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GROUP 02(EFI)

GROUP 02(EFI)

SECTION 1

ZENITH ELECTRONIC ENGINE


MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Specifications .........................................................................................1

Safety Procedures ..................................................................................2

Definition of Terms................................................................................4

System Operation ..................................................................................5

Maintenance Procedures ....................................................................16

Ignition Timing....................................................................................17

System Operating Specifiactions........................................................18

Wiring Diagrams .................................................................................21

Troubleshooting ...................................................................................25

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc.


GROUP 02(EFI)

SPECIFICATIONS:

Clark 3.0L/ 4.3L Gasoline Dual Fuel


Engine RPM:
Mechanical throttle stop 500 RPM
Electronic Idle 750 RPM - 3.0L
700 RPM 4.3L
Max governed speed 2,600 RPM

Fuel Pressure:
Gasoline 10 psi measured at idle
LPG 24 psi with lock-off energized, engine off.

Ignition Timing: 0 deg. BTDC with engine running and Clark harness # 929713
connected. (See page 5:4)

Sensor Resistance:
Air & Coolant 2106-2393 ohms @ 30 deg. F
265- 516 ohms @ 70 deg. F
182-199 ohms @ 100 deg. F

Governor idle self learn:


Time 2 1/2 min.
Coolant Temp.161 deg. F. or above

Procedure Allow engine to idle for 2 1/2 minutes at or above 161 deg. F.
ECT Use Clark connector (See page 5:2)

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-1


SAFETY PROCEDURES

Garaging and Repairing Machines


Safety in garaging and repairing machinery is an important consideration. Follow the rules and proce-
dures that apply to the machine local when repairing both gasoline and propane fuel systems.

Propane has an excellent safety record, but just like other hydrocarbon fuels, injury can occur when
mishandled. The physical properties of propane are somewhat different than gasoline, thus requiring
different handling and safety procedures.

NFPA 58 chapter 8: 6 lays out the basic procedures for garaging and repairing propane powered ve-
hicles.

Vehicles with LP-Gas fuel systems shall be permitted to be serviced or stored inside garages, provided
that:

(a) The fuel system is leak-free and the container is not filled beyond the limits specified.

(b) The container shutoff valve is closed when vehicles or engines are under repair except when
engine is operated.

(c) The vehicle is not parked near sources of heat, open flames, or similar sources of ignition, or
near inadequately ventilated pits.

Carbon Monoxide. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless gas and gives no
warning of its presence. Those exposed to it do not realize it is present until symptoms begin to de-
velop.

The exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines can increase through the lack of mainte-
nance. This can cause the carbon monoxide inside a building to climb above the OSHA maximum limit
of 50 ppm during an eight-hour period.

Procedures to vent the exhaust to a safe environment should be carried out during maintenance and
repair procedures.

02(EFI)-1-2 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)

Levels of Effects of
Carbon Monoxide Exposure Carbon Monoxide Exposure

9 PPM (0.0009%) The maximum allowable concentration for short-


term exposure in living areas, according to the
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air
Conditioning Engineers

50 PPM (0.005%) The maximum allowable US OSHA concentration


for continues exposure in any eight-hour period, ac-
cording to federal law

200 PPM (0.02%) Slight headaches, tiredness, dizziness, and nausea


after 2-3 hours

400 PPM (0.040%) Frontal headache within 1-2 hours. Life threaten-
ing
after three hours. The maximum allowable
Concentration according to the US EPA and AGA

800 PPM (0.08%) Dizziness, Nausea, and convulsions within 45 min-


utes. Death within 1 hour

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-3


DEFINITION of TERMS

BAT Battery Voltage

CAT Catalyst or Catalytic converter

CKP Crankshaft Position

CKPS Crankshaft Position Sensor

ECU Electronic Control Unit

ECT Engine Coolant Temperature

ECTS Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor

EGO Exhaust Gas Oxygen

EGOS Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor

ESC Electronic Spark Control

ESCM Electronic Spark Control Module

IAT Intake Air Temperature

IATS Intake Air Temperature Sensor

IMAP Intake Manifold Absolute Pressure

IMAPS Intake Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor

LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas (propane)

NFPA National Fire Protection Association

SFC System Fault Code

SFL System Fault Light

Vsw Switched battery voltage

ZEEMS Zenith Electronic Engine Management System

02(EFI)-1-4 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)
SYSTEM OPERATION
The spark-ignited engine (Otto Cycle) is a con-
stant air-fuel ratio engine, and although the vol-
ume of air inside the cylinders remains constant,
the density of air (MAP or Vacuum) varies accord-
ing to the throttle position.

Absolute Pressure: Absolute Pressure is a pres-


sure using a scale with zero starting at zero atmo-
spheric pressure (PSIA)
Figure 3.1
Gauge Pressure: Gauge Pressure is a pressure
using a scale with zero starting at atmospheric
pressure (PSIG) Zero PSIG = 14.7 PSIA 29.9" hg.

The Zenith Electronic Engine Management Sys-


tem (ZEEMS) controls both fuel delivery and the
governor/throttle with an integrated throttle body
and electronic control unit design. Each control
system is described separately, but in actual op-
erations control of fuel and throttle happen simul-
taneously.

Fuel System: Float chamber


needle valve
Review of a gasoline carburetor system will aid
in understanding the ZEEMS fuel system opera-
tion. Carburetors, mechanical fuel injection sys- Float
tems and electronic fuel injection systems all per-
form the same basic functions; however, the meth-
ods incorporated to perform these functions dif- Fuel
outlet
fer. The fundamental purpose of any fuel system
is to measure the incoming air and mix the appro-
Idle speed Main Acceleration
priate amount of fuel with it under all engine op- control Idling mixture fuel jet pump linkage
erating conditions. This applies equally to gaso- butterfly control
Figure 3.2
line or gaseous fuel systems.

The carburetor performs three main functions. These functions are:


a. To deliver a mixture of gas and air in a ratio that suits each condition of engine operation.
b. To atomize the gasoline as it enters the intake manifold.
c. To control the volume of air / fuel delivered in response to throttle position and engine operation
condition. In reality, each engine operating condition requires a circuit or mechanism to be de-
signed into and attached to the gasoline carburetor to ensure that the engine will operate without
hesitation or flat-spot and give maximum power with the optimum fuel economy within the
levels of emissions for that model and year of engine design.

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-5


The ZEEMS fuel injection system is based on the
INPUTS OUTPUT
speed-density concept. The ECU uses engine
MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE
RPM, IMAP, IAT and ECT to calculate the fuel PRESSURE
required for a specific engine operating condition. E
ENGINE RPM
By using RPM, IMAP, IAT and ECT to calculate
intake manifold air density, the ECU calculates ENGINE COOLANT C INJECTOR
TEMP .(ECT)
the correct fuel requirements regardless of ma-
chine geographic location. INTAKE AIR TEMP. (IAT) U

Figure 3.3

In the near future when exhaust catalysts are FUEL INJECTION


PULSE WIDTH
needed to make the required emission standards, INJECTOR ON-TIME
an exhaust gas oxygen sensor (EGOS) will be in-
cluded to make further corrections to fuel require-
ments to enhance exhaust catalyst efficiency.

Once the required fuel delivery is calculated fuel


under pressure from the fuel pump is injected via
the fuel injector into the air stream above the
throttle plate.
The fuel injector acts as a simple on/off solenoid.
ON OFF
The volume of fuel flow is determined by varying
Figure 3.4
the length of time the injector is held open by the
ECU. This is known as pulse width modulation
(PWM) and is measured in milliseconds. The in- PULSE WIDTH
INJECTOR ON-TIME
jector is pulsed each time a spark plug fires. Each
time a plug fires and that cylinder is in the power
stroke, another cylinder is in the intake stroke. Be-
tween each spark plug firing, the ECU calculates
the fuel required for the next engine event based
on the information provided to the ECU.

LEANER RICHER
MIXTURE MIXTURE

SAME INTERVAL
BETWEEN PULSES

Figure 3.5

02(EFI)-1-6 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)
ZEEMS uses two different types of injectors, de- ELECTRICAL
TERMINALS
pending on the type of fuel. For gasoline, a pintle
valve and seat injector is used. When the gaso-
line injector coil is energized, a pintle is lifted from
SOLENIOD
a fuel seat to allow the flow of pressurized gaso- COIL
line.
The LPG injector incorporates a flapper valve
design. When the injector coil is energized, a flat CORE PIECE FUEL IN
disc is lifted from the fuel seat allowing LPG to
flow.
VALVE SEAT
BALL VALVE
ATOMIZER

Fuel injectors are sensitive to contaminants and Figure 3.6 - Gasoline Injector
require filters in the 20 - 30 micron range. Both
the gasoline and propane systems use a 20 micron
filter.

Figure 3.7 - Propane Injector

Figure 3.8 - Gasoline Fuel Filter

Figure 3.9 - Propane Fuel Filter

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-7


Fuel Enrichment:
For optimum engine performance and emissions,
the ECU will automatically increase the fuel in-
jection rate (accelerator pump) on gasoline or pro-
pane under engine acceleration and during cold
starts (choke). This is factory calibrated for each
engine application.

Fuel Pump:
To supply gasoline to the injector, ZEEMS uti-
lizes a high capacity (16 gallons / hour) fuel pump
mounted in the fuel tank Figure 3.10 - Gasoline Fuel Pump

Note: When installing or replacing the in-line


pump, make sure:

A pressure regulator, mounted in the throttle body


and downstream of the injector, maintains the
gasoline fuel pressure to approximately 10 psi.
Unused fuel is returned to the fuel tank via a re-
turn line from the pressure regulator.

Figure 3.11 - Gasoline Regulator

02(EFI)-1-8 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)

11

4
5
8 12

6 11

10

13

6 9

3 2

Figure 3.12 - Gasoline Component Locations

2. Manifold Adapter 6. Fuel Pressure Regulator 10. IMAP Sensor


3. Manifold Gasket 8. Gasoline Fuel Inlet 11. ECU
4. Gasoline Injector 9. IAT Sensor 13. Throttle body with Actuator

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-9


L.P. Fuel Line from Regulator to
Gasoline Line to Z.E.EM.S Unit In-Line
Z.E.E.M.S Unit Gasoline Filter

Z.E.E.M.S Unit Second Gasoline Line


Stage to Tank
Reg.
First
Water Return Stage
from L.P. Reg.
Vaporizer

Water Line to L.P. In-Line L.P.


Vaporizer Filter
Relief Valve

Figure 3.13 - Gasoline Component Locations

Operational sequences of the propane fuel sys-


tem: Vent
1. Liquid propane, at approximately 100 psi,
Diaphragm Diaphragm
flows from the tank through the service line. Springs
The hydrostatic relief valve is located in the
service line fitting. Its function is to relieve Valve
Seat
pressure at 450 psi that could occur if the
Fuel Valve
liquid in the service line were to be heated
by a fire, etc. Fuel Chamber
Fuel Inlet
Fuel Outlet
2. Fuel then passes to a filter and through a shut Fuel Valve Spring
off valve. This is commonly known as a lock
off. This device prevents fuel from flowing
to the rest of the system unless it is activated Water Outlet Water
by 12 volts from the ECU. Inlet

3. From the shut off valve, fuel enters the pri- Water Jacket
mary vaporizer regulator (converter). Gas
pressure is reduced to 28 PSI and changes Heat Exchanger
from a liquid to vapor state. Engine coolant
flows through this device to aide fuel va- Figure 3.11 - Gasoline Regulator
porization. Fuel then enters the secondary
pressure regulator where gas pressure is re-
duced to 24 psi for delivery to the injector.

02(EFI)-1-10 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)
Governor Operation:
ZEEMS has an innovative state-of-the-art throttle/
governor system. This is a drive by wire sys-
tem that gives significant torque and drivability
improvements to the spark ignited engine.

Engine speed is maintained by controlling air flow


via the throttle plate. The ZEEMS drive by wire
system has full authority of the throttle fly and
will seek to maintain the commanded engine speed
regardless of engine load, this is similar to a vari-
able speed diesel governor, this significantly im-
proves performance of the spark ignited engine
over conventional speed limiting governor system.

An electric actuator controls the throttle plate. Throttle Actuator


With no voltage applied to the throttle / governor
control, the throttle is closed against the throttle Figure 3.15
stop. The mechanical throttle stop is set at an RPM
below normal idle, typically around 500 RPM.

The ECU receives a voltage input from accelera-


tor pedal position sensor. With 12 volts DC ap-
plied, the throttle is wide open. The ECU con-
trols the throttle opening by pulsing the voltage
between 0 and 12 volts to obtain an average ap-
plied voltage and opening.

When the operator calls for an increase/ decrease


in speed, the ECU compares the current engine
RPM to the desired engine RPM. The ECU ap-
plies a pulse width to the throttle actuator to in-
crease/decrease engine

RPM accordingly. Once the desired RPM is ob-


tained and a demand for increased/decreased en-
Throttle Actuator
gine load is called for, the ECU will command
the actuator to open or close the throttle plate with- Figure 3.16
out operator interference maintaining a constant
engine RPM.

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-11


The ECU governs engine RPM with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. This type of
controller allows much faster governor response than conventional mechanical governors. Control to
idle or maximum engine RPM occurs very rapidly with minimum RPM undershoot/overshoot. For
optimum machine performance under all operating conditions, the governor is calibrated specifically
for each engine application.

Because no two machines are exactly alike, the ECU has the ability to learn and adjust the throttle
stop for improved idle quality and governing. After a period of extended, uninterrupted engine idle at
normal operating temperature, the ECU will reprogram idle parameters to correct idle speed and im-
proved decelerations. After the initial factory installation, it is unlikely that the ECU will need to
learn its base setting.

Failsafe Modes:

The maximum governed speed is factory set and tamper proof.

If any electrical failure to the throttle control occurs, the throttle will return to the mechanical idle stop
position.

If for any reason engine RPM exceeds the maximum limits, fuel delivery is interrupted.

The gasoline fuel pump or LPG lock-off will disengage in 2 - 4 seconds if the ignition key is on and
there is no secondary ignition pulse to the ignition coil.

Engine start sequence:

There is no need to depress the throttle pedal to set the choke or provide fuel for cold start. Depress-
ing the throttle pedal has no effect until the engine is running. The ECU opens the throttle to a prede-
termined position for starting.

02(EFI)-1-12 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)
PROPANE FUEL SYSTEM

Propane Tank: Fuel Cylinder Safety Valve


Due to the difference in physical properties be- Gauge
Filler
tween propane and gasoline, the propane fuel tank Fluid Level Connection
is vastly different in construction and operation Gauge
than its gasoline counter part. Service Line
Connection

In order to keep the fuel in its liquid state at nor-


mal atmospheric temperatures, propane is stored Collar
under pressure hence the tank is constructed to Label Foot Ring
ASME standards. The maximum working pres-
sure of the tank is 312 psi . The pressure in the
tank will vary according to the outside air tem-
perature eg. 110 psig @ 70 deg. F. and 52 psig @
32 deg. F.
Pin
Because the fuel is under pressure, no fuel pump
is required to move fuel to the engine compart-
Bracket
ment. To prevent over pressurizing the tank, it is
Figure 3.17 - Propane Tank
only filled to 80% of its total capacity.

Liquid Service valve:


Located in the end of the tank, this valve will re-
main fully open during normal operation and is
shut when stored indoors or when the system is
under repair.

There is an excess flow device in the base of this


valve. Its function is to close off fuel flow should
the fuel line be severed.

Note:
Turn service valve on slowly. This will prevent
premature excess flow valve operation, if fuel line
is empty.

Figure 3.18 Liquid Service Valve

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-13


PROPANE FUEL SYSTEM

Relief Valve:
The relief valve is preset by the manufacturer to
activate at 375 psig. Tank pressure will rise when
the liquid expands. This can be caused by over-
filling the tank, an external heat source eg. fire
etc. The valve will close when pressure drops be-
low 375 psig.

Figure 3.19 - Relief Valve

Outage Valve:
This valve is also called the 80% liquid level valve. Plug
This device when opened, allows gas (vapor) to
escape as the tank is being filled. When the liquid Restricting
Orifice
level reaches 80%, liquid spills out the valve, in-
dicating that the tank is filled to the correct level.

Body

Dip Tube

Figure 3.20 Outage Valve

02(EFI)-1-14 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)

The sight gauge is designed so that there is no


physical connection between it and the float. The Counterweight
fuel level is transmitted from the float via a shaft
40
which has a permanent magnet attached. As the 30 50
magnet rotates, the magnetic field causes the gauge 60
20
needle to move to the indicated fuel level. The 10
site gauge will show 80% when the tank is filled
Die Cast Metal Plate
to its designated safe capacity. with O Ring Seal

Float
Quick Disconnect Couplings:
Figure 3.21
To aid in connection and disconnection the liquid
service valve has a male ACME quick connect
coupling. This coupling and its female counter-
Knurl
part, that is attached to the fuel supply line, are
equipped internal check valves. When connected Hose Check
the checks open and allow gas to flow. Valve

The male coupler has two seals. One, an O ring


and the other a flat ring, both are replaceable and
should be checked periodically.
Internal
Thread

Figure 3.22 Quick Disconnect Couplings

External
Threads

Check
Valve

Figure 3.23 Quick Disconnect Couplings

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-15


MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES A brief explanation of what CO, HC, O 2 are:
Fuel Filters: Gasoline. Replace every Carbon Monoxide is a indicator of how rich or
1,500 hrs. or 1 year. lean air / fuel mixtures are. It is formed as a result
Propane. Replace every of imperfect combustion. When hydrocarbon fu-
1,500 hrs. or 1 year. els burn completely, carbon dioxide and water va-
por form. When they burn incompletely, due to
Propane filter replacement procedure: insufficient oxygen, CO and other chemicals are
formed. Most repair grade analyzers measure CO
1. Shut service valve off at tank. in percent (%) by volume. 1% CO means 1% of
2. Run engine until it stalls. the total 100% of the exhaust gas consists of CO.
3. Replace filter.
4. Open service vale. Hydrocarbons (HC) are an indicator of how com-
5. Leak test connections. plete the combustion process is. Hydrocarbons
are low when the air / fuel mixture is correct. It
Injector Flush: Gasoline only. Zenith does not will rise if the mixture is too rich, causing incom-
recommend a set period to flush the injector with plete combustion or too lean causing partial mis-
an injection cleaner, but does allow it if a build up fire and incomplete combustion.
of gum and sludge occurs in the system. This de-
pends on the quality of the gasoline used. It can also give an indication of ignition system
performance and engine mechanical condition.
If the propane injector is contaminated by gum HC is measured in parts per million (ppm) by vol-
and sludge, it must be removed and cleaned with ume.
a gum and sludge cleaner.
Oxygen (O2) in the exhaust is a indicator of how
Clean Throttle Fly : It is not necessary to remove lean the air / fuel mixtures are O2 will increase in
gum and sludge from the ZEEMS throttle fly to proportion with the air fuel ratio. As fuel mixtures
maintain a quality idle. Cleaning the shaft and fly richen, O 2 readings are low and CO readings are
assembly with carburetor cleaners will not dam- high. A lean condition will show high O2 and low
age the system. CO. Like CO, it is measured in percent (%) by
Check Exhaust Emissions: With the increased volume.
emphasis on air quality by regulatory authorities,
it is important to understand the proper procedure Testing procedure:
to test exhaust emissions. Although the carbon 1. Machine must be in a well ventilated area
monoxide (CO) level in the exhaust is very im- or exhaust piped to the to the outside.
portant, it should not be the only exhaust constitu- 2. Gas analyzer must be correctly calibrated
ent monitored during an exhaust emission test. and warmed up.
3. Engine must be at operating temperature
Zenith recommends using a quality four or five (above 161 deg. F.)
gas analyzer for testing exhaust emissions. By 4. Readings should be made at idle, high idle
monitoring carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons and load.
(HC), exhaust oxygen (O2) and in some instances
oxide of nitrogen (No x), a technician can make a
proper diagnosis as to the cause of incorrect ex-
haust emissions.

02(EFI)-1-16 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)
Correcting out-of-range Air/fuel mixtures: Service Adjustments
The fuel injection calibration tables are not field
adjustable; If emission readings do not meet the Ignition Timing
manufacturers specification, the following checks 1. Plug the CLARK test harness (#929713) into
can be made. H-MSTS Module located under the right
hand side of the dash.
1. Check ignition timing.
2. Check fuel pressure (adjustments can be NOTE: The 929713 Test Harness is included in
made to emission levels by adjusting the fuel the 1813198 Service Kit.
pressure regulator).
3. Check air cleaner restriction. 2. Connect the black ground lead of the test
4. Check ignition system. harness to a solid ground. Do not connect
5. Check PCV valve. the red lead. The red lead is used for check-
6 Check vacuum leaks. ing fault codes only.
3. With engine running and harness connected,
timing should be set at 0 (TDC).
4. With the black lead disconnect, H-MSTS
timing should be approximately 10 BTDC
with the engine at operating temperature and
at idle.
5. At 1600 RPM, timing will be approximately
15 advanced.

H-MSTS Module

Malfunction
Diagnostic Lamp

Deutsch Connector

Harness

Red Lead (positive)

Black Lead (negative)


SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-17
SYSTEM OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS Setting Mechanical Idle

Governor Idle Self Learn Procedure IMPORTANT


ZEEMS features an adaptive self learning feature Set ignition timing before attempting to set
which electronically provides the proper closed mechanical idle (see page 3-17). Timing
throttle stop position for optimum low speed gov- harness should be removed prior to set-
erning. ting mechanical idle.

The following steps are required to allow the elec- IMPORTANT


tronic control unit to self learn the correct throttle Before setting the self learn idle, the me-
stop posifion chanical idle must be properly adjusted.

1. Be sure engine coolant temperature is a mini- Note: When working on a truck equipped with
mum of 161 deg F. ( If coolant temperature the dual fuel system, set the mechanical idle with
is below 161 deg F. or falls below 161 deg. truck operating on LPG fuel.
F. governor self learn will not start or be
complete.) 1. Disconnect the throttle actuator wire harness.
NOTE:Machines equipped with ECU revision 2. Start engine and set the mechanical idle
level G or higher will idle at 1200 RPM until screw to 500-550 RPMS.
coolant temperature reaches 161 deg.F. 3. Reconnect the throttle actuator wire harness.
4. Apply a silicone type sealer to the top of the
2. Set parking brake. Do not engage brake adjustment screw to prevent moisture from
pedal, steering or any other hydraulic entering the throttle actuator motor.
funcfion.
3. Disconnect the 12 pin connector from the
wiring harness and install the self learn pro-
gramming connector Clark P/N ******

NOTE:Do not connect jumper leads when run-


ning on gasoline.

4. The ECU will self learn after 3 minutes of


running. During this period, let the engine
idle with no external hydraulic load applied.
5. After three minutes, disconnect the self learn
programming connector and reconnect the
vehicle harness. The ECU self learning pro-
cess is complete. Idle Self Learn Procedure
6. For dual fuel machines, repeat steps 1 ZEEMS features an adaptive self learning idle
through 5 with machine operating on LPG feature which electronically provides the proper
after connecting the blue wires on the self closed throttle stop position for optimum low
learn programming connector. speed idle.

This procedure is to be carried out when the ECU The following steps are required to allow the elec-
and or the throttle body is replaced. It may also tronic control unit to self learn the correct throttle
solve poor low speed governor performance. stop position

02(EFI)-1-18 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02(EFI)
IMPORTANT
The self learning idle procedure should
only be performed after the timing and
mechanical idle is properly set.

1. Be sure engine coolant temperature is a mini-


mum of 161 deg F. ( If coolant temperature
is below 161 deg F. or falls below 161 deg.
F. governor self learn will not start or be
complete.)

Note: Machines equipped with ECU revision level Note: Do not connect the Self Programming Con-
G or higher will idle at 1000-1200 RPM until nector jumper leads when operating on gasoline.
coolant temperature reaches 161 deg.F. Connect jumper leads only when operating on
LPG.
2. Set parking brake. Do not engage brake
pedal, steering or any other hydraulic func- 4. The ECU will self learn after 3 minutes of
tions. running. During this period, let the engine
3. Disconnect the 12 pin connector from the idle with no external hydraulic load applied.
wiring harness to the ECU and install the: 5. After three minutes, disconnect the self learn
programming connector and reconnect the
vehicle harness. The ECU self learning pro-
cess is complete.
6. For dual fuel machines, repeat steps 1
through 5 with machine operating on LPG
after connecting the blue jumper wires to-
gether on the self learn programming con-
nector.

This procedure is to be carried out when the ECU


and or the throttle body is replaced. It may also
solve poor low speed idle performance.

Special Tools
There is a service kit available for troubleshoot-
ing the fuel injection system.

Service Kit Part #1813198


This kit consist of the following:
Self Learn Programming Connector,
Clark P/N 932145 Description Part Number
Test Harness 929713
Note: The 12 pin connector is attached to the wire Idle Test Plug 932145
harness connecting the ECU to the throttle pedal Comp. Test Harness 932146
position sensor. Temp. Sensor Harness 932147
MAP Sensor Connector 932148

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-19


SYSTEM OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS

Air & Coolant Sensor Resistance

Nominal Minimum Maximum


Temp Temp Resistance Resistance Resistance
deg. C deg. F ohms ohms ohms

-40 -40 93630 85570 1-01400


-30 -22 49320 45250 53310
-20 -4 27050 24910 29160
-10 14 1.5420 14250 16580
0 32 9099 8442 9767
10 50 5546 51.65 5939
20 es 3481 3254 3719
25 77 2787 2609 2974
30 86 2245 2106 2393
40 104 1484 1398 1579
50 122 1004 949 1065
60 140 693 657 734
70 168 488 465 516
80 176 349 334 369
90 194 255 244 268
100 212 189 182 199
110 230 144 139 151
120 248 109 105 114
130 266 84 80 88

02(EFI)-1-20 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GND REC

X-MIT.

SIGNAL
GO.
tlmdc +12vclc
I

6h 7 a*

Cl2 +12
Vdc
+12 a>
-1 +12

3.OL GM D U A L FUEL
Vdc VdC Vdc
r
E.C.
POWER

-
8h
1I
ZXTERNAL ELECTRICAL CONNIK!TIONS

-8 7 8
8 ENGINE GROUND.
I - - CONNECTOR
CLARK 8 PIN
3 DISTRIBUTOR LEAD
(TACA INPUT)

3 COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR.

T
(THERMOSTAT HOUSING
F O R 3.OL)

3 12 PIN CONNECTOR TO "EHICLP,


HARNESS. +12

8 PIN CONNECTOR TO "EHICLE


3.OL GM GASOLINE ONLY
3
HARNESS.
+12Vdc +12Vdc
I I
B.C.
PO,/JEI

--
- A
EXTERNAL ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS

0 ENGINE QROUND.

0 DISTRIBUTOR LEAD
(TACR INPUT)

0 COO- TEMP. S E N S O R .
(CYLINDER - 4.3L)

0 12 PIN CONNeCTOR TO
V E H I C L E HARNESS.
+12
0 V8 EPIN CONNECTOR TO
N I C L E NARNESS.
Vdc

4.3L GM DUAL FUEL


E:XTERNAL ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS

0 ENGINE GROUND.

0 DTSTRTBUFOR LEAD (TAmI INPUT,

0 coo- TEMP. SENSOR.


~CYLINDER HEAD 4.3L.l

0 12 PIN CONNECTOR To VEHICLE


HAPJiEss.

0 8 PIN CONNECTOR To VEHICLE


I-mmmss.

4.3L GM GASOLINE ONLY


GROUP 02(EFI)

GROUP 02(EFI)

TROUBLESHOOTING

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-25


Position Sensor Trouble Shooting Procedure

The pedal position sensor used on fuel injected fork lift trucks can be thought of as an electronic
version of a conventional adjustable resistor or rheostat. Because it is electronic, however, it must be
checked with voltage applied instead of being checked as a separate component.

1. Locate the 12 pin connector in the harness from the throttle body ECU. This procedure is done
with ignition switch on, engine does not need to be running.

2. Voltage across Pins 7, 8 and 9 may be checked by back probing the connector with a voltmeter
(preferably an analog type). Ref. electrical schematic in service manual. NOTE: Do not perfo-
rate wire insulation.

3. Pin 7 is the signal ground.


Pin 9 is 5 volts DC input to pedal.
Pin 8 is signal output from pedal.

4. Voltage at Pins 7 and 9 will be approx. 5 volts.

5. Voltage between Pin 7 and Pin 8 should vary between approx. 1 volt and approx. 4 volts as the
pedal is depressed.

If the voltage between Pin 7 and 9 is not approx. 5 volts, suspect harness to ECU or ECU. If pedal
sensor has 5 volts input with no output (Pin 7 and 8) replace pedal sensor.

02(EFI)-1-26 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec 99


GROUP 02tEFI)

I YES

Repair
wiring or
YES
voltage

rl Replace
fuel press.
regulator

I YES

I I
Check
ground or
replace ECU

I NO

SM 612, Dee 99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-27


1 YES

YES

YES

/ v
\
Replace
injector or
o-rings
\ ,

02(EFI)-1-28 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dee 99


e LqRK Mlder&Handling
GROUP 02(EFI)

Check ignition timing Engine idle speed high


Check vacuum leaks:
Intake manifold
Throttle body
Throttle adapter

I OK

YES

With engine coolant temperature


above 161 deg. F allow engine
to idle for 3 min. to self learn
idle speed.

SEE operating
suecifications

SM 612, Dee 99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-29


Engine runs but will not accelerate

Qip=JT]

1 YES

1 YES

I Check throttle
plate rotation

02(EFI)-1-30 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dee 99


GROUP 02tEFI)

Engine speed surges

engine runs erratically poor governor performance

/ \
Correct NO
charging 13.5 - 14.7 volts
system fault
.

r %
Repair NO
ground
L /

1 NO

/ .
SEE engine YES
diagnostics
L /

/ Y

SEE engine idle NO YES Replace throttle


speed high body
\ /

SM 612, Dee 99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-31


Engine runs rich - LPG

c 3 / \ / b
Check MAP Check MAP Check coolant and
OK OK
sensor sensor with ) air temperature
connections alternate sensor sensor connection
\ J \ / L /
OK
+
r \ f \

YES OK Check air/coolant


Replace fuel sensor resistance
injector 4
as per chart
L J \ /

1 NO

/ \
Adjust/replace NO
primary 4
regulator
\ /

1 YES

f \
NO Adjust / replace
k secondary
regulator
\ /

r \
Adjust timing NO
or repair
harness / module
\ /

02(EFI)-1-32 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dee 99


GROUP 02tEFI)

Engine runs rich - gasoline


f \ / \ /
Check coolant and OK Check air/coolant OK Check MAP
air temperature b sensors resistance b sensor
sensor connection per chart connections
\ / \ / \ I

/ , /
I
v
OK

\
OK Check MAP
Check for
sensor with
leaky injector
alternate sensor
J \ J

in fuel return

1 NO

/ \
Adjust timing NO
or repair
harness / module
L /

NO
1

SM 612, Dee 99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-33


Gasoline fuel pump diagnosis

I YES

from ECU when

NO

YES

OS(EFI)-l-34 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dee 99


GROUP 02(EFI)

LP Lock-off Valve

at lockoff when key

I NO

from ECU when

I
YES

SM 612, Dee 99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-35


Engine wont start -Duel Fuel

1 OK

I Go to gasoline
no start
diagnostic
NO GAS
b
LPG YES
\
Go to LPG
no start
diagnostic

1 Neither
fuel starts

Go to gasoline
no start
diagnostic

1 NO

/
Check wiring
fuel selector
switch
L

NO

Ground YES 12v to NO Repair 12v


continuity? ECU? source to ECU

o - 6 :

02(EFI)-1-36 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dee 99


GROUP 02(EFI)

Engine runs low power, lean or misfires


Gasoline
Check vacuum leaks: /
Intake manifold NO Repair
Throttle body F chrarging
Throttle adapter system
PCV valve 1 L /
/
Replace
fuel pressure
regulator
/

NO fuel return line

/ \
Is injector
clogged?
/

/ \
Replace NO
MAP 4
sensor
\ /

/ \
Set ignition timing NO
SEE engine service (
manual
L /

r >
Replace NO
module
\ /

Continued

SM 612, Dee 99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-37


Engine runs low power, lean or misfires
Gasoline
Continued

02(EFI)-1-38 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dee 99


C Lq RK F&r&Handling
GROUP 02tEFIl

Engine runs with low poer (lean) and/or misfires - LPG

Position tank for


liquid withdrawal

Replace or fill tank?

< t i m i n g >zA S e t i g n i t i o n t i m i n g 1

Adjust pressure
or I
replace regulator

1 YES

Continued

SM 612, Dee 99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-1-39


Engine runs with low poer (lean) and/or misfires - LPG (continued)

/ 3
Check vacuum leaks:
Intake manifold
Throttle adapter
Throttle body
k PCV valve 2
OK

P .
NO Replace
b MAP sensor
. a

YES

/ I
NO Replace
b module
. 2

YES

r I .
Tune
engine
. /

OK

02(EFI)-1-40 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dee 99


GROUP 02(EFI)

GROUP 02(EFI)

SECTION 2

HYBRID MICROPROCESSOR
SPARK TIMING SYSTEM

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-2-1


Microprocessor Spark Timing Module

General Description Analog Signals


The Hybrid Microprocessor Spark Timing Sys- An analog signal is continuously variable. This
tem (HMSTS) is equipped with a computer that means that the signal can be any voltage within a
provides the engine with state-of-the-art spark certain range. An analog signal usually gives in-
delivery. Before we discuss the computers on these formation about a condition that changes continu-
applications, lets discuss how computers use volt- ously over a certain range. For example, engine
age to send and receive information. coolant temperature is usually provided by an ana-
log signal.
Computers and Voltage Signals
Voltage is electrical pressure. Voltage does not There are two general types of sensors that pro-
flow through circuits. Instead, voltage causes cur- duce analog signals, the 3-wire and the 2-wire
rent. Current does the real work in electrical cir- sensors.
cuits. It is current, the flow of electrically charged
particles, that energizes solenoids, closes relays Sensors
and illuminates lamps. The illustration below shows a schematic repre-
sentation of a 3-wire sensor. All 3-wire sensors
Besides causing current flow in circuits, voltage have a reference voltage, a ground, and a variable
can be used as a signal. Voltage signals can send Wiper. The lead coming off of the wiper will
information by changing levels, changing wave- be the signal to the Engine Control Module
form (shape) or changing the speed at which the (ECM). As this wiper position changes, the volt-
signal switches from one level to another. Com- age signal to the ECM also changes. The pedal
puters use voltage signals to communicate with position sensor is an example of a 3 wire sensor.
one another. The different components inside com- The wiper voltage starts at approx. 1 volt and will
puters also use voltage signals to communicate. raise to approx. 4 volts as the accelerator pedal is
depressed.
There are two kinds of voltage signals, analog and
digital. Both of these are used in computer sys-
tems. It is important to understand the difference
between them and the different ways they are used.

3 Wire Sensor

02(EFI)-2-2 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec '99


GROUP 02(EFI)

2 Wire Sensor

The illustration below shows a schematic repre- Binary code is used inside the ECM and between
sentation of a 2-wire sensor. This sensor is basi- a computer and any electronic device that under-
cally a variable resistor in series with a stands the code. By stringing together thousands
known-fixed resistor within the ECM. By know- of bits, computers can communicate and store in-
ing the values of the input voltage and the voltage finite varieties of information. To a computer that
drop across the known resistor, the value of the understands binary, 11001011 might mean that it
variable resistor can be determined. The variable should turn an output device ON at slow speed.
resistors that are commonly used are called ther- Although the ECM uses 8-bit digital codes inter-
mistors. A thermistors resistance varies with tem- nally and when talking to another computer, each
perature. bit can have a meaning.

Digital Signals Switch Types


Digital signals are also variable, but not continu- Switched inputs to the ECM can cause one bit to
ously. They can only be represented by distinct change, resulting in information being communi-
voltages within a range. For example, 1 V, 2V or cated to the ECM. CLARK uses a three position
3V would be allowed, but 1.27V or 2.56V would switch on the dual fuel system to communicate to
not. Digital signals are especially useful when the the ECM and ECU which fuel, LPG or gasoline,
information can only refer to two conditions: the operator chooses to use. The three positions are:
YES and NO, ON and OFF, or HIGH
and LOW. This would be called a digital bi- 1. LPG
nary signal. 2. OFF
A digital binary signal is limited to two voltage 3. Gasoline
levels. One level is a positive voltage, the other is
no voltage (zero volts). Pulse Counters
For the ECM to determine frequency information
The illustration below shows that a digital binary from a switched input, the ECM must measure
signal is a square wave. The ECM uses digital the time between the voltage pulses. As a number
signals in a code that contains only ones and ze- of pulses are recorded in a set amount of time, the
ros. The high voltage of the digital signal repre- ECM can calculate the frequency. The meaning
sents a one (1), and no voltage represents a zero of the frequency number can have any number of
(0). Each zero and each one is called a bit of meanings to the ECM.
information, or just a bit. Eight bits together are
called a word A word, therefore, contains some An example of a pulse counter type of input is the
combination of eight binary code bits. distributor reference pulse input. The ECM can
count a train of pulses, a given number of pulses
per engine revolution. In this way, the ECM can
determine the RPM of the engine.

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-2-3


Engine Control Module (ECM) ECM Inputs and Sensor Descriptions
The Engine Control Module (ECM), located un- Data sensors, switches, and other inputs are used
der the dash, is the control center of the spark de- by the ECM to control its various systems. Al-
livery system. It controls the following: though we will not cover them all in great detail,
there will be a brief description of each.
Ignition timing
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
Idle speed stabilization The engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor is a
thermistor, (a resistor which changes value based
Engine Control Module (ECM) on temperature), mounted in the engine coolant
It constantly looks at the information from vari- stream. Low coolant temperature produces a high
ous sensors, and controls the systems that affect resistance (100,000 ohms at -40C/-40F) while
engine performance. The ECM also performs the high temperature causes low resistance (70 ohms
diagnostic function of the system. It can recog- at 130C/266F).
nize operational problems, and store Diagnostic
Trouble Codes (DTC) which identify the problem The ECM supplies a 5 volt signal to the ECT sen-
areas to aid the technician in making repairs. Re- sor through a resistor in the ECM and measures
fer to the troubleshooting section for more infor- the voltage. The voltage will be high when the
mation on using the diagnostic function of the engine is cold, and low when the engine is hot.
ECM. By measuring the voltage, the ECM calculates the
engine coolant temperature.
ECM Function
The ECM supplies either 5 or 12 volts to power
various sensors or switches. This is done through
resistances in the ECM which are so high in value
that a test light will not light when connected to
the circuit. In some cases, even an ordinary shop
voltmeter will not give an accurate reading be-
cause its resistance is too low. Therefore, a digital A hard fault in the engine coolant sensor circuit
voltmeter with at least 10 megohms input imped- should set DTC 14 or DTC 15; an intermittent
ance is required to ensure accurate voltage read- fault may or may not set a DTC. The DTC Diag-
ings. nostic Aids also contains a table to check for sen-
sor resistance values relative to temperature.
On the dual fuel system, the ECM determines the
proper spark timing using the fuel selector switch
input as a reference.

02(EFI)-2-4 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec '99


GROUP 02(EFI)
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Engine Control Module (ECM) Self-Diagnostics
The Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor is The Engine Control Module (ECM) performs a
a pressure transducer that measures the changes continuous self-diagnosis on certain control func-
in the intake manifold pressure. The pressure tions. This diagnostic capability is complemented
changes as a result of engine load and speed by the diagnostic procedures contained in this
change, and the MAP sensor converts this into a manual. The ECMs language for communicating
voltage output. the source of a malfunction is a system of Diag-
nostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). The DTCs are two
digit numbers that can range from 12 to 43. When
a malfunction is detected by the ECM, a DTC is
set and stored in the ECMs memory.

Service Mode
CLARK test harness part #929713 will allow
you to:
Display the DTC 12 by flashing the test har-
ness light indicating that the system is func-
A closed throttle on engine coastdown would pro-
tioning correctly.
duce a relatively low MAP output voltage, while
Display any stored DTCs by flashing the test
a wide open throttle would produce a high MAP
harness light. Each DTC will be flashed 3
output voltage. This high output voltage is pro-
times. DTC 12 will then flash indicating that
duced because the pressure inside the manifold is
there are no other fault codes.
almost the same as outside the manifold, so you
The ignition timing is controlled to a fixed tim-
measure almost 100% of outside air pressure.
ing degree programmed in the ECM. This will
allow base timing to be adjusted.
MAP is the opposite of what you would measure
on a vacuum gauge. When manifold pressure is
Reading Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
high, vacuum is low, causing a high MAP output
Once the test harness is properly connected, the
voltage. The MAP sensor is also used to measure
ignition switch must be moved to the key ON,
barometric pressure under certain conditions,
engine OFF position. At this point, the test har-
which allows the ECM to automatically adjust for
ness light should flash DTC 12, three times con-
different altitudes.
secutively. This would be the following flash se-
quence: flash, pause, flash-flash, long pause,
The ECM sends a 5 volt reference voltage to the
flash, pause, flash-flash, long pause, flash, pause,
MAP sensor. As the manifold pressure changes,
flash-flash.
the electrical resistance of the MAP sensor also
changes. By monitoring the sensor output volt-
DTC 12 indicates that the ECMs diagnostic sys-
age, the ECM knows the manifold pressure. A
tem is operating. If DTC 12 is not indicated, a
higher pressure, low vacuum (high voltage) re-
problem is present within the diagnostic system
quires different spark timing than lower pressure,
itself, and should be addressed by consulting the
high vacuum (low voltage). The ECM uses the
Diagnosis section.
MAP sensor to control ignition timing.

A failure in the MAP sensor circuit should set a


DTC 34.

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-2-5


Following the output of DTC 12, the test harness Clearing Diagnostic Trouble Codes
light will indicate a DTC three times if a DTC is 1. Enter service mode by installing the test
present, or it will continue to flash DTC 12. If harness, part #929713 and connecting the red
more than one DTC has been stored in the ECMs test harness lead to battery positive and the
memory, the DTCs will be flashed out from the black harness lead to battery negative.
lowest to the highest, with each DTC being flashed 2. Ignition ON engine OFF. the test light
three times. At the end of the DTCs, the ECM should now be flashing trouble codes.
will simply go back and start over with flashing 3. Turn the ignition switch to OFF, leaving
DTC 12. the test harness connected.
4. Turn the ignition switch back ON and
How Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) Are Set verify DTC 12 only.
The ECM is programmed to receive calibrated 5. Return to normal mode by removing the
voltage signals from the sensors. The voltage sig- Test Harness.
nal from the sensor may range from as low as 0.1
volt to as high as 4.9 volts. Diagnosis Of Drivability Concerns
If a drivability concern still exists after following
The sensor voltage signal is calibrated for engine the Diagnostic system check and reviewing the
application. This would be the sensors operating Symptoms section, an out of range sensor may be
parameter or window. The ECM and sensors will suspected. Because of the unique design of the
be discussed further in the ECM and Sensor section. H-MSTS system, the ECM will replace sensed
values with calibrated default values in the case
If a sensor is within its operating or acceptable of a sensor or circuit malfunction. By allowing
parameters, the ECM does not detect a problem. this to occur, limited engine performance is re-
When a sensor voltage signal falls out of this win- stored until the vehicle is repaired. A basic under-
dow the ECM no longer receives a voltage sig- standing of sensor operation is necessary to be able
nal within the operating window When the ECM to diagnose an out of range sensor.
does not receive the window voltage for a If the sensor value has shifted, but still within the
calibratible length of time, a DTC will be stored. operating window of the ECM, the problem will
go undetected by the ECM and may result in a
drivability concern.

A good example of this would be if the coolant


sensor was reading incorrectly and indicating to
the ECM that coolant temperature was at 50F but
actual coolant temperature was at 150F. This
would cause the ECM to deliver incorrect spark
timing for the engine.

02(EFI)-2-6 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec '99


GROUP 02(EFI)
Service Precautions
Electrical problems can result from wiring or har-
Visual / Physical Inspection nesses being miss-routed, or becoming loose and
A careful visual and physical inspection must be moving from their original positions.
performed as part of any diagnostic procedure.
This can often lead to fixing a problem without The following requirements must be observed
further diagnostics. when working on H-MSTS equipped engines.
Inspect all vacuum hoses for correct routing, 1. Before removing any system component,
pinches, cracks or disconnects. Be sure to inspect disconnect the negative battery cable.
hoses that are difficult to see. 2. Never start the engine without the battery
Inspect all the wires in the engine compartment being solidly connected.
for proper connections, burned or chafed spots, 3. Never separate the battery from the on-board
pinched wires, or contact with sharp edges or hot electrical system while the engine is running.
manifolds. 4. Never separate the battery feed wire from the
charging system while the engine is running.
This visual/physical inspection is very important.
5. When charging the battery, disconnect it
It must be done carefully and thoroughly.
from the vehicles electrical system.
6. Ensure that all cable harnesses are connected
Basic Knowledge
properly and the battery connections are
To use this manual most effectively, a general
thoroughly clean.
understanding of basic electrical circuits and cir-
7. Never connect or disconnect the wiring har-
cuit testing tools is required. You should be famil-
ness at the ECM when the ignition is
iar with wiring diagrams, the meaning of voltage,
switched ON.
ohms, amps, and the basic theories of electricity.
8. Before attempting any electric arc welding
You should also understand what happens if a cir-
on the vehicle, disconnect the battery leads
cuit becomes open, shorted to negative, or shorted
and the ECM connector(s).
to positive.
9. When steam cleaning engines, do not direct
the nozzle at the ECM system components.
Electrostatic Discharge Damage
If this happens, corrosion of the terminals
Electronic components used in control systems are
or damage of components can take place.
often designed to carry very low voltage, and are
10. Use only the test equipment specified by
very susceptible to damage caused by electrostatic
CLARK, since other test equipment may ei-
discharge. It is possible for less than 100 volts of
ther give incorrect test results or damage
static electricity to cause damage to some elec-
good components.
tronic components. By comparison, it takes as
11. All measurements using a multi-meter must
much as 4,000 volts for a person to feel the zap of
use a digital meter with a rating of 10
a static discharge. Therefore, it is important to use
megaohm input impedance.
care when handling and testing electronic com-
12. When a test light is specified, a low-power
ponents.
test light must be used. Do not use a
high-wattage test light. While a particular
Engine Wiring
brand of test light is not suggested, a simple
When it is necessary to move any of the wiring,
test on any test light will ensure it to be safe
whether to lift wires away from their harnesses or
for system circuit testing. Connect an accu-
move harnesses to reach some component, take
rate ammeter (such as the high-impedance
care that all wiring is replaced in its original posi-
digital multi-meter) in series with the test
tion and all harnesses are routed correctly. If clips
light being tested, and power the test light
or retainers break, replace them.
ammeter circuit with the vehicle battery.
SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-2-7
Diagnosis

Engine Control Module (ECM) IMPORTANT


To read and clear DTCs, refer to the troubleshoot- To prevent possible electrostatic discharge
ing section for more information. damage to the ECM do not touch the con-
nector pins. The ECM is an electrical com-
Since the ECM can have a failure which may af- ponent. Do not soak in any liquid cleaner
fect only one circuit, following the diagnostic pro- or solvent, as damage may result.
cedures in this manual will determine which cir-
cuit has a problem and where it is. Replacing Components

If a DTC indicates that the ECM connections or Removing the ECM


ECM is the cause of a problem, and the ECM is 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
replaced, but does not correct the problem, one of 2. Disconnect the connectors from ECM.
the following may be the reason: 3. Remove the three ECM mounting screws.
4. Remove the ECM from mounting bracket.
There is a problem with the ECM terminal con-
nections. The terminals may have to be removed Installing the ECM
from the connector in order to check them prop- 1. Install the ECM into mounting bracket.
erly. 2. Reattach the three ECM mounting screws.
Torque to 4.5 N-m (40 in. lb.)
EEPROM program is not correct for the applica- 3. Reconnect connectors to the ECM.
tion. Incorrect components may cause a malfunc- 4. Reconnect the negative battery cable.
tion and may or may not set a DTC.
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
IMPORTANT Note Care must be taken when handling the ECT
Use only CLARK approved replacement sensor. Damage to the sensor will affect proper
components. operation of the H-MSTS system.

The problem is intermittent. This means Removing the ECT


that the problem is not present at the time 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
the system is being checked. In this case, 2. Disconnect the ECT electrical connector.
refer to the Symptoms portion of the 3. Remove the ECT sensor.
manual and make a careful physical in-
spection of all portions of the system in- IMPORTANT
volved. Coat ECT sensor threads with teflon tape
sealant prior to installation.
A shorted or open harness. A shorted or
open harness will not damage the ECM Installing the ECT
but will cause the ECM to be inoperative. 1. Install the ECT sensor.
2. Reconnect the ECT electrical connector.
IMPORTANT 3. Reconnect the negative battery cable.
When replacing the ECM, the ignition
must be OFF and the battery discon-
nected before disconnecting or reconnect-
ing the ECM connectors to prevent inter-
nal damage to the ECM.
02(EFI)-2-8 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec '99
GROUP 02(EFI)
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Troubleshooting the H-MSTS System

Removing the MAP Sensor Reading Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)


1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. 1. Plug the CLARK test harness, part #929713
2. Disconnect the MAP sensor electrical con- in to the open test socket on the H-MSTS
nector. module.
3. Remove the vacuum line to MAP sensor. 2. Connect the red lead to battery positive.
4. Remove the MAP sensor attaching screws. 3. Connect the black test harness lead to bat-
tery negative.
IMPORTANT 4. Turn the ignition switch to the key ON,
The MAP sensor is an electrical compo- engine OFF position.
nent. Do Not soak in any liquid cleaner or
solvent, as damage may result. At this point, the test harness light should flash
DTC 12, three times consecutively.
Installing the MAP Sensor
1. Install the MAP sensor This would be the following flash sequence:
2. Reattach the MAP sensor mounting screws. flash, pause, flash-flash, long pause, flash, pause,
Torque to 5-7 N-m (44-62 in. lb.). flash-flash, long pause, flash, pause, flash-flash.
3. Reconnect the MAP sensor electrical con-
nector.
4. Reinstall the vacuum line to MAP sensor.
5. Reconnect the negative battery cable.

H-MSTS Module

Malfunction
Diagnostic Lamp

Deutsch Connector

Harness

Red Lead (positive)

Black Lead (negative)

SM 612, Dec '99 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. 02(EFI)-2-9


DTC 12 indicates that the ECMs diagnostic sys- Clearing Diagnostic Trouble Codes
tem is operating. If DTC 12 is not indicated, a
problem is present within the diagnostic system 1. Plug the CLARK test harness, part #929713
itself, and the ECM module will need replacing. in to the open test socket on the H-MSTS
Following the output of DTC 12, the test harness module.
light will indicate a DTC three times if a DTC is 2. Connect the red test harness lead to battery
present, or it will continue to flash DTC 12. If positive and the black lead to battery negative.
more than one DTC has been stored in the ECMs 3. Turn the ignition switch to the key ON,
memory, the DTCs will be flashed out from the engine OFF position.
lowest to the highest, with each DTC being flashed 4. Turn the ignition switch OFF, Leaving the
three times. test harness connected.
5. Turn the ignition switch back ON and
At the end of the DTCs, the ECM will simply go verify DTC 12 only.
back and start over with flashing DTC 12. 6. Return to normal mode by removing the
test harness.
If a DTC is present, consult the trouble code chart
listed below.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) for H-MSTS

DTC Problem

12 ECM functioning correctly


14 Engine Coolant Temperature (ETC) Sen-
sor Circuit-Low temp indicated
15 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
Circuit-High temp indicated
34 Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sen-
sor Circuit
41 Ignition Control (IC) Circuit-open IC
circuit
42 Ignition Control Circuit grounded IC cir-
cuit, open or grounded bypass
51 H-MSTS Module

02(EFI)-2-10 Zenith Fuel Systems, Inc. SM 612, Dec '99