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Introduction

History of Logic
The history of logic deals with the study of the development of the science of valid
inference. Formal logics developed in ancient times in China, India and Greece/ Greek methods,
particularly Aristotelian logic (or term logic) as found in Organon, found wide application and
acceptance in Western science and mathematics for millennia.1 The Stoics, especially Chrysippus,
began the development of predicate logic.
Christian and Islamic philosophers such as Boethuis (died 524) and William of Ockham
(died 1347) further developed Aristotles logic in the Middle Ages, reaching a high point in the
mid- fourteenth century. The period between the fourteenth century and the beginning of the
nineteenth century saw largely decline and neglect, and at least one historian of logic regards this
time in barren.2
Logic revived in the mid- nineteenth century, at the beginning of a revolutionary period
when the subject developed into a rigorous and formal discipline which took as it exemplar the
exact method of proof used in mathematics, a harkening back to the Greek tradition. The
development of the modern symbolic and mathematical logic is the most significant during in
the two- thousand- year history of logic and is arguably one of the most important and remarkable
events in human intellectual history.
Progress in mathematical logic in the first few decades of the twentieth century, particularly
the works of Godel and Tarski which had a significant impact on analytical philosophy and
philosophical logic, particularly from the 1950s onwards, in subjects such as modal logic, temporal
logic, deontic logic, and relevance logic.

Definition of Logic
Logic is a basic science in the field of Philosophy. It is concerned with the quest of
knowledge of truth, and is also a study of the validity or correctness of reasoning. (Bachhuber,
1996) Also, it deals with arguments and inferences; one of its main purposes is to provide methods
for distinguishing those which are logically correct from those which are not. (Glenn, 1952).
The term Logic is derived from the Greek work logos which means primarily the word by
which the inward thought is expressed and, secondarily, the inward thought or reason itself
(Baldemeca 1984). Logic is generally defined as the science of the laws and principles which
govern the reasoning process.

1
Nicholas Bunnin; Jiyuan Yu (2004). The Blackwell dictionary of Western philosophy. Wiley- lackwell. p. 266.
2
L. T. F. Gamut (1991). Logic, language and meaning, Volume 1: Introduction to Logic. University of Chicago Press.
pp. 156- 157. ISBN 978-0-2alidity and truth26-28085-1.
Importance of Logic to Human
Man as a being is endowed with the reason to think and make decisions in his daily life,
and is still subject to limitations and imperfections. To improve his innate and practical reasoning,
it is but more advantageous for him to learn the mechanics, rules and principles to guide and direct
him in his reasoning process. For this reason, the study of Logic becomes imperative, as justified
by the following:
1. The study of Logic develops in the learner the skills to reason out with order,
validity, truth and accuracy.
2. The knowledge of Logic helps to prevent us from committing grave error in the
acts of reasoning and thinking.
3. It is a necessary aid in evaluating and understanding other studies.
4. It is a tool in discerning validity and truth of propositions and arguments.
5. It prevents us from making conclusions based on false and biased assumptions.
6. Logic contributes to the growth of the individual, improving the quality of his life.
7. Logic builds in the individual self- confidence, provides a feeling of direction, and
gives assurance of being in control of ones situation (Agapay, 1991).

Natural Logic in Man


As rational animals, in the view of classical philosophers, people are thinking beings. In
fact, the famous French philosopher, Rene Decartes, takes the act of thinking as the proof of the
fact of human existence. The act of thinking implies the existence of a thinker, a being. He sums
it up with the famous Cogito, ergo sum, meaning I think, therefore I am (Glenn, 1957).
The fact of thinking in man proves that he is rational, that he reasons out. This shows that
man does not only possess the power of sensations; he is also endowed with the faculty of
intellection. That man is rational, and the fact that he thinks and reasons out, does not guarantee
that he is already an accomplished logician. It is not also guarantee that upon finishing a course in
Logic, one will be a perfect thinker or will not fall into fallacies.

Classical Logic
Logic consists of a formal or informal language together with a deductive system and or a
model- theoretic semantics. The language ha components that correspond to a part of natural
language like English or Greek. The deductive system is to capture, codify, or simply record
arguments that are valid for the given language, and the semantics is to capture, codify, or record
the meanings, or truth- conditions for at least part of the language.
Typical Logic is sometimes called classical elementary logic or classical first- order
logic. This kind of logic develops a formal language, with a rigorous syntax and grammar. The
formal language is a recursively defined collection of strings on a fixed alphabet. as such, it has
no meaning, or perhaps better, the meaning of its formulas is given by the deductive system and
the semantics. Some of the symbols have counterparts in ordinary language.

Other References:
Agapay, R. B. (1991). Logic: The essential of deductive reasoning. Mandaluyong City: National
Book Store, Inc.
Bachhuber, A. R. (1996). Introduction to logic. Manila: Natiomal Book Store, Inc.
Baldecema, D. Y., Armada, R. Q., and Tuibeo, A. G. (1984). Basic concepts of logic and ethics.
Manila: Katha Publushing Co, Inc.
Glenn, P. J. (1952). The history of philosophy. USA: Herder Book Co.
Gualdo, R. S., Placido, D. M., Dagwasi, C. M. (2013). Logic: the basis of correct reasoning.
Malabon City: Mutya Publishing House, Inc.
Reyes, E. A. (1988). Logic, simplified and integrated. Manila: National Book Store, Inc.