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APCBEE Procedia 9 (2014) 339 346

ICCEN 2013: December 13-14, Stockholm, Sweden

A Simple Model for Calculating the Fundamental Period of


Vibration in Steel Structures
Dia Eddin Nassania,*
a
Hasan Kalyoncu University, Havalimani yolu - ahinbey, Gaziantep27410 , Turkey

Abstract

Most international codes allow the use of an equivalent static lateral forces method for practical design of real structures to
withstand earthquake actions. This method requires the calculation of an approximation for the fundamental mode period
of vibrations of these structures and several empirical equations have been suggested. Most of these equations are not
considering the effect of semi-rigid connections and provide only a crude approximation to the required fundamental
periods. In this paper, a new formula to calculate a satisfactory approximation of fundamental period of the structure is
proposed. This formula takes into account the effect of semi-rigid connections, mass and the stiffness of the structure. In
order to verify the accuracy of the proposed formula, several examples are presented in which the fundamental mode
periods of several structures have been calculated utilizing the proposed formula and the conventional empirical
equations. Comparing the obtained results with those obtained from a well known computer program STAAD.PRo has
shown that the proposed formula provides a more accurate estimation of the fundamental period of the structures.


2013 Published
2014 Dia by Elsevier
Eddin Nassani. B.V.
Published Selection
by Elsevier B.V.and/or peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific
Chemical,
Selection andBiological
peer review& Environmental
under responsibility Engineering
of Asia-Pacific Society
Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society

Keywords: STEEL STRUCTURE, CONNECTION, FUNDAMENTAL PERIOD

1. Introduction

Most structures nowadays are designed to withstand horizontal loading resulting from earthquakes that
might strike during the lifetime of the structures.
Calculating an approximate estimation of loading resulting from earthquake actions requires the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90-342-2118080-1218.


E-mail address: diaeddin.nassani@hku.edu.tr.

2212-6708 2014 Dia Eddin Nassani. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Selection and peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society
doi:10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.060
340 Dia Eddin Nassani / APCBEE Procedia 9 (2014) 339 346

calculation of fundamental mode period of vibrations. Since most design methods, recommended by
international codes [1- 4], allows the use of the "equivalent static lateral forces method" and this method takes
into consideration only the fundamental mode period of vibration to calculate a set of equivalent horizontal
static forces to be applied to the structure.
The equivalent static lateral forces method is applicable only to regular structures that can be analyzed in
two planes and whose responses are not highly dependent on higher modes of vibrations.
Several empirical equations have been proposed to calculate an estimation to the fundamental mode period
of vibrations of the structures such as the following equations adopted by ASCE 7-05 [1]:
Ta 0.0724 hn0.8 for steel moment-resisting frames (1)
Ta 0.0466 hn0.9 for concrete moment-resisting frames (2)
Ta 0.0731 hn 0.75 for eccentrically braced steel frame (3)
Where hn is the total structure height (taken in m)
And there are other equations adopted by EC8 [4]:
T1 0.075 h t
0.75
for framed structures (4)
Where ht is the total structure height (taken in m)
0.09 h t for framed and wall concrete structures (5)
T1
L0.5
Where ht , L are building height and width parallel to the applied forces (in m)
0.5
1 w G
2

T1 2S
i i for all types of structures (6)
g
H G i i

Where wi is the total gravity load of the storey i and i is the lateral displacement of storey i under the
effect of an arbitrary set of horizontal loads Hi applied at each floor level. Equation 6 is known as the
Rayleigh equation.
Although equations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are simple to use, they usually provide only a crude approximation to
fundamental periods of real frames. No mention is given in these equations to the semi-rigid connections,
masses and stiffnesses of the structures despite that they are the most important factors which influence the
fundamental mode period of vibrations.
The Rayleigh equation is known to provide a satisfactory approximation of fundamental periods of
structures, but it does not consider the effect of semi-rigid connection and it requires the use of linear elastic
analysis to calculate the structure lateral displacement under the effect of a set of horizontal loads, H i , applied
at each storey level. This requirement might be considered inconvenient since appropriate sub-assemblages
might be used to analyze structures under the effect of either gravity or horizontal loading and complete
analysis may never be required during the design of the structures.
In this paper a simple equation to calculate the fundamental period of vibration is developed taking in the
consideration the effect of semi-rigid connections, mass and the stiffness of the structure. This equation is
simple to use and provides a satisfactory approximation of the fundamental mode period of vibrations for real
structures.

2. Calculating the fundamental period T

It is well known that the Rayleigh-Ritz method is the most popular technique for calculating an
approximation to the fundamental periods, T 1, of multi-degree structures. In this technique an approximation
Dia Eddin Nassani / APCBEE Procedia 9 (2014) 339 346 341

to the lowest eigenvalue of the general eigenvalue problem >K @ I O>M @ I is given by the well-known
Rayleigh quotient
I a T >K @ I a (7)
U (I ) a and O1 U (I ) a O n
I a T >M @ I a
Where [K] is the global stiffness matrix of the structure and [M] is the global mass matrix of the structure.
(Ia) an assumed approximation to the lowest eigenvector of the problem (I1).
In equation 7, if the assumed vector (Ia) is chosen to be identical with the lowest eigenvector of the
problem (I1), then the Rayleigh quotient coincides with the lowest eigenvalue (I)1= 1.
The lowest eigenvector is usually unknown in practical cases and an assumed vector is utilized instead.
Therefore the Rayleigh quotient will be an upper approximation to the lowest eigenvalue of the problem (see
equation 7). The assumed vector (Ia) should be chosen as close as possible to the actual lowest eigenvector of
the problem (I1), in order to obtain a good approximation to the lowest eigenvalue of the problem.
In a practical analysis the assumed vector (Ia) can be taken as the lateral displacement vector () resulting
from subjecting a set of lateral load pattern (H) to the structure, i.e.
>K @ G H , I a G (8)

Substituting equation 8 into equation 7 and rearranging gives:


n

G H
T G i Hi
(9)
U I a i 1

G T >M @ G n

m G
2
i i
i 1

Where i is lateral displacement of storey i and Hi is horizontal load applied at storey i and mi is lumped mass
of storey i and n is number of stories in the structure.
Knowing that 1=12, where 1 is the lowest circular natural frequency of the structure, hence
n n

2S mG i i
2
wG i i
2
(10)
T1 2S i 1
2S i 1
Z n n

H G
i 1
i i g H iG i
i 1

Where g is the gravity acceleration. Equation 10 is known by most international codes [4].
In order to facilitate the use of equation 10, and since the assumed vector () is only an approximation to
the real lowest eigenvector of the structure, the applied horizontal loads can be assumed to consist of the total
storey gravity load applied horizontally at each storey level, i.e. Hi = wi Hence equation 10 becomes:
n

w G i i
2
(11)
T1 2S i 1
n
g wi G i
i 1

To further simplify equation 11, the following assumptions are adopted


x The storey gravity loads are uniform in the structure, i.e. wi = cons.
342 Dia Eddin Nassani / APCBEE Procedia 9 (2014) 339 346

x Assuming that the storey displacement i is linearly proportional with n the displacement at upper storey
(i.e. G i hi
uG n )
ht
where n is the horizontal displacement at upper storey of the structure ,
hi is the storey height taken from ground level and
ht is the total height of the structure.
x Storey heights are uniform and equal to h (i.e. h=ht /n).
Hence equation 11 becomes:

Gn2
wi u h 2 u 2
1 2
 2 2  .....  n 2 (12)
ht
T1 2S
Gn
g u wi u h u 1  2  3  ....n
ht

Rearranging equation 12 mathematically gives;


Gn n(n  1)(2n  1)
hu u
ht 6 (13)
T1 2S
n
g u ( n  1)
2
Assuming now that 2n  1 | 2n and rearranging equation 13 gives
2G n (14)
T1 2S
3g

It should noted here that the assumptions mentioned above should not reduce the ability of equation 14 to
handle practical problems since a parametric study conducted by the author, not presented in this paper, has
shown that these assumptions have only minimum influence on the calculated fundamental period. Moreover
these assumptions are often satisfied in practical problems.

3. The proposed method

In order to calculate an approximation to G n in equation 14, the model shown in figure 1 is adopted. This
model consists of a column connected to upper and lower beams, which for the sake of simplicity, are
assumed to be identical.
Calculating the end moments of the model and taking anti-clock wise as positive gives:
EI c 6Gi (15)
M 21 M 12 6T 
Lc Lc

EI b 1 (16)
M 2B 3 T
Lb 1  3E

End moment equation of member supported by an elastic rotational spring of stiffness R from the first side
and pinned from other side [5].
Where E young modulus, Hi is horizontal Load, Ic is the column's moment of inertia, Lc is column's height ,
Ib is beam's moment of inertia, Lb is beam's span, is rotation at upper and lower column ends, i is storey
drift and R is connection rotational stiffness.
Dia Eddin Nassani / APCBEE Procedia 9 (2014) 339 346 343

EI b
E
LR
- Equilibrium at joint 2 requires that
6 EI c 3EI b 1 6 EI c G i
2
M 21  M 2 B 0
L 
L

1  3E

T  L Lc
0
c b c



6 EI c Gi

 (17)
Lc Lc
T 6 EI 3EI b 1
c

1  3E
L Lb
c

- Considering the equilibrium of the column one obtains:

column
M 0 M 12  M 21  H i Lc 0 (18)

Substituting equations 16 and 17 and accomplishing great amount of manipulation gives:


3
HLc
3EI b 1

1  3E
(19)
12 EI c Lb
G where Gi
Gi 3EI b 1 6EI c

Lb 1  3E
Lc

Gi

Hi 2 Ib B

Lc Ic

Ib
1 A
Lb

Fig. 1. Proposed model

In order to use equation 19 for a multistory frame, the following should considered:
In sway frames each beam buckles in double curvature. Hence the rotational stiffness of the beam should
be multiplied by 2.
In real frames, each beam restrains two columns, therefore the beam rotational stiffness should be
multiplied by 2.
Finally each beam in a real multistory sway frame restrains two columns, i.e. upper and lower columns
connected to that beam. Thus the beam rotational stiffness should approximately be divided by 2.
As a result of above, the use of equation 19 for real multistory frame is permitted providing that the beam
rotational stiffnesses is multiplied by 2, or
6EI b 1 Ib 1
Lb

1  3E
Lb

1  3E
(20)
sto rey sto rey
Gi
6EI b 1 6EI Ib 1 I



c

 c

sto rey L b 1  3E Lc sto rey L b 1  3E L c
344 Dia Eddin Nassani / APCBEE Procedia 9 (2014) 339 346

It should be noted here that equation 20 underestimates the stiffness of both the first storey, where columns
might be fully fixed at base, and topmost storey, where no upper columns are present. This underestimation
will not affect the accuracy of equation 20 since the second assumption used to derive equation 14 slightly
overestimate the frame stiffness, hence the two effects are likely to be more or less balanced.
The factor Gi should be taken as the ratio of the sum of beam stiffnesses of the storey i to the sum of the
total storey stiffnesses (beams plus columns).
Corresponding to equation 20 the upper storey drift resulting from subjecting the structure to the storey
gravity load applied horizontally at each storey level can be calculated as follows:
3 3
n n
WLc n 1 i W n
Lci n 1 i (21)
Gn G i 12 EI n

Gi

12 En
I ci

Gi


i 1 i 1 c i 1
Where
Ici the sum of the column's moment of inertias of storey i
Lci the height of storey i
Gi the ratio of beam stiffnesses to column and beam stiffnesses of the storey i (equation 20)
W is the total weight of the structure.
Therefore

W n
Lci
3
n 1 i (22)
T1 2S
18Egn
I ci

Gi


i 1

It should be noted that equation 22 is similar to the equation used to calculate the fundamental period of a
single degree of freedom, i.e. T 2S m where m and k are the mass and the stiffness of the
k
corresponding single degree of freedom structure.

4. Verification of the proposed method

In order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method (equation 22) to calculate a good approximation to
the fundamental natural periods of structures, the following examples are selected from many examples
solved by the author and not included within.

4.1. Example 1
The frame shown in figure (2) which consists of ten multistory two bays steel frame with following
properties: Beam section: UB 203x133x30, Column section: UC 254x254x89
Lc = 300 cm, Ac = 113 cm2, Ib = 2896 cm4, Ic = 14270 cm4, y = 275 N/mm2, E = 210000 N/mm2
Typical extended end plate connection with rotational stiffness R= 10000 kN.m/rad. This value has been
chosen from Scerbo [6]. Gravity load for stories (1-9) 20 N/mm and for upper storey 10 N/mm
Calculating storey properties for the first storey of the frame produces:
EIb 210000 u102 u 2896 EI b 210000 u102 u 2896
E1 0.152, E2 0.102
Lb R 400 u10000 u105 Lb R 600 u10000 u105

2896 1 2896 1
2u u  u
600 1  3 u 0.102 400 1  3 u 0.152
G1 0.061
2896 1 2896 1 14270
2u u  u  4u
600 1  3 u 0.102 400 1  3 u 0.152 300
Dia Eddin Nassani / APCBEE Procedia 9 (2014) 339 346 345

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

600 400 600

Fig. 2. The frame of example 1

Repeating same procedure for all stories of the frame provides table 1

Table 1. Calculation of example 1


3 3
I ci I c
Gi
Lci
(n  1  i)
Lci (n  1  i)
Storey storey I ci I ci Gi
No. x104 mm4 1/mm 1/mm
1 57080 0.061 473 7754
2 57080 0.061 425 6967
3 57080 0.061 378 6196
4 57080 0.061 331 5426
5 57080 0.061 283 4639
6 57080 0.061 236 3868
7 57080 0.061 189 3098
8 57080 0.061 142 2327
9 57080 0.061 94 1540
10 57080 0.061 47 770
2598 42585
Employing the well known computer program STAAD.Pro [7] to calculate the fundamental period
produces row 2 in table 2. Calculating the fundamental period of the frame utilizing equation (22) provides
the value of raw 3 in table2. Employing the conventional method (equation 1) produces the value tabulated in
raw 4 table 2.

Table 2. Fundamental Period (sec.) for Example 1


Steel structure with semi-rigid connection
STAAD.Pro 4.1
Proposed method 3.7
Conventional method equation 1 1.1
It can be concluded from table 2 that the prediction of the proposed method is more accurate than the
conventional method.

4.2. Example 2
Frame consists of three multistory, one bays steel frame with following properties:
Beam section: UB 203x102x23, Column section: UC 152x152x23, Lc = 300 cm, Ac = 29.2 cm2, Ib = 2105
cm4, Ic = 1250 cm4, y = 275 N/mm2, E = 210000 N/mm2, flush end plate connection R= 3800 kN.m/rad [6].
Gravity load for stories (1-2) 30 N/mm and for upper storey 20 N/mm
346 Dia Eddin Nassani / APCBEE Procedia 9 (2014) 339 346

Table 3. Fundamental Period (sec.) for Example 2


Steel structure with semi-rigid connection
STAAD.Pro 1.4
Proposed method 1.7
Conventional method equation 1 0.42
It can be concluded from table 3 that the prediction of the proposed method is more accurate than the
conventional method.

5. Conclusion
The design of real structures to withstand earthquake actions require the calculation of the fundamental
mode period of vibration of these structures. Many equations have been suggested by the international codes
to calculate the fundamental periods and most of these equations provide only a crude approximation. The
proposed formula give a satisfactory approximation of fundamental period of the structure taking into account
the mass and the stiffness of the structure including the effect of semi-rigid connections.
The accuracy of the proposed formula has been proven by solving several examples to calculate the
fundamental mode periods. Comparing the obtained results with those obtained from STAAD.Pro has shown
that the proposed formula provides a more accurate estimation of the fundamental period of the structures
than the conventional method.

References

[1] ASCE 7-10. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers. USA; 2010.
[2] IBC. International Building Code. International Code Council, INC: USA; 2012.
[3] SEAOC. Recommended lateral force requirements. Structural Engineers Association of California. San Francisco; 1996.
[4] CEN, Eurocode 8. Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 1: general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings,
European Standard EN 1998- 1, 2004, Comit Europen de Normalisation, Brussels: Belgium; 2004.
[5] NASSANI DE. Static and Dynamic Behavior of Frames with Semi-Rigid Connection. Ph.D. Dissertation . Aleppo University:
Syria; 2011.
[6] SCERBO JS. Analysis of steel frames with deformable beam to column connections. M.Sc. Thesis. The University of Manitoba:
Canada; 1996.
[7] STAAD PRO. Technical reference manual. Research Engineer International; 2012.