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Minuet and Trio Form

Minuet and Trio form has a special type of compound temary design (in
each of the sections has its own small form):

Minuet (an aristocratic dance in 3/4 meter)

o This section usually has a strong downbeat, and has a
binary design
in which each sub-section is repeated.
Trio (the texture is usually reduced to three structural lines)
o The "Trio" is noticeably lighter and sweeter than the Minuet.
(As in the Minuet, each sub-section is repeated).
Minuet (returns without repeats)
o Before 1800, Minuet and Trio was the traditional form used
in third movements
of 4-movement Classic instrumental works.

Scherzo & Trio Form

After 1800, Beethoven and other politically-minded composers replaced

aristocratic "Minuet" with a heavier "folk-derived" dance in 6/8 meter
called a
scherzo (which means "a common joke" in Italian), creating a similar
called Scherzo and Trio form (the standard 3rd movement form of the
Classic period).

Rondo Form
This form features an easily recognizable melody ("Theme") that returns
two or three times in alternation with contrasting material. (This differs
from Baroque ritomello form which features a returning tutti group.

Sonata-Rondo Form
The rondo concept can be combined with the harmonic plan of Sonata
Form (tonal exposition, development and recapitulation) to create the
hybrid sonata-rondo form:

Sonata Form
Sonata form (also called "sonata-allegro form") is a musical debate
vvithin a single
movement based on the conflict and ultimate resolution of tvvo
opposing key centers.
Sonata form is the First movement form of virtually every Classic
instrumental work,
though It may be used in other movements as vvell.) This unigue
Classic form has
three distinct dramatic aspects vvithin a binary harmonic plan:

Expositio (Tonal Opposition)

The two opposing key centers (and associated themes) are introduced:
Thome 1 is in the 'home" key; Thome 2 is in a different key.
Development (Escalation of tension)
The material passes rapidly through many distant keys, and may be
fragmented/reworked in a
variety of ways.

Recapitulation (Tonal Resolution)

Thome 1 and Thome 2 both appear in the 'home" key. (In the tradition of
Classic debate, Theme
2 realizes its weaker stance, and wholeheartedly throws its support to
its opponent's stronger
argumentthe "home' key.)

Theme & Variations Form

In this form, a musical theme is stated (the main melody of tne
followed by any number ol varied presentations of that theme. ln
variations, new countermelodies can be added, and aspects of the
(such as key, meter, instrumentation, mood, dynamics, etc.) can be

Theme and Variations is found in second movements of many Classic

and it is sometimes used in fourth movements.