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Kenna Jean Tulio


The 15th century marks a turning point in art history. In Florence, the advent of
the Renaissance rekindled interest in Greco-Roman culture. Donatellos David was the first
freestanding nude statue since antiquity, and the architects Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon
Battista Alberti took inspiration from the Roman writer Vitruvius, designing buildings based
on mathematical proportion and basic geometric shapes. Painters like Masaccio and Paolo
Uccello developed the system of linear perspective to convincingly depict three-dimensional
space on a two-dimensional support. In Northern Europe, Jan van Eyck pioneered the use of
oil paint, while artists like Petrus Christus and Hans Memling rendered textures, individual
faces, and the local urban environment with a high degree of naturalism. The Americas saw the
completion of monumental masonry projects like Macchu Picchu, an Inca complex in the
Andean highlands. In China, the Ming Dynasty(1368-1644), witnessed the rise of the Southern
School of literati painting including artist and theorist Dong Qichang, as well as the
development of an iconic blue and white porcelain style.


A general category for any artwork produced between 1500 and 1599. European art of the
16th century was marked by the spread of Renaissance culture and ideas from Italy through the
rest of the continent, resulting in a number of new styles. The High Renaissance(roughly the
first two decades of the 16th century) and Mannerism are the movements most often
associated with this period. Generally, it is the artists that created work during the early
1500sLeonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, and
(Titian)[/artist/titian]who dominate the discussion of 16th century art.


In fine art, the term Baroque (derived from the Portuguese 'barocco'
meaning, 'irregular pearl or stone') describes a fairly complex idiom,
originating in Rome, which flowered during the period c.1590-1720, and
which embraced painting, and sculpture as well as architecture. After the
idealism of the Renaissance (c.1400-1530), and the slightly 'forced'
nature of Mannerism (c.1530-1600), Baroque art above all reflected the
religious tensions of the age - notably the desire of the Catholic Church
in Rome (as annunciated at the Council of Trent, 1545-63) to reassert
itself in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. Thus it is almost
synonymous with Catholic Counter-Reformation Art of the period.


Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that

period of European history known as the Renaissance, emerging as a
distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which
occurred in philosophy, literature, music and science. The Renaissance
art, perceived as the noblest of ancient traditions, took as its foundation
the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by absorbing
recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying
contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance art, with Renaissance
Humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists
and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new
artistic sensibilities. Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from
the medieval period to the Early Modern age.