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Advances in the Use of

Drilled Foundations

Dan Brown, P.E., Ph.D.


President, Dan Brown and Associates, and
President, Deep Foundation Institute
Overview

u Why drilled foundations?


u Micropiles
u Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) Piles and
Drilled Displacement (DD) Piles
u Drilled Shafts (Bored Piles)
Micropiles

u Typically <12 dia


u Relies on steel for
structural capacity
u Installed with
lightweight, versatile
drilling equipment
u Effective in difficult
ground conditions
World Trade Center, NYC
Advancements in Micropiles

u Standards for design & construction


u Higher capacity piles

u Improvements in drilling and more versatile


drilling rigs
u Innovative applications
Micropiles Design Details

u Casing near
surface
u Center bar(s)
through bond
zone
u AASHTO Design
Section 10.9

FHWA Micropile Manual, Dec. 2005


Micropiles Design Details

u Example
Cross-sections
Micropiles in Difficult Ground
Conditions
Drilled
u Karst Shaft

u Till& Boulders
u Difficult Site
Access
u Restricted
Headroom
International Marketplace, Hawaii
Micropiles up to 90m deep in soft alluvium

(photo courtesy of Hayward-Baker)


Case History Foothills Bridge
Foothills Bridge

Area of Colluvium
Abutment 1

Abutment 2
Foothills Bridge
Pier

Residual
Soil

Cased zone Anchor (to rock)

4.6 m (15 ft)


uncased bond
zone

Sound
Weathered
Rock
Rock
Foothills Bridge
Foothills Trestle Foundation
Foothills Pier Foundations
Rouchleau Mine Crossing, Minnesota
Pier Foundations

52m
107m

Pile Location
in Mine Dump Fill
History
Downhole Hammer Drill
Crossover
Sub-Seal
Crossover
Sub Port

Shock
Absorber

Hammer

Pilot Bit
Drill Head and Casing Ring Bit
Drilling
Final Pile Design

u Approximate depth 55m


u 762mm dia steel pipe filled with concrete

u End bearing on hard rock

u Design axial resistance = structural capacity


of the pile cross section

Note:
u two 600mm dia test piles loaded to 17MN
Continuous Flight Auger Piles
Continuous Flight Auger Piles

u Drillrig capabilities deeper, larger


diameter
u Control of the drilling process in unstable
soils
u Control of the casting process for quality
control / quality assurance
Continuous Flight Auger Piles

u Drill rig capabilities


Continuous Flight Auger Piles
Control of the Drilling and Concreting Process
Drilled Displacement Piles
Drilled Displacement Piles

u Reduce or eliminate u Requires heavier,


spoil more expensive
u Increased axial drilling equipment than
resistance CFA
u Improve ground u Slower than CFA

u Eliminate risk of u Limited depth of

subsidence penetration
u Drill effort related to
axial resistance
Kentucky Hospital

u Drilled displacement
columns for ground
improvement
u Liquefaction mitigation

u Bearing capacity for


spread footings
Drilled Displacement Piles
Bearing Tests

Average Bearing Pressure, kPa


0 100 200 300 400
0

-10
Displacemetn, mm

-20

-30 Test 1
-40 Test 2
Test 3
-50

-60
Drilled Shafts (Bored Piles)

u Larger, Deeper Machine Capabilities


u Oscillator/Rotator Machines
u Reverse Circulation

u Base Grouting
u Verification Testing
Oscillator Equipment
Rotator Equipment
Seating Casing into Rock
Considerations

Advantages Limitations

u Stability of fully cased u Mobilization cost


excavation u Equipment support
u Minimal vibrations for requirements
casing installation u Potential to become stuck
u Easy removal of spoil & for deep shafts
obstructions u Non-level base with
u Avoid or minimize slurry hammer-grab excavation
materials
Rotator Construction
Huey P. Long Bridge, New Orleans
Huey Long Bridge
Shaft/Cap Connection

Isolation Casing

Shaft Cutoff at -11


Completed Foundation
Surface Texture
Restricted Headroom with
Rotator Casing
Moses Wheeler Bridge, Connecticut
Permanent Casing
Obstructions?
VE solution to cut through existing piling
Reverse Circulation Top-Drive Drill

Drilling
rock
socket
into
schist
Reverse Circulation Drilling
Wolf Creek Dam
Deeper Drilled Shafts

Case History: Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky

Embankment wall

Secant pile wall

275 ft deep
Wolf Creek Dam Secant Piles
Base Grouting
O-cell load (MN)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0 0.0

-1 -25.4

Displacement of O-cell plate (inches)

Displacement of O-cell Plate (mm)


-2 -50.8

-3 -76.2

-4 -101.6

-5 -127.0
T3
(Not Grouted)
-6 -152.4

-7 -177.8
0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500
O-cell load (tons)
Shafts at or near Pier 1W Shafts at Pier 1E
T3 4W 11W T2 T4 1W 11E 15E 16E 18E

Load test data from


John James Audubon Bridge,
Mississippi River, Louisiana
Widespread Use of Polymer Slurry

u Disposal advantages
u Improved side
resistance
u Benefits in degradable
shales
Widespread Use of Polymer Slurry
Polymer Slurry in Shale
at Bond Bridge
Natural Moisture Slake Durability Durability Rating Based
Sample Content Index on Shear Strength Loss
(%) Type Id(2) (%) Type DRs
River Water 8.3 II 72.2 Intermediate 61.9
Polymer Slurry 8.3 II 98.2 Hard, more durable 78.6

Load test:
800 kPa unit side resistance
After 4 days exposure
Influence on Axial Resistance
1.6

Unit Side Resistance, ksf


1.4
1.2
1 Polymer
0.8
Bentonite
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Axial Displacement, inches

uDatafrom Auburn University National Geotechnical


uResearch Site (Brown, ASCE GT Journal, 2002)
Verification Testing

u Integrity
Testing
u Load Testing

u Verification
testing allows performance
basis for specification
u Design-build
u Value engineering
ATC, Mississippi River Bridge, St. Louis

O-cells

Cored rock from


test shaft
excavation
Summary

Substantial advances across the broad


spectrum of drilled foundations:
u Equipment & drilling capabilities
u More diversity in foundation solutions

u Verification testing, alternative project


delivery allows implementation of
innovation