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(A Joint Venture of Govt. of India & Govt. of UP)

Summer Training
(29.05.2017 10.07.2017)

Report on

Operation and Maintenance of Powerhouse

Submitted To: Submitted By:

HRD Department Mukesh Kumar
THDC INDIA LIMITED B.E. Mechanical Engineering
Chandigarh University


At first I would like to thank Chandigarh University for allowing to have off
campus summer training. I would like to thank HRD Department of THDC India
Ltd. for granting me the permission for this enlightening summer training. I would
like to thank my mentor Mr. D.S. Verma of THDC India Ltd for his amazing
guidance throughout my training. I would like to thank all other THDC office staff
for their humble support in my learning.
I would also like to thank my friends and teammates for their kind support and
cooperation. I would like to thank my parents for their love and support.

Mukesh Kumar
Chandigarh University


S. No. Title Page No.

1. Tehri hydro power complex 4
2. Tehri Dam and Hydro Power Plant (HPP) 4
3. Components of Hydro Power Plant 10
4. Hydro-Turbine 14
5. Major components of Turbine 16
6. Runaway protection system of Turbine 20
7. Hydro-Generator 21
8. Major components of Generator 22
9. Excitation System 26
10. Compressed air system 30
11. Oil pressure system for Turbine and MIV 31
12. Machine operating modes 33
13. Power generation 34
14. Gas insulated switchyard 35
15 Maintenance and Protection 35

Tehri Hydro Power Complex (2400 MW), comprises the following components:
Tehri Dam & Hydro Power Plant (1000 MW)
Koteshwar Hydro Electric Project (400 MW)
Tehri Pumped Storage Plant (PSP) (1000 MW)
Govt. of India approved the implementation of Tehri Dam & HPP (1000 MW) in March, 1994
along with committed works of Koteshwar HEP and essential works of Tehri PSP, as Stage-I of
Tehri Hydro Power Complex. All the four units of Tehri Power Station were commissioned in the
year 2006-07. This project has become the landmark and pride of the Nation as a whole.
Two Units of Koteshwar HEP were commissioned in Mar, 2011 and 3rd and 4th unit were
commissioned in Jan, 2012 and Mar, 2012 respectively.
The essential works of Tehri PSP have already been completed along with Tehri Dam & HPP
Stage-I. Major works of the Project are being executed through a single EPC contract. Contract
for EPC/Turnkey execution of the Project has been awarded to consortium of M/S Alstom Hydro
France and Hindustan Construction Company on 23rd June-2011. Work on the project has
commenced i.e. 27th Jul 2011.

Tehri Dam & HPP (1000 MW) (Under Operation):

Tehri Dam & HPP (1000 MW) comprises a 260.5 M high Earth & Rock fill dam which is one of
the highest dams of its type in the world, a Spillway System designed for PMF of 15540 cusecs
and a drop of 220m, having one Chute Spillway and four Shaft Spillways and an underground
Power House housing four Turbine/ Generator sets of 250 MW each, designed to operate with a
head variation of 90 m.
Project was commissioned in 2006-07 and all four machines of Tehri Power Station are under
commercial operation. Besides providing much needed power to the Northern Grid, the command
area is availing irrigation benefits from the Project and drinking water is being supplied to Delhi
and UP.

Tehri Dam & HPP

The Tehri Dam is the Highest dam in India and one of the highest in the world. It is a multi-purpose
rock and earth-ll embankment dam on the Bhagirathi River near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India. It
is the primary dam of the THDC India Ltd. and the Tehri hydroelectric complex. Phase 1 was

completed in 2006, the Tehri Dam withholds a reservoir for irrigation, municipal water supply and
the generation of 1,000 megawatts (1,300,000 hp) of hydroelectricity. The dam's 1000
MW pumped-storage scheme is currently under construction with expected commissioning in May

Technical Description:
The dam is a 260.5 m (855 ft) high rock and earth-ll embankment dam. Its length is 575 m
(1,886 ft), crest width 20 m (66 ft), and base width 1,128 m (3,701 ft). The dam creates a reservoir
of 4.0 cubic kilometers (3,200,000 acreft) with a surface area of 52 km2 (20 sq. mi). The installed
hydro-capacity is 1,000 MW along with an additional 1,000 MW of pumped storage
hydroelectricity. The lower reservoir for the pumped-storage plant is created by the Koteshwar
Dam downstream.
The Tehri Dam and the Tehri Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant are part of the Tehri
Hydropower Complex which also includes the 400 MW Koteshwar Dam. Power is distributed to
Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Delhi, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Chandigarh, Rajasthan
and Himachal Pradesh. The complex will aord irrigation to an area of 270,000 hectares (670,000
acres), irrigation stabilization to an area of 600,000 hectares (1,500,000 acres), and a supply of
270 million imperial gallons (1.2106 m3) of drinking water per day to the industrialized areas of
Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. The total expenditure for this project was USD 1 billion.
The Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH), a cost benet analysis was
commissioned and was concluded that the construction cost of the dam twice the projected

Scheduling and generation dispatch:

The Scheduling and Dispatch of the Tehri Hydro Power plant is done by Northern Regional Load
Dispatch Center which is the apex body to ensure the integrated operation of the power system
grid in the Northern region and comes under Power System Operation Corporation Limited
(POSOCO). At present, THDC India Ltd. is generating around 3,000 million unit of energy
annually from this dam.

Figure: 1 Tehri Dam



Full Reservoir Level (FRL) EL 830 m.

Maximum Level during design flood (MFL) EL 835 m

Dead Storage Level EL 740 m.

Gross Storage 3540 MCM

Dead Storage 925 MCM

Live Storage 2615 MCM

Water Spread at full Supply Level EL.830 m. 42 Sq.km.

Water Spread at dead Storage Level EL.740 m. 18 Sq.km.


Diversion Tunnels:

Type Horse shoe

Left Bank 2 Nos. 11.0m dia, 1774 &1778 m long

Right Bank 2 Nos. 11.0m dia, 1298 &1429 m long

Diversion Flood Discharge 8120 Cumecs


Type Earth and Rock fill dam

Top Level EL 839.5 m

Height 260.5 m

Width at riverbed 1125 m

Width at top 25.5 m flared to 30.5 m at abutments

Length at Top 592m


Upstream 1: 2.5

Downstream 1: 2


Chute Spillway:

Crest Level EL 815.0 m

Waterway 3 bays of 10.5 m width

Design Discharge 5500 cumecs

Type & No. of Gates Radial Gates, 3 Nos

Right Bank Shaft Spillway:

Type Ungated 2 Nos

Crest Level EL 830.2 m

Dia of Shaft 12.0 m

Design Discharge 3850 cumecs

Left Bank Shaft Spillway:

Type Gated 2 Nos

Crest Level EL 815.0 m

Dia of Shaft 12.0 m

Design Discharge 3650 Cumecs

Type of Gates Radial gates

Intermediate Level Outlet:

No. and size One; 8.5 m dia

Discharge capacity ( at EL. 830.0 m) 1100 Cumecs

Intake Works:

Location Left Bank of river Bhagirathi

No & Type of Structure 2 Nos. Submerged Structure

Crest Elevation EL 720 m.

Head Race Tunnels:

Size and Number 8.5m. dia, 2 Nos,

Total Length 1634 m


Number and Size 4 Nos., 5.75 m. dia each

Total Length 1040 m

Power House:

Machine Hall:

Type Underground

Location Left Bank, under ground
Number & Units 4 Nos, 250 MW each

Size 197 m long, 22.0 m wide, 47.2m. high

Head Maximum 231.5m ,

Minimum 127.50m ,
Design 188.0m.

Transformer Hall:

Type Underground

Size 161m.long X 18.5m.wide X 29.0m high

Step-up Transformers:

Capacity 306 MVA

Number 4

Voltage Ratio 15.7/400 KV


Location and Type Indoor SF-6 Switchgear

Tail Race Works:

Number and size of tail race tunnels 2 Nos. , 9.0 m. dia each

Length of Tunnels 862.5 m & 747.5 m

Invert Level of Outlet EL. 598.0 m.

Installed Capacity : 1000 MW (4x250 MW)

Components of Hydro Power Plant
Headrace Tunnel:
There are 04 Numbers of HRTs on the Right Bank
of the reservoir having circular shape, 8.5m
diameter. The lengths of HRTs are 779 m, 855 m,
997 m &1033 m. It takes water from reservoir and
supplies it to power house machines for
generation. HRT-1 and HRT-2 carry the later to
Hydro power plant (HPP). HRT-3 and HRT-4
carry the water to the pump storage plant (PSP)
which is still an ongoing project and is not
functional right now.

There are four numbers of penstocks attached with butterfly valve. Water enters through the
different penstocks to the different generating units. Each penstock comprises upper horizontal,
vertical & lower horizontal reach including upper & lower bend. The diameter of penstock is 5.75

Inlet valves:
Butterfly valve:
A butterfly valve is a valve that isolates or regulates the flow of a fluid. The closing
mechanism is a disk that rotates.

Butterfly valves of 5000mm diameter are installed just behind tunnel bifurcation on

The Butterfly Valves are frequently used in power plants and dams. They have various
applications the most common of which are:
Penstock Protection: the valve acts as both a safety and maintenance device for the
penstock. As a rule valves used in this type of application are characterized by large
Turbine Protection: the valve acts as both a safety and maintenance device for the turbine.
Usually the valves used in this type of application are characterized by high water
Water Discharge Line: the valve acts as both a safety and maintenance device for the
upstream discharge.
Water Intake: the valve is employed to open/close the intake lines of the intake tower.

Figure: 3 Butterfly valve
Technical data:
Description Rating
Type of valve Butterfly valve with Biplane disk
Head (in m of water gauge):
Maximum static head 126
Maximum hydrodynamic head 200
Maximum flow (m3/s) 146
Head loss in the valve at maximum flow (m) 0.6
Times (s):
Opening cycle 20020
Closing cycle 12520
Emergency closing 9010
Valve operating mechanism:
Opening 2 hydraulic servomotors, 600mm
Closing Counterweight mechanism
Working pressure in the valve control system (MPa) 6.3
Type of oil used in valve control system Turbine oil

Principle of operation:
Operation is similar to that of a ball valve, which allows for quick shut off. Butterfly valves are
generally favored because they cost less than other valve design, and are lighter weight so they
need less support. The disc is positioned in the center of the pipe. A rod passes through the disc to
an actuator on the outside of the valve. Rotating the actuator turns the disc either parallel or
perpendicular to the flow. Unlike a ball valve, the disc is always present within the flow, so it
induces a pressure drop, even when open.

A butterfly valve is from a family of valves called quarter-turn valves. In operation, the valve is
fully open or closed when the disc is rotated a quarter turn. The "butterfly" is a metal disc mounted
on a rod. When the valve is closed, the disc is turned so that it completely blocks off the
passageway. When the valve is fully open, the disc is rotated a quarter turn so that it allows an
almost unrestricted passage of the fluid. The valve may also be opened incrementally
to throttle flow.

Spherical valve (Main inlet valve):

The Spherical Valves are mainly employed in power plants or dams where both water high
pressure is involved and the need for high performance for low head losses and leak
tightness exists. A common application is turbine protection, where the valve acts both
as safety and maintenance device. An important feature of a spherical valve is the double
seal system, consisting of both maintenance and service stainless steel seals. This sealing
system enables the penstock to remains pressurised when maintenance operations are being
undertaken on the downstream side of the valve. The Spherical Valves are manufactured
with the combination of steel plates and forged components.

The spherical valve (Main inlet valve) is intended to close off the flow in the penstock in
the following cases:
At each shut down of unit.
In condenser mode of operation.
During inspection and maintenance of turbine passageway.
In emergency closing at failure of wicket gates and pressure drop in the oil pressure

Technical Data:

Description Rating
Type of valve Spherical
Nominal valve diameter (mm) 4000
Maximum static head (m) 243
Maximum hydrodynamic pressure at which valve is closed 2.67
Maximum flow (m3/s) 146
Water leakage through valve service seal at head of 243m (l/s) 0.063
Water leakage through maintenance seal at head of 243m (l/s) 0.5
Times (s):
Opening operating cycle 5010
Closing operating cycle 30020
Emergency closing 12020

Valve operating mechanism:
Opening 2Hydraulic
servomotors, 700mm
Closing Counterweight
Nominal oil pressure in the valve control system (MPa) 6.3
Type of oil used in the valve control system Turbine oil

Major components of Spherical valve:

1. Valve body:
Valve body is made of cast steel. It has following provisions:
Piping connections for drainage at bottom.
Mechanical device manually operated to lock the valve n closed position.
Glands and packings for bearing bodies.

2. Rotor, Trunnions and Bearings:

The valve rotor is made of cast steel. It has two trunnions fixed in the rotor by pins.

3. Service and Maintenance seal:

The service seal consist of movable valve mounted on the rotor and stationary seat
fixed on the MIV body. Tightening up of the MIV is achieved by moving the valve
under water pressure action. Water is supplied to the under valve space by a special
piping through a throttle. When the valve is pressed of the seat, water pressure is
released from the under valve space into the draft tube.
The maintenance seal consists of movable and stationary sealing rings. The stationary
ring mounted on the rotor and the movable ring is fixed in the MIV body. The movable
ring is operated by means of screw mechanism.

4. By pass valve and air valve:

One by pass valve of 180mm size is installed on valve body, which will be used for
dewatering of penstock, if required and during synchronous condenser mode operation.
The by-pass valve will be hydraulically operated.
For air venting from valve and the spiral casing when the MIV is being filled, a suitable
automatic air vent valve is provided, which is installed at the outlet pipe.

Figure: 4 Spherical valve

Four vertical Francis Turbines are installed in power house. Each machine has a rated capacity of
255 MW and can be operated in the head range of 122.6-230.1 m. The unique feature of the design
of Francis turbine is that single runner is capable to operate under large head variations of over
100 m. The direction of rotation is anti-clock wise when viewed from top.
Technical specifications:

Description Unit Value

Type of Turbine Vertical Francis Turbine
Heads (Net): m
Minimum 122.6
Rated 188.0
Maximum 230.1
Output: MW
At rated head 255
At maximum head 280
At minimum head 115
Speed: r.p.m.
Specific speed 180
Rated speed 214.28
Runaway speed 410
Runner inlet diameter m 4.1

Maximum efficiency % 95.5
Turbine discharge at rated head and output m3/s 145.0
Axial thrust on thrust bearings KN 6930
Mass of turbine T 635
Mass of runner T 53
Maximum water pressure in the spiral inlet at center-line m.c.w. 364.5
Speed rise at maximum load drop % 60

Theory of operation:
Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. Since
the runner is spinning, the force acts through a distance (force acting through a distance is the
definition of work). In this way, energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine
Water turbines are divided into two groups; reaction turbines and impulse turbines.
The precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the supply pressure of water, and the
type of impeller selected.

Reaction turbine:
Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine
and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure (or suction), or they
must be fully submerged in the water flow.
Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.
Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are used in low (<30 m or 100 ft) and medium
(30300 m or 1001,000 ft) head applications. In reaction turbine pressure drop occurs in both
fixed and moving blades. It is largely used in dam and large power plants.

Impulse turbines:
Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet pushes on the turbine's curved blades
which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a
force on the turbine blades. Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work)
and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. An impulse turbine is one which the
pressure of the fluid flowing over the rotor blades is constant and all the work output is due to the
change in kinetic energy of the fluid.
Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential energy) is converted to kinetic
energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. No pressure change occurs at the turbine blades,
and the turbine doesn't require a housing for operation.

Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines.
Impulse turbines are often used in very high (>300m/1000 ft) head applications.

Major components of Turbine:

1. Draft tube:
The draft tube is a conduit that connects the runner exit to the tail race where the water is
discharged from the turbine. Its primary function is to reduce the velocity of discharged
water to minimize the loss of kinetic energy at the outlet. This permits the turbine to be set
above the tail water without appreciable drop of available head.

2. Runner:
Runner blades are the heart of any turbine.
These are the centers where the uid strikes
and the tangential force of the impact causes
the shaft of the turbine to rotate, producing
torque. Close attention in design of blade
angles at inlet and outlet is necessary, as these
are major parameters aecting power

3. Spiral casing: Figure: 4 Francis Turbine Runner

The spiral casing around the runner of the turbine is known as the volute casing or scroll
case. Throughout its length, it has numerous
openings at regular intervals to allow the
working uid to impinge on the blades of the
runner. These openings convert the pressure
energy of the uid into momentum energy
just before the uid impinges on the blades.
This maintains a constant ow rate despite
the fact that numerous openings have been
provided for the uid to enter the blades, as
the cross-sectional area of this casing
decreases uniformly along the
Figure: 5 Spiral casing

4. Wicket gates:
The primary function of the guide or stay
vanes is to convert the pressure energy of the
uid into the momentum energy. It also
serves to direct the ow at design angles to
the runner blades.
The distributor has 20 adjustable wicket
gates of 0.66m high. The wicket gates are
cast and made of stainless steel with three
stems. Bearings of stems are provided with
bushings. The inner working surface of
bushings is made of antifriction material thus
excluding any grease, means of sealing

Figure: 6 Wicket gates and Runner

5. Head cover:

The turbine head cover form a rigid pressure tight cover over the runner with appropriate
clearance at the labyrinths. The head cover has following provisions:
Rigid flanged support for guide bearing housing, shaft sealing housing, packing
box, guide vane upper stem and guide vane operating ring.
Water leakage from the head cover is removed by self-drain. In case of clogging,
the self-drain is backed up by two drain pumps pumping water into the draft tube
Self-lubricated bearings, bronze gland rings and seals for upper stem of guide
Renewable labyrinths wearing rings of stainless steel.
Renewable cheek plates or wearing liners.
Bolted and sealed joints with top shroud plate of stay ring.
Balancing pipe with valve for relieving of pressure in the annular space between
runner crown and the top cover.
Air admission pipes with automatic air valves for aeration of turbine during partial
load operation.
Direct and easy access to main shaft seal.
Top cover drain pumps with level switch.

6. Turbine shaft:
The turbine shaft is made of forged steel is
heat treated & ultrasonically tested. Shaft is
having integral forged coupling anges at
both ends, by the lower flange the shaft is
connected to the runner and by the upper
one to the generator rotor hub. The shaft
accommodates the device for air admission
into the runner z0ne.The device consists of
valves and the pipeline inside the shaft.
Two valves lobe and spring ones are
mounted on the end of the shaft extension.
The screw locking device stops water
ingress into the generator in case of valves
failure. Figure: 7 Turbine shaft
Smooth and reliable operation of the generator set depends upon the quality of
connection between shaft and the neighboring parts, the coincidence of the center line
of the shaft surfaces with the geometric shaft axis, the clearance between shaft and
bearing, the alignment of generator shaft and turbine rotor and the deviations of the
shaft from a straight lines at the flange joint.
The connection between the turbine shaft and the runner and between the anges of the
turbine shaft and the generator shaft is effected by accurately tted bolts subjected to
tension and shear. The central parts of the bolts are accurately machined and ground;
these central parts t into the bolt holes with clearances not exceeding
0.02 to 0.04 mm. Reliability of the flanged joints is ensured only when the anges of
adjacent shafts are accurately centered by spigot and recesses. The spigot is, therefore,
machined with a tolerance corresponding to a push t, allowance being made for the
actual diameter of the recess. The bolt holes in both mating anges are nished jointly
by reaming.

7. Guide bearings:
The bearings of vertical generating sets serve mainly as guides since these are
ordinarily subjected only to loads caused by the dynamic imbalance of the rotating parts
and by asymmetric flow of the water through turbine. The turbine bearing is segmented
& of oil self-lubricated type with high grade anti-friction lined bearing pads. There are
12 segments. It is installed on the head cover above the turbine shaft seal. The bearing
consist of a removable bearing housing, an oil sump having removable cover plate and
heat exchange cooling coils. The oil is cooled by water under pressure 0.5 MPa &
discharge 15 L/S. cooling water is taken to the draft tube. The bearing is designed for
prolonged operation at speeds from 90 to 110 % of rated speed. Resistance type metal
and oil temperature detectors (RTD) in pads and oil bath are fitted. Water moisture
contamination detector device with alarm contacts at the lowest point of the oil sump

is installed. One no. vibration detector (Displacement type) with alarm & trip contact
is installed near bearing to give alarm in case of excessive vibration of turbine.

8. Shaft seal:
The rotating part and the stationary parts have some clearances. Runner and shaft and
turbine cover has also some clearance. The high pressure water comes from penstock
and falls on runner causes rotation. Due to high pressure water tends to move in all
direction where clearance is found. To prevent this water come out from the top cover
a sealing arrangement is made between runner and turbine top cover. This is called
shaft seal arrangement.
The turbine shaft seal is of water lubricated type and is located below the main guide
bearing in the head cover. To prevent the leakage of water through clearance between
top cover and shaft. The sealing ring will be of stainless steel & the service seal is of
the end carbon-graphite type. The shaft seal is lubricated & cooled by clear ltered
water free of suspended particles. The cooling water for the seal is supplied from clean
water supply system through the ne lter. Inlet pressure is not less than 0.3 MPa, rated
discharge -3 L/S. leakage drain is through the seal is into the head coven. A
pneumatically operated inflated type maintenance seal is provided in the shaft sealing
box below the main shaft seal. This seal is made of rubber hose. Compressed air of
0.8Mpa is used to inflate the seal during shutdowns & inspection of working seal.

Figure: 8 Shaft seal

9. Servomotors:
Two double acting servomotors are installed in
the turbine pit. These operate with oil pressure
received from distribution valve & are of
sufficient power to open/close all guide vanes
against high hydraulic & frictional loads. The
cylindrical body is made of cast steel or
fabricated from steel plates. The inner surface
is accurately machined to enable piston to
operate smoother & without any jerk. The
piston and piston rings are made of cast iron.
Provision for stuffing box to prevent oil
leakage, connecting rod, a stopper to hold
guide vanes in closed position, return motion Figure: 9 Turbine pit Servomotor
cable (feedback mechanism), a pointer & scale to indicate opening of servomotor is also
made. An interlock is provided to prevent operation of governor when the servomotor lock
is engaged. A mechanical lock is provided on servomotors to lock the guide vanes in closed
position. This lock should be applied before doing maintenance work on turbine or when
turbine is shut down for longer period.

10. Labyrinth seals:

Some water leaks through the clearance
between the runner and chamber without
doing any useful work. This leakage
increases with increase in head.
Labyrinths are xed both on runner
and its chamber. This increases the
length of the water passage & also
introduces change in its direction. For
decreased clearances, very accurate
machining of both xed & rotating
labyrinth is required.
Renewable labyrinth wearing rings are provided on the runner crown and shroud and
on head cover and bottom ring for reducing water leakage. The rotating ring is fixed on
runner crown and with shrinkage, complementary removable ring is xed on the top
cover & bottom ring by counter shunt screws secured by tack welding or suitable

Runaway protection:
Runaway protection is carried out by a slide valve of emergency closing, inlet spherical valve,
devices and mechanical runway protections. The latter stage is a mechanical anti runaway device

whose main elements are a spring, weight and slide valve. With increase in speed upto 160% of
rated speed, the centrifugal creates a moment exceeding that of the spring tension. The weight
turns over and strikes the control valve, as a result the slide valve shifts to the extreme right
position, where from oil comes to the slide valve emergency closing of the wicket gates. The
mechanical device is provided with micro-switches for Signal transmission: "device is locked and
mechanical protection operated.

Hydro Generator envisaged in Tehri HEP is vertical shaft, alternating current, 3 phase synchronous
machine of semi umbrella type with combined Thrust and Lower Guide Bearing located below the
Rotor and Upper Guid Bearing above the Rotor Upper Guide bearings are arranged in the upper
oil bath and Lower Guide Bearings & Thrust Bearing are in oil bath of lower bracket. The generator
is designed for nominal output of 250 MW and maximum continuous output of 275 MW at 0.9
lagging power factor. The rotational speed of the machine is 214.3 rpm and run away speed is
410rpm. The total weight of Generator comprising of Rotor and Stator is approximately 13O0T.
The consignments of Rotor and Stator parts comprising of core and winding material were received
at site which were assembled and erected in the Power House under the supervision of supplier's

Technical specifications:

Description Unit Value

Nominal output MVA/MW 278/250
Maximum continuous output MVA/MW 305.8/275
Power factor 0.9
Frequency Hz 503%
Rated terminal voltage between the phases kV 15.755%
Nominal speed r.p.m. 214.28
Runaway speed r.p.m. 410
Rotational direction Counter clockwise, viewed from top
Flywheel effect T.m 24000

Major components of the Generator:
1. Stator:
Joint less stator frame is rm construction made of
sheet rolled steel. Stator frame is rings shape and
consists of four sections. Stator frame sections,
Stator frame section assembly, core assembly and
winding installations have been done at site. Stator
core assembles varnished laminations, stamped of
3432-type coiled cold-rolled electrical steel with
0.35mm thickness. Core arranged to stacks by
height, with ventilation ducts between them for
provision of effective stator ventilation. The stator
core of laminated construction is made of stacked
segments of cold-rolled electrical steel sheets hence
low specic losses.
Main insulation is thermosetting Monolite type,
made of F-class materials with epoxy biding agent.
Fastening of winding bars is provided by slots Figure: 11 Stator winding
wedges with use of flexible polyurethane gaskets between the upper bar and slot wedge.
The bars are fastened in slots outlet zone by means of wedge spacers and they are fastened
in bar end zone by means of bandage ring.

2. Rotor:
Rotor of hydro generator consists of 14 Arms fastened to rotor hub, Thrust Bearing Hub,
Shaft Extension with Upper Guide Bearing bush attached to it, Rotor Frame, laminated
rotor rim, 28 nos. poles and current supply circuits. The rotor is of shaft less since the rotor
cast hub whose upper ange is fastened to the shaft-extension replaces the shaft and the
lower flanged us coupled to the turbine shaft. Arms are secured to the rotor hub and air
separating shields are secured to the upper and the lower parts of the rotor arms. The rotor
rim is made up of segments punched from 4mm rim has been assembled at site. The pole
cores are stacked at site. The Pole cores are stacked of steel sheets 2mm thick with T-
shaped tails, which secure the poles to the rim with the aid of wedges.

Figure: 12 Rotor

3. Guide and Thrust bearings:

The combined Thrust and lower guide
bearings are located on the lower bracket of
the generator. Upper guide bearings is
located in central part of upper bracket above
stator and rotor of hydro-generator. Each
radial type bracket consists of all-welded
central part which form the oil bath for thrust
pad. Guide Bearings and 12 removable arms
which transfer the radial thrust from bearing
through the braking jacks to the generator
foundation. Arms of lower bracket mount the
brakes. Thrust bearing has rotating disk
(mirror) with polished bottom surface and
twelve xed pads on rigid Supports. Friction
surface of Figure: 13 Upper guide bearings
pads is coated with linings with TEFLON friction surface. This allows hot starting and
starting after prolonged down time without the necessity of jacking up the rotor. Thrust
bearing pads are installed by means of flexible disk supports on bolts with spherical heads.
These bolts allow adjusting the height of support and providing the equal load on each pad.
Guide bearings consist of set of pads located around the hubs fastened on shaft Upper and
lower guide bearing pads have the same design. Guide bearing contains twelve pads.
Friction surfaces of bearing pads are coated with 6-83 Babbit. Self-adjusted pads have the
insulation against shaft current. Oil baths of bearings are covered with special seal shields
which prevent the penetration of oil vapor and splashes into generator.
Thrust bearing runner has the insulation against shaft current.

4. Braking system:
The generator is equipped with electrical and
mechanical braking system. The electrical
braking is the main braking system. When
hydro generator is disconnected from grid,
turbine wicket gates is closed and rotational
speed is reduced down to 50% of rated value,
short circuiting of main terminals of stator
winding and current supply into rotor
winding from independent excitation system
occurs. Electrical braking is operated by the
stator current not exceeding the nominal
value when speed drops to 50% of nominal
value at the stopping of the unit.
The stator winding is short circuited bye the
dynamic breaker. The rotor winding is fed
from the excitation system. At the speed of
5% of nominal value, the mechanical braking
system consisting of 24 pneumatic
brakes mounted under the rotor rim is applied automatically. The total time taken by the
machine to reach the standstill condition is 15 minutes. Mechanical brakes are operated by
compressed air with 0.8MPa pressure. At failure of electrical breaking, mechanical braking
is activated automatically when unit speed drops to 5%. In emergency conditions the
mechanical braking can be applied at speed equal to 50% of the nominal speed.

5. Cooling system:
The Generator is provided with air-cooling system. Air circulates in an enclosed circuit
with air, cooled by water in 12 air coolers, parallel connected to the pressure and discharge
ring manifolds. Cooling system of generator active part is of air-type with cooling of heated
air in air coolers with water-cooling. Air circulation through ventilation ducts in rotor rim,
centrifugal ventilators on end surfaces of rim and poles. Baffles are installed below
Generator is carried out by closed cycle inside generator pit by means of pumping action
of rotor arms and above rotor for allowing air motion and decrease of ventilation losses.
Heated air from stator winding end zone and ventilation ducts in stator core goes to stator
frame and gets cooled by passing through air coolers, which are installed on stator frame
sheeting. Cooled air comes out to generator pit and is drawn into rotor. Cooling water
which circulates through air coolers carries out loss dissipation from air coolers air cooler
tubes are made of cooper-nickel alloy with aluminum ning. Heat dissipation from Thrust
and Guide Bearings is carried out by cooling water which circulates through oil coolers
built in to oil baths oil cooler are made of U-shape copper nickel alloy tubes. Pipe joints of
all coolers are arranged outside oil baths.

Basic working principle of generator:
A conductor moving relative to a magnetic eld develops an electromotive force (EMF) in it
(Faraday's Law). This emf reverses its polarity when it moves under magnetic poles of opposite
polarity. Typically, a rotating magnet, called the rotor turns within a stationary set of conductors
wound in coils on an iron core, called the stator. The eld cuts across the conductors, generating
an induced EMF (electromotive force), as the mechanical input causes the rotor to turn.
The rotating magnetic eld induces an AC voltage in the stator windings. Since the currents in
stator windings vary in step with the position of the rotor, an alternator is a synchronous generator.
The rotor's magnetic eld may be produced by permanent magnets, or by a eld coil electromagnet.
Automotive alternators use a rotor winding which allows control of the alternator's generated
voltage by varying the current in the rotor eld winding. Permanent magnet machines avoid the
loss due to magnetizing current in the rotor, but are restricted in size, due to the cost of the magnet
material. Since the permanent magnet eld is constant, the terminal voltage varies directly with
the speed of the generator. Brushless AC generators are usually larger than those used in
automotive applications.
An automatic voltage control device controls the eld current to keep output voltage constant. If
the output voltage from the stationary armature coils drops due to an increase in demand, more
current is fed into the rotating eld coils through the voltage regulator (VR). This increases the
magnetic eld around the eld coils which induces a greater voltage in the armature coils. Thus,
the output voltage is brought back up to its original value.
Alternators used in central power stations also control the eld current to regulate reactive power
and to help stabilize the power system against the eects of momentary faults. Often there are
three sets of stator windings, physically oset so that the rotating magnetic eld produces a three
phase current, displaced by one-third of a period with respect to each other.
One cycle of alternating current is produced each time a pair of eld poles passes over a point on
the stationary winding. The relation between speed and frequency is N=120f/P, where f is the
frequency in Hz (cycles per second), P is the number of poles (2,4,6...) and N is the rotational
speed in revolutions per minute (RPM). Very old descriptions of alternating current systems
sometimes give the frequency in terms of alternations per minute, counting each half-cycle as one
alternation; so 12,000 alternations per minute corresponds to 100 Hz.
The output frequency of an alternator depends on the number of poles and the rotational speed.
The speed corresponding to a particular frequency is called the synchronous speed for that

Excitation System:
The basic principle of power generation is when a magnetic field is moved across a stationary
conductor, voltage is induced in the conductor. Voltage will be induced even if conductor is rotated
and magnetic field is kept stationary, Generators consist of two circuits an electric circuit and a
magnetic circuit; one is rotating with respect to other. The magnetic circuit of a generator is called
exciter. In modern generators magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet. The intensity of
magnetic field can be varied by varying the amount of DC current applied to electromagnet.
Generator output voltage is affected by the following factors:
Intensity of the flux in the rotating magnetic excitation field. This can be varied by
varying the DC current applied to the electromagnets.
Rate at which flux lines cut by the conductor. This is not variable since the
generators operator at the rated constant speed.
Length of the conductor (Not variable).The function of the generator exciter is to
provide variable magnetizing power to the generator magnetizing flux field. When
the intensity of exciter field is increased the generator output voltage is increased.
In actual usage, the exciter is used to vary the generator output voltage to match the
system demands.
Types of Exciters:
Commutator type DC generator: These DC generators are either driven from the
shaft of the main generator or from a separate motor. In some large exciters, a speed
reducing gear train is used between main generator shaft and exciter shaft.
AC generators used in connection with rectifiers: In this case can alternator is driven
by the main generator to produce AC power which is then converted to DC by
A static excitation system which uses the AC power generated by the main
generators instead of a separate generating unit. In this type, the power generated by
the main generator is stepped down to required level using rectifiers. For initial
excitation, DC from station battery of DC from station auxiliary power converted by
rectifiers is used.
Static Exciters:
With the development of electronics, the control systems became very simple. Electronics control
circuits has the advantages of fast response, easy maintenance and long life. The control circuits
can be assembled in modules called printed circuits boards. Each module can be easily replaced
during a fault. With the development of electronics the excitation system of AC generators are also

considerably and today almost all the manufacturers are using electronic exciter called static
This has practically no moving parts.
It draws AC power from the output of the main generator. It is rectified and
controlled using electronic rectifiers and fed back to the field.
The excitation transformer is a special three phase transformer used to step down
the generator output AC voltage (usually 11kv). The secondary is designed as per
the requirements. The auxiliary power is derived from the excitation transformer
The Thyristor:
This device is basically a controlled rectifier. It belongs to a family of called Silicon
Controlled Rectifier (SCR).
Its advantage is that it can carry large currents and it can be controlled using a very
small current of the order of a few milli-amperes.
The conduction of Thyristor can be controlled using the control input called gate. It
has 3terminals called anode, cathode and Gate. For starting conduction, anode is to
be positive w.r.t cathode and there should be gate current flowing through gate.
Even if the anode is positive w.r.t cathode the conduction will not start until a gate
current is supplied. So we can delay the conduction by delaying the gate signal. Once
the conduction is started, the gate will not have any control (even if it is removed).
The conduction is will continue until the current through the device is reduced below
a particular value called the holding current. It is the minimum current required to
maintain the conduction and the value is specified by the manufacturer.
Working of the static exciter:
11KV generator output voltage is stepped down to a low voltage using the exciter transformer.
This AC voltage is rectified using a thyristor bridge. The rectified output DC voltage is given to
the field winding of the generator through a field breaker. The exciter draws power from the output
of the generator and converts to the controlled DC and feeds to the generator field. During starting,
voltage will not be available at the output. So the exciter cannot function and excite the generator.
For initial excitation external supply is required for 5 to 10 sec. usually the supply is given from
the station battery and this process is called Field Flashing. At about 95% of the rated speed of
generator, the station battery supply is given to the field using a set of field flashing contractors.
A current limiting resistor is also used in series with the battery current. The blocking diode in the
circuit prevents any current flowing to the battery from the exciter.

When the battery supply is given to the field, the generator starts to generate output voltage. Then
the exciter starts functioning and the field current is shared by battery and exciter. When the
generator output reaches around 7KV, the exciter can independently supply the field current. Then
the battery supply is isolated automatically by switching off the field flashing contractor. During
every starting field flashing is required. Also when the machine trips on non-lockout, generator
keeps on running, excitation is switched off and machine is isolated from the system.

A timer relay is also started which isolates the battery by de-energizing the field flashing
contractors in case the required voltage is not achieved. Re-exciting is required. At that time also
field flashing is required. Continuous field flashing can reduce the battery life. Modern generators
use field flashing from station auxiliary supply which is stepped down to the required level and
then rectified during diode bridge rectifiers and for field flashing. For large generators the
excitation power required is more and more Thyristor bridges are connected in parallel to share
the load.
The Field Breaker:
The field breaker connects the DC from the exciter to the field. In addition to the two main contacts,
the field breaker is usually provided with a power rated auxiliary contact. This auxiliary contact is
used to provide a discharge path for the voltage induced when the field is isolated using the field
breaker. During opening of the field breaker, the field is connected to a field discharge resistor
(FDR) through the closed contact of field breaker.
The Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR):
It is basically a comparator which compares the output voltage of the generator with
the set value. Any error between the set value and the output voltage is reflected as
an output of the comparator.
This signal is amplified and given to the gate pulse generating electronic circuit. The
position of the pulse is shifted and the conduction of the thyristor is controlled and
output voltage is brought to the set value.
The set value given to the comparator can be varied by the operator using a
motorized potentiometer. The feedback to the comparator is taken from the
generator output using potential transformers.
Auto Regulation Cubicle:
CH-1 is used for everything required for the machine to operate.
In case CH-1 is fails, then CH-2 is used and the parameters of CH-1 will be used by
auto channel CH-2.
In case CH-2 also fails then CH-3 is used and operated manually.

Ch-4 is for braking.
Unit Auxiliary Transformer:
Unit auxiliary transformer basically taps the generating 15.75KV to 415V secondary. This
secondary voltage is used to run the auxiliaries such as air oil system etc.
Self-Excitation Transformer:
This transformer is used to feed the required voltage to the rotor windings for the generator
excitation. This is called self-excitation because the voltage generated is back fed to the rotor
windings after being tapped down through this transformer. Here the primary voltage is 15.75KV
(generated voltage) and secondary voltage is 712V. The Total Power is1912 kVA.
Excitation Process:
Incomer 11KV line is used for the initial excitation. For this 11KV is stepped down
415V followed by stepping down to 30V DC which is used for the initial excitation.
When the alternator starts to generate at15.75KV then 11KV line is isolated & the
self-excitation is carried out. This is done automatically.
For this 15.75KV, being generated is tapped down to 712V through the self-
excitation transformer.
This 712V AC is fed to thyristor bridges which get converted to DC and the gate
pulse to thyristor bridges are provided by AVR through pulse transformer to the gate
of thyristor.
These Pulse transformer smoothen the gate pulses.
DC from thyristor after passing through field breaker goes to the rotor windings.
This is how the excitation process continues till the machine operates.

Compressed air system:
An air compressor is a device that converts
power (using an electric motor, diesel or
gasoline engine, etc.) into potential
energy stored in pressurized air
(i.e., compressed air). By one of several
methods, an air compressor forces more and
more air into a storage tank, increasing the
pressure. When tank pressure reaches its upper
limit the air compressor shuts off. The
compressed air, then, is held in the tank until
called into use. The energy contained in the
compressed air can be used for a variety of
applications, utilizing the kinetic energy of the
air as it is released and the tank depressurizes.
When tank pressure reaches its lower limit, the Figure: 15 Reciprocating air compressor
air compressor turns on again and re-pressurizes the tank.
Reciprocating air compressors are positive displacement compressors. This means they are taking
in successive volumes of air which is confined within a closed space and elevating this air to a
higher pressure. The reciprocating air compressor accomplishes this by using a piston within a
cylinder as the compressing and displacing element. The reciprocating air compressor is
considered single acting when the compressing is accomplished using only one side of the piston.
A compressor using both sides of the piston is considered double acting. The reciprocating air
compressor uses a number of automatic spring loaded valves in each cylinder that open only when
the proper differential pressure exists across the valve. Inlet valves open when the pressure in the
cylinder is slightly below the intake pressure. Discharge valves open when the pressure in the
cylinder is slightly above the discharge pressure. A compressor is considered to be single stage
when the entire compression is accomplished with a single cylinder or a group of cylinders in
parallel. Many applications involve conditions beyond the practical capability of a single
compression stage. Too great a compression ratio may cause excessive discharge temperature or
other design problems.

Purpose of the system:

The compressed air system supplies the following compressed air demands:
1. 6.3 MPa pressure
Initial charging of the pressure accumulators of turbine and spherical valve oil
pressure unis.

Air make up to the pressure accumulators of turbine and spherical valve oil pressure
units in operation.

2. 4.0 MPa pressure

Tail-water depressing for synchronous condenser operation.
Air supply to air supply board.

3. 0.8 MPa pressure

Air make up for synchronous condenser operation.
Air admission into runner chamber at unstable turbine operation.
Turbine shaft maintenance seal.
Generator mechanical brakes.
Service air for pneumatic power tools.
Gate valve drives in the fire protection system of generator.

Oil pressure system of Turbine and MIV:

Oil pressure systems are accumulators of energy to be used for automatic and manual control of
generating unit at start-up, load variation (included transfer into the mode of synchronous
condenser), normal and emergency shut-down as well as for automatic governing of the rotating

Basic principle of operation:

OPU is a source of power for the hydraulic part governing system. The actuating medium is turbine
oil. The pressure accumulator contains the amount of oil required for the process of operation. The
rest of the volume contains compressed air where the potential energy is stored. The rated pressure
and constant amount of air are maintained automatically in the pressure accumulator. The volume
of oil used for the process operation is restored through pump operation.

Each pump can operate either continuously directing
the oil to the pressure accumulator or to the sump tank,
or intermittently with the pump stop to operate when
the rated value of pressure is reached. The modes of
operation are named continuous and intermittent
respectively. The pumps are switched on upon the
signal obtained from the pressure sensor.
Upon pressure decrease in the pressure cylinder to the
value of the main pump start setting, the motor of the
pump starts, the unloader value closes and the pump
starts pumping oil from the sump tank 1 to the air/oil
vessel of the pressure accumulator through the check
valve and collector.
Upon oil level increases in the pressure accumulator
the value of pressure increases too. The rated value of
pressure reached, the unloader valve opens, thus
connecting the pump to the sump tank. The check
valve closes preventing the reverse oil flow from the
pressure accumulator through the pump. Under the
intermittent mode operation the pump motor is de-
energized with the unloader valve opened. Figure: 16 Oil pressure unit
The pressure may drop to the stand-by pump start in case of frequent turbine control actions.
Operation of this pump is similar to the main pump. The reduction of the amount of air in the
pressure accumulator due to its dissolution in the oil is restored periodically by the supply of
compressed air from the station receiver through the air admitting valve AA03. The exhausted oil
is returned to the sump tank where it is filtered and partially de-aerated in the natural way and then,
is re-pumped to the pressure accumulator. The oil volume contained in the sump tank provides for
the normal operation of the pumps.
The heat released as a result of the power supply shut-off is naturally dissipated keeping the oil
temperature within the permitted limits. At high ambient temperature and insufficient blowing,
natural radiation and convention become inadequate. In such cases excessive heat is removed by
means of oil cooling system.
Operation of the oil cooling system is based on the convective heat exchange between oil and
water. Upon reaching the high temperature setting, pump P3 starts pumping oil from the clean
compartment of the sump tank to the dirty one through the oil cooler OC. Water supply valve
AA04 opens. The control is carried out by the control cubicle upon the signal produced by
temperature sensor.

Machine Operating Modes
1) Turbine Mode: In this mode, the units are operated as a generator. Water strikes the
turbine blades and produce electricity. This is mode usually followed for the machines.
Voltage generated is15.75KV with a frequency of 50Hz.
2) Condenser Mode: The loads are generally of inductive nature. Under heavy inductive
load, grid may collapse. To avoid this capacitive load is needed. This machine can also be
used as a motor. First wicket gates are closed. Then water in the draft tube is compressed
with the help of compressed air at 40KgF pressure which renders the turbine free to move
without water friction. Now the machine is connected to the grid and is run in over excited
mode which acts as a capacitor and thus compensates the power factor due to inductive
load. In short, it is used for the power factor correction.
3) Back to Back mode: This back to back mode will be used in Pump storage plant (PSP).
In this the water will be pumped from the TRT back to HRT and is allowed to fall back on
the turbines. Since, the PSP is an ongoing project so this mode is not used now.
4) Standstill mode: This keeps the machine idle.

Machine Shutdown Modes

1) Normal Shutdown: This is the machine shutdown mode usually followed. First the
machine is unloaded. When the power becomes 10 to 20 MW, circuit breaker opens. Now
the machine is in spinning mode. Excitation is now switched off i.e. no more DC supply is
given to the machine rotor windings. Now Main Inlet Valve is closed. Field Breaker is then
switched off. No more Cooling water is given to the machine now.
2) Emergency shutdown: It is automatic shutdown in case there some big fault in the
machine. Machine gets switched off automatically. MIV is also automatically closed.
3) Rapid Shutdown: It is similar to Emergency shutdown where Butterfly valve closure is
the additional step.

Power generation:

Gas Insulated Switchyard (GIS):
After the power is generated and stepped up to 420KV through generating transformers, it is passed
through GIS before sending it to power grid.
3 phase AC wave is first passed through the surge arrestors which arrests the
high peaks in the wave. Basically it is the capacitor which charges and
discharges in order to remove those high peaks.
Current transformers are there for the protection. Their rating is 500A/1A.
Isolators give option to switch between the bus bars.
Circuit breakers are also there, which contains Nitrogen gas to pressurize the
oil. Nitrogen pushes the piston as a result the circuit is completed and the
conduction starts. Circuit breakers here are hydraulic type. The pressure of SF6
in circuit breaker is 6.9MPa.
Bus Coupler: It connects the power generated to the transfer line. B11 is
connected to B12& B21 is connected to B22.
Insulation: For insulation SF6 is used. As soon as the line charges, spark is
generated, SF6 quenches the spark. SF6 is used because Fluorine ions have high
electro negativity which quickly recombines to form SF6.
L1 line trap is provided for the hotline communication.
Here capacitive voltage transformers are used because it works well on high
voltage and are economical.
In GIS red cylinder contains Nitrogen whereas blue cylinders contain SF6.
PD Monitoring System: It monitors and gives visual indication of any faults in
GIS bus bar due to partial discharge.
Buses from here carry power to Koteshwar and from there to Meerut.

Maintenance and Protection:

Maintenance of turbines is done periodically. Major maintenance is carried out after every 4 years.
Minor maintenance is carried out at short intervals. Maintenance sequence is given below:
Butterfly valve and Main inlet Valve for the unit undergoing maintenance are
closed to stop the water coming to the turbine.
Water from the penstock is drained with the help of valves.
Draft tube is emptied. Valves present on the elbow draft tube are opened and
the water is drained.
Spiral casing is then opened.
Chemical line assembly is set up in order to clean the pipe to reduce the
moisture. For this casting soda is used.

Wicket gates are opened for maintenance.
Filler gas is used to check the gaps.
Then runner in the spiral casing is checked.
All the 28 rotor coils are removed and cleaned. Oil cooling system is also
removed and cleaned.
Servo motors are opened and oiling is done of various components of the servo
Oil pressure unit is now opened and checked.
Unloading and loading valves are then opened.
Resistance temperature detector (RTDs) and Dial type thermometers (DTTs)
are then checked.
All pads of upper and lower bracket are removed and cleaned.
Thrust pads are then removed.
Meanwhile, all the UCBs are also opened and all the electronic circuits are
Panels in the excitation system are also opened and checked.
All the pads are fitted again. And then undergo Megger test. Through Megger
test insulation of the pads is checked.
Machine centering is done then with the help of pads.
Rotor is now jacked on the thrust pads, machine is centered and the pads are
locked 0.20 to0.25 mm clearance is left between shaft and pads.
Machine then undergoes High voltage test (HV test).
After the maintenance is done, machine is started again.
Smoke sensors have been installed in the machine hall, GIS and control room.
Firefighting system has also been installed.
Red pipes in the powerhouse contain the water for firefighting. This water is taken from
the draft tube.
In case of big fault, the units automatically shut down.
If there is some fault in UCB and everything gets uncontrolled then emergency
shutdown is done in which the butterfly valve closes automatically. It is closed through
the electromagnetic induction.