most critical electrical parameters during sag condi. This would generate a large sudden change of 0. thus. 8(a). it is clear that the rotor current and dc-link voltage overshoots decrease control the active and reactive powers of the DFIG. It is also worth noting cays to zero after 0. 2) Fig.75 pu in the rotor winding at t = 0.03 pu. 6 (g)–(l): The overshoots of the rotor current and dc. Simulation results. the full recovery. observations are as follows. As a result.15 to 1. 8. the RSC regains the controllability that the dc-link voltage overshoot under the worst scenario (ψ = of the current in the rotor winding and regulates it back to 45◦ ) is still smaller than the unrealistic voltage-recovery over- the prefault command value. 5. 1) Fig. Symmetrical Faults and Voltage-Recovery Process component will be required to provide the continuity in The DFIG operation under symmetrical three-phase faults is the stator-flux trajectory and large overshoots will appear tested by imposing a 60% type-A sag with zero phase-angle in the rotor winding. (d). MAY 2011 crease after the fault clearance instant due to the full avail- ability of the grid voltage. 6 (g)–(i): The fault causes a large transient overcurrent Fig. results for type A0 with types A1 and A3 . Fig. By comparing the simulation Fig. The main 3) Fig. Note that there is no steady.7 to 1. Also. and negative-sequence components. this means that the type A1 develops to type Ca . distribution systems or located offshore. Consequently. avoid the stator-flux discontinuity at each step. 6 (j)–(l): Large overcurrents in the rotor winding lead B. the grid voltage is decomposed into the positive- because the grid voltage has dropped by 40% [16]. . Asymmetrical Faults and Phase-Angle Jump to the sudden increase of the active power injected from the RSC into the dc-link capacitor.0 smaller than the initial point-on-wave instant (ti ) as the pu just after the fault instant and no natural flux compo- GSC capacity to transfer the superfluous power will in. Similar observations state ripple during the fault because the resulting voltage have been made for other types of voltage sags with different sag (type A) does not include any negative-sequence com.4 pu in the stator-forced flux.15 pu (experienced in type A0 ). 6 (g)–(l): The voltage-recovery process will generate smaller overshoots if the operational contrarians of the cir- cuit breakers are taken into account and three-phase faults are considered to be cleared at the natural zero-crossing points of the phase currents.1 s.8  0◦ and V− = 0. for types A1 and A3 . 6 shows the simulation results with three pos. It is clear of the recovery type. ponent. B1 in Table III. 6 (a)–(c) and zoomed at the voltage-recovery steps and smaller natural flux components are required to instant in Fig. respectively. How. respectively. However. the forced flux component will be equal to 1. For type A0 .1 sec regardless dc-link voltage during the voltage-recovery process. the full voltage recovery is implemented to simulate various sag conditions that can be will take place in one step at the final point-on-wave (tf 1 ). The fault current angle has been set to three-phase fault will be cleared in two and three consecu- ψ = 80◦ and the machine rotates with ω r = 1. experienced at the generator terminals. This vector control scheme has been comprehen- quence components of the stator flux during the voltage- sively discussed in [26]. 26. the positive.and negative-sequence components will be observed if the breakers are assumed to clear the of the grid voltage are aligned in the same direction (Point three-phase fault in one step (unrealistic type A0 ). the forced component of the sibilities of the sag recovery. nent will be required to provide the stator-flux continuity. V+ = 0.1 pu and from 1. As the natural EMF de. and (g): If the sag type C occurs at ti = T = on the voltage-recovery type. it generates a current component with f = 1. the fault current angle changes from 85◦ to 45◦ . it is worth noting that the overshoots at tf 1 are still sequently. It is known tive steps. grid-side converter (GSC) is aimed to keep the dc-link volt- These observations can be justified by analyzing the se- age constant. shoot of 1. the jump (Point B1 in Fig. VOL. it ing EMF component is fixed with respect to the stationary can be concluded that more severe voltage-recovery conditions frame.2 pu. 7 shows the influence of the fault current angle on the of 1. The main observations are as follows.2 will be experienced in the DFIG-based wind farms connected to pu = 60 Hz in the rotor winding. 3). Con- ever. presented in Fig. The stator-voltage waveforms are stator flux gradually changes in two or three consecutive shown in Fig. This overshoot is originated from that the overshoot in the dc-link voltage increases by 10% when the natural response of the stator flux.

during the fault period. 90◦ ) and the large natural flux response of 0.Stator voltage (zoomed around tfl ). the presence of the neg.Stator voltage. .Stator voltage. (i) Sag Type A3 . the negative-sequence oscillations remain unsuppressed served in the dc-link voltage. 1. Simulation results for three-phase faults (type A) with different possibilities of the voltage recovery. whereas the minor axis appears when they are aligned in opposite directions. there is no transient overshoot in the rotor cur. However. the stator-forced flux has the min- imum possible value just after the sag (equal to 0. Therefore. (k) Sag Type Sag Type A1 .1 sec. if the sag occurs at ti = T/4 = 5 msec. (d) Sag Type A0 .2 −90◦ ). tively. In voltage-recovery process.and negative-sequence components are aligned in the same direction. 6. (b) Sag Type A1 - Stator voltage.Rotor current. the flux trajectory changes to an ellipse without any transients.MOHSENI et al. (e). (g) Sag Type A0 .: IMPACTS OF SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL VOLTAGE SAGS 1593 Fig. 2) Fig.6 pu and the frequency of (2 − s)fs = 110 Hz. imposed by the grid voltage.Rotor current.0 pu radius. (l) Sat Type A3 . 8(j): Under normal operation conditions. respec- nitude of 0. such an extreme case. (f) Sag Type A3 .and negative-sequence com- ponents of the grid voltage will be aligned in the opposite Fig.8  90◦ and V− = 0. with the peak-to-peak mag.Dc-link voltage. needed to avoid discontinuity in the stator-flux trajectory.4 pu will be rent or dc-link voltage. ative sequence in the stator voltage generates large current This will generate large transient overshoots of 2. The natural response decays after 0. 3) Fig.2 pu in the rotor current and dc-link voltage. whereas Similar double-frequency oscillations (±2. as the fault takes place. (j) Sag Type A0 .Dc-link voltage.Stator voltage (zoomed around tfl ). Influence of the fault current angle ψ on the dc-link voltage during the directions (V+ = 0. 7.0 and ripples in the rotor winding. Then. (a) Sag Type A0 .3%) can be ob. and (h): The relative rotation speed of the positive. The major axis of the ellipse corresponds to the instants that positive.Stator voltage (zoomed around tfl ). (c) Sag Type A3 .Dc-link voltage.6  Likewise. the positive. (e) Sag Type A1 . (h) Sag Type A1 .and negative-sequence components of the grid voltage is equal to 2ω s . 8(b).Rotor current. the stator- flux space vector traces a circular trajectory of 1.

26. DECOMPOSITION OF THE GRID VOLTAGE INTO THE POSITIVE. if the sag occurs at ti = T/4 = 5 msec.68 pu has stator-flux trajectory to be positioned away from the origin been manifested in the stator-flux trajectory by the large just after the fault instant. the influence of the initial point-on-wave in- of V+ = 0. (b) Sag Type C1 and t1 = T/4. the sequence components of the grid voltage just after the fault instant are equal to V+ = 0. This would generate very large transient overshoots of 2. TABLE III sag starting at ti = 0 sec (refer to Point B3 in Table II). without and with phase-angle jump.6  −31◦ . (e) Sag Type C1 and t1 = T/4. 5. INFLUENCE OF SAG PARAMETERS ON THE TRANSIENT of −31◦ . Simulation results for 60% type-C voltage sag with different initial point-on-wave instants. 8(k): The natural flux response of 0. The natural flux component overshoot observed just after the fault instant. i. 5) Fig. the finally decays to zero with a speed proportional to the axes of elliptic trajectory have been tilted by 45◦ since the stator winding time constant and the stator-flux elliptic positive and negative sequences of the grid voltage are in trajectory will be centered again at the origin. respectively.68  −37◦ is required in the stator-flux response. 45◦ phase difference for Point B3 . (i) Sag Type C1 and t1 = T/4 (with Phase-angle jump).29  −57◦ . (c) Sag Type C1 and t1 = T/4 (with Phase-angle jump).4 pu forces the 6) Fig. Vsag = 0. (d) Sag Type C1 and ti = 0. 8(c). (k) Sag Type C1 and t1 = T/4. This sag condition RESPONSE OF DIFG leads to the positive. NO.2%. (j) Sag Type C1 and ti = 0. Also. 4) Fig. 8(l): Very large natural flux response of 0.6  58◦ and a natural response of 0.29  33◦ for the type-C stant. sag depth. (h) Sag Type C1 and t1 = T/4.0 pu and ±4. the 60% voltage sag will be associated with a phase-angle jump V.77−12◦ and V− = 0.1594 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. the double- frequency ripples in the rotor current and dc-link voltage will rise to 1.e. respectively. due to the increase in the negative-sequence component of the grid voltage.77  78◦ and V− = 0. In addition. (l) Sag Type C1 and t1 = T/4 (with Phase-angle jump).AND NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS FOR DIFFERENT SAG TYPES Accordingly. MAY 2011 Fig. 8.and negative-sequence components In this section.35 pu in the rotor current and dc-link voltage. (f) Sag Type C1 and t1 = T/4 (with Phase-angle jump). the forced flux will be equal to 0.7 and 1. thus. and network impedance angle on the transient . VOL. and (i): For offshore wind farms. (f). (g) Sag Type C1 and ti = 0.. (a) Sag Type C1 and ti = 0.

respectively. G. For example. i. C∗ . the most max {|Vdc (t)|} unfavourable initial point-on-wave corresponds to the in- Vdc. 60% remnant voltage and different impedance angles. sec- max {|Ir a (t)|. The parameters of in. (11) stant that the positive. the overshoots in Ir and V dc faults (type A) because there is no associated negative-sequence will increase by 45%–60% and 20%–40%. voltage sags are associated with phase-angle jump (re- wave instant for 60% types C and D voltage sags. will be needed to avoid the flux discontinuity. phase-angle jump. 9 displays the peak values of the negative-sequence component of the grid voltage when rotor current and dc-link voltage versus the initial point-on. e. defined in per unit as follows: the highest peaks for types D∗.base associated with a phase-angle jump. (d) Sage Type D. With large phase-angle jumps. D. Fig. if the impedance angle wave instant has no influence on the peak values for three-phase changes from 0 to −60◦ . C.and negative-sequence components Vdc. (c) Sage Type D. and G with no phase- terest for this study are the peak values of the rotor current and angle jump take place at ti = T/4 sec (θi = 90◦ ).25 pu for Ir imum possible value of the forced flux (the difference and V dc . 9. sag types C and D (typical safety margins are shown with dashed horizontal lines). C.: IMPACTS OF SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL VOLTAGE SAGS 1595 Fig. It was 2) The overshoots in the rotor current and dc-link voltage observed that the peaks in the rotor current and dc-link voltage will significantly increase and exceed the safety limits have periodic behavior in each half cycle of the fundamental of the DFIG system if the sag is associated with a large period.p eak = . whereas dc-link voltage. (b) Sage Type C. equal to 2. respectively [13]. The main observations are as follows. |Ir c (t)|} ond column). the min- margins are also shown in Fig. Theses figures will change when the sag is Ir. Comprehensive simulation results between positive and negative components) reduces sig- for sag types A. |Ir b (t)|. 1) The maximum peaks for types C∗ . Therefore.base of the grid voltage are aligned in opposite directions.MOHSENI et al. and F have been summarized nificantly and accordingly. TABLE IV SUMMARIZED SIMULATION RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF FAULTS response of DFIG will be investigated.p eak = (10) Ir. Generally.0 and 1. Influence of the initial point-on-wave instant on the transient response of DFIG-based wind turbines subjected to phase-to-phase faults. component. 9. . D..e. To examine the influence of initial point-on-wave instant. the effect of this parameter is enormous This observation is consistent with the increase of the for asymmetrical faults. In contrast. Typical safety fer to Table III).g. (a) Sage Type C. Simulation results also show that the initial point-on. the θp eak = 77◦ and 167◦ for sag types C∗ and D∗ with α = DFIG system is subjected to various types of voltage sags with −60◦ .. and F occurs at the initial point-on-wave instant equal to zero (Table IV. larger natural flux responses in Table IV. D∗ . respectively.

For the first time. (f) Phase-to-phase fault (Types C and D). depth. Phase-to-phase phase-to-phase and three-phase faults.e. type. Extensive simulation studies are carried out under three-phase faults. (a) Three-phase fault (Type A). On the A new analysis into the transient behavior of DFIG-based other hand. 5. i. NO. (h) Two-phase-to-ground fault (Types F and G). the most severe initial point-on-wave instants that 1) For symmetrical sags (type A). (d) Single-phase-to-ground fault (Types C∗ and D∗ ). 26. behavior.g. sag types C and D. and supported by theoretical justifications. Influence of the sag depth on the transient response of DFIG-based wind turbine subjected to different types of faults (typical safety margins are shown with dashed horizontal lines). the largest overshoot of also confirm the validity of the observations made in the last the rotor current is observed under phase-to-phase faults. higher peaks will transient responses of DFIG-based wind turbines. it is concluded that large phase-angle jumps associated an almost linear relationship between the sag depth and peaks with voltage sag have significant detrimental impacts on of the rotor current or dc-link voltage.e. (g) Two-phase-to-ground fault (Types F and G). instant on point-of-wave. type-A sags jump. the natural response of produce the highest peaks in the rotor current and dc-link voltage the stator flux generates large transient overshoots in the have been considered for various sag conditions. These simulation results 3) Under identical sag conditions. to study the impact of sag depth on the DFIG transient is summarized as follows. (b) Three-phase fault (Type A). thus.. and various sag parameters give the lowest positive voltage sequence values. Fig. 10. CONCLUSION as compared to other sag types (refer to Table III). voltage-recovery process. and zero-sequence components. the (e. MAY 2011 Fig.1596 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. According to Table III. and the most severe overshoots conditions is equal to the superposition of the positive. therefore. The main conclusion Finally. in the rotor current and dc-link voltage will be experienced for negative. the impacts of phase-angle the grid voltage [16]. The rotor current under fault impacts on the DFIG response. VOL.. be observed as the depth increases. (c) Single-phase-to-ground fault (Types C∗ and D∗ ). VI. the overshoot of the dc-link voltage is directly wind turbines under various (a)symmetrical fault conditions proportional to the amplitude of the positive sequence of is presented. (e) Phase-to-phase fault (Types C and D).. faults generate the highest negative-sequence components in the grid voltage. the largest initial overshoot will be experienced in the rotor current in types C and D. sections: large phase-angle jumps have significant detrimental i. 10 shows rotor current and dc-link voltage at the beginning and the . and impedance an- largest overshoot in the dc-link voltage will be expected gle) are examined. respectively.

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Luna. M. als. [27] M. Dr. His main research interests include opti- mization. He has been a keynote speaker and an in- [23] J.D. pp. in 2004 and 2007. S. Lima. Sanchis. 1985. of Engineering and Technology. Asher.” IEEE Trans. Dept. respectively. M. X..” IEEE Proc. 709–717. Boulder. 1376–1381. Clare. 5. 307–318.. degrees in electrical engineering from Shahid Chamran University. J.” IEEE Trans. He is currently an Associate Professor and the Head of the Discipline for Electrical Power Engi- neering. pp. 143.. Department of Electrical and Computer En- gineering. voltage dips. 23. vol. E. in 1983. 45. His research interests include wind power gener- ation. Australia. Gubia. wind energy conversion. Ahwaz. Power Electron. Australia. nition Award in 2000. P. NO. Curtin University of Technology.” M. 321–330. Flannery and G. H. and L. MAY 2011 [19] P. Power Appl. Roboam. 2005. [28] J. 118–130. Islam (S’82–M’89–SM’93) received the through of a doubly fed induction generator wind turbine with series grid. M. Bollen. Pena. 2000. vited speaker at many international workshops and conferences.. Islam. C. and 1988. Power Electron. He is a regular Reviewer for the IEEE TRANSACTION Verlag. Oct. pp..Sc. engineering in 1979. Power Del. Blaabjerg. Martins. . P.Sc. Jul. K. He is also a Chartered Engineer in the United pp. “Wind trical and computer engineering from the Univer- turbines based on doubly fed induction generator under asymmetrical sity of Colorado.D. Ind. A. A. Venkataramanan. Sep. J. Mar. no. Perth. degrees in electrical power side converter. J. “Rotor voltage dynamics in the doubly fed induction generator during grid He is currently the Chair Professor in Electrical faults. He is currently working toward the Ph. Perth. vol. Roboam. Chalmers University of Technology. vol. and M. and L. 3. Lopez. Iran. S. Elect. Perth. May 1996. and F. A. and Systems and Electrical Machines (Academic Press. Masoum (S’88–M’91–SM’05) IEEE Trans Energy Convers. no. B. Bollen. no. pp. U.” Wind Energy. Islam is currently the Vice-Chair of the Australasian Committee for Sweden. of Electr. “Dynamic behaviour of the doubly-fed induction generator during three-phase voltage dips. He is the author of wind power installations. Electrical and Computer Engineering. no. respectively. H. Masoum.. S. or coauthor of over 170 published technical papers Jul. in his area of expertise. Enquist. Appl. from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Miner- [20] F. 8. “Voltage recovery after unbalanced and balanced voltage Power Academy. S. 3. Burke Haye’s Faculty Recog- [25] W.. Power Engineering. Marroyo.. Rodriguez. 231–241.: Springer. Power Engineering and Head of the Department of 2010. Curtin Univer- [21] M. 2008. Power Eng. no. He is the coauthor of Power Quality in Power Mansour Mohseni (S’09) received the B. vol.” IEEE Trans. and Ph. no. P. H. 2001. Bollen. Mohseni.. “Doubly fed induction generator TRANSACTION ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. 3. and G. pp. and distributed generation. degree at the Curtin University of Technol- ogy. VOL. Saudi Arabia. Australia. H. and 1991. M. 22. 1983.. 2009.K. pp. Leonhard. received the B. He was the recipient of the IEEE T. 18. “Enhanced hysteresis-based current regulators in vector control of DFIG wind turbines. vol. and power electronics.” Mohammad A. Watanabe.Sc. using back-to-back PWM converters and its application to variable-speed wind-energy generation. Kingdom.D. vol. Jan. grid integration of renewable energy systems. Elsevier. and a Fellow of the Engineers Australia and the Institution dips in three-phase systems. and harmonics. “Ride-through of offshore wind parks. and Ph.S. Sep. He is a member of the board of Directors of the Australian [24] M. London.” IEEE Trans. 2003.S.. His research interests include [22] M. and M. J. Syed M. Lopez. 2007. 2008). 2010. 1. “Unbalanced voltage sag ride. power quality and stability of power sys- tems. 4. thesis. no. respectively. X. “Voltage dips at the terminals sity of Technology.Sc. Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags condition monitoring of transformers. G. 26. E./Oct.” IEEE Trans Energy Convers. 25. Control of Electrical Drives. Sanchis.S.1598 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Olguin. 1879–1887. 2007 (available online). ON ENERGY CONVERSION AND POWER DELIVERY and an Editor of the IEEE [26] R. New York: IEEE Press. Goteborg. degrees in elec- [29] J. 1. 5. vol. Marroyo. power quality and Interruptions. and power systems.