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# Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

## Faculty Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and

Science
Department: Department of Mechanical and Material
Engineering
Unit Code and Name UEME3112 Fluid Mechanics II
Experiment No.: 4
Title of Experiment: FREE TURBULENT JET
Laboratory Room No. and Name: KB731 Thermofluids Lab
Experiment Duration (hour): 3 hours
Number of Student per Group 5 students

Objectives

## 1. To calibrate the flow profile against blower motor frequencies.

2. To measure dynamic pressure at different distances in the free turbulent jet flow
using pitot-static tube and digital manometer, and to calculate the flow velocity
and obtain the velocity profiles in the free turbulent jet for different blower motor
frequencies.
3. To compare the effect of different nozzle orifice diameters on the velocity profiles
of the free turbulent jet.

Introduction

## Wall turbulence is turbulence motions which are constrained by one or more

boundaries. In wall turbulence, the turbulence is generated in velocity gradient caused by the
no-slip condition. Free turbulence is turbulence motions which are unaffected by walls and
develop and spread in an open ambient fluid. Three examples of free turbulence are free-
shear layer (mixing layer), free jet, and wake behind a body immersed in a stream.
Free turbulent jet (Figure 1) occurs when the fluid is discharged between nozzle or
orifice into a stationary or moving fluid. Just downstream of the disturbance that caused the
velocity gradients, the flow will be developing and non-similar. Further downstream, the flow
will be similar and the velocity profiles will all look alike when suitably scaled. When the
fluid exits from the orifice, the fluid becomes completely turbulent at a short distance from
the pint of discharge. The emerging jet becomes partly mixed with the surrounding fluid at
rest, causing particles from the surroundings to be carried away by the jet, so that the mass
flow increases in a downstream direction. Thus, as the free turbulent jet spreads out, the
velocity decreases, but the total momentum remains constant. The velocity decreases is
mainly due to the shear interaction with the surrounding fluid. This shear interaction will tend
to reduce the jets kinetic energy, which is ultimately dissipated as heat. Some examples or
applications of free turbulent jet include aircraft turbine, smoke stack, cooling towers and
volcanoes.
As mentioned above, when fluid elements move downstream, they interact with
surround fluid and their speed decreases. Fluid near the centerline, however, interact less with
the surrounding medium and maintains nearly its initial speed at some distance downstream.

## Latest updated: 14th Mar 2016

The region in which the centerline speed is nearly that of the exit is called the potential core.
Its radial extent, which decreases downstream, can be estimated by measuring the streamwise
variation of the centerline speed. The potential core vanishes quickly at a distance of about
one diameter from the exit, where the velocity profile loses its mixing-layer-flat-core shape.
Finally, at about 20 diameters downstream of the exit, the velocity profile reaches and
u y u r
maintains a self-preserving shape, f or f
U max b U max b

depending on whether the jet is plane (plane jet) or axisymmetric (circular jet). The width
growth rates (b) and velocity decay rates (u) are bplane ~ x, bcircular ~ x, and uplane ~ x-1/2, and
ucircular ~ x-1 for plane and circular jet, respectively.

## Figure 1. Development of free turbulent jet.

There are two types of turbulent free jet, i.e., the momentum jet (Figure 2a) and
buoyant jet (Figure 2b). In the momentum jet, the fluid motion is as a result of kinetic energy.
The jet and surrounding may be the same fluid at the same temperature. Typical examples are
jet engine exhaust and pump outlets. In the buoyant jet, the jet arises from a stationary fluid at
nozzle. The jet results from a difference in nozzle and surrounding temperature or density.
Typical examples are heated air rising through cold air, salt water entering fresh water.

## Latest updated: 14th Mar 2016

(a) (b)
Figure 2. (a) Momentum jet; (b) Buoyant jet.

## Equipment and Materials

LEGEND
A = Main ON/OFF
B = Blower ON/OFF
C = Frequency Inverter
D = Ring blowers outlet
E = Horizontal axis transverse unit
F = Digital differential pressure transducer
G = Pitot static tube
H = Ring blower
I = Nozzles

## Latest updated: 14th Mar 2016

Quantity estimation
Item Description *Item category (e.g. per set/group of
student)
Free Turbulent Jet Apparatus E 1
Allen key W 1
Vernier Caliper W 1

*Item category
SP Sample or specimen
C Consumable
CH Chemical
W Labware, glassware, tool, and
components
E Equipment
S Software

Procedures

1. Select the desired nozzle size and fix it to the ring blowers outlet (D).
2. Move the pitot-static tube (G) to the opening of the nozzle (at x = 0). Tighten the
screw.
3. Connect the tubing from the pitot static tube to the digital differential pressure
transducer (F). Set the frequency to 5 Hz.
4. Allow the system to run for about 1 minute. Keep an eye on the digital differential
pressure transducer. Record down the readings.
5. Adjust the frequency with 5 Hz increment till 25 Hz. Repeat the experiment using
different orifice size. Plot the graph of differential pressure reading against blower
motor frequency, and the graph of air speed against blower motor frequency.
6. Compare the air speed profiles for different orifice diameters.
7. Select the desired nozzle size and fix it to the ring blowers outlet (D). Repeat
with 10 Hz. Move the pitot-static tube along the centreline of the jet starting at x =
0 measured from the orifice opening. Record measurement at 1cm intervals up to
x = 10 cm.
8. Repeat the experiment using different orifice size. Repeat the experiment with
frequency value set to 20 Hz.
9. Plot the graph of differential pressure reading against axial distance for different
frequency setting and different orifice size. Compare the jet speed profile for all
the cases.
10. At x = 10 cm, move the pitot-static tube vertically starting from y = 0 measured
from the centerline of the jet. Record measurement at 0.5 cm intervals up to y = 2
cm.
11. Repeat the experiment using different orifice size. Repeat the experiment with
frequency value set to 20 Hz.
12. Plot the graph of differential pressure reading against vertical distance for
different frequency setting and different orifice size. Compare the jet speed profile
for all the cases.

## Latest updated: 14th Mar 2016

Equations:

2( Pstagnation Pstatic )
(i) The velocity formula, V , where V = air speed (m/s),

Pstagnation = stagnation or total pressure (Pa), Pstatic = static pressure (Pa), and = air
density (kg/m3).
(ii) The density formula, 1.325 PB / T , where V = air speed (ft/min), Pv = velocity
pressure (inches of water), = air density (lb/ft3), PB = barometric atmospheric
pressure (inches of mercury), T = absolute room temperature (indicated
temperature (F) + 460).

## Results and discussions

1. Discuss on the graph of air speed against blower motor frequency.
2. From the graph of air speed against axial distance from the orifice opening for
different frequency setting and different orifice size,
(i) Discuss the effect of different orifice size on the air speed.
(ii) The velocity decay rate (u) is ucircular ~ x-1 for circular jet. Does your
experimental result agree with this statement? Prove it with calculation.
(iii) Explain why the velocity profile for the jet decreasing as the distance away
from the orifice increasing
3. On the graph plot, identify the core length for each case.
4. Discuss the effect of different orifice size on the air speed from the plot of air speed
against vertical distance from the centerline in the flow direction for different
frequency setting and different orifice size.
5. What is the jet noise? How can the jet noise be minimized? Explain with an example.

Laboratory Report
1. Attach the ORIGINAL spreadsheets and plots containing the experimental data with