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ACI Building Code Requirements for Thin

Shells and Folded Plates*

Since concrete is the basic, most common material for the construction of thin shells,
the requirements of such specific codes as those of the American Concrete Institute
must be followed. Unfortunately, for many years these codes did not address in
specific terms the unique problems related to thin shells, so that in the absence of
special provisions only the common rules on concrete structures could in general be
followed. One major result has been a great thickness for shells being imposed by
minimum cover requirements for steel reinforcement. Naturally, code requirements
vary from country to country, so that although ACI restrictions were enforced in the
United States, shells only three-quarters of an inch thick were legally possible in
Mexico, as demonstrated by the numerous thin shells there by Felix Candela.
The ACI's design provisions for shells and folded plates are covered in Chapter
19 of its code. These include such major topics as definitions, criteria for structural
and model analysis, reinforcement, prestressing, and construction. In separating the
supporting members of a thin shell structure from its whole, the code explicitly
specifies that Chapter 19's provisions apply only on the thin shell portion of the
structure. The edge beams, columns, footings, and other supporting members are
covered by other chapters in the code. Naturally, thin shell designs should also be
controlled by the rest of the code, except for provisions that may conflict with those
in Chapter 19.

*From Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-89). The full text of
Chapter 19 and its Commentary are reprinted with the permission of the American Concrete
Institute, Detroit.

ACI Buildina Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi (see
Fe = specified compressive strength of concrete,
= square root of specified compressive strength
of concrete, psi
= specified yield strength of nonprestressed re-
inforcement, psi
= thickness of shell or folded plate, in.
= develop length, in.
= strength reduction factor (see 9.3)

19.1 Scope and Definitions

This code and commentary provides building
code information on the design, analysis, and
construction of concrete thin shells and folded
plates. The process began in 1964 with the pub-
lication of a practice and commentary by ACI
Committee 334,19.1 and continued with the in-
clusion of Chapter 19 in ACI Building Code
ACI 318-71 and in later editions. The current
revision reflects additional experience in de-
sign, analysis, and construction gained since the
earlier publications, and was influenced by the
publication of the "Recommendations for
Concrete Shells and Folded Plates" of the In-
ternational Association for Shell and Spatial
Structures (lASS) in 1979. 19 .2
Since Chapter 19 applies to concrete thin
shells and folded plates of all shapes, extensive
discussion of their design, analysis, and con-
struction in the commentary is not possible. Ad-
ditional information can be obtained from the
references listed at the end of this chapter,
which are provided for the assistance of the
designer. They are not an official part of the
code. The designer is responsible for their in-
terpretation and use. Particular emphasis on de-
velopments and practice in the United States is
given in "Concrete Thin Shells," ACI
SP_28. 19-3

19.1.1 Provisions of Chapter 19 shall apply to R 19 .1.1 Chapter 19 is intended to apply to

thin shell and folded plate concrete structures, thin shells and folded plate concrete structures
including ribs and edge members. in building construction. Discussion of the ap-
plication of thin shells in special structures such
as cooling towers and circular prestressed con-
crete tanks may be found in the reports of ACI-
ASCE Committee 334 19.4 and ACI Committee
344. 19 .5

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.1.2 All provisions of this code not specifi-

cally excluded, and not in conflict with provi-
sions of Chapter 19 shall apply to thin-shell

19.1.3 Thin shells: three-dimensional spatial R 19.1. 3 Common types of thin shells are
structures made up of one or more curved slabs domes (surfaces of revolution), 19.3. 19.6-19.9 cy-
or folded plates whose thicknesses are small lindrical shells, 19.3. 19.6. 19.8. 19.10-19.15 conoids,
compared to their other dimensions. Thin shells 19.6. 19.16-19.18 elliptical paraboloids, 19.6. 19.19 hy-
are characterized by their three-dimensional perbolic paraboloids, 19.3. 19.6. 19.8. 19.19-19.28 and
load-carrying behavior which is determined by groin vauIts.19.3. 19.19. 19.29. 19.30 Considerable in-
the geometry of their forms, by the manner in formation on the experience gained in the de-
which they are supported, and by the nature of sign, analysis and construction of these shells
the applied load. may be found in the cited references.
Less experience is available regarding other
shell types or shapes, including free-form shells.
However, a number of these have been success-
fully built.
Thin shell elements are slabs or plates with
thicknesses less than one-fifth the transverse
width and less than one-twentieth the radius of
curvature on span lengths.

19.1.4 Folded plates: a special class of shell R19.1.4 Folded plates may be prismatic,19.3.
structures formed by joining flat, thin slabs 19.6. 19.31-33 nonprismatic,19.34 or faceted. The
along their edges so as to create a three-dimen- first two types, which are the most common,
sional spatial structure. consist generally of planar thin slabs joined
along their longitudinal edges to form a beam-
like structure spanning between supports. Fac-
eted folded plates, which are much less com-
mon, are made up of triangular and/or poly-
gonal planar thin slabs joined along their edges
to form three-dimensional spatial structures
similar to continuously curved thin shells such
as domes or other shell forms. Only limited ex-
perience is available on the design, analysis, and
construction of faceted folded plates.

19.1.5 Ribbed shells: spatial structures with R19.1.5 Ribbed shells I9.3. 19.35. 19.36 generally
material placed primarily along certain pre- have been used for larger spans where the in-
ferred rib lines, with the area between the ribs creased thickness of the curved slab alone be-
filled with thin slabs or left open. comes excessive or uneconomical. Ribbed shells
also have been used because of the construction
techniques employed and to enhance the aes-
thetic impact of the completed structure.

19.1.6 Auxiliary members: ribs or edge beams R 19.1.6 Most thin shell structures require ribs
which serve to strengthen, stiffen, and/or sup- or edge beams at their boundaries to carry the
port the shell; usually, auxiliary members act shell boundary forces, to assist in transmitting
jointly with the shell. them to the supporting structure, and to accom-
modate the increased amount of reinforcement
in these areas.

ACI BUilding Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.1.7 Elastic analysis: an analysis of defor- R 19.1. 7 Elastic analysis of thin shells and
mations and internal forces based on equilib- folded plates means any method of structural
rium, compatibility of strains, and assumed elas- analysis which is based on assumptions which
tic behavior, and representing to suitable provide suitable approximations to the three-
approximation the three-dimensional action of dimensional behavior of the structure. The
the shell together with its auxiliary members. method must provide the internal forces and
displacements needed in the design of the shell
proper, the rib or edge members, and the sup-
porting structure. Equilibrium of internal
forces and external loads and compatibility of
deformations must be satisfied.
Methods of elastic analysis based on classical
shell theory, simplified mathematical or analyti-
cal models, or numerical solutions using finite
e1ement,19.37 finite differences, or numerical in-
tegration techniques, are described in the cited
The choice of the method of analysis and the
degree of accuracy required depend on certain
critical factors. These include: the size of the
structure, the geometry of the thin shell or
folded plate, the manner in which the structure
is supported, the nature of the applied load and,
finally, the extent of personal or documented
experience regarding the reliability of the given
method of analysis in predicting the behavior of
the specific type of shell or folded plate.

19.1.8 Inelastic analysis: an analysis of defor- R19.1.8 Inelastic analysis of thin shells and
mations and internal forces based on equilib- folded plates means a refined method of analy-
rium, nonlinear stress-strain relations for con- sis based on the specific nonlinear material
crete and reinforcement, consideration of properties, nonlinear behavior due to the crack-
cracking and time dependent effects, and com- ing of concrete, and time dependent effects
patibility of strains. The analysis shall represent such as creep, shrinkage, temperature, and load
to suitable approximation the three-dimen- history. These effects are incorporated in order
sional action of the shell together with its auxil- to trace the response and crack propagation of a
iary members. reinforced concrete shell through the elastic,
inelastic and ultimate ranges. Such analyses usu-
ally require incremental loading and iterative
procedures to converge on solutions which sat-
isfy both equilibrium and strain compatibil-
ity.19.38 Analysis of this type generally requires
extensive computer time.

19.1.9 Experimental analysis: an analysis pro-

cedure based on the measurement of deforma-
tions and/or strains of the structure or its
model; experimental analysis is based on either
elastic or inelastic behavior.

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2 Analysis and Design

19.2.1 Elastic behavior shall be an accepted R19.2.1 For types of shell structures where
basis for determining internal forces, and dis- experience, tests, and analyses have shown that
placements, of thin shells. This behavior may be the structure can sustain reasonable overloads
established by computations based on an analy- without undergoing brittle failure, elastic analy-
sis of the uncracked concrete structure in which sis is a generally acceptable procedure. The de-
the material is assumed linearly elastic, homoge- signer may assume that reinforced concrete is
neous, and isotropic. Poisson's ratio of concrete ideally elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic,
may be assumed equal to zero. having identical properties in all directions.
Poisson's ratio may be assumed equal to zero
since in concrete shells the three-dimensional
effects of Poisson's ratio are not very signifi-
cant. In shells of unusual size, shape, or com-
plexity, the analysis should consider behavior
through the elastic, cracking, inelastic, and fac-
tored load.
For unusual shell types, it is important to
verify that the elastic behavior is not terminated
by a brittle failure.

19.2.2 Inelastic analyses may be used where it R19.2.2 Inelastic analysis procedures will gen-
can be shown that such methods provide a safe erally require extensive use of computer proce-
basis for design. dures. Several references indicate possible solu-
tion methods.19.~8-19.40

19.2.3 Equilibrium checks of internal resist-

ances and external loads shall be made to en-
sure consistency of results.

ACI Buildino Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2.4 Experimental or numerical analysis R19.2.4 A wide range of numerical analysis

procedures may be used where it can be shown procedures is available. The designer must en-
that such procedures provide a safe basis for sure that the method selected is appropriate.
design. The finite element method can be used to sat-
isfy displacement compatibility and boundary
conditions. It does not necessarily satisfy overall
or local equilibrium with sufficient accuracy un-
less a fine enough finite element mesh size is
used. Other computational techniques include
finite difference and numerical integration
methods. Experimental analysis of elastic
models has been used as a substitute for an ana-
lytical solution of a complex shell structure. Ex-
perimental analysis of reinforced micro-con-
crete models through the elastic, cracking,
inelastic, and ultimate ranges should be consid-
ered for shells of unusual size, shape, complex-
ity, or importance.
For model analysis, only those portions of
the structure which affect significantly the items
under study need be simulated. Every attempt
should be made to ensure that the experiments
reveal the quantitative behavior of the proto-
type structure.
Similarly, wind tunnel tests of a scaled-down
model do not necessarily provide usable results
and should be conducted by a recognized ex-
pert in wind tunnel testing of structural
models. 19.41

19.2.5 Approximate methods of analysis not R19.2.5 In general, solutions that include
satisfying compatibility of strains either within both membrane and bending effects and satisfy
the shell or between the shell and auxiliary compatibility of strains and equilibriums are
members may be used where it can be shown preferred. Approximate solutions which satisfy
that such methods provide a safe basis for statics but not the compatibility of strains may
design. be used only when extensive experience has
proved that safe designs have resulted from
their use. Such methods include beam-type
analysis for barrel shells and folded plates hav-
ing large ratios of span to either width or radius
of curvature, simple membrane analysis for
shells of revolution, and others in which the
equations of equilibrium are satisfied, while the
strain compatibility equations are not.
However, in complex structures where sev-
eral shells join together, or where shells join
auxiliary members, a more accurate analysis
should be used.

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2.6 In prestressed shells, the analysis must RI9.2.6 If the shell is prestressed, the analysis
also consider behavior under loads induced must include its strength at factored loads as
during prestressing, at cracking load, and at well as its adequacy under service loads, the
factored load. Where prestressing tendons are load which causes cracking, and the behavior
draped within a shell, design shall take into ac- under loads induced during prestressing. This
count force components on the shell resulting was recommended in ACI 318R-77, 19.2.3,
from tendon profile not lying in one plane. and was moved to the code for clarity. Axial
forces due to draped prestressed tendons may
not lie in one plane and due consideration must
be given to the resulting force components.
The effects of post-tensioning of supporting
members on the shell must be taken into

19.2.7 The thickness h of a thin shell, and its RI9.2.7 In general, Chapter 19 assumes the
reinforcement, shall be proportioned for the use of the strength design method of 8.1.1. On
required strength and serviceability. All ele- this basis the thin shell's thickness and rein-
ments shall be proportioned by the same forcement must be proportioned to satisfy the
method, using either the strength design strength provisions of this code, so as to resist
method of 8.1.1 or the alternate design method internal forces obtained from an analysis, an
of 8.1.2. experimental model study, or a combination
thereof. The thickness of the shell is often dic-
tated not by the requirements of strength, but
by the limitation of deflection of edge members,
by the requirements of stability imposed by
19.2.8, or by the required reinforcement cover
and the construction exigencies.
The necessary thickness and reinforcement
may be also provided by using the alternate
design method prescribed in 8.1.2. The design
method chosen shall be used consistently
throughout the structure.
If composite action is involved, the provi-
sions of Chapter 17 must be satisfied. Chapter
16 applies if elements are precast. When shell or
folded plate elements are precast and connected
by cast-in-place segments, composite action
must be considered.

ACI BUilding Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2.8 Shell design shall investigate and pre- R19.2.8 Thin shells, like other structures that
clude the possibility of general or local insta- experience in-plane compressive forces, are
bility. subject to buckling when the applied load
reaches a critical value. Because of the surface-
like geometry of shells, the problem of calculat-
ing buckling load is complex. If one of the prin-
cipal membrane forces is tensile, the shell is less
likely to buckle than if both principal mem-
brane forces were compressive. The kinds of
membrane forces that develop in a shell depend
on its initial shape and the manner in which the
shell is supported and loaded. In some types of
shells, post-buckling behavior must be consid-
ered in determining safety against instability. 19.2
Investigation of thin shells for stability shall
consider the effect of the following factors: (1)
anticipated deviation of the geometry of the
shell surface as built from the idealized, perfect
geometry, (2) large deflections, (3) creep and
shrinkage of concrete, (4) inelastic properties of
materials, (5) cracking of concrete, (6) location,
amount, and orientation of reinforcement, and
(7) possible deformation of supporting ele-
For shells of moderate size, the smallest
practical shell thickness used in reinforced con-
crete construction is such that the danger of
buckling is usually minimal and simplified anal-
yses suffice. Practical measures to improve re-
sistance to buckling successfully used in the past
include the provision of two mats of rein-
forcement - one near each outer surface of the
shell, a local increase of shell curvatures, the use
of ribbed shells, and the use of concrete with
high tensile strength and low creep.
A practical procedure for determining criti-
cal buckling loads of shells is given in the lASS
recommendations. 19.2 Some recommendations
for buckling design of domes used in industrial
applications are given in ACI Committee 344
Report. 19.5 Approaches for other shells are con-
tained in "Concrete Shell Buckling," ACI
SP_67. 19,42

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2.9 Auxiliary members shall be designed RI9.2.9 Auxiliary members must be designed
according to the applicable provisions of this in accord with the general provisions of the
code. The design method selected for shell ele- code, using one of the two methods prescribed
ments under 19.2.7 shall also be used for auxil- in 8.1, which is consistent with the design
iary members. A portion of the shell equal to method of the shell elements. Portions of the
the flange width specified in 8.10 may be as- shell may be utilized as flanges for transverse or
sumed to act with the auxiliary member. In longitudinal frames or arch-frames and beams.
such portions of the shell, the reinforcement Such flanges may be curved or sloping. Canti-
perpendicular to the auxiliary member shall be lever action of the flanges must be investigated
at least equal to that required for the flange of a in determining reinforcement in the flange per-
T-beam by 8.10.5. pendicular to the longitudinal axis of the sup-
porting member, as required by Chapter 8. In
all cases, at least the minimum shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement must be used.

19.3 Design Strength of Materials

19.3.1 Specified compressive strength of con-
crete!,. at 28 days shall not be less than 3,000

19.3.2 Specified yield strength of nonpre-

stressed reinforcement J, shall not exceed
60,000 psi.

19.4 Shell Reinforcement

19.4.1 Shell reinforcement shall be provided R19.4.1 At any point in a shell, two different
to resist tensile stresses from internal membrane kinds of internal forces may occur simulta-
forces, to resist bending and twisting moments, neously: those associated with membrane ac-
to control shrinkage and temperature cracking, tion, and those associated with bending of the
and as special reinforcement at shell bounda- shell. The membrane forces are assumed to act
ries, load attachments, and shell openings. in the tangential plane midway between the sur-
faces of the shell and are the two axial forces
and the membrane shears. Flexural effects in-
clude bending moments, twisting moments, and
the associated transverse shears.

19.4.2 Membrane reinforcement shall be pro- R19.4.2 Membrane reinforcement should be

vided in two or more directions in all parts of provided to carry the full calculated membrane
the shell. tension forces with no tensile stress carried by
concrete. Throughout the shell membrane re-
inforcement must be provided in at least two
approximately orthogonal directions. In high
stress areas, a third layer of membrane rein-
forcement may be utilized.

19.4.3 The area of shell reinforcement at any R19.4.3 Minimum membrane reinforcement
section as measured in two orthogonal direc- corresponding to slab shrinkage and tempera-
tions shall not be less than the slab shrinkage or ture reinforcement must be provided in at least
temperature reinforcement required by 7.12. two approximately orthogonal directions even
if the calculated membrane forces are compres-
sive in one or more directions.

ACI BuiJdina Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.4.4 Reinforcement required to resist shell R19.4.4 The requirement of ensuring

membrane forces shall be provided so that the strength in every direction is based on safety
design strength in every direction shall be at considerations. Any method of design which as-
least equal to the component of the principal sures sufficient strength consistent with equilib-
membrane forces in the same direction due to rium is considered acceptable. The direction of
factored loads. the principal membrane tensile force at any
point may sometimes vary depending on the
direction, magnitudes, and combinations of the
various applied loads.
The magnitude of the internal membrane
forces, acting at any point due to a specific load
system, generally is calculated on the basis of an
elastic theory in which the shell is assumed un-
cracked. The computation of the required
amount of reinforcement to resist the internal
membrane forces has been traditionally based
on the assumption that concrete cannot resist
tension. A great many shell structures have
been successfully designed and constructed
over the years. This experience provides evi-
dence of the adequacy of this approach. The
associated deflections, and the possibility of
cracking, should be investigated in the service-
ability phase of the design.
Where reinforcement is not placed in the
direction of the principal tensile forces and
where cracks at the service load level would be
objectionable, the computation of reinforce-
ment may have to be based on more refined
approaches I9 .43. 19.44 which consider the exis-
tence of cracks. In the cracked state, the con-
crete is assumed unable to resist either tension
or shear. Thus, equilibrium is attained by
means of tensile resisting forces in reinforce-
ment and compressive resisting forces in

19.4.5 The area of shell tension reinforce- R19.4.5 The requirement that the tensile re-
ment shall be limited so that the reinforcement inforcement yield before the concrete crushes is
will yield before crushing of concrete in com- consistent with 10.3.3. In shells, initial crushing
pression can take place. of the concrete is not likely to occur. However,
it has been suggested that such crushing would
occur in some portions of some shells where the
principal membrane forces are approximately
equal and opposite in sign. It can be shown l9 .45
that a limit on the maximum amount of rein-
forcement effective in resisting the principal
tensile membrane force will insure that the
crushing of concrete does not take place before
the yielding of reinforcement. The limit sug-
gested on the ratio of reinforcement in any por-
tion of shell is the smaller of 0.6f'. J, or 2,400/
J,. These limits are the same as those used in
ACI 318-77 but are expressed here in ratio

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.4.6 In regions of high tension, membrane RI9.4.6 It is generally desirable for all shells
reinforcement shall, if practical, be placed in and particularly important in regions of sub-
the general directions of the principal tensile stantial tension that the directions of reinforce-
membrane forces. Where this is not practical, it ment approximate the directions of the princi-
is permitted to place membrane reinforcement pal tensile membrane forces. However, in some
in two or more component directions. structures it is not always possible or practical
for the reinforcement to follow the stress trajec-
tories. For such cases, orthogonal component
reinforcing is allowed.

19.4.7 If the direction of reinforcement varies RI9.4.7 When the directions of reinforce-
more than I 0 deg from the direction of princi- ment deviate significantly (10 deg) from the di-
pal tensile membrane force, the amount of rein- rections of the principal membrane forces,
forcement may have to be increased to limit the higher strains in the shell must occur to develop
width of possible cracks at service load levels. the capacity of reinforcement. 19.44 This might
lead to the development of unacceptably wide
cracks. The crack width should be estimated
and controlled if necessary.
Permissible crack widths for service loads
under different environmental conditions are
given in the report of ACI Committee 224.19.46
Crack width can be limited by an increase in the
amount of reinforcement used, by reducing the
stress at the service load level, by providing re-
inforcement in three or more directions in the
plane of the shell, or by using closer spacing of
smaller diameter bars rather than wider spaced
larger bars.

19.4.8 Where the magnitude of the principal RI9.4.S The practice of concentrating tensile
tensile membrane stress within the shell varies reinforcement in the regions of maximum ten-
greatly over the area of the shell surface, rein- sile stress has led to a number of successful and
forcement resisting the total tension is to be economical designs, primarily for long folded
concentrated in the regions of largest tensile plates, long barrel vault shells, and for domes.
stress where it can be shown that this provides a The requirement of providing the minimum re-
safe basis for design. However, the ratio of shell inforcement in the remaining tensile zone is in-
reinforcement in any portion of the tensile zone tended to control cracking.
shall be not less than 0.0035 based on the over-
all thickness of the shell.

19.4.9 Reinforcement required to resist shell RI9.4.9 The sign of bending moments may
bending moments shall be proportioned with change rapidly from point to point of a shell.
due regard to the simultaneous action of mem- For this reason, bending reinforcement, where
brane axial forces at the same location. Where required, is to be placed near both outer sur-
shell reinforcement is required in only one face faces of the shell. In many cases, the thickness
to resist bending moments, equal amounts shall required to provide proper cover and spacing
be placed near both surfaces of the shell even for the multiple layers of reinforcement may
though a reversal of bending moments is not govern the design of the shell thickness.
indicated by the analysis.

ACI Buildino Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.4.10 Shell reinforcement in any direction RI9.4.10 The value of cp to be used is that
shall not be spaced farther apart than 18 in. nor prescribed in for axial tension.
five times the shell thickness. Where the princi-
pal membrane tensile stress on the gross con-
crete area due to factored loads exceeds 4cp if.
reinforcement shall not be spaced farther apart
than three times the shell thickness.

19.4.11 Shell reinforcement at the junction of RI9.4.11 and RI9.4.12 On curved shell sur-
the shell and supporting members or edge faces it is more difficult to control the alignment
members shall be anchored in or extended of precut reinforcement. This must be consid-
through such members in accordance with the ered to avoid insufficient splice and develop-
requirements of Chapter 12, except that the ment lengths. Sections 19.4.11 and 19.4.12
minimum development length shall be 1.2t" but specify extra reinforcement length to maintain
not less than 18 in. the minimum lengths on curved surfaces.

19.4.12 Splice development lengths of shell

reinforcement shall be governed by the provi-
sions of Chapter 12, except that the minimum
splice length of tension bars shall be 1.2 times
the value required by Chapter 12 but not less
than 18 in. The number of splices in principal
tensile reinforcement shall be kept to a practical
minimum. Where splices are necessary they
shall be staggered at least t" with not more than
one-third of the reinforcement spliced at any

19.5 Construction
19.5.1 When removal of formwork is based on RI9.5.1 When early removal of forms is nec-
a specific modulus of elasticity of concrete be- essary, the magnitude of the modulus of elastic-
cause of stability or deflection considerations, ity at the time of proposed form removal must
the value of the modulus of elasticity E. shall be be investigated in order to insure safety of the
determined from flexural tests of field-cured shell with respect to buckling, and to restrict
beam specimens. The number of test speci- deflections. 19.s. 19.47 The value of the modulus of
mens, the dimensions of test beam specimens, elasticity E. must be obtained from a flexural
and test procedures shall be specified by the test of field-cured specimens. It is not sufficient
Engineer. to determine the modulus from the formula in
8.5.1, even if f. is determined for the field-
cured specimen.

19.5.2 The Engineer shall specify the toler- RI9.5.2 In some types of shells, small local
ances for the shape of the shell. If construction deviations from the theoretical geometry of the
results in deviations from the shape greater shell can cause relatively large changes in local
than the specified tolerances, an analysis of the stresses and in overall safety against instability.
effect of the deviations shall be made and any These changes can result in local cracking and
required remedial actions shall be taken to en- yielding which may make the structure unsafe
sure safe behavior. or can greatly affect the critical load producing
instability. The effect of such deviations should
be evaluated and any necessary actions should
be taken promptly.

Thin Shells and Folded Plates


19.1. ACI Committee 334, "Concrete Shell Structures-Practice and Commentary," (ACI
334.IR-64) (Revised 1982), ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 61, No.9, Sept. 1964, pp. 1091-
1108. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 4. See also, Discussion, ACI JOURNAL,
Proceedings V. 62, No.3, Part 2, Mar. 1965, pp. 1755-1765.
19.2. lASS Working Group No.5, "Recommendations for Reinforced Concrete Shells and
Folded Plates," International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures, Madrid, 1979, 66 pp.
19.3. Concrete Thin Shells, SP-28, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1971, 424 pp.
19.4. ACI Committee 334, "Reinforced Concrete Cooling Tower Shells-Practice and
Commentary," (ACI 334.2R-77) (Revised 1982), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1977,
10 pp. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 4.
19.5. ACI Committee 344, "Design and Construction of Circular Prestressed Concrete
Structures," (ACI 344R-70) (Reaffirmed 1981), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1970,
16 pp. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 4.
19.6. Billington, David P., Thin Shell Concrete Structures, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York, 1982,373 pp.
19.7. Ketchum, Milo S., "Design of Shell Structures-Short Shells and Domes of
Revolution," Consulting Engineer, V. 17, No.1, July 1962.
19.8. Tedesko, Anton, "How Have Concrete Shell Structures Performed?," Bulletin,
International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid), No. 73, Aug. 1980,
19.9. Christiansen, j. V., "The King County Multipurpose Domed Stadium," Proceedings,
lASS World Congress on Space Enclosures (Montreal, 1976), Building Research Centre,
Concordia University, Montreal, 1976, V. 2, pp. 11)49-1061.
19.10. "Design of Cylindrical Concrete Shell Roofs," Manual of Engineering Practice No. 31,
American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1952, 1977.
19.11. Chinn,j., "Cylindrical Shell Analysis Simplified by Beam Method," ACIJoURNAL,
Proceedings V. 55, No. 11, May 1959, pp. 1183-1192. Also, Discussion, ACIJoURNAL,
Proceedings V. 55, No.6, Part 2, Dec. 1959, pp. 1583-1603.
19.12. Gibson, j. E., The Design of Shell Roofs, 3rd Edition, E. & F. Spon Limited, London,
1968, 300 pp.
19.13. Bryant, Anthony H., and Scrivener, John C., "Cylindrical Shell Roofs with Draped
Prestressing," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 95, ST4, Apr. 1969, pp. 611-634.
19.14. Harris, Harry G., and White, Richard N., "Inelastic Behavior of RC Cylindrical Shells,
Proceedings, ASCE, V. 98, ST7, July 1972, pp. 1633-1653.
19.15. Mast, Paul E., "Design and Construction of Northlight Barrel Shells," ACI JOURNAL,
Proceedings, V. 59, No.4, Apr. 1962, pp. 481-525. Also, Discussion, ACI JOURNAL,
Proceedings, V. 59, No. 12, Dec. 1962, pp. 1903-1910.
19.16. Hadid, H. A., and Chandra, R., "An Experimental Investigation of a Reinforced
Mortar Parabolic Conoidal Shell," Bulletin, International Association for Shell and Spatial
Structures (Madrid), No. 28, Dec. 1966, pp. 53 - 62.
19.17. Hadid, H. A., "Variational Methods for the Analysis of a Conoidal Shell," Bulletin,
International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid), No. 35, Sept. 1968,
pp. 23-36.
19.18. Medwadowski, S. j., "Bending of Thin Shell Conical Frustum Segments," Proceedings,
lASS Symposium on Simplified Calculation Methods (Brussels, 1961), North-Holland
Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1962.
19.19. Parme, Alfred L., "Hyperbolic Paraboloids and Other Shells of Double Curvature,"
Proceedings, ASCE, V. 82, ST5, Sept. 1956, pp. 1057-1081. Also, Discussion, V. 83, ST2,
Mar. 1957.
19.20. Candela, Felix, "General Formulas for Membrane Stresses in Hyperbolic Paraboloidal
Shells," ACIJoURNAL, Proceedings, V. 57, No.4, Oct. 1960, pp. 353-371.

ACI Building Code Requirements

19.21. Scordelis, Alexander C.; Ramirez, H. D.; and Ngo, D., "Membrane Stresses in
Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells Having an Arbitrary Quadrilateral Shape in Plan," ACI JOURNAL,
Proceedings, V. 67, No. I,Jan. 1970, pp. 36-44.
19.22. Schnobrich, William C., "Analysis of Hipped Roof Hyperbolic Paraboloid Structures,"
Proceedings, ASCE, V. 98, ST7,July 1972, pp. 1575-1583.
19.23. Shaaban, Ahmed, and Ketchum, Milo S., "Design of Hipped Hypar Shells," Proceedings,
ASCE, V. 102, STll, Nov. 1976, pp. 2151-2161.
19.24. Schnobrich, W. C.; Mohraz, B.; and Hoebel, J. L., "Influence of Edge Beam Properties
on the Stress in Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells," Proceedings, lASS International Colloquium on
Progress of Shell Structures in the Last Ten Years and Its Future Development (Madrid,
1969), International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures, Madrid, 1970, V. 3.
19.25. Gioncu, V., "Stresses and Deflections in Umbrella Roof HP Shells," Bulletin,
International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid), No. 56, Dec. 1974,
19.26. White, Richard N., "Reinforced Concrete Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells," Proceedings,
ASCE, V. 101, ST9, Sept. 1975, pp. 1961-1980.
19.27. Scordelis, Alexander C., and Ketchum, Mark A., "Structural Behavior and Design of
Saddle HP Shells," Proceedings, lASS World Congress on Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid,
1979), Laboratorio Central de Ensayo de Materiales de Construccion, Madrid, 1980, V. 2,
pp. 4.239-4.254.
19.28. Tedesko, Anton, "Shell at Denver-Hyperbolic Paraboloidal Structure of Wide
Span," ACIJoURNAL, Proceedings, V. 57, No.4, Oct. 1960, pp. 403-412.
19.29. Csonka, P., "Composite Sectorial Shells with Cantilevered Front Side," Bulletin,
International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid), No. 28, Dec. 1966,
19.30. Scordelis, Alexander C., "Analysis and Design of HP Groined Vaults," Proceedings,
lASS World Congress on Space Enclosures (Montreal, 1976), Building Research Centre,
Concordia University, Montreal, 1976, pp. 561-568.
19.31. Pultar, Mustafa; Billington, David P., and Riera, Jorge D., "Folded Plates Continuous
Over Flexible Supports," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 93, ST5, Oct. 1967, pp. 253-277 .
. 19.32. Cheung, Yau-Kai, "Folded Plate Structure by the Finite Strip Method," Proceedings,
ASCE, V. 95, STl2, Dec. 1969, pp. 2963-2979.
19.33. Klaiber, F. Wayne; Gutzwiller, MartinJ.; and Lee, Robert H., "Analytical and Model
Studies of Prestressed Folded Plates," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 99, ST6, June 1973, pp.
19.34. Johnson, Claude D., and Lee, Ti-Ta, "Long Nonprismatic Folded Plate Structures,"
Proceedings, ASCE, V. 94, ST6, June 1968, pp. 1457 -1484.
19.35. Esquillan, Nicholas, "The Shell Vault of the Exposition Palace, Paris," Proceedings,
ASCE, V. 86, STl,Jan. 1960, pp. 41-70.
19.36. Esquillan, Nicholas, "Olympic Ice Stadium at Grenoble," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings, V.
66, No.7, July 1969, pp. 513-521.
19.37. Ashwell, D. G., and Gallagher, R. H., Editors, Finite Elementsfor Thin Shells and Curved
Members, John Wiley & Sons, London, 1976, 268 pp.
19.38. Lin, Cheng-Shung, and Scordelis, Alexander C., "Nonlinear Analysis of RC Shells of
General Form," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 101, ST3, Mar. 1975, pp. 523-538.
19.39. Hand, Frank R.; Pecknold, David A.; and Schnobrich, William C., "Nonlinear Layered
Analysis of RC Plates and Shells," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 99, ST7, July 1973, pp. 1491-1505.
19.40. Kabir, Ahmad F., and Scordelis, Alexander C., "Analysis of RC Shells for Time
Dependent Effects," Bulletin, International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures
(Madrid), No. 69, Apr. 1979, pp. 3-13.
19.41. Models for Concrete Structures, SP-24, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1970, 448 pp.
19.42. Concrete Shell Buckling, SP-67, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1981,234 pp.
19.43. Gupta, Ajaya K., "Membrane Reinforcement in Shells," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 107,
STl, Jan. 1981, pp. 41-56.

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

19.44. Baumann, T., "On the Question of Multi-Directional Reinforcement of Plate and Shell
Structure," Der Bauingenieur (Heidelberg), V. 97, No. 10,1972 (in German).
19.45. Fialkow, Morris N., "Ductility Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Cylindrical Shells
and Folded Plate Structures," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings, V. 77, No.2, Mar.-Apr. 1980, pp.
19.46. ACI Committee 224, "Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures," (ACI 224R-80),
American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1980, 42 pp. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 3.
19.47. Tedesko, Anton, "Construction Aspects of Thin-Shell Structures," ACI JOURNAL,
Proceedings, V. 49, No.6, Feb. 1953, pp. 505-520.


Excerpts from The Engineering Index

Annual 1989

The latest bibliographical references on shell structures are extremely significant to

anyone interested in exploring this field in all its ramifications. It is essential to find
access to the latest bibliographical data, especially for researchers outside the United
The original source of the following reference material is The Engineering Index
Annual 1989, a major publication that describes itself as "the world's first and most
comprehensive collection of time-saving abstracts on engineering developments."
This work, published annually since 1884, has been compiled by Engineering
Information, Inc., a nonprofit organization.
Because the list of publications in this field is quite extensive, it has been found
necessary to give only the references to the 1989 Index. It should be kept in mind
that for each group of publications published each year the Index classifies the
various articles into different areas that may vary from year to year. In the 1989
Index, for instance, fifty-four subtitles were selected.
The abstracts for the individual articles can be found within the Annual Index.
The six-digit number at the beginning of each listing here is used to locate the
abstract for that particular article. Any major research library should have the
engineering indexes.

Reprinted with the permission of Engineering Information, Inc. The full text of most of
articles referred to herein can be ordered directly from Engineering Information, Inc., 345
East 47 St., New York, NY 10016.

Excerpts from The Eneineerine Index Annual 1989

036954 Numerical Study of Axisymmetric transmit loads to the foundation. The article
Waves in an Elastic Cylindrical Shell discusses the foundation requirements, cutting
Partially Filled with a Viscous Liquid. This and assembling the triangular panels; setting
paper is devoted to a study of the natural steel and applying concrete; interior and
longitudinal-transverse waves in an elastic exterior finishes; and the costs and material
cylindrical shell of the Kirchoff-Love type, quantities.
filled with a viscous compressible liquid. Hurd, M.K. Caner Constr v 33 n 11 Nov 1988 4p.
Direct numerical integration of the equations
of motion is the basis of this study. Examples
of the calculation of the eigenvalues of 036957 Transient Waves in Inhomogeneous
natural and steady oscillations in this Anisotropic Elastic Shells. This paper
formulation of the problem are discussed. For considers the problem of transient wave
a shell with a viscous compressible liquid there propagation in linearly elastic Cosserat shells
are an infinite number of modes with of constant thickness that may be anisotropic
complex eigenvalues. The Wien effect is and inhomogeneous. The methods of rays and
observed for the upper conical waves. 12 Refs. of singular wave curves are combined to find
Nochkin, I.M. (Moscow Inst of Electronics and and integrate the transport equations
Mechanical Engineering, Moscow, USSR); Pashkov, governing growth-decay behavior of the six
LA.; Troyanovskii, I.E. Sov Appl Meek v 24 n 2 Aug possible wave modes. Conditions on material
1988 P 144-148. parameters and wave geometry are obtained
for various different uncouplings of the wave
modes. Some special cases of propagation
036955 Axisymmetric Problem of the conditions and of decay equations are worked
Penetration of a Compressible Fluid by out in detail. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.
Thin Elastic Spherical Shells. This article Cohen, H. (Univ of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manit,
describes the solution of a linear axisymmetric Can); Thomas, R.S.D. Acta Meek v 77 n 1- 2 Apr
problem concerning the penetration of a 1989 p 47-67.
compressible fluid by thin elastic spherical
shells. The problem is solved in four
formulations with different boundary 036958 Elasto/Visco-Plastic Dynamic
conditions on the free surface of the fluid. In Response ofAxisymmetrical Shells Under
the first two formulations, the free surface is Mechanical and/or Thermal Loading. An
assumed to be movable. However, its rise near analytical method for the e1asto/visco-plastic
the penetrating shell is not considered in dynamic problems of axisymmetricaI thin
formulation 1 and is accounted for in shells subjected to mechanical and/or thermal
formulation 2. In the other two formulations, loads is developed. The equations of motion
the free surface is constrained by a rigid and the relations between the strains and
shield in formulation 3 and by a deformable displacements are derived by extending
shield in formulation 4. It is assumed that the Sanders' elastic shell theory. For the
wetted surface of the shell is impermeable to constitutive relations, Perzyna's elasto/visco-
the fluid and that the disturbances generated plastic equations including the temperature
in the fluid by the shell decay at infinity. 6 Refs. effect are employed. The derived fundamental
Kubenko, V.D. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian equations are numerically solved by the finite
SSR, Kiev, USSR); Gavrilenko, V.V. Sov Appl Meek difference method. As numerical examples,
Oct 1988 p 374-384. the simply supported cylindrical shells made of
mild steel are treated and the following two
cases are analyzed: a nonuniform temperature
036956 Geodesic Dome of Polystyrene and cylinder subjected to impulsive internal
Concrete. Structurally, the geodesic dome is a pressure, and an internal pressure cylinder
space truss and is the strongest known subjected to impulsive thermal load. In both
straight-line form enclosing space. It is cases the variations of displacements and
efficient as well as strong; there is no straight- internal forces with time are discussed.
line geometric form that requires less surface (Author abstract)
skin to enclose a given amount of space than Tao, Katsumi (Toyohashi Univ of Technology,
a geodesic dome. In the concrete and Toyohashi, jpn); Takezono, Shigeo; Taguchi,
polystyrene dome described, folds in the Toshihiro; Hotada, Kazuo. ]SME Int] Ser 1 ]SME
concrete shell replace the straight bars. The Int] Ser 1 v 32 v32 n3 n3 jul jul 1989 1989 P
folds, however, act just as the bars would to 341-347.

Excerpts from The Eneineerine Index Annual 1989

ACOUSTIC WAVE EFFECTS Guseinov, I.G. (Acad of Sciences of the

Azerbaidzhan SSR, Baku, USSR). Sov Appl Meek v
036959 Interaction of Unsteady Acoustic 24 n 2 Aug 1988 P 138 - 144.
Waves with Plates and Hollow Shells in a
Fluid. A method is developed for solving 036962 Soundproof Characteristics of
coupled problems for the unsteady interaction Orthotropic Cylindrical Shells. This paper is
of acoustic waves with plates and hollow concerned with the soundproof characteristics
spherical or cylindrical shells in a fluid by of infinitely long, cylindrical sandwich shells
applying double integral transforms and composed of orthotropic face layers and a
investigating them simultaneously. Analytical honeycomb core. The shell is excited by
solutions of unsteady hydroelastic problems axisymmetric acoustic waves traveling within
are obtained for spherical and cylindrical the shell. To simplify the shell governing
shells. These solutions can be used to study equations it is assumed that the facings resist
transient processes and their effect on the only bending moments and the honeycomb
stress and deformation of the structural core resists only transverse shear forces. The
elements for a wide range of parameters of sound transmission loss for the shell wall, TL,
the hydroelastic system. 15 Refs. is derived and calculated numerically for
Kubenko, V.D. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian various values of the physical parameters
SSR, Kiev, USSR); Moseenkov, Yu. B. Sov Appl involved. (Author abstract) 11 Refs. In
Meek v 23 n 10 Apr 1988 p 951-957. Japanese.
Chonan, Seiji. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunsku A
036960 Investigation of Axisymmetric Hen v 54 n 505 Sep 1988 p 1684-1691.
Electroacoustic Waves in a Cylindrical
Sandwich Shell by Three-Dimensional and 036963 Soundproof Characteristics of
Applied Theories. The power series method Cylindrical Sandwich Shells with a
is utilized in the present paper to solve Honeycomb Core. An analysis is presented
problems on axisymmetric electroacoustic for the soundproof characteristics of infinitely
wave propagation in a cylindrical sandwich long sandwich cylindrical shells subjected to
shell on the basis of the three-dimensional inner axisymmetric acoustic waves. To
electroelasticity equations. Approximate simplify the shell equation it is assumed that
dispersion dependences are obtained on the the core material resists only transverse shear
basis of the theory of vibrations of forces and that the facings do not resist
piezoceramic shells with finite shear stiffness transverse shear forces. Acoustic waves in the
extended to the case of inhomogeneity over air surrounding the shell is denoted by the
the thickness, and comparison of these Helmholtz equation. Sound transmission loss
dependences with the exact solutions found TL is calculated for various values of the
permits estimation of the limits of applied physical parameters of the core and the
theory applicability. 6 Refs. facings. (Author abstract) 6 Refs. In Japanese.
Shul'ga, N.A. (Acad of the Sciences of the Chonan, Seiji. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C
Ukrainian SSR, Kiev, USSR); Rudnitskii, S. 1.; Hen v 54 n 505 Sep 1988 p 2156-2163.
Evseichik, Yu. B. Sov Appl Meek v 23 n 10 Apr 1988
p 1005-1011. 036964 Sound Insulation Characteristics of
Finite Length Orthotropic Shells. An
036961 Action of Acoustic Waves on a analysis is presented of the acoustic
Spherical Shell Filled by a Viscous, characteristics of orthotropic cylindrical shells
Compressible Fluid. This paper considers excited by axisymmetric plane sound waves
within the axisymmetric problem, the action traveling within the shells. The shell is
of acoustic waves on a spherical shell, filled by exposed in a free field in the range of length
a viscous compressible fluid. The limitations L, and is otherwise covered with an infinite
for an imcompressible, viscous, and ideal fluid rigid baffle. The problem is studied on the
follow from the results. The tangential and basis of a thick shell theory in which account
bending stresses are shown as functions of the is taken of the effects of shear deformation
angular coordinate at relatively high and rotatory inertia. The air outside the shell
frequency when the shell is filled by air, oil, is described by the Helmholtz linear acoustic
and kerosene. When the shell is filled by air, equation. The sound transmission loss
the stresses created by the plane wave are through the shell wall, TL, is obtained and
larger than for a shell filled by kerosene or calculated for various values of the physical
oil. 8 Refs. parameters involved. (Author abstract) 10 Refs.

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

Chonan, s. (Tohoku Univ, Sendai, Jpn); Koriyama, cylindrical shells weakened by a curvilinear
H.i Sound Vib v 126 n 3 Nov 8 1988 P 525-532. hole. A modified method of series expansion
in a small parameter is proposed in this paper,
036965 Simplified Method for a which can be utilized in analyzing cylindrical
Hydrodynamic Loading Prediction of an composite orthotropic shells weakened by
Acoustic Wave. This paper discusses existing small and medium elliptical holes. 13 Refs.
methods for the hydrodynamic loading Revenko, V.P. (Scientific-Production Organization,
prediction on a circular cylindrical shell USSR). Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p 368-373.
subjected to an underwater weak shock wave.
To this end, a new, special purpose finite 036968 Fourier Integral Representation of
element program was developed. The new Curvilinear Influence Functions Applied to
program treats the acoustic fluid medium by Surface Structures. The paper proposes the
an equation which defines the incident application of curvilinear influence functions
particle velocity in the fluid in the absence of represented by Fourier integrals to problems
the structure. This is then coupled to the of surface structures. It investigates in detail
structure to yield the total fluid loading. characteristic properties of such integrals.
Tensile pressures are not allowed by Particular attention is called to differentiation
restricting the water pressure to above of the integrals representing functions with
ambient level. (Edited author abstract) 14 Refs. curvilinear discontinuities, as in this case their
Moussouros, Minos (US Naval Surface Warfare distributional features are most visible. The
Cent, Silver Spring, MD, USA). Am Soe Meeh Eng problem is illustrated by an example of an
Pap Preprint - American Society of Mechanical infinite plate. (Author abstract) 12 Refs.
Engineers, Houston, TX, USA, Jan 22-25 1989. Muc, A. (Technical Univ of Cracow, Cracow, Pol);
Publ by American Soc of Mechanical Engineers Zielinski, A.P. Thin-Walled StTuct v 7 n 2 1989 P
(ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1989 OCN12 18p. 85-98.
036966 Inelastic Response of an Infinite 036969 Co Shell Plate and Beam Elements
Cylindrical Shell to Transient Acoustic Free From Their Deficiencies. The author
Waves. The geometrically and constitutively proposes a generally applicable new
nonlinear response of an infinite, circular, formulation which removes all shear and
cylindrical shell submerged in an infinite fluid membrane locking mechanisms from the finite
medium to a transverse, transient acoustic element equations of the structural Co shell,
wave is analyzed. Circumferential Fourier plate, and beam elements. Employment. of full
series solutions are obtained through the integration with the proposed formulatIon
numerical integration of coupled ordinary eliminates also the zero energy modes problem,
differential equations and convolution and!or softening effects, associated with the
integrals. Numerical results are presented in use of the technique of reduced integration in
the form of response histories, response Co plate and shell element applications. The
snapshots, and iso-damage curves for incident formulation proposed is obtained through a
waves of rectangular pressure profile. simple and cost effective scheme. (Edited
Response solutions obtained with the first- author abstract) 52 Refs.
order doubly asymptotic approximation are
compared with their 'exact' counterparts. Briassoulis, Demetres (Agricultural Univ of Athens,
(Edited author abstract) 25 Refs. Greece). Comput Methods Appl Meeh Eng v 72 n 3
Mar 1989 p 243-266.
Geers, T.L. (Univ of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA);
Yen, C.-L. AMD Symp SeT ASME Appl Meek Div v 94 036970 Analysis of Simply-Supported
1988 Large-Scale Interaction Problems, Presented Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shell
at the Winter Annual Meeting of the ASME, Roofs. An elasticity solution has been
Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27-Dec 21988. p 13-45. presented for the analysis of a laminated
circular cylindrical shell roof with simply.
supported edges, and the displacements and
ANALYSIS stresses of the solution are expressed in terms
of infinite series. A solution according to the
036967 Analysis of the Stress-Strain State of classical shell theory (CST) is also developed.
a Nonshallow-Orthotropic Cylindrical Shell Computations are made for various ratios of
with an Elliptical Hole. The method of midsurface radii to thicknesses and the results
expansion in a series in a small parameter has of the CST have been examined in the light of
been applied successfully in analyzing isotropic the elasticity solution results. (Author abstract)

Excerpts from The Ensineerins Index Annual 1989

Ren, J.G. (Changsha lnst of Technology, Hunan, coupled first order differential equations is
China). Compos Struct v 11 n 4 1989 P 277 - 292. solved for each shell substructure using the
Pade approximation for matrix
036971 Continuum-Based Stiffened exponentiation. The substructures are then
Composite Shell Element for Geometrically joined by matching all of the displacement and
Nonlinear Analysis. A continuum-based, force boundary variables. The strength of
laminated, stiffened shell element is used to SSM from the substructure synthesis viewpoint
investigate the static, geometrically nonlinear is demonstrated by analyzing several shell
response of composite shells. The element is structures including a hermetic capsule and a
developed from a three-dimensional continuum refrigeration compressor shell. In all
element based on the incremental, total examples, finite element method (FEM)
Lagrangian formulation. The Newton-Raphson predictions are used to support SSM results.
method or modified Riks method is used to For the compressor shell, SSM results compare
trace the nonlinear equilibrium path. A well with the limited experimental data.
number of sample problems of un stiffened and (Edited author abstract) 58 Refs.
stiffened shells are presented to show the Tavakoli, M.S. (Georgia lnst of Technology,
accuracy of the present element and to Atlanta, GA, USA); Singh, R. ] Sound Vib v 130 n 1
investigate the nonlinear response of laminated Apr 8 1989 P 97 -123.
composite plates and shells. (Author abstract)
28 Refs. 036974 Extending Life of LD Converter
Liao, C.L. (Virginia Polytechnic lnst & State Univ, Vessel. At Kakogawa Works, all three LD
Blacksburg, VA, USA); Reddy,J.N. AlAAJ v 27 n 1 converter vessels were renewed for 1987-
Jan 1989p95-101. 1988 because of working limits caused by shell
deformation. In renewing the vessels, an
036972 Accurate Rigid-Body Modes analytical method was developed to quantify
Representation for a Nonlinear Curved deformation of the barrel shell, which is the
Thin-Shell Element. For certain highly curved dominant factor in vessel life. Based on the
shells, such as bellows, the formulation of a analytical results, an air jet cooling technique
curved-shell finite element with curvilinear and steel plate were developed and applied to
displacement components may fail to properly the new vessels. As a result, it is now possible
model some rigid body modes, even with to extend the life of vessels using a high ratio
either the explicit inclusion of rigid-body terms of MgO-C bricks. (Author abstract) 4 Refs. In
or the use of high-order displacement Japanese.
functions. It is suggested in this paper that the Kita, Ryuji; Nishikawa, Tsuneaki; Okazaki,
rigid-body modes can be properly included if Toshiyuki; Mine, Takao; Nishijima, Akifumi;
the Cartesian displacement components are Kawasaki, Hiroya. R&D Res Dev Kobe Steel Ltd v 39
used. A 48-degree-of-freedom (DOF) curved n 1 Jan 1989 p 61-64.
thin-shell element is formulated, and both the
curvilinear and the Cartesian forms are used 036975 Review on the Analysis of
for this investigation. Examples of the Laminated Shells. Laminated shell structures
nonlinear analyses of a bellows shell and a are increasingly being used in chemical,
spherical cap are given to demonstrate the mechanical, marine and aerospace
advantage of using the Cartesian formulation. applications. A significant amount of research
Curved elements may also suffer from has been conducted in the past on studying
membrane locking, which is caused by the the structural response of these structures. A
inability of an element to bend without review of various investigations on the analysis
stretching. (Edited author abstract) 53 Refs. of these shells is given here. Specifically, this
Yang, T.Y. (Purdue Univ, West Lafayette, IN, review deals with the development of various
USA); Kapania, Rakesh K.; Saigal, Sunil. AlAAJ v 27 theories for modeling the thick laminated
n 2 Feb 1989 p 211-218. shells, including shear effects; analytical
studies, development of various finite elements
036973 Eigensolutions of Joined/Hermetic to model these shells, including applications to
Shell Structures Using the State Space tire modeling; buckling and post-buckling
Method. A substructure synthesis method analysis of perfect and imperfect laminated
based on state space mathematics is proposed shells; and vibration and dynamic response
for the eigensolution of axisymmetric joined/ analysis of various laminated shells. (Author
hermetic thin shell structures. In the state abstract) 157 Refs.
space method (SSM), a system of eight Kapania, R.K. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA). J Pressure Vessel in the form of elastically or rigidly fastened
Tecknol Trans ASME v III n 2 May 1989 p 88-96. plates and shallow shells. We employ
Timoshenko's theory of shells. The desired
036976 Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of unknown functions are represented as series in
Shallow Shells Using Higher Order Finite the coordinate functions, each of which may
Elements. Based on K. Marguerre's shallow not necessarily satisfy the specified attachment
shell theory, a family of higher-order finite conditions for the structure. We employ
elements each consisting of 17 - 25 nodes and solution methods for problems of plates and
with separate in-plane and bending shells based on the use of complete functionals
displacement variables has been developed for and of the contour equation of the domain in
the geometrically nonlinear analysis of shallow setting up the approximating function. (Edited
shells subjected to lateral loads. A step- author abstract) 11 Refs.
iteration Newton-Raphson scheme has been Serazutdinov, M.N. Meek Solids v 23 n 3 1988 P
adopted in solving the final system of 136-14l.
recurrent nonlinear equations. Several
numerical examples, including a spherical cap 036979 Analysis of Simply Supported
and a square shallow shell with surface in Orthotropic Cylindrical Shells Subject to
double sine curves, are presented to Lateral Impact Loads. An analytic solution is
demonstrate the versatility and convenience of given for the problem of simply-supported
the use of higher-order elements in modelling orthotropic cylindrical shells subject to impact
shallow shells and also the sufficient accuracy loading. The closed-form solution has not
of the predictions made by the present been obtained previously. The analysis is based
formulation in the context of geometrically on an expansion of the loads, displacement
nonlinear analysis. (Author abstract) 13 Refs. and rotations in a double Fourier series which
Chan, H.C. (Univ of Hong Kong, Hong Kong); satisfies the end boundary conditions of
Chung, W.C. Comput Struct v 31 n 3 1989 P simple support. Each expansion is assumed to
329-338. be separable into a function of time and a
function of position. By neglecting in-plane
and rotary inertia the problem becomes a
036977 Nonlinear Analysis of Shell second order ordinary differential equation in
Structures by Degenerated Isoparametric
time for the Fourier coefficients of the radial
Shell Element. Two rotation strategies
deflection. For a given loading impulse the
termed the finite rotation method and the
solution can be found by invoking the
mixed rotation method are proposed to
described the rotation of the shell normal and convolution integral. The results show that
four rotation strategies in the literature are for impact by a heavy mass, the solution is
equivalent to that obtained by an approximate
reviewed. The rotation variables of the finite
procedure of neglecting the mass of the shell,
rotation method are chosen to be the
incremental rotations with respect to the Xl which leads to a simple single degree of
freedom analysis. For problems of impact by
and X2 axes of a moving coordinate system
rigidly tied to the shell. Both the rotation smaller masses, the higher response
frequencies of the cylinder become important.
increments between two successive increments
The impact duration, peak force, and peak
and the rotation corrections between two
deflection relative to the quasi-static response.
successive iterations are used as the
(Edited author abstract) 17 Refs.
incremental rotations. The previous covergent
stress is employed to update the geometric Christoforou, A.P. (Univ of Utah, Salt Lake City,
stiffness matrix and its performance is UT, USA); Swanson, S.R. ASME Aerosp Div Publ AD
compared with that of the standard geometric v 13 Recent Advances in the Macro- and Micro-
stiffness matrix update method. (Edited Mechanics of Composite Materials Structures,
author abstract) 20 Refs. Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting of the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
Hsiao, Kuo-Mo (Nat! Chiao Tung Univ, Hsinchu,
Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27-Dec 21988. Publ by
Taiwan); Chen, Yeh-Ren. Comput Struct v 31 n 3
American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
1989 P 427 -438.
New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 77-84.
036978 On the Analysis of Shallow Shells ANISOTROPY
with Complex Contours. In this paper, we
offer a variational method and some solutions 036980 Membrane Theory for Anisotropic
for the problem of determining the stress- Laminated Shells of Revolution. The
strain state of thin-walled structural elements present paper discusses the derivation and

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual J989

application of the membrane theory equations spherical shells with simply supported
governing the small deformation of laminated, boundaries. Numerical examples show that
anisotropic, elastic shells of revolution. The the approach developed in the paper is
equations are derived by use of the Hellinger- effective. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.
Reissner variational principle in conjunction Ye, Jianqiao (Hefei Polytechnical Univ, Hefei, Jpn).
with the asymptotic expansion technique. Appl Math Modelling v 12 n 5 Oct 1988 p 467 - 470.
They are then used to analyze specific shells
under loadings of practical interest. (Author 036984 Optimal Design of a Cylindrical
abstract) 3 Refs. Shell Under Overall Bending with Axial
Logan, D.L. (Rose-Hulman lnst of Technology, Force. The problem of optimal design of a
Terre Haute, IN, USA); Widera, G.E.O. J Pressure cylindrical shell loaded by bending moment
Vessel Technol Trans ASME viii n 2 May 1989 p Mo and axial force N is presented. As a
130-135. criterion of optimality we assume the
minimum value of the cross-sectional area for
BENDING given values of external loadings. In the
general case the shape of the central line of
036981 Plane Bending of a Long Cylindrical the profile and thickness of the wall of a shell
Shell During Simple Thermomechanical are used as design variables. The constraints
Deformation. This paper examines dynamic are connected with strength and with local
processes in a long cylindrical shell-tube in the stability of the wall of a shell. The concept of
case of simple thermomechanical deformation a 'shell of uniform stability' is applied and two
under the influence of mechanical and different types of profiles of uniform stability
thermal loads. Since the shell is long it is are looked for, namely the uniform stability
regarded as a beam with corrected stiffness in profile with variable thickness and a constant
bending, tension, and torsion. Governing thickness profile of uniform stability. (Author
relations for small strains and finite abstract) 9 Refs.
displacements are obtained on the basis of Kruzelecki, Jacek (Technical Univ, Cracow, Pol).
thermodynamic relations from the nonlinear Bull Pol Acad Sci Tech Sci v 36 n 3-4 1988 P
theory of elasticity. Nonlinear equations of 141-150.
motion for the plane bending of such a
shell-tube are obtained. 10 Refs. 036985 Theory and Numerics of Thin
Kayuk, Ya. F. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian Elastic Shells with Finite Rotations. A
SSR, Kiev, USSR); KiI'chinskaya, G.A. Sov Appl bending theory for thin shells undergoing
Mech v 24 n 2 Aug 1988 P 157-162. finite rotations is presented, and its associated
finite element model is described. The
036982 Monomial Test: Testing the Flexural kinematic assumption is based on a Reissner-
Behavior of the Degenerated Shell Mindlin theory. The work-conjugate stress
Element. Shear locking of the degenerated resultants and stress couples are integrals of
shell element is a result of the development of the Biot stress tensor. This tensor is invariant
spurious shear strain by the element, when with respect to rigid body motions and
subjected to high order Kirchhoff therefore appropriate for the formulation of
displacement fields. The shear locking constitutive equations. The rotations are
phenomenon is analyzed in this paper using described by using Eulerian angles. The finite
an analytical test. The effects of the element descretization of arbitrary shells is
integration scheme, order of the element, performed using isoparametric elements. The
order of the modeled Kirchhoff field and the advantage of the proposed shell formulation
element distortion are analyzed explicitly and and its numerical model is shown by
quantitatively for the four-node, eight-node application to different non-linear plate and
and nine-node degenerated shell elements. shell problems. Finite rotations can be
(Author abstract) 23 Refs. calculated within one load increment. Thus
Briassoulis, Demetres (Univ of Illinois, the step size of the load increment is only
Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA). Comput Struct v 29 n limited by the local convergence behaviour of
6 1988 P 949-958. Newton's method or the appearance of
stability phenomena. (Edited author abstract)
036983 New Approach for the Bending 27 Refs.
Problem of Shallow Shell by the Boundary Gruttmann, F. (Univ Hannover, Hanover, West
Element Method. A very simple method is Ger); Stein, E.; Wriggers, P. Ing Arch v 59 n 1 1989
suggested in this paper to analyze shallow P 54-67.

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

BLASTING they are prone to buckling, and to such an

extent that this is often the dominant
036986 Using Geometry to Improve consideration in their design. Early attempts
Survivability. The research effort has to determine buckling pressures were
concentrated on developing the Hyperbolic unsatisfactory. Although initial geometric
Paraboloid (HYP AR) structural system for distortions are now recognised as the cause of
buried shelters. Individual HYPAR panels- this, little comprehensive work has been
hyperbolic paraboloidal curved surfaces-are conducted on doubly-curved shells,
joined together in varying geometries to form particularly hemispheres, subjected to external
protective shelters. The HYP AR structure has pressure and having asymmetric initial shapes.
several advantages: reduced wall thickness; This paper presents the results of such a
reduced materials and field labor costs; and study, in two parts. In Part I, the background
reduced field erection time. The HYP AR research on doubly-curved shells is briefly
panel uses its geometry and construction reviewed. The kinematic, equilibrium and
materials to efficiently dissipate the energy constitutive equations used in the work are
released by the detonation of conventional stated. The adopted numerical procedure
weapons. The HYPAR panel is a composite which can generate static or dynamic solutions
consisting of an outer layer of fiberglass- is described along with the results of
reinforced asphalt, a middle layer of steel- convergence studies. (Edited author abstract)
reinforced portland cement concrete, and an 44 Refs.
inner layer of polyester fabric. The reinforced Shao, W.J. (Ministry of Communications, Shanghai,
asphalt and concrete layers are structural ones China); Frieze, P.A. Thin-Walled Struet v 8 n 2 1989
which help dissipate blast energy through p99-118.
deformation and cracking, while the polyester
fabric provides a spall protection. 4 Refs. 036989 Simple Buckling Problems Within
Burkett, William R. Mil Eng v 80 n 523 Aug 1988 the Shell Theory of Rubber-like
P 450-452. Materials. In an earlier paper, the authors
have formulated a fairly general theory of
BUCKLING finite strains deformation of shells of an
incompressible hyperelastic material. The
036987 Influence of Initial Imperfections basic equations of this theory were derived,
on the Buckling of Orthotropic Truncated from 3-D finite elasticity under the single
Spherical and Conical Shells. The influence assumption: material fibers initially normal to
of small geometric imperfections in the shape the shell reference surface remain straight in
of the middle surface on the non- the process of an isochronic deformation.
axisymmetric buckling and post-critical Consequently the resulting 2-D model of the
behavior of thin elastic shallow orthotropic shell incorporates effects due to transverse
truncated spherical shells under uniform shear and transverse normal deformations as
external pressure truncated conical shells well as higher order effects accommodated in
under axial compression is studied by the dependency of the 2-D strain energy
Lyapunov-Schmidt method. Cases of buckling function on the gradient of strain measures.
are investigated when the least bifurcation In this note they present some further results
load of non-axisymmetric buckling of a for the buckling of initially straight rods
corresponding ideal shell is a double under axial end forces. They illustrate
eigenvalue of the linearized problem and limitations of particular variants of the general
either two unstable eigenmodes or one stable shell theory. 5 Refs.
and one unstable eigenmode interact. It is Makowski, J. (Ruhr-Univ, Bochum, West Ger);
obtained that small imperfections lower the Stumpf, H. Z Angew Math Meeh v 68 n 6 1988 P
value of the upper critical load of an ideal 251-252.
shell. Examples are presented of special
non-axisymmetric shell buckling cases. 14 Refs. 036990 Zwei Varianten der
Bermus, I.M. (Rostov Univ, USSR); Srubshchik, Schalenbeulrechnung im Elastoplastischen
L.S. Sov Appl Meeh v 24 n 2 Aug 1988 P 149 -156. Bereich. [Two Different Methods'for Shell
Buckling Calculation in the Elastic-Plastic
036988 Static and Dynamic Numerical Region]. The material behavior in the
Analysis Studies of Hemispheres and elastic-plastic region depends on the fact
Spherical Caps. Part I. Background and whether the concerned point is loaded or
Theory. Shell-like structures are prevalent in unloaded. For buckling calculations one
nature. However, because of their slenderness transfers generally the criterion for loading or

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

unloading from the prebuckling mode of the 036993 Beulversuche an Duennwandigen

ideal shell. But there are no ideal shells. Every Fluessigkeitsgefuellten Schalen. [Buckling
real shell has initial imperfections, and real Tests on Thin-Walled Fluid-Filled
events start with the growing of one buckle. Shells.]. This paper deals with the problem of
Hence it corresponds better to the reality to the buckling of thin walled cylindrical tanks
transfer the criterion for loading or unloading under the action of a fluid filling and an axial
from the buckling mode. A calculation load. In addition, the partial removal of the
procedure of that kind is presented; its bottom membrane of such tanks is studied. The
applications demonstrated by numerical experimental results obtained can be used for
examples. (Edited author abstract) In German. the testing of mathematical models. 3 Refs. In
Esslinger, Maria (DFVLR, Braunschweig, West Ger); German.
Poblotzki, Gert. Forschungsber Dtsch Forsch Rammerstorfer, Franz Georg (Technische Univ
Versuchsanst Luft Raumfahrt DFVLR n FB 88-26 Wien, Vienna, Austria); Billinger, Wolfgang; Fischer,
1988pl-49. Franz Dieter. DIAl Desterr Ing Archit l v 133 n 8
Aug 1988 P 430-43l.
036991 On Buckling of Ellipsoidal Cups
Under Internal Pressure. A method for the 036994 Numerical Analysis of Diamond
calculation of the critical load for a semi- Buckles. Both linear and nonlinear analyses
ellipsoidal shell with a stiffening rib at the edge are performed on the buckling of a cylindrical
is presented. The external and internal shell under axial compression. Among the
buckling energy of the shell is described. The post buckling shapes of the cylindrical shell, a
Rayleigh quotient is used as the static buckling number of diamond modes are found to be
criterion, assuming the deflection function to possible. The analysis is compared to those
depend on four shape parameters. Some conducted by A. Maewall and W. Nachbar,
numerical examples are presented showing the M.A. Crisfield, and Y. Yoshida et al.
influence of the rib stiffness and the shell Agreement is established in conceiving the
dimensions on the critical pressure value. deformed shape with circumferential number
(Author abstract) 6 Refs. of 14 as the stable postbuckling mode of the
cylindrical shell. The transition from the
Magnucki, K. (Technical Univ of Poznan, Poznan,
axisymmetric mode to a diamond mode of
Pol); Wegner, T.; Szye, W. Ing Arch v 58 n 5 1988 P
collapse is shown to be an instantaneous
process triggered in the proximity of the
critical state by a small perturbation of the
036992 Schalenbeulen: Von der DASt- load increment. (Edited author abstract) 17
Richtlinie 013 zur DIN 18800, Tell 4. [Shell Refs.
Buckling: From DASt Guideline 013 to DIN Liu, Wing Kam (Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL,
18800. Part 4]. Following a review of the USA); Lam, Dennis. Finite Elem Anal Des v 4 n 4
buckling safety proof for shells according to Feb 1989 p 291-302.
DASt guideline 013 which must be kept in two
stages, the method of representation in DIN 036995 Theoretical and Experimental Study
18800, Part 4 is explained in detail. It is shown of a Curved Strip Compressed by a Flat
that the large rlt dependency of the reduction Plate. The quasi-static loading of a curved
factor ex which exists for the axially compressed strip compressed by a flat, rigid plate is
cylinder can be suppressed for the building considered, with particular reference to large
material steel. In this way, it is possible to deformations and the ensuing buckling
conduct the buckling safety proof in a single behavior. Experiments were performed on
stage for all shells examined analogous to the curved strips of constant width but of different
buckling of columns. Only two basic buckling thickness. The strips were initially deformed
curves, for K) 'normal' and K2 for 'very' to a fixed radius of curvature and stress
imperfection-sensitive shells, are sufficient. relieved before pinning the ends. The span
With the aid of detailed investigations, it is was held constant at about 305 mm. The
shown that the K2 curve may possibly be raised deformation characteristics have been
slightly. As compared with dimensioning analyzed using an incremental finite element
methods according to DASt guideline 013 used technique. Particular attention has been paid
in the past, economic benefits would be to modeling the situation when a node
possible using this method. (Author abstract) contacts the plate and the condition for
14 Refs. In German. separation of the strip from the plate. The
Bornscheuer, Friedrich Wilhelm. Bautechnik v 65 n predicted loads and deformation modes
10 Oct 1988 p 325-33l. agreed well with experimental results from

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

tests on steel and aluminum specimens. uniform external pressure is analysed using
(Edited author abstract) 9 Refs. the spline finite strip method. A Total
Iseki, H. (McMaster Univ, Hamilton, Ont, Can); Lagrangian formulation on the displacement
Sowerby, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Gatt, P. J Appl Meeh dependent pressure load in the orthogonal
Trans ASME v 56 n 1 Mar 1989 p 96-104. curvilinear reference frame is derived. An
improvement for the arc-length iteration
036996 Buckling of Edge Damaged, method is presented. The postbuckling
Cylindrical Composite Shells. The stability equilibrium path and the contour map of
of thin composite layered anisotropic equal radial deflection computed an~ in good
cylindrical shells under axial compression is agreement with the experimental and
considered for the case of nonuniform analytical results reported in Esslinger, M. and
boundary conditions. Such conditions are Geier, B., Postbuckling Behaviour of
employed to model the situation where there Structures, Springer-Verlag, Wien, New York,
is edge damage to the shell. The influence of 1975. (Author abstract) 14 Refs.
weakening or a crack at an edge on the Cheung, Y.K. (Univ of Hong Kong, Hong Kong);
critical buckling load of a variety of single and Zhu, D.S. Thin-Walled Struet v 7 n 3-4 1989 P
multilayered shells is investigated. Results 239-256.
indicate that isotropic shells exhibit a rather
sudden steep reduction in the critical buckling 036999 Non-probabilistic Models of
load for relatively small edge damage. Uncertainty in the Nonlinear Buckling of
However, some anisotropic composite shells Shells with General Imperfections:
may not be so sensitive and, in contrast, only Theoretical Estimates of the Knockdown
a gradual reduction may be brought about by Factor. A nonprobabilistic, set-theoretical
the edge damage. The degree of sensitivity to treatment of the buckling of shells with
edge damage appears to be dependent, in uncertain initial geometrical imperfections is
some complex fashion, on the various presented. The minimum buckling load is
geometric and physical shell parameters. determined as a function of the parameters
(Author abstract) 8 Refs. which describe the (general infinite) range of
Sabag, M. (Technion - Israel Inst of Technology, possible initial imperfection profiles of the
Haifa, Isr); Stavsky, Y.; Greenberg, J.B. J Appl Meeh shell. The central finding of this paper is a
Trans ASME v 56 n 1 Mar 1989 p 121-126. theoretical estimate of the knockdown factor
as a function of the characteristics of the
036997 Bifurcation Buckling of Circular uncertainty in the initial imperfections. Two
Cylindrical Shells Under Uniform External classes of set-theoretical models are employed.
Pressure. This paper presents asymptotic The first class represents the range of
solutions for the eigenvalue problems of variation of the most significant N Fourier
buckling under uniform external pressure of a coefficients by an ellipsoidal set in N-
circular cylindrical shell having an arbitrary dimensional Euclidean space. The minimum
combination of the boundary conditions for buckling load is then explicitly evaluated in
the simply supported, clamped, and free ends. terms of the shape of the ellipsoid. (Edited
A simple formula for the buckling pressure is author abstract) 29 Refs.
derived, which is shown to be accurate Ben-Haim, Yakov (Technion - Israel Inst of
enough for engineering purposes by Technology, Haifa, Isr); Elishakoff, Isaac. J Appl
comparison with available results. The Meeh Trans ASME v 56 n 2 Jun 1989 p 403 -41 o.
eigenvalues calculated for all possible
combinations of the boundary conditions show 037000 Post-buckling Behavior and
that the buckling pressures are affected Imperfection Sensitivity of Spherical Shells
significantly by the presence of a free end as Based on Nonlinear Elastic Stability
well as axial constraint at a supported end. Theory. Using the nonlinear elastic stability
(Author abstract) 17 Refs. theory and its applications to shells, we have
Koga, Tatsuzo (Univ of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Jpn); investigated the post-buckling behavior and
Morimatsu, Shigeyuki. AIAA J v 27 n 2 Feb 1989 p imperfection sensitivity of spherical shells with
242-248. amplitude modulation. For this purpose, we
assume that the buckling modes have the
036998 Postbuckling Analysis of Circular form of Legendre polynomials with an
Cylindrical Shells Under External exponential function as a modulating factor.
Pressure. The postbuckling behavior of We use a numerical analysis technique with
circular cylindrical shells of finite length under high precision. The amplitudes of the post-

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

buckling modes and the critical loading design procedure is suggested. (Edited author
factors of the spherical shell with various abstract) 15 Refs. In German.
imperfection modes are presented. (Edited Knoedel, Peter (Univ Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, West
author abstract) 10 Refs. Ger); Maierhoefer, Dieter. Stahlbau v 58 n 3 Mar
Fan, Q.S. (Tsinghan Univ, Beijing, China). 1989 p 81-86.
Thin-Walled Struct v 8 n I 1989 P 1-18.
037004 Experimental Investigation on the
037001 Postbuckling Analysis of Shells by Dynamic Buckling of a Cylindrical Shell
Spline Finite Strip Method. The postbuckling Due to Seismic Excitation. (lst Report:
analysis of shells is studied by the spline finite Plastic Buckling Due to Bending Load). The
strip method. The selection of higher order fundamental characteristics of plastic dynamic
terms in the incremental variational principle buckling of a thin cylindrical shell due to
is discussed. An improvement on the arc- seismic excitation, where bending load was
length iteration method is presented. The predominant, were clarified experimentally.
examples all demonstrated the versatility and The relationship between seismic response
accuracy of the present method. The displacement acceleration, strain of cylindrical
computed results for a circular cylindrical shell model and input acceleration was
shell under axial compression correlate very investigated. The dynamic buckling load was
well with the experiment results. (Author compared with that for static buckling, and
abstract) 15 Refs. the differences between them were discussed
Zhu, D.S. (Univ of Hong Kong, Hong Kong); as well as the threshold for postbuckling.
Cheung, Y.K. Comput Struct v 31 n 3 1989 P (Author abstract) 6 Refs. In Japanese.
357-364. Fujita, Katsuhisa; Ito, Tomohiro; Wada, Hiroshi.
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 n 515
037002 Transverse Shear Effects in Stability Jul 1989 P 1634-1637.
Problems of Laminated Shallow Shells. This
paper presents the analysis of the accuracy of 037005 New Solution for Vessel Liner
the classical shell theory in the prediction of Buckling Analysis. The thermally
buckling loads of laminated shallow shells of constrained and perfectly confined cylindrical
revolution loaded by external pressure or shell finds its critical buckling load in infinity.
axially compressed. The shells studied are Disturbances such as shape or support
circular cylinders, barrels, inverse barrels and imperfections are required to yield finite
spherical sections. In each case the boundary critical buckling loads. Based on a conservative
conditions are simple supports. (Author imperfection model, the new solution allows
abstract) 7 Refs. the quantification of the influence of
Muc, Aleksander (Univ of Liverpool, Liverpool, imperfections on buckling stress. As a large
Engl). Compos Struct v 12 n 3 1989 P 171-180. deflection solution, it follows the load
displacement path under increasing prestress
037003 Zur Stabilitaet von ZyIindern Vnter up to neutral equilibrium. Thus, the
Axiallast und Randmomenten. [Stability of occurrence of subcritical limit load conditions
Cylindrical Shells V nder Axial Loads and due to non-linear bending can be determined.
Edge Moments]. Existing methods of (Edited author abstract) 12 Refs.
determining the critical axial loads of Tschiersch, R.T. (Thyssen Henrichshuette AG,
cylindrical shells take into account only the Hattingen, West Ger); Huessler, W. ASME Pressure
membrane stress state. However, parts of the Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 139 Design and
shell structures are loaded by additional edge Analysis of Piping, Pressure Vessels and
moments. These result from external forces, Components, 1988, Presented at the 1988 ASME
from the edge conditions themselves or from Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Pittsburgh,
the deviation of the membrane forces due to PA, USA,Jun 19-23 1988. Publ by American Soc
a break in the generatrix. This paper reports of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,
on a study, which investigated the influence of USA, 1988 P 133-138.
edge moments on the nonlinear bifurcation
loads of axially compressed cylinders. Edge 037006 Static Buckling of the Shells of
moments are shown to reduce the bifurcation Revolution Due to the Asymmetric
load irrespective of the length of the cylinder. Loading. Finite element buckling analysis
The results obtained were approximated by program of the shells of revolution under an
easy to handle formulas. After some remarks asymmetric loading was developed. In this
on the imperfection sensitivity, a practical program, the buckling mode for asymmetric

Excerpts from The Eneineerine Index Annual 1989

loading is presented as a summation of free COMPOSITE

vibration modes. The program was verified by
comparing with the test and the theoretical 037009 Finite Deformations of Thin
results. (Author abstract) 7 Refs. Anisotropic and Composite Shells and
Chiba, T. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Defining Relations. Defining relations for
Co, Yokohama, Jpn); Sugino, H.; Mieda, T.; composite shells formed by superposition of
Yoshida, M.; Ohya, H.; Kobayashi, N. ASME layers with specified structure of the
Pressure Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 150 reinforcement were derived using Green's
Application of Modal Analysis to Extreme Loads, strain formula and the Cauchy stress tensor as
Presented at the 1988 ASME Pressure Vessels and a starting point. An asymptotic analysis was
Piping Conference, Pittsburgh, P A, USA, Jun carried out for revealing the kind of functions
19 - 23 1988. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical contained in the defining relations, with
Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1988 P plastic and creep deformations taken into
1-7. account. A system of experiments was
suggested for finding these functions on the
assumption that with finite deformations the
037007 Nonlinear Investigations of material is nonlinearly elastic. The cause of a
Composite Shells by Finite Element deviation of the obtained results from given
Method. For investigations of structures computational conditions was suggested as a
consisting of layered fiber composite shells a noticeable manifestation of inelastic properties.
special shell finite element has been developed Evaluations for glass reinforced plastics are
and applied to some illustrative problems. presented. 12 Refs.
The element's features are: geometrically
Teregulov, I.G. (Kazan Inst of Civil Engineering,
nonlinear formulation; arbitrary set-up of the
USSR). Meek Compos Mater v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p
composite (i.e. symmetric or non-symmetric
stacking sequences with different layer 453-458.
materials); material non-Iinearities in terms of
stiffness degradation due to layer cracking; 037010 Stress-strain State of a Composite
thermal loading. Due to the FE-formation Shell with Circular Slit. A shell of revolution
used, buckling analyses can be conducted by with an infinitely thin slit cut on the
solving accompanying eigenvalue problems. circumference was subjected under
(Author abstract) 19 Refs. mathematical simulation to a distributed load.
A system of coordinates was introduced to
Dominger, K. (Vienna Technical Univ, Vienna,
describe the state of stress and strain of the
Austria); Rammerstorfer, F.G. ASME Pet Div Publ
PD v 24 Composite Material Technology 1989,
shell. The elasticity relations were derived and
Twelfth Annual Energy-Sources Technology
the state of stress and strain of each shell was
Conference and Exhibition, Houston, TX, USA,
determined and reduced to the solution of a
Jan 22-25 1989. Publ by American Soc of
system of equations. The boundary-value
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,
problem of the slit was solved with the network
USA, 1988 P 117-125.
method. A calculation algorithm system was
recommended which was based on Godunov's
orthogonal matching method. It was found
037008 Buckling Design of Vierendeel from analyzing the curves that a
Recticular Shells. Double layer reticular shell circumferential slit with axisymmetric load
structures carry very little transverse shear, induces an inhomogeneous state of stress and
thus, it may be appropriate to substitute the strain. 3 Refs.
inter-layer diagonal members with 'space' Gerasimenko, P.V. (All-Union Extramural
members perpendicular to the middle surface. Polytechnic Inst, Moscow, USSR); Preobrazhenskii,
In this paper the shear stiffness of double I.N. Meek Compos Mater v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p
layer grids without diagonals is presented and 459-462.
used to calculate the design buckling load for
domes built with this geometry. (Author 037011 Allowing for Binder Stiffness and
abstract) 8 Refs. Reinforcement Extensibility in Designing a
Castano, Francisco (Unistrut Space Frame Systems, Shell of Revolution Made of a Composite
Canton, MI, USA). Proe Sess Relat Steel StTUet StTUet Material. A method for determining the
Congr Proceedings of the Sessions Related to Steel configuration and equilibrium state of a shell
Structures at Structures Congress '89, San under the effects of internal pressure with
Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ by allowance for the extensibility of the fibers and
ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 195-204. the elasticity of the threads was devised. The

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

boundary value problem for linearized coordinate axes of the shell. To expand the
equations was solved by the method of initial possibility of the model for evaluating the
parameters with the use of Godunov's stress-strain state at the microscopic level, the
procedure for orthogonalization. Two cases order and number of resolvent equations
are given: a shell with a movable head made by were independent of the number of layers as
spiral winding wherein the initial form of the well as the ratio of the physico-geometric
shell is designed as being equilibrium for a properties. In this paper, the model is
recticular shell with a geodesic winding, and a generalized to the case of laminated shallow
geodesic shell wound on a mandrel of the same shells made of anisotropic layers. The model
profile for which the strains were calculated considers transverse shear and compression,
under internal pressure and a compressive tangential and normal forces of inertia, and
force applied to the head. The method makes geometric nonlinearity. Kinematic hypotheses
it possible to determine the geometry of the are introduced to reduce the three-
shell and its stress state. 6 Refs. dimensional problem to two dimensions. Two
Biderman, V.L. (N.E. Bauman Moscow Higher examples illustrating the ability of the model
Technical lnst, USSR); Mart'yanova, G.V.; Sorokin, to reflect the three-dimensional nature of the
F.D. Meek Compos Mater v 23 n 5 Mar 1988 p stress-strain state of multilaminate plates and
579-585. shells are examined. 12 Refs.
Prisazhnyuk, V.K. (Kiev Highway lnst, USSR);
037012 Optimization of Structures of Piskunov, V.G. Meek Compos Mater v 23 n 6 May
Reinforced Cylindrical Shells Made of 1988 p 719-726.
Composites. A method is given for selecting
the parameters for the design optimization of 037014 Analysis of Thermoelastic Stresses
reinforced cylindrical shells which satisfies the in Laminated Shells of Double Curvature. A
system of restrictions and minimizes the target curvilinear coordinate system was used to
function. The active physical restrictions construct a model describing the thermoelastic
included general and local stability, the stresses in laminated shells of double
strength of the material of the cloth of the curvature. It was assumed that the stresses
shell, and the reinforcing set. The design and depended linearly on strains and temperature.
technological restrictions imposed on the Near the edges of the outer layer the shell
geometrical parameters of the shell were also element was regarded as two finite elements;
taken into account. Two possible forms of the one element modeled the packet of inner
loss of stability of the reinforced shells were layers and the second modeled the outer shell
evaluated. Strength calculations of the cloth layer. The solution of the thermoelastic
were based on a macromodel according to problem satisfied the condition of the
which the load-carrying capacity of the entire minimum of potential energy of the shell.
packet was exhausted when the limiting stress Shear stress distributions were determined.
state was reached in at least one layer. An The method was applied to a stiff cylindrical
algorithm was constructed for optimum design shell with a thin outer layer heated uniformly
on the basis of heuristic combinatorial analysis. from within. The stresses determined on the
It was shown that longitudinal-transverse edge of the outer layer were compared with
reinforcement in respect of mass is 1.5-2.0 results of holographic measurements of strains
times more effective than the unidirectional of a steel shell with a sheet made of carbon-
longitudinal reinforcement. 4 Refs. fiber plastic stuck to it and were found to
Tomashevskii, V.T. (Marshall A.A. Grechko Naval agreed qualitatively with the experimental
Military Acad, Leningrad, USSR); Anufriev, A.P.; data. 4 Refs.
Shalygin, V.N.; Yakovlev, V.S.; Kalimulin, R.l. Meek Bakulin, V.N. (S. Ordzhonikidze Moscow lnst,
Compos Mater v 23 n 5 Mar 1988 p 603-607. USSR); Kaledin, V.O.; Rassokha, A.A. Meek Compos
Mater v 23 n 6 May 1988 p 732-737.
037013 Model of Composite Shallow Shells
and Plates for Solving Problems of Statics, 037015 Axisymmetric Divergence of
Dynamics, and Contact Interaction. In an Ring-stiffened Composite Cylindrical Shells
earlier paper, the authors constructed a Subject to Axial Compression. Static
theory for the evaluation of the stress-strain aeroelastic instability of structures, which is
state of composite structures for the case of also called divergence, represents an important
laminated composite shallow shells and plates theoretical and practical problem. Divergence
of orthotropic materials in which the principal of composite structures has been intensively
directions of orthotropy coincided with the studied due to increasing utilization of

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

composite materials in the aerospace industry. three-layer plastic structures fabricated from
In this paper, axisymmetric divergence of an ideally plastic material that obeys the Hill
simply supported, internally ring-reinforced plasticity condition. We also compare designs
composite shells is considered. The shell is obtained by the constant-dissipation method
subject to an air flow, directed parallel to the and equal-strength designs; we demonstrate
shell axis, and to static axial loading. The that equal-strength designs display a greater
analytical conditions of divergence are volume of the supporting layers. For the
obtained both for discrete ring stiffeners and sandwich shells considered here, equal-
based on the smeared stiffeners technique. 4 strength designs are understood to mean
Refs. those for which, at each meridian point, the
Birman, Victor (Univ of New Orleans, New plasticity condition is realized as an equality in
Orleans, LA, USA).] Appl Meek Trans ASME v 55 one of the supporting layers, and as a
n 4 Dec 1988 p 984-985. nonstrict inequality in the other. (Edited
author abstract) 16 Refs.
037016 Design of Composite Cylindrical Nemirovskii, Yu.V.; Shul'gin, A.V. Meek Solids v 23
Vessels for Fluid Loading. A theoretical n 51988 P 104-112.
approach is presented to examine the problem
of the fluid loading of a simply supported
037019 Finite-element Method in Problems
Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) composite
cylindrical pipe. The shell layup is composed of Nonline Deformation of Reinforced
of specially orthotropic layers, the Shells of Arbitrary Shape. A method of
calculation of reinforced shells of arbitrary
arrangement of which may be nonsymmetrical
shape is proposed. It applies the finite element
through the wall thickness. The theory is
method to problems of nonlinear deformation
developed using Sanders' thin shell theory,
of these shells and it is based on specification
neglecting the effect of transverse shear. An
example of the use of the method is given, of primary geometrical information regarding
where the behavior of a horizontal pipe is the object. Such information can be provided
examined when it is partially or totally filled by the radius vectors of the nodes of the
elements and the positions of the unit normal
with fluid. Three layups are examined, one of
an isotropic construction using chopped vectors to the surface at these nodes.
strand mat (CSM) and two of a laminated Differences in the geometry of the shells
construction. (Author abstract) 5 Refs. under consideration are unimportant from the
standpoint of algorithmization of the
Banks, W.M. (Univ of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scod); calculations, since the same node-by-node
Tooth, A.S.; Wilson, P.M.] Pressure Vessel Teeknol information is required for calculations. A
Trans ASME v III n 2 May 1989 p 102-108. universal approach can &pan an extensive class
of calculation problems for reinforced shells
037017 Shear Deformable Theory of of arbitrary shape, operating in the large-
Laminated Composite Shallow Shell-type displacement region. As an example the
Panels and Their Response Analysis: II. problem of compression of a cylindrical panel
Static Response. In the second part of this of rectangular shape is considered. The
paper, by using the static counterparts of the method used allows the problem to be solved
governing equations derived in Part I, the for arbitrary elastic displacements.
static response of shallow composite shell-type
panels subjected to a sinusoidal transverse Kuznetsov, V.V.; Soinikov, Yu.V. Meek Solids v 23
load is investigated. The numerical n 31988 P 129-135.
applications, encompassing a large number of
boundary conditions and various lamination 037020 Hygrothermal Effects on the
schemes, allow one to obtain some conclusions Stability of a Cylindrical Composite Shell
which are formulated in the paper. (Edited Panel. In this paper the finite element
author abstract) 1 Ref. method is applied to study the problem of
Khdeir, A.A. (Virginia Polytechnic lost & State moisture and temperature effects on the
Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Librescu, L.; stability of a general orthotropic cylindrical
Frederick, D. Acta Meek v 77 n 1- 2 Apr 1989 p composite shell panel subjected to axial or
1-12. in-plane shear loading. The element employed
is a 9-node isoparametric shell element. Since
037018 Sandwich Shells of Absolute the hygrothermal effects on the elastic
Minimum Volume. We consider a number of properties of the matrices and the fibers are
new solutions of optimal design problems for very different, the degrading of the matrices

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

and the fibers are very different, the Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,
degrading of elastic moduli, the transverse USA, 1988 P 71-76.
shear effect and the induced initial stress are
all considered in the present study. Numerical 037022 Divergence Instability of Reinforced
investigation shows that if the temperature Composite Cylindrical Shells. Divergence
increase from 300 K to 422K and the
0 instability of a simply supported orthotropic
moisture concentration is saturated, the composite shell reinforced in both axial and
buckling load with both the degrading of circumferential directions is considered. The
elastic moduli and transverse shear shell is subject to an axial static load and to an
deformation considered is approximately 12% action of an outside supersonic gas flow in the
lower than Snead/Papazoto's result where direction parallel to the shell axis. Two
only the degrading of elastic moduli is variants of the solution considered in the
considered. (Edited author abstract) 10 Refs. paper include discrete widely spaced stiffeners
Lee, S.Y. (Nat! Cheng-Kung Univ, Tainan, and closely spaced stiffeners; the latter case
Taiwan); Yen, W.J. ASME Aerosp Div Publ AD v 13 can be treated using a smeared stiffeners
Recent Advances in the Macro- and Micro- technique. It is proven that divergence
Mechanics of Composite Materials Structures, instability of shells treated by smeared
Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting of the stiffeners technique can occur only if they are
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, subject to axial compressive loads exceeding
Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by the static buckling value. (Author abstract) 9
American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (AS ME), Refs.
New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 21-31. Birman, V. (Univ of New Orleans, New Orleans,
LA, USA). ASME Aerosp Div Publ AD v 13 Recent
037021 Delamination Effects on Composite Advances in the Macro- and Micro-Mechanics of
Shells. An analytical investigation was Composite Materials Structures. Presented at the
performed to study the effect of delamination Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of
on the response of cylindrical composite shells Mechanical Engineers, Chicago, IL, USA, Nov
subjected to external loadings. It was of 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by American Soc of
particular interest to determine the buckling Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,
load and the post-buckling behavior of USA, 1988 P 169-175.
externally pressurized cylindrical composite
shells containing delamination. An analytical 037023 Failure Prediction for Composite
model was developed which consists of a Shells: Shear Deformable Finite Element
structural analysis for calculating the global Formulation. Piecewise smooth stress-based
deformations of the structures and a fracture failure criteria are implemented in a shear
analysis for determining the delamination deformable finite element formulation. Both
growth in the structures. A nonlinear finite plate and shell elements are utilized to
element code based on the updated Lagrange represent thin to moderately thick laminated
formulation was developed for the model. structures. Accurate stresses are obtained both
Based on the results of calculations, it was in the plane of each ply as well as in the
found that delamination can significantly through-the-thickness direction. Such stress
effect the buckling load and response of information is essential in differentiating
cylindrical composite shells subjected to between fiber, matrix and delamination
externally pressurized loadings, depending failures. (Author abstract) 14 Refs.
upon the initial length and location of the Engblom, JJ. (Texas A&M Univ, College Station,
delamination, ply orientation and laminate TX, USA). ASME Pet Div Publ PD v 24 Composite
curvature. The calculated strain energy Material Technology 1989, Twelfth Annual
release rate at the crack tips indicates that Energy-Sources Technology Conference and
delamination growth occurs at the wake of Exhibition, Houston, TX, USA, Jan 22 - 25 1989.
buckling due to Mode II shear fracture. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical Engineers
(Author abstract) 24 Refs. (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 37-41.
Chang, F.-K. (Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA, USA);
Kutlu, Z. ASME Aerosp Div Publ AD v 13 Recent 037024 Computer-Aided Manufacturing of
Advances in the Macro- and Micro-Mechanics of Filament-Wound Composite Shells. An
Composite Materials Structures, Presented at the interactive CAM system developed for
Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of automated manufacturing of filament-wound
Mechanical Engineers, Chicago, IL, USA, Nov axisymmetric shells is reported.
27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by American Soc of Microprocessors are designed to drive motors

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

for multi-axes control of mandrel rotation, dihedral angles of n-frequency spherical and
carriage and cross feeder translations, and eye ellipsoidal octahedral and icosahedral geodesic
rotation. A personal computer system is used domes with or without truncation, for plotting
as host and has software to initiate the orthographic and axonometric projections,
microprocessors, to supervise the motions of and for tabulating the chord lengths and
the rotating mandrel and of the robot-like dihedral angles for sawing the structural
assembly of carriage, cross feeder, and eye. elements for construction. (Author abstract) 4
Operator interactive capability of the software Refs.
make it possible to manually interrupt and Teter, W.D. (Univ of Delaware, Newark, DE,
perform on-the-spot adjustment and reset. USA); Nicholls, R.L. Bull Int Assoc Shell Spat Struct
The variety of filament-wound shells made by v 29-2 Aug 1988 P 47-53.
this automated system is reported. (Edited
author abstract) 12 Refs. 037027 Das System VWMESH zur
Pao, Y.C. (Univ of Nebraska, Lincoln, NB, USA); Idealisierung von Tragstrukturen im
Karamooz, S.; Spencer, B.E.; Keester, PJ. Comput CAE-Konzept. [VWMESH System for an
Eng Proc Int Comput Eng Con! Exhib v 1 (of 2), Ideal Design of Supporting Structures in the
Proceedings of the 1989 ASME International CAE Concept. Presentation of an Interactive
Computers in Engineering Conference and Module for the Eiasto-Mechanical Ideal
Exposition, Anheim, CA, USA, Jul 30-Aug 3 Design of Thin-walled Supporting
1989. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical Structures, Available for Instance in the
Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1989 P CAD Medium in Carbody Design, Aircraft
553-557. Construction, Mechanical Engineering or in
the Shipbuilding Sector]. The development
COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS of weight and cost optimized supporting
structures requires an early safe statement on
037025 Strength Analysis Algorithm of the performance criteria of the component
Discrete Stiffened Conic Shells. Computer which must be made available to the designer
aided analysis algorithm is developed for the in the design phase by way of suitable
stressed-strain state of circular conic shells of forecasting media. To this end the most
irregular structure stiffened by stringers and important test results obtained by the
frames under the effect of arbitrary loads application of modern simulation methods
applied to the frames. The problem solution must be brought to the attention and desk of
is obtained in the Fourier series using the the designer and must be made available for
method of the matrix pass by means of the interpretation without passing the construction
computer BESM-6-programmed algorithm. stage before. For the physical relationships
Contrary to known algorithms of the method which can be forecast by means of the FEM
of finite elements the suggested algorithm analysis idealizing networks are needed for
does not need considerable expenditures of the original structure. (Edited author abstract)
machine time and time for preparation of the 7 Refs. In German.
initial data necessary for the calculation. A Sorgatz, Ulrich (RWTH, Aachen, West Ger);
stressed state in the casting of the shell Deuter, Helmut. VDI Z v 131 n 3 Mar 1989 p 26-32.
supported as a cantilever under the effect of
tangential concentrated load, the effect of the 037028 Modeling of Plate and Shell
shell taper angle and frame elasticity on this Structures with P-Version of the FEM. Finite
state are investigated. The beam theory to element models for the analysis of plates and
calculation of broad fuselage of planes under shells, based on the concept of hp-extension
the effect of local forces is shown to be are presented. A methodology for the control
nonapplicable. (Author abstract) 4 Refs. In and analysis of the error of the finite element
Russian. solution is developed. Numerical results
Kabanov, V.V.; Levitskaya, T.E. Probl Prochn n 7 obtained using the proposed methodology are
Jul 1988 P 97 -100. given. (Author abstract) 16 Refs.
Sahrmann, Glenn J. (Sverdrup Technology Inc,
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN Middleburg Heights, OH, USA). Comput Util Stroct
Eng Computer Utilization in Structural
037026 Geodesign: A Computer Program Engineering, Proceedings of the sessions at
for Geodesic Dome Geometries. A computer Structures Congress '89, San Francisco, CA, USA,
algorithm is described for obtaining the May 1-51989. Publ by ASCE, New York, NY,
coordinates of vertices, chord factors, and USA, 1989 p 277-285.

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

CONCRETE of their curving shapes and the apparent

structural derivation of their forms. Every
037029 Effect of Support Movement on fabric structure includes compression elements,
Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells. For many just as most shells include both tension and
hyperbolic paraboloid shells, the horizontal bending elements. Furthermore, both forms,
reaction is provided by horizontal ties between through the introduction of stiffening
the supports. It is shown that the horizontal elements, have enormous range for subjective
movement of the supports associated with the manipulations of form to achieve desired
elongation of these ties will alter sufficiently sculptural effects. Both fabric structures and
the stresses in the shell membrane and the concrete shells rely on an interplay of tension
axial forces and moments in the supporting and compression, and much of their aesthetic
edge members that these movements must be success is a function of the skill with which this
considered in the analysis. The effect of the interplay is handled by the designer.
outward support movement for gable-type HP Huntington, Craig G. (Huntington Design Associates
shells supported on four corners is to reduce Inc, Oakland, CA, USA). Proc Sess Relat Steel Struct
the arching effect across the diagonal supports, Struct Congr Proceedings of the Sessions Related to
resulting in behavior that resembles more Steel Structures at Structures Congress '89, San
closely that predicted by membrane theory. Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ by ASCE,
When such shells are placed to form continuous New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 706-715.
structures, the effect of the outward support
movement causes the portion of shell in the CONTROL
vicinity of the first rows of interior supports to
behave as inverted umbrella HP shells. 037032 Optimal Control of a Pre-stressed,
(Author abstract) 8 Refs. Orthotropic Thin Cylindrical Shell Subjected
Simmonds, Sidney H. (Univ of Alberta, Edmonton, to a Constant Pressure at Its Interior
Alberta, Can). J Struct Eng v 115 n 1 Jan 1989 p Wall. The open loop optimal control of a
19-31. pre-stressed, orthotropic thin cylindrical shell
subjected to a constant pressure at its interior
037030 Collapse Load Analysis of wall relative to a given index of performance
Prestressed Concrete Surface Structures with is investigated. The optimal control function
Unbonded Tendons by the Finite Element is obtained by using a calculus of variations
Method. The basis of the theoretical approach on the basis of a thin-shell theory.
investigation is a formulation of the principle The response and the hoop stress
of virtual work which is suitable for (circumferential stress) of the controlled shell
incremental-iterative analysis of PC surface are presented in graphical form and
structures by the finite element method (FEM). compared with those of an uncontrolled shell.
It contains the expression for the virtual work Moreover, it is observed that the time
of forces exerted by the tendons on the required for the effectiveness of the control
remaining part of the surface structure, treated increases as the orthotropy coefficient
as a free body. Geometric nonlinearity is increases. An interesting aspect of the
considered on the basis of W.T. Koiter's shell investigation is the singularity of the mass
theory of small displacements and moderately matrix. (Author abstract) 6 Refs.
large rotations. Physical nonlinearity is taken Sadigh-Esfandiari, R. (California State Univ, Long
into account by means of appropriate Beach, CA, USA); Sloss, J.M.; Bruch, J.C. Jr. J
constitutive equations for intact and cracked Sound Vib v 125 n 1 Aug 221988 P 123-130.
concrete, respectively, reinforcing steel and
prestressing steel. The numerical investigation CORROSION
consists of collapse load analysis of a PC slab
with unbonded tendons. It demonstrates the 037033 Corrosion Wear of a Thick-Walled
usefulness of the theoretical concept. (Edited Cylindrical Shell of a Nonlinearly Elastic
author abstract) 17 Refs. Material. During service the elements of
Hofstetter, Guenter (Technical Univ of Vienna, many structures are subject to the combined
Vienna, Austria); Mang, Herbert A. Finite Elem Anal action of loads, temperatures, and corrosive
Des v 5 n 2Jul1989 p 141-165. working media. In this work the case in which
the corrosive medium does not influence the
037031 Manipulation of Shell and Fabric mechanical properties of the material but does
Structure Form. Fabric structures and cause corrosion failure of the surface layers
concrete shells are readily compared because was considered. The depth of corrosion wear

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

was used as the parameter characterizing the orthotropic plastic theory by Hill are
process of corrosion failure of the surface. employed in the creep range. The creep
Algorithms were constructed and used to strains are related to the stresses by McVetty's
develop a program in FORTRAN-4 language equation with a thermal effect multiplier by
with the use of which a series of problems was Arrhenius. The basic differential equations
solved. The method makes it possible to quite derived are numerically solved by a finite
effectively evaluate the behavior of shells of difference method. As a numerical example,
nonlinearly elastic materials in a corrosive the creep of a two-layered, anisotropic
medium with the relationship of the properties cylindrical shell composed of mild steel and
of the material and the corrosion rate to stainless steel subjected to uniform internal
temperature. 4 Refs. pressure is analyzed. (Edited author abstract)
Ovchinnikov, I.G. (Saratov Polytechnic lnst, USSR); 14 Refs. In Japanese.
Garbuz, E. V. Sov Mater Sci v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p Takezono, Shigeo; Migita, Kohji. Nippon Kikai
405-408. Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 54 n 507 Nov 1988 p
037034 Optimization of the Life and Cost of
Cylindrical Shells Subject to Mechanical and DEFECTS
Chemical Failure. The purpose of this work
is to create mathematical models of 037036 Plates and Shells with Crack-like
optimization of cylindrical shells for general Flaws. The formulation of new hierarchial
cases in which the corrosion rate is a function finite elements for the analysis of laminated
of stresses. A thin-walled cylindrical shell of plates and shells in the presence of flaws are
specified radius and length and pivotsupported discussed. The performance of the elements is
on the ends and compressed with an axial elevated with the help of a number of
load was taken as the model structure. Two example problems and the results available in
optimization problems were formulated. The the published literature. (Author abstract) 19
first, in which the corrosion rate was assumed Refs.
as a linear function of the stress intensity, was
Basu, P.K. (Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN, USA);
written in the form of linear mathematical
Ahmed, N.U.; Woo, K.S. Comput Vtil Struct Eng
programming. The second, in which the
Computer Utilization in Structural Engineering,
limitation in time was introduced, was
Proceedings of the sessions at Structures Congress
formulated in the form of nonlinear
'89, San Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ
programming and accounted for both the
by ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 286-295.
initial cost and expenditures made on the
structure at various times. Certain results of
calculation using the two models are DEFLECTION
considered. 5 Refs.
Zelentsov, D.G. (Ferrous Metallurgy Mechanization 037037 Deflection and Snapping of Ring-
Scientific & Production Union, Dnepropetrovsk, Loaded Spherical Caps. The axisymmetric
USSR); Pochtman, Yu. M. Sov Mater Sci v 23 n 4 behavior of both shallow, and deep, ring-
Jan 1988 p 400-412. loaded spherical caps, which are simply
supported but otherwise unconstrained at
CREEP their edges, is investigated using a large-strain
shell theory based on a variational principle.
037035 Creep of Anisotropic Multi-Layered A numerical technique is used to extract the
Moderately Thick Shells of Revolution. This solution. Particular attention is paid to highly
paper describes an analytical formulation and nonlinear phenomena such as snapthrough,
a numerical solution for creep problems of single and multiple snapback, and load-free
anisotropic multilayered moderately thick everted states. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.
shells of revolution with application to a Brodland, G. Wayne (Univ of Waterloo, Waterloo,
cylindrical shell. The analytical formulation is Ont, Can); Cohen, H. J Appl Mech Trans ASME v
developed by extending the Reissner-Naghdi 56 n 1 Mar 1989 p 127-132.
theory for elastic shells with consideration
given to the effect of shear deformation. For 037038 Elastic-Plastic Large Deflection
the constitutive relation, Hooke's law for Analysis of Axisymmetric Shells. A new
orthotropic materials is used in the elastic finite element formulation for elastic-plastic
deformation, and equations based on the large deflection analysis of shells of revolution
orthotropic creep theory derived from the is presented. The new formulation contains

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

most of the best features of nonlinear finite orthotropic layers of variable thickness. The
element analyses currently available in the shells were deformed by shock loads. This
literature, together with some new numerical method is based on a Timoshenko-type
schemes to improve the capability, accuracy geometric equation of nonlinear shell theory
and speed of the computation. It is thoroughly and physical relations from the theory of
verified using a variety of problems. The effective moduli. The boundary value problem
doubly curved thin shell finite element used was solved by finite difference discretization
has been widely applied to linear elastic stress of the Lagrange-D'Alembert variational
analysis and linear stability analysis by the equation and by integrating over time.
present authors and their co-workers. In place Equations of motion were obtained.
of the widely-used relations of Donnell, Computations were performed on a BESM-6
Novozhilov or Sanders, more comprehensive computer. Experimental and numerical results
nonlinear thin shell strain-displacement were compared. For the experiment the
relations are used, which account for dynamic deformation of a viscoelastic shell of
nonlinear strains caused by in-plane poly methyl methacrylate was used. The shells
displacements. Unlike most previous nonlinear were formed by multiple-zone spiral winding
axisymmetric shell formulations, in-plane of glass-plastic strip. It was found that by
shearing is included throughout the treatment. varying the number of zones and layers in the
For plastic analysis, a multi-layered approach winding, the stress level in the region of the
is adopted employing the Prandtl-Reuss pole opening could be reduced. 15 Refs.
normal flow rule with isotropic hardening or Abrosirnov, N.A. (Gorkii State Univ, Gorky, USSR).
perfect plasticity. (Edited author abstract) Meeh Compos Mater v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p 447 - 453.
Teng, J.G. (Univ of Sydney, Sydney, Aust); Rotter,
J.M. Comput Struet v 31 n 2 1989 P 211-233. 037041 Nonlinear Theory of the Central
Bending of Three-Layer Shells with Defects
037039 Assumed Strain Finite Element in the Form of Sections of Bonding
Model for Large Deflection Composite Failure. Thin three-layer shells with a
Shells. A nine node finite element model has light-weight filler and having sections of
been developed for analysis of geometrically bonding failure on one of the surfaces of
non-linear laminated composite shells. The contact between the filler and an external
formulation is based on the degenerate solid layer were theoretically examined. For the
shell concept and utilizes a set of assumed case of central bending of such shells, a
strain fields as well as assumed displacement. complex of nonlinear relations was
Two different local orthogonal co-ordinate constructed which were used to formulate
systems were used to maintain in variance of nonlinear problems concerning contact
the element stiffness matrix. The formulation interaction of the external layers with the
assumes strain and the determinant of the filler, with allowance for unilateral contact on
Jacobian matrix to be linear in the thickness the sections of bonding failure. The
direction. This allows analytical integration in Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses traditionally used
the thickness direction regardless of ply in the theory of three-layer shells were
layups. The formulation also allows the adopted to describe the mechanics of
reference plane to be different from the shell deformation of the external layers. 11 Refs.
midsurface. The results of numerical tests Pairnushin, V.N. (Kazan Aviation Inst, USSR). Sov
demonstrate the validity and the effectiveness Appl Meeh v 23 n 11 May 1988 p 1038 -1 043.
of the present approach. (Author abstract) 17
Refs. 037042 Approaches to Numerical Solution
Yeorn, C.H. (Univ of Maryland, College Park, MD, of Linear and Nonlinear Boundary-value
USA); Lee, S. W. Int J Numer Methods Eng v 28 n 8 Problems of the Theory of Layered
Aug 1989 P 1749-1768. Anisotropic Shells. Certain approaches to the
numerical solution of boundary-value
DEFORMATION problems are presented, describing the
stress-strain state of layered shells with
037040 Numerical Study of the isotropic and anisotropic layers of variable
Axisymmetric Deformation of Composite thickness in the linear and geometrically
Shells of Revolution Under Shock Loads. A nonlinear formulations on the basis of classical
method was proposed of numerically solving and improved models for nonuniform force
problems of transient deformation of and temperature interactions. The proposed
composite shells composed of rigidly joined approaches to the numerical solution of the

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

static shell problems are realized by programs well-known shear locking that appears in some
in FORTRAN and tested on many examples. finite element representations, were not
Solutions of some problems based on the observed. However, in connection with
discussed methods are demonstrated. 10 Refs. kinematically slightly supported boundaries,
Grigorenko, Va. M. (Acad of Sciences of the such as corresponding to membrane theory,
Ukranian SSR, Kiev, USSR). Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n oscillating solutions may occur. 21 Refs.
10 Apr 1988 p 923-927. Wimmer, H. (Univ of Innsbruck, Innsbruck,
Austria). Aeta Meeh v 73 n 1-4 Aug 1988 P 163 -175.
037043 Deformation of a Spherical Shell
Under Internal Loading by a Shock 037046 Betti's Theorem for Rotationally
Generated by an Underwater Electrical Symmetric Infinitesimal Deformations
Discharge. This article is devoted to a Superimposed on the Finite Deformation of
theoretical and experimental study of the a Thin Shell of Revolution. It is intuitively
nonsteady hydroelastic deformation of a thin clear that the tangent stiffness matrix for a
spherical shell subjected to an underwater finitely deformed shell, treated as a two-
electrical discharge at its center. The range of dimensional continuum, should be symmetric.
application of model representation of the The governing differential equations for
latter in the form of a point source and a continuing rotationally symmetric quasi-static
source of finite dimensions with an ideally bending and extensional deformation of thin
flexible boundary is determined. The test shell shells of revolution with no shear deformation
was composed of two stamped hemispheres are employed to derive Betti's theorem from
which were subsequently welded about their which symmetry of the tangent stiffness
perimeters. 8 Refs. matrix follows, provided the pressure load is
Saprykin, Yu. V. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian conservative. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.
SSR, Kiev, USSR); Tsurkin, V.N.; Shvets, I.S.; DaDeppo, D.A. (Univ of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ,
Sholom, V.K. Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p 392-396. USA); Keppel, W.J. Ind Math v 38 pt 1 1988 P
037044 Stability of a Viscoelastic Shell of
Double Curvature. In this paper, we consider 037047 FDM in Arbitrary Curvilinear
the stability of a viscoelastic ellipsoidal shell. Co-ordinates-Formulation, Numerical
We examine the behavior of the shell in Approach & Applications. The basic concept
relation to the load, curvatures, and of automatization of operations in curvilinear
eccentricity of the support ellipse. We co-ordinate systems are briefly presented and
establish the conditions for 'snapping' of the applied to the analysis of large deformations of
shell to occur, and for asymmetrical membrane shells by the FDM. Several
equilibrium forms to appear and develop. 1 examples provide the basis for a comparison of
Ref. this approach with other descriptions of
Vorovich, 1.1.; Drobysheva, T.P. Meeh Solids v 22 n deformation. 23 Refs.
61987 P 174-178. Tworzydlo, Wlodzimierz, W. (Technical Univ of
Krakow, Cracow, Pol). Intl Numer Methods Eng v 28
037045 Application of the Two-Dimensional n 2 Feb 1989 p 261-277.
Hermitian Finite-Difference Method to
Linear Shear Deformation Theory of Plates 037048 Consistent Linearization in Elasto-
and Arbitrarily Curved Shells. In this paper Plastic Shell Analysis. The present paper is
the linear shear deformation theory of thin directed towards elasto-plastic large
shells formulated by Basar/Kratzig has been deformation analysis of thin shells based on the
used to demonstrate a special kind of the concept of degenerated solids. The main
Hermitian finite-difference method. The aspect of the paper is the derivation of an
governing differential equation system efficient computational strategy placing
established in an appropriate matrix form emphasis on consistent elasto-plastic tangent
contains only first derivatives of the unknown moduli and stress integration with the radial
tensor components. After transformation into return method under the restriction of 'zero
an algebraic form by applying two- normal stress condition' in thickness direction.
dimensional operators and solving the global The advantageous performance of the
system, no further differentiation of the standard Newton iteration using a consistent
unknown field functions is necessary. The tangent stiffness matrix is compared to the
procedure shows fast convergence and, in classical scheme with an iteration matrix based
general, numerical instabilities like the on the infinitesimal elasto-plastic constitutive

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

tensor. Several numerical examples also function method is used accurately to treat the
demonstrate the effectiveness of the standard contact condition involving a finite amount of
Newton iteration with respect to modified and sliding. Axisymmetric large deformations of
quasi-Newton methods like BFGS and others. contacting spherical shells are analyzed, and it
(Author abstract) 21 Refs. is shown that elastic unloading resulting from
Ramm, E. (Univ of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, West Ger); the sliding definitely affects the crushing of
Matzemiller, A. Eng Comput (Swansea Wales) v 5 n 4 one shell by another. The possibility of
Dec 1988 p 289- 299. nonaxisymmetric bifurcation of deformation is
examined on the basis of the J2-deformation
037049 Whole-Field Optical Examination of theory. (Author abstract) 10 Refs.
Cylindrical Shell Deformation. An optical Kitagawa, Hiroshi (Osaka Univ, Suita, Jpn); Hiura,
technique for the measurement of radial Seiji.]SME Int] Ser 1 v 32 n 2 Apr 1989 p 199-207.
deformation in circular cylindrical shells is
discussed. The technique is a modification and 037052 Determination of Shell
improvement of an earlier method, using a Constructions Deformations with
conical mirror of simple geometry to view a Application of Linear Transformation
grating reflected from the inner surface of the Theory. In this paper concepts for
shell. The new system allows more precise determining shell structure deformations are
alignment of the components of the optical presented for the case of the surface of a
system with the shell. Fringes obtained by tria pial ellipsoid. Observations by the spatial
superposition as in the Ligtenberg moire incision method in a rectangular xyz
method, or deviations of lines from a regular coordinate system are assumed. The method
pattern in a photographic image provide a of determining the deformation components
measure of the slope changes on the surface of in the points under examination in the
the shell. Theoretical relations are presented t = T - To time interval is based on the
for three grid orientations, at least two of principle of a minimum sum of the squares of
which have to be used in conjunction to the (vx' vy ' v,) corrections. (Edited author
determine the two components of slope. abstract) 8 Refs. In Russian.
Illustrations for the use and accuracy of the Baran, P.1. (Kiev Engineering-Constructional lnst,
technique are presented for two cases. (Edited Kiev, USSR); Przewlocki, Stefan. Zesz Nauk Politeeh
author abstract) 8 Refs. Lodz Budownietwo n 39 1988 P 151-159.
Krishnakumar, S. (Univ of Tasmania, Hobart, Aust); 037053 Experimental Study of Deformation
Foster, C.G. ExpMeeh v 29 n 1 Mar 1989 p 16-22. of Thin Conical Shells During Penetration
into Soil. The penetration of various solids
037050 New Method of Multisegment into deformable media has been previously
Integration for the Nonlinear Analysis of considered. At the same time, insufficient
Shells of Revolution. A new method of attention has been paid to deformation of thin
multi segment integration has been developed shells in the process of penetration into soil.
for solving boundary value problems of a This paper describes an experimental study of
system of nonlinear ordinary differential deformation of thin-walled shells upon
equations as encountered in the large indentation into soil; it determines the effect
deflection analysis of the axisymmetric of the angle of taper, the shape of the tip,
deformations of the shells of revolution. The and the manner of attachment of the
method developed here involves much less concentrated mass to the shell structure on
computational work than the multisegment the deformation process. The authors
integration developed by Kainins and Lestingi. employed an experimental setup consisting of
The new method has been applied to a number a pneumatic gun with a control panel for
of problems to ascertain its soundness and regulating the delivery of compressed gas, a
accuracy. (Edited author abstract) 28 Refs. target, and measurement and recording
Uddin, Md. Wahhaj (Bangladesh Univ of equipment with an automatic control unit.
Engineering & Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh). Int The gun was capable of accelerating shells to
J Pressure Vessels Piping v 38 n 1 1989 P 39-55. specified velocities. 5 Refs.
Bakulin, V.N.; Ovcharov, P.N.; Potopakhin, V.A.
037051 Elastic-plastic Unstable Deformation Meeh Solids v 23 n 41988 P 183-186.
of Shells in Contact (Case of a Spherical
Shell). This paper deals with the numerical 037054 Deformation of Slender Shells with
analysis of large elastic-plastic deformation of Openings. Cutouts of various shapes are
shells in contact with each other. The penalty often made in shell structures for design

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

purposes or fabrication convenience. This 037057 Modelling of the Progressive

paper describes a numeric method for solving Extensible Plastic Collapse of Thin-Walled
a wide range of problems of the stressed- Shells. A theoretical model describing the
strained state of shells with cutouts. Results of progressive extensible plastic collapse of
some specific studies are reported. 21 Refs. thin-wall conical and cylindrical shells is
Dmitriev, V.G.; Preobrazhenskii, I.N. Meek Solids v presented. The proposed theory enables the
23 n 1 1988 P 169-175. load-deflection curves during axial
compression following the deformation history
037055 Dynamic Deformation of of the shell to be evaluated. The comparison
Orthotropic Cylinders. The theory of thick of theoretical curves with experimental ones
orthotropic shells is used here to analyze a shows a fair degree of accuracy. (Author
cylinder subjected to dynamic loads. The abstract) 14 Refs.
formulation includes shear deformation and Mamalis, A.G. (Natl Technical Univ of Athens,
rotatory inertia effects similar to the Athens, Greece); Manolakos, D.E.; Viegelahn, G.L.;
first-order, shear deformation, laminated plate johnson, W. Int] Meek Sei v 30 n 3-41988 Some
theory. Dynamic line loads (along the Papers Presented at the International Symposium
longitudinal direction) and patch loads are on Structural Failure, Second International
considered. The time-dependent part of the Symposium on Structural Crashworthiness,
load is a step pulse or a half sine wave. Cambridge, MA, USA,jun 6-81988 P 249-261.
(Author abstract) 11 Refs.
Cederbaum, G. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State
Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Heller, R.A. ASME DESIGN
Pressure Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 146 Advances
in Macro-Mechanics of Composite Material Vessels 037058 Design of Barrel Shells by the
and Components, Presented at the 1988 ASME Strength Method. For shells and folded plates,
Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Pittsburgh, the ACI Code (318-83), Section 19, permits
PA, USA,jun 19-23 1988. Publ by American Soc the reinforcing to be selected by strength
of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, design. The method of applying this to barrel
USA, 1988 P 43-48. shells is not specified. Possible procedures and
the results for an interior barrel of a multiple
series of barrel shells is described and
037056 Large Elastic Deformation of Shear compared to other methods of selecting
Deformable Shells of Revolution: Numerical reinforcing. (Author abstract)
and Experimental Results. Through an Ketchum, Milo S. Stroet Eng Praet v 4 n 3-4
integrating matrix approach, a numerical 1987-1988 P 165-177.
solution is obtained to the equations governing
large elastic deformation of a clamped circular 037059 Formwork for Spiral Ramps at
cylinder due to internal pressure. The shell Dolphins' Stadium. The problems presented
equations include the effects of large strains, by forming spirals included: wider forms
thickness changes, and transverse shear needed for the ramps' slabjoist system at
deformation. The numerical solution is outer edge; forms needed to provide for
compared to results from asymptotic analysis ramp's slope; after the first revolution,
and experiments on rubber cylinders. A formwork had to be supported on the
specialized Rivlin-Saunders strain energy structure below, and had to be designed to be
density function is assumed for the rubber, removed readily from one section to another.
with material constants determined from These problems were solved by assembling a
tensile tests and deformed cylinder profiles at number of modules, each consisting of a beam
a high inflation pressure. (Author abstract) 15 table section and its shoring. The shoring
Refs. incorporated adjustable scaffold frames that
Kempski, M.H. (Rochester Inst of Technology, could be lowered 6 to 8 inches to facilitate
Rochester, NY, USA); Taber, L.A.; Su, FongChin. stripping of concrete and repositioning of the
Am Soe Meek Eng Pap Preprint-American Society module at another level. The article discusses:
of Mechanical Engineers, Presented at the Winter forming the first 180 of ramp, the second
Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27-Dec 2 180 of ramp and the ramp beyond the first
1988. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical 360.
Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1988 Kathe, Chris (Ceco Corp, jacksonville, FL, USA).
WA/APM486. Coner Constr v 33 n 11 Nov 1988 4p.

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

037060 Pure Building. This paper outlines 037063 Nonuniqueness of Equilibrium

the need for building integration in the States for Axisymmetric Elastic Shells in
design of fabric structures by examining the Tension. The problem of non uniqueness of
different necessary components and how they static axisymmetric solutions for a non-
fit together. It provides examples of this linearity elastic cylindrical shell in which the
integrated process that suggests its use in ends are pulled apart with a constant traction
conventional construction. (Author abstract) while retaining the radii of its ends fixed is
Goldsmith, Nicholas S. (FTL Associates, New York, studied. In the elastic case, we prove the
NY, USA). Proe Sess Relat Steel Struet Struet Congr existence of buckled states and the possibility
Proceedings of the Sessions Related to Steel of necking. In the hyperelastic case a global
Structures at Structures Congress '89, San existence and nonuniqueness theorem is
Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ by proved, via the energy criterion. (Author
ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 726-735. abstract) 19 Refs.
Pastrone, Franco (Univ di Torino, Turin, Italy);
Tonon, Maria Luisa. J Elast v 21 n 1 1989 P 43-59.
037064 Nonlinear Analysis of Elastomeric
037061 Application of Generalized Ray Keyboard Domes. The large deflection of an
Methods in Hydroelasticity Problems of elastomeric dome is studied using the finite
Thin Shells of Noncanonical Shape. A element method. The material properties of
substantial simplification in the solution of the elastomer are described by a hyperelastic
hydroelasticity problems, for primarily shells model in order to capture the strain energy
of noncanonical shape, can be utilization of stored in the dome during deformation. The
generalized ray methods based on replacement nonlinear responses are determined by the
of the wave equation by its equivalent modified Riks procedure. The calculated
first-order vector differential equation, a load-deflection curve agrees well with
generalized transport equation, and by the experimental results. In addition, a pressurized
analysis of the wave fronts that occur during thick-walled spherical hyperelastic shell is
shell interaction with the fluid. A further analyzed and the stress results obtained by the
development of the method proposed earlier finite element method are in excellent
to the case of nonstationary radiation agreement with the closed-form solutions.
problems and to stationary problems is The results provide a better understanding of
examined in this paper. The approach is the mechanical behavior of elastomeric
apparently applicable for shells of arbitrary keyboard domes and demonstrate the
shape, however its realization is shown in usefulness of the finite element method in
axisymmetric and plane problems. 24 Refs. designing such structures. (Author abstract)
15 Refs.
Podil'chuk, Yu. N. (Acad of Sciences of the
Ukrainian SSR, Kiev, USSR); Rubtsov, Yu. K. Sov Lau, John H. (Hewlett-Packard Lab, Palo Alto, CA,
Appl Meeh v 23 n 10 Apr 1988 p 981-988. USA); Jeans, Albert H. Am Soc Meeh Eng Pap
Preprint-American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting,
037062 On Drilling Degrees of Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by
Freedom. Variational principles employing American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
independent rotation fields are investigated. In New York, NY, USA, 1988 WA/EEP8 9.
the two-dimensional case these lead to
membrane elements with 'drilling degrees of ELASTOPLASTICITY
freedom', of practical use in shell analysis. We
argue that convenient interpolatory patterns 037065 Elastic-Plastic Analysis of a Radially
require modifications of the classical Loaded Spherical Shell. An elastic-plastic
variational framework. Several formulations analysis of a spherical loaded radially through
are proposed and shown to be convergent for a rigid inclusion is performed. The sphere is
displacement/rotation interpolations of all modeled as a shallow shell of infinite extent.
orders. (Author abstract) 29 Refs. The Tresca yield condition is used to derive
Hughes, Thomas J.R. (Inst for Computer Methods the elastic-plastic moment-curvature
in Applied Mechanics & Engineering, Stanford, CA, relationship in a simple form. This is used to
USA); Brezzi, F. Comput Methods Appl Meeh Eng v develop a computationally efficient solution
72 n 1 Jan 1989 p 105-12l. method. (Author abstract) 22 Refs.

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

Brooks, G.N. (Univ of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, Radovinskii, A.L. Meeh Solids v 23 n 5 1988 P
USA); Leung, C.-P. J Pressure Vessel Technol Trans 117-122.
ASME v III n 1 Feb 1989 p 39-46.
037066 Elastojvisco-plastic Dynamic
Response of Thin Shells of Revolution by 037068 Energy Dissipation in Braced
Means of Overlay Model. The numerical Cylindrical Shells. This paper presents an
analysis of the elasto/visco-plastic dynamic experimental and numerical investigation of
response of axisymmetricaI thin shells the energy dissipation characteristics of mild
subjected to arbitrary loads is carried out by steel cylindrical shells subjected to large
the elasto/visco-plastic overlay model which is deformations under line loadings acting
able to express the Bauschinger effect and the parallel and perpendicular to the shells'
strain rate dependence. Namely, Perzyna's longitudinal axes. The effects of diametrical
equation is used for the constitutive relation bracing, cylindrical length and external
of each layer of the overlay model, and as a loading orientation on the deformation
whole, the Bauschinger effect and the patterns and energy dissipation capacities are
influence of viscosity in plastic range of the described. The results are applied to the
material are taken into account. The equations design of a new impact attenuation system
of motion and the relations between the used in highway safety applications. (Author
strains and displacements are derived by abstract) 9 Refs.
extending the Sanders linear theory in elastic Carney III, J.F. (Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN,
shells. The numerical method selected for this USA); Pothen, S. Int J Meeh Sci v. 30 n 3 -4 1988
problem is a method using finite difference in Some Papers Presented at the International
both space and time. (Edited author abstract) Symposium on Structural Failure, Second
16 Refs. In Japanese. International Symposium on Structural
Tao, Katsumi; Takezono, Shigeo; Ohtsubo, Kazumi; Crashworthiness, Cambridge, MA, USA, Jun 6-8
Mochidone, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Hironobu. Nippon 1988 P 203-216
Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 55 n 513 May
1989 p 1145-1152. FAILURE

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS 037069 Influence of Geometry on Limit

States of Elastic-Plastic Toroidal Shells
037067 Elastic Conducting Shells in Under Pressure with Bending. A study of
Alternating Electromagnetic the limit states of elastic-plastic toroidal shells
Fields. Problems of excitation of elastic under combined bending and pressure is
vibrations of shells by variable electromagnetic presented. Generally, two different modes of
fields are considered. For problems of this failure have been observed, however, the
type, we give the equations in vector form, the possibility of their existence depends on the
corresponding initial and boundary conditions, value of pipe factor. It is shown that the
and the limits of applicability of the equations, appearance of the determined limit state is
and we provide a description of the general also strongly connected with the elastic
technique for solving them. For the carrying capacity of the torus and in this way
electrodynamic part of the problem, we give with the position of hoop stresses peak. The
an expression for the total-power functional, numerical results explain, in detail, the
and we formulate the orthogonality conditions discussed problem. (Edited author abstract) 11
for the eigensolutions of the corresponding Refs.
equations; for problems involving shells in Muc, Aleksander (Technical Univ of Cracow,
specified harmonic fields, we write out the Cracow, Pol). Thin-Walled Struet v 7 n 3-4 1989 P
expansion formula for the magnetic potential 197-212.
of the eddy currents in eigensolutions. As an
example, we consider the problem of relative FRACTURE
rotation of a thin-walled elastic sphere and a
constant oblique magnetic field, considered in 037070 Local Stresses and Strains in Axially
the rigid-shell approximation in some earlier Cracked Cylindrical Shells. A perturbation
papers; we also obtain formulas for solution is obtained for the local stress-strain
determining the magnetic pressure on the fields in an axially cracked cylindrical shell.
sphere when a constant magnetic field is The tenth-order differential equations are used
applied. (Edited author abstract) 6 Refs. that take into account the transverse shear

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

deformation. The perturbation of a curvature problem of maintaining monolithic character

parameter, A., is employed. The stress intensity throughout production. Optimal hardening
factors for finite size cylindrical shells subjected regimes were assessed for cylinders made of
to bending and internal pressure are evaluated. fiberglass based on the VM-I fiber and binder
Sufficient accuracy can be obtained without EDT-I0 or binder EKR. To establish the
using fine mesh sizes in regions near the crack causes of the differences in the test results the
tip. Also analyzed are the influence of cylinder variations in the physicomechanical properties
diameter and shearing stiffness on bulging. of the solid polymers EDTI0 and EKR as
(Edited author abstract) 7 Refs. functions of temperature were investigated.
Liu, C.T. (Acad Sinica, Beijing, China); Wu, X.J. The optimization problem was solved
Theor Appl Fraet Meeh v 11 n 1 Apr 1989 p 51 - 58. numerically. 10 Refs.
Turusov, R. A. (Acad of Sciences of the USSR,
037071 Finite Element Analysis of a Moscow, USSR); Korotkov, V.N.; Rogozinskii, A.K.;
Circumferentially Cracked Cylindrical Shell Kuperman, A.M.; Sulyaeva, Z.P.; Garanin, V.V.;
Loaded in Torsion. Finite element methods Rozenberg, B.A. Meeh Compos Mater v 23 n 6 May
are used to evaluate all possible fracture modes 1988 p 773-777.
at the tip of a circumferential crack in an
isotropic cylindrical shell subjected to torsion. MANUFACTURE
The finite element results are compared with
shallow-shell theory data for cylinders with 037073 On the Determination of the
different geometries. The results indicate that Redrawing Ratio in the Redrawing of
there is good agreement between the Cylindrical Shells with a Numerical
membrane stress intensity factors calculated Simulation (2nd Report, on the
from finite element displacements at the crack Determination of the Redrawing Ratio by
tip and the factors found using shallow-shell the Reduction of the Maximum Deep
theory for small crack lengths. For longer Drawing Force). A determination method for
cracks, disagreement between these two the redrawing ratios has been proposed by
approaches is very pronounced. In particular, analyzing the redrawing process of cylindrical
the bending stress intensity factors from the shells from flat circular blanks using the
finite element analysis are significantly greater elementary theory of plasticity. These
than the corresponding values determined redrawing ratios were calculated using the
from the shallow-shell theory. It is observed criterion based on the reduction of the
that the out-of-plane, antisymmetric maximum deep drawing forces. These
deformation near the crack produces mixed theoretical results on the variations of the
mode fracture with crack opening and tearing redrawing ratios with the profile radius, the
displacements. (Author abstract) 14 Refs. blank thickness, the frictional force, the
Kumosa, M. (Univ of Cambridge, Cambridge, Engl); blankholder load and the strain-hardening
Hull, D. Eng Fraet Meeh v 32 n 1 1989 P 123 -136. exponent are presented using a developed
computer program aimed at rationalizing,
HEAT TREATMENT planning and simulating the redrawing
process. It is shown that the maximum deep
037072 Technological Monolithic Character drawing forces decreased at about 10-40%
of Shells Formed from Polymeric comparing the predicted drawing force with
Composition Materials. Solution of the the usual drawing force. This is based on the
problem of maintaining a monolithic character experience of many years standing and skilled
throughout production requires the labor. (Author abstract) 13 Refs. In Japanese.
development of such a heat-treatment regime Iseki, Hideo; Murota, Tadao; Katoh, Kazunori.
that would make it possible to obtain Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 505
monolithic thick-wall wound articles formed Sep 1989 p 2249-2256.
from reinforced plastics. The heat-treatment
process includes two stages: hardening of the 037074 Reduction of the Metal Volume in
initially liquid polymer-binder in the Pressed Conical Shells. A reduction in the
composition of the structure and cooling of the metal volume in pressed axisymmetric shells of
already hard polymeric composite. In this narrowing form (high-pressure containers,
paper, an attempt was made to demonstrate transition elements, fairings etc.) can be
the need for conducting detailed investigations achieved by improving the uniformity of
of the mechanical phenomena in the complex thickness of the components being produced.
hardening process for the final solution of the An improvement in the uniformity of

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

thickness of pressed axisymmetric shells of variation of redrawing ratio with profile

narrowing form is attained by combining radius, blank thickness, frictional force,
compression and drawing operations while blankholder load and strain-hardening
producing such shells. A technology of exponent are presented using a developed
multi-stage pressing, in which the concluding computer program aimed at rationalizing,
drawing operations have been replaced by planning and simulating the redrawing
compression of the bottom region of the process. It is shown that the maximum non-
blank, has been developed for manufacture of attainment value decreased to about 20-70%
axisymmetric shells with a large relative compared to those values of other
height. 2 Refs. optimization criteria. (Author abstract) 16
Maslov, V.D.; Popov, I.P.; Gostev, A.1. Sov Eng Res Refs. In Japanese.
v 8 n 1 1988 P 59-61. Iseki, Hideo; Sowerby, Robert. Nippon Kikai Gakkai
Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 508 Dec 1988 p 3115-3121.
037075 On the Determination of the
Redrawing Ratio in the Redrawing of MATHEMA TICAL MODELS
Cylindrical Shells with a Numerical
Simulation (3rd Report, on the 037077 Elastic-Plastic Ring-Loaded
Determination of the Redrawing Ratio by Cylindrical Shells. The elastic plastic solution
the Reduction of the Maximum Deep for an infinitely long cylindrical shell with an
Drawing Energy). A determination method axisymmetric ring load is presented. Except
for redrawing ratios has been proposed by for the material nonlinearity, the standard
analyzing the redrawing process of cylindrical assumptions of small deflection shell theory
shells from flat circular blanks using an were made. Because the principal directions
elementary theory of plasticity. These are known for the axisymmetric problem, the
redrawing ratios were calculated using a Tresca yield condition was used. This made it
criterion based on the reduction of the possible to obtain closed-form expressions for
maximum deep drawing energy. Variation of the elastic-plastic, moment-curvature relations,
redrawing ratio with profile radius, blank greatly simplifying the computational task.
thickness, frictional force, blankholder load The actual stress distribution through the
and strain-hardening exponent were obtained thickness was used, making these relations
using a developed computer program aimed exact. Yielding was contained near the load.
at rationalizing, planning and simulating the Thus, for the analysis the cylinder was divided
redrawing process. It is shown that the along its axis into elastic-plastic and purely
maximum deep drawing energy decreased elastic regions. Solutions were obtained for
about 10-40%, comparing the predicted each region which were then matched at their
drawing energy by the usual determination intersection to give the complete solution. All
method for the redrawing ratios. (Author results are given in dimensionless form so that
abstract) 14 Refs. In Japanese. they may be applied to any shell. (Author
Iseki, Hideo; Sowerby, Robert; Katoh, Kazunori. abstract) 12 Refs.
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 508 Brooks, Gregory N. (Univ of Tennessee, Knoxville,
Dec 1988 p 3106-3114. TN, USA).] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n 4 Dec
1988 p 761-766.
037076 On the Determination of the
Redrawing Ratio in the Redrawing of 037078 Mechanics and Finite Elements of
Cylindrical Shells with a Numerical Shells. This article begins with a brief review
Simulation (4th report, on the Determination of the foundations: The classical theory of
of the Redrawing Ratio by the Minimax Love is described with attention to the
Optimization of Compromise underlying hypothesis and consequent
Programming). A determination method for limitations. A more general theory is described
the redrawing ratios has been proposed by which removes the constraints of Love; the
analyzing the redrawing process of cylindrical inclusion of transverse strains admits simpler
shells from flat circular blanks using the finite elements, accommodates the thick shell
elementary theory of plasticity, and by via layers and even a transition to the three-
applying multi-objective optimization theory. dimensional approximation. The concept of
These redrawing ratios were calculated using the finite element is reviewed in the context of
the minimax optimization of a compromise the discrete approximation of shells. Specific
solution of multi-objective optimization attention is given to those problems which are
theory. These theoretical results on the peculiar to shells: The predominant roles of

Excerpts from The En8ineerin8 Index Annual 1989

flexural and extensional deformations, the Hampton, VA, USA); Lester, H.C.; Abler, S.B. J
lesser role of transverse shear, can lead to Vib Acoust Stress Reliab Des v III n 3 Jul 1989 P
excessive stiffness ('locking'). Origins and 337-342.
procedures are described to circumvent these
problems. (Edited author abstract) 147 Refs.
Wempner, Gerald (Georgia Inst of Technology, NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION
Atlanta, GA, USA). Appl Meek Rev v 42 n 5 May
1989 p 129-142. 037081 Non Contacting Testing and NDT
for Composite Shells. There is, today, a
NOISE ABATEMENT strong need for reliable large-field ways of
inspecting for the initial quality of composite
037079 Statistical Theory of Internal structures and for monitoring, over long
Soundproofing in Cylindrical Shells. In a times, the continued integrity of such
number of cases of practical interest, an structures. This paper introduces two new
interesting question is about the capability of methods which, when used in combination,
thin-walled shells of localizing wave energy has strong promise of meeting this need. The
close to the radiator encased in this shell, i.e., first, called Spectral Density Analysis is a
is separated by it from the environment. This purely optical method for full field
phenomenon represents the concept of measurement of surface displacements. The
internal soundproofing (isolation). The paper second is a fiber-optic laser based method to
concludes that as the case of soundproofing of generate and detect ultrasonic waves for
a shell from the external field (enclosure), the interrogating the interior of structures. It is
following physical phenomena are important: called Thermal Acousto Photonic NDE.
1. Increase of soundproofing effectiveness is (Author abstract) 5 Refs.
nonmonotonous with respect to the frequency. Burger, C.P. (Texas A&M Univ, College Station,
2. Dips (notches) in the spectral characteristic TX, USA). ASME Pressure Vessels Piping Div Publ
of soundproofing are due to resonant PVP v 146 Advances in Macro-Mechanics of
phenomena in the shell and in air volume Composite Material Vessels and Components,
within the shell. 3. The experimental analysis Presented at the 1988 ASME Pressure Vessels and
of the internal soundproofing of shells (using Piping Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, Jun
standard measuring techniques) does not 19- 23 1988. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical
reveal these dips (notches) in soundproofing Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1988 P
due to averaging in the octave frequency 167-171.
bands. 4 Refs.
Guzhas, D.R. Vib Eng v 3 n 1 1989 P 21- 26.

037080 Evaluation of Active Noise Control 037082 Numerical-Analytical Solution of

in a Cylindrical Shell. This paper examines the Thermoplasticity Problem for Locally
the physical mechanisms governing the use of Heated Shallow Shells. We construct a
active noise control in an extended volume of numerical-analytic solution of the
a cylindrical shell. Measured data were thermoplasticity problem for locally heated
compared with computed results from a shallow shells. The solution is obtained by
previously derived analytical model based on using the method of integral equations and
infinite shell theory. For both the analytical the self-correcting method of successive
model and experiment, the radiation of loadings. As an example, we investigate the
external monopoles is coupled to the internal thermally stressed state in plates heated by
acoustic field through the radial displacement normal-circular heat sources. In the case of
of the thin, elastic, cylindrical shell. An active unilateral heating of a plate by normal-circular
noise control system was implemented inside heat sources, we estimate the accuracy of our
the cylinder using a fixed array of discrete solution. We consider the problem of
monopole sources, all of which lie in the plane optimization of the heating parameters of a
of the exterior noise sources. Good agreement plate with the aim of bringing the residual
between measurement and prediction was compressive stresses into a specified region of
obtained for both internal pressure response favorable values (from the standpoint of
and overall noise reduction. (Edited author strength). (Author abstract) 10 Refs.
abstract) 6 Refs. Maksimovich, V.N.; Khomlyak, L.V. Meek Solids v
Silcox, R.J. (NASA Langley Research Cent, 23 n 51988 P 123-129.

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989


037083 Use of Semimomentless Theory to 037085 Improved Asymptotic Early-Time

Design Multiply Closed Cylindrical Shells of Response Formulae for Submerged Elastic
a Reinforced Plastic. Multiply closed, Shells Impinged Upon by an Incident
convex, thin-walled cylindrical shells of Pressure Pulse. The early-time solutions for
arbitrary cross section are widely used in this class of problems have often been
different types of power plants. obtained by the use of integral transform
Semimomentless theory was used in this paper techniques and the method of steepest
to account for the effect of any distributed or descents to asymptotically evaluate the inverse
concentrated loads if they were discontinuous transform integrals. These steepest descent
along the shell and was illustrated using a solutions overestimated the elastic restoring
composite shell as an example. A onceclosed force of the shell for the early time period in
cylindrical shell of rectangular cross section which the shell response is of practical
was examined. The shell was secured in interest. The accuracy of the early-time
cantilever fashion and loaded by a transverse solution is improved by a correction of this
force distributed uniformly over the length. elastic restoring force term. 13 Refs.
After minimizing the potential energy Huang, H. (US Naval Surface Warfare Cent, Silver
functional, a system of resolvent equations was Spring, MD, USA). Am Soe Meeh Eng Pap Preprint
obtained, and the calculations were performed - American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
for an orthotropic material with given Houston, TX, USA, Jan 22-251989. Publ by
stiffness characteristics. The structure of the American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
material was assumed to be constant for each New York, NY, USA, 1989 OCNll 5p.
panel used in the shell. 3 Refs.
Dudchenko, A.A. (S. Ordzhonikidze Moscow SOUND INSULATION
Aviation Inst, Moscow, USSR). Meeh Compos Mater
v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p 437 -443. 037086 Soundproof Characteristics of
Sandwich Cylindrical Shells with a
Honeycomb Core Partially Exposed in Free
Field. An analysis is presented for the sound-
037084 Experimental Study of Coefficients proof characteristics of sandwich cylindrical
of Variation of Strength Characteristics of shells with honeycomb core excited by axially
Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Shells under propagating internal plane acoustic waves. The
Internal Shock Loading. Variation shell is exposed in a free field by the length of
coefficient estimates were obtained of the I, however is otherwise covered with infinitely
limit load and limit strain on cylindrical long rigid cylindrical walls. To simplify the
glass-fiber-reinforced plastic shells under shell equations, it is assumed that the core
impulsive loading. The test objects were free material resists only transverse shear forces
cylindrical glass-fiber-reinforced plastic shells and that the facing resist only bending
into which steel 20 reinforcing shells were moments. The sound transmission loss of the
inserted. The glassplastic shells were made by shell wall, TL, is derived and calculated
the method of 'wet' winding of the fabric and numerically for various values of the physical
impregnated with binder EDT-IO. Loading parameters involved. (Author abstract) 20
was accomplished by exploding a spherical Refs. In Japanese.
charge in the center of the shell. Estimates of Chonan, Seiji. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu CHen
the mathematical expectation and the v 54 n 508 Dec 1988 p 2883-2889.
standard deviation were calculated by the
method of functional probabilities and STABILITY
statistical modeling. It was found that under
extreme shock loads, glass-plastic shells have 037087 Determination of Critical Parameters
higher strength than under static loading, of Momentary External Pressure for a
according to the limit strain criterion. 10 Refs. Spherical Shell with Initial De8ection. A
Vorontsova, O.S.; Syrunin, M.A.; Fedorenko, A.G.; solution is presented for the problem of the
Khomutinin, Yu.V.; Tsypkin, V.I.; Bilyk, N.A.; dynamic loss of stability of a spherical shell
Ivanov, A.G. Meeh Compos Mater v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 subjected to momentary external pressure. The
p 443-447. shell, reinforced in two directions, is regarded

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

as being structurally orthotropic. The critical considered. The linear stability problem and
value of compressive forces in the radial the deformation of the shell under large
sections of the shell are determined within the deflections with the construction of the 'load-
framework of a linear formulation of the deflection' graphs is investigated. 2 Refs.
problem, with the use of analytical criteria of Samol'yanov, 1.1. (L'vov Polytechnic Inst, USSR).
dynamic instability, for linear and parabolic Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p 353-357.
laws of change in the compressive forces over
time. 3 Refs. 037091 Stability of a Multilayer Cylindrical
Amiro, I. Va. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian Shell in Interlayer Pressure. The problem of
SSR, Kiev, USSR). Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n 10 Apr 1988 the stability of a cylindrical shell or circular
p 903-907. ring with one-side connection with the
surrounding elastic or absolutely rigid space
037088 Stability of Shells of Revolution of has been studied in a number of investigations.
Fiber Composites with Initial Cracks in the In solving this problem for thin shells it is
Microstructure. A method of calculating the possible to neglect the variation of the shell
stability and initial postcritical behavior of geometry as a result of subcritical behavior,
shells of revolution of composite materials with and also changes in the area of contact with
variable mechanical characteristics dependent the surrounding space during the loss of
on microstructural damages at the interface stability. Consequently, the solution can be
between the components is presented. The obtained in linear formulation, as carried out
stability of glass-plastic cylindrical and conical in the present paper. 4 Refs.
shells with different degrees of damage to the Pal'chevskii, A.S. Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p
material is examined. The method makes it 358-362.
possible to study the stability of shells of
composite materials in which the components 037092 Analysis of Parametric Oscillations
separate from one another during mechanical of Shells of Revolution with Variable
or other types ofloading. 9 Refs. Parameters. This paper examines the
Vanin, G.A. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, parametric oscillations of thin shells of
Kiev, USSR); Semenyuk, N.P. Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n revolution of arbitrary contour closed in the
10 Apr 1988 p 908-914. annular direction. The shells were assembled
from a certain number of orthotropic and
037089 In8uence of Conditions of End isotropic layers of variable thickness. The
Fixing on the Stability of Longitudinal material of each layer is assumed to be elastic
Compressed Multilayer Conical Shells. The and governed by Hooke's generalized law.
problem of the stability of multilayer The problem is solved on the basis of the
orthotropic conical shells-and also cylindrical linear theory of shells and assuming that the
shells, as a particular case - is considered, and hypothesis of nondeformable normals for the
the influence of the boundary conditions on entire packet of the shell as a whole is
the critical values of the longitudinal satisfied. 9 Refs.
compressive force is analyzed. A family of Vasilenko, A.T. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian
curves of the critical load as a function of the SSR, Kiev, USSR); Cherin'ko, P.N. Sov Appl Meeh
current value of L/Rme for shells with different Oct 1988 p 363-367.
conditions at the ends is shown. Analysis of the
results offers the possibility of dividing the 037093 Initial Post-Critical Behavior and
consideration of the boundary conditions into Flaw Sensitivity of Composite Cylindrical
two groups with four versions in each. 9 Refs. Shells with Difference Reinforcement
Shul'ga, N.A. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian Schemes. Results of the stability of reinforced
SSR, Kiev, USSR); Primak, A.P. Sov Appl Meeh Oct shells are used to study the character of their
1988 p 348 - 352. post-critical behavior and sensitivity to the
initial geometrical defects. The formulated
037090 Stability of a Sloping Panel of problem is solved through the theory of initial
Negative Gaussian Curvature. The problem post-critical behavior and Koiter's special
of the stability of a thin elastic shell of the theory. A circular cylindrical shell of the
hyperbolic paraboloid type, rectangular in the length L, radius R, and thickness t consisting
plane, when the contour lines coincide with the of N layers with different fiber orientations is
direction of the principal curvatures is examined. 6 Refs.

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

Semenyuk, N.P. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian boards, orthogonally attached to each other
SSR, Kiev, USSR); Zhukova, N.B. Sov Appl Meeh by nails. As far as the investigated hypar-shells
Oct 1988 p 385-392. are concerned, reaching of the ultimate load
(in this paper the term 'ultimate load' is used
037094 Loss of Stability for a Spherical in a restrictive sense) is found to be the
Shell. On the basis of three-dimensional relevant mode of loss of stability. This agrees
linearized stability theory, we obtain the with experimental results reported in the
characteristic equation for determining the literature. (Author abstract) 23 Refs. In
critical inner radius of a spherical support, German.
whose outer surface is acted upon by a load Rattasepp, T. (Technische Univ Tallinn, Tallinn,
equal to the contact pressure on the boundary USSR); Mang, H.A. Bauingenieur v 64 n 6 Jun
of the support and the rock mass. The 1989 p 255-266.
magnitude of the contact pressure is
determined in solving the problem of the STEEL
precritical stress-strain state of the support and
the elastic-plastic mass, which has an interface 037097 Optimized Wall Thickness of Shells
between zones of elastic and plastic of Revolution. The aim of this paper was to
deformation. (Edited author abstract) 7 Refs. develop a concept for the design of shells of
Meshkov, S.I.; Shashkin, A.I. Meeh Solids v 23 n 5 revolution with different Gaussian curvature
1988 P 113-116 using a simplified finite element buckling
analysis. A cooling tower shell was used as an
037095 Numerische Stabilitaetsanalyse example for calculations. 7 Refs.
Linear und Nichtlinear, Deformierbarer, Wittek, Udo (Univ Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern,
Parametererregter Schalentragwerke. West Ger). Proe Sess Relat Steel Struet Stroet Congr
[Numerical Stability Analysis of Linearly Proceedings of the Sessions Related to Steel
and Nonlinearly Deformable Shell Structures at Structures Congress '89, San
Structures Under Parametric Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ by
Excitation]. The present contribution derives ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 686-695.
a numerical concept for the stability analysis
of linearly and nonlinearly responding shell STRAIN
structures under parametric excitation.
Starting from a displacement discretization of 037098 Deformation Bounds for Cyclically
the incremental principle of virtual Loaded Shell Structures Operating under
displacements and using Ljapunow's stability Creep Conditions. Constitutive relations,
definitions, handy stability bounds are based on the Bailey-Orowan's creep theory,
presented, especially also for nonlinear are used to develop a maximum work
fundamental motions. Two of many computed condition which includes the influence of an
examples demonstrate their applicability; the internal state. A bounding theorem on
correctness of the results is checked by displacement is obtained for structures
properties of line-search evaluated subjected to cyclic loading. An application of
neighbouring motions. (Author abstract) 15 the bound is illustrated. (Author abstract) 6
Refs. Refs.
Eller, Conrad (Ruhr-Univ Bochurn, Bochurn, West Cocks, Alan C.F. (Univ of Leicester, Leicester,
Ger); Kraetzig, W. B. lng Areh v 59 n 5 1989 P Engl); Leckie, F.A. J Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n
345-356. 3 Sep 1988 p 509-516.

037096 Zur Stabilitaet Flacher 037099 Refined Small Strain and Moderate
Eckgestuetzter Hyparschalen aus Holz mit Rotation Theory of Elastic Anisotropic
Geradlinigen Randtraegern. [On the Stability Shells. A general refined shell theory that
of Shallow, Wooden Hypar-shells with accounts for the transverse deformation, small
Straight, Point-Supported Edge Beams]. This strains, and moderate rotations is presented.
paper is concerned with finite element The theory can be reduced to various existing
stability analysis of shallow, thin hypar-shells shell theories including: the classical (i.e.,
made of timber, with straight, COrner- linear Kirchhoff-Love) shell theory, the
supported edge beams. A feature of the Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov shell theory, the
analysis model is the direct consideration of Leonard-Koiter-Sanders moderate rotations
the structural anisotropy of the shell shell theory, the von Karman type shear-
membrane consisting of two layers of wooden deformation shell theory and the moderate-

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

rotation shear-deformation plate theory IL, USA, Nov 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by American
developed by Reddy. The present theory is Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York,
developed from an assumed displacement NY, USA, 1988 WA/APM37 7.
field, nonlinear strain-displacement equations
that contain small strain and moderate STRESSES
rotation terms, and the principle of virtual
displacements. (Edited author abstract) 47 Refs. 037102 Analysis of an Axisymmetric
Schmidt, R. (Univ of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, West Thermoelastic Plastic Stress-Strain State of a
Ger); Reddy, IN. ] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n Laminar Shell Under Repeated Loading.
3 Sep 1988 p 611 - 61 7. Simple repeated loading processes were
considered on laminar shells of revolution by
037100 Assumed Strain Stabilization loads of both the same and the reverse sign as
Procedure for the 9-Node Lagrange Shell for the initial loading. The investigation was
Element. An assumed strain (strain done within the framework of the Kirchhoff-
interpolation) method is used to construct a Love hypothesis. It was assumed that the
stabilization matrix for the 9-node shell creep strain is negligibly small as compared to
element. The stabilization procedure can be the instantaneous elastic-plastic strains. A thin
justified based on the Hellinger-Reissner shell of revolution with meridian section of
variational method. It involves a projection arbitrary shape and consisting of variable-
vector which is orthogonal to both linear and thickness layers was considered. The shell was
quadratic fields in the local co-ordinate system subjected, from an initially unstressed and
of each quadrature point. All terms in the unstrained state, to axisymmetric loads and
development involve 2 X 2 quadrature in the nonuniform heating that varied in time in
9-node element. Example problems show such a way that plastic strain domains
good accuracy and an almost optimal rate of occurred in which unloading then took place.
convergence. (Author abstract) 40 Refs. The results of the analysis showed that the
Belytschko, Ted (Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL, active loading process occurred in the first two
USA); Wong, Bak Leong; Stolarski, Henryk. IntJ steps in the shell in the form of a plastic strain
Numer Methods Eng v 28 n 2 Feb 1989 p 385-414. zone at the shell inner surface. 6 Refs.
Babeshko, M.E. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian
037101 Refined Small Strain and Moderate SSR, Kiev, USSR); Prokhorenko, l.V.;
Rotation Theory of Elastic Anisotropic Sokolovskaya. V.l. Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n 11 May
Shells. A general refined shell theory that 1988 p 1054-1058.
accounts for the transverse deformation, small
strains, and moderate rotations is presented. 037103 Combined Theoretical and
The theory can be reduced to existing shell Experimental Method of Determining
theories including the classical (i.e., linear Residual Stresses in Wound Composite
Kirchhoff-Love) shell theory, Donnell- Shells. A combined theoretical and
Mushtari-Vlasov shell theory, Leonard-Koiter- experimental method of determining residual
Sanders moderate rotations shell theory, von stresses, and the strains of wound composite
Karman type shear-deformation shell theory shells induced by these stresses, is suggested.
and moderate rotation shear deformation The method makes use of shells of revolution
plate theory developed by J.N. Reddy. The that are formed by a system of layers of
present theory is developed from an assumed unidirectional composite material placed at
displacement field, nonlinear strain given angles to the generatrix. Each of the
displacement equations that contain small elementary unidirectional layers is allotted
strain and moderate rotation terms, and the rigidities in tension and compression as well as
principle of virtual displacements. The in shear. The elastic constants of such a layer,
governing equations exhibit strong coupling including the modulus and Poisson's ratio, are
between the membrane and bending determined experimentally in tests of
deformation which should alter the bending, circularly wound tubular specimens. For
stability, and post-buckling behavior of certain determining residual stresses it is assumed that
shell structures as predicted using available the deformations of the layer are composed of
theories. (Edited author abstract) 47 Refs. elastic, thermal, and curing components and
Schmidt, R. (Univ of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, West deformations induced by prestressing of the
Ger); Reddy, IN. Am Soe Meeh Eng Pap Preprint- reinforcing elements. The method was
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, experimentally verified in tests of cylindrical
Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, shells made of glass reinforced plastic

Excerpts from The En8ineerin8 Index Annual 1989

comprised of glass fiber VMPS and epoxy J Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n 3 Sep 1988 p
resin ED-20 binder. The results confirm the 629-634.
possibility of using the combined theoretical
and experimental method for determining 037106 Stress-Strain Fields at Crack Tip in
technological stresses and deformations of Axially Cracked Cylindrical Shells and the
wound composite shells. 5 Refs. Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors. A
Morozov, E.V. (K.E. Tsiolkovskii Moscow lnst of perturbation solution for stress-strain fields
Aviation Technology, USSR). Meeh Compos Mater v (including modes I, II, III) at crack tip in
23 n 6 May 1988 p 802-807. axially cracked cylindrical shells is given. The
analysis, using 10th-order differential
equations which take the transverse shear
037104 Axisymmetric Elastoplastic Stress deformations into account, involves
State of Branched Shell Systems with perturbation in a curvature parameter y2,
Nonisothermal Loading Processes. The (y2 = [12(Inv2) J'a 2/Rh). Stress intensity
axisymmetric elastoplastic stress state of a factors for finite size cylindrical shells under
branched shell with a complex form of the bending and internal pressure loading are
meridian and poles is investigated, in evaluated. A good accuracy can be obtained
conditions of quasistatic thermal and force without using fine meshes in a region near
loading which varies over time. A shell of the crack tip. Besides, the influence of the
revolution with a branched meridian is finite size and the shearing stiffness on
considered in conditions of axisymmetric bulging factors, which are commonly used in
connective heat transfer with the surrounding engineering, are analyzed. (Author abstract) 6
medium, under the action of a variable load. Refs.
The problem is solved within the framework Liu, Chuntu (Acad Sinica, China); Wu, Xijia. Aeta
of the Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis in a Meeh Sin v 3 n 3 1987 P 223-230.
geometrically linear, quasistatic formulation;
creep deformation is neglected in comparison
with the instantaneous elastoplastic 037107 Surface Crack in Shells Under
deformation. The equations of state employed Mixed-Mode Loading Condition. The
are the relations of the theory of simple problem of a shallow shell containing a surface
loading processes, taking account of their crack and subjected to general loading
previous history which are linearized by the conditions is considered. It is shown that, as
method of variable elasticity parameters. 8 in the three-dimensional elasticity formulation,
Refs. the mode I state can be separated whereas
modes II and III remain coupled. A line
Galishin, A.Z. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian
spring model is developed to formulate the
SSR, Kiev, USSR). Sov Appl Meeh Sep 1988 p
part-through crack problem under mixed-
mode conditions. A shallow shell of arbitrary
curvature having a part-through crack located
037105 Large Elastic Deformation of Shear on the outer or the inner surface of the shell
Deformable Shells of Revolution: Numerical is then considered. Reissner's transverse shear
and Experimental Results. Through an theory is used to formulate the problem by
integrating matrix approach, a numerical assuming that the shell is subjected to all five
solution is obtained to the equations governing moment and stress resultants. The uncoupled
large elastic deformation of a clamped circular antisymmetric problem is solved for
cylinder due to internal pressure. The shell cylindrical and toroidal shells having a surface
equations include the effects of large strains, crack in various orientations and the primary
thickness changes, and transverse shear and the secondary stress intensity factors are
deformation. The numerical solution is given. (Edited author abstract) 20 Refs.
compared to results from an asymptotic Joseph, P.F. (Lehigh Univ, Bethlehem, PA, USA);
analysis and from experiments on rubber Erdogan, F. J Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n 4 Dec
cylinders. A specialized Rivlin-Saunders 1988 p 795-804.
strain-energy density function is assumed for
the rubber, with material constants 037108 Investigation of the Spherical
determined from tensile tests and deformed Membrane Cap Under Partial Load. It is
cylinder profiles at a high inflation pressure. shown how the internal forces due to an
(Author abstract) 15 Refs. axially non-symmetric load of a spherical cap
Kempski, M.H. (Rochester lnst of Technology, can be determined within the framework of
Rochester, NY, USA); Taber, L.A.; Su, Fong-Chin. the membrane theory. We present the

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

method of internal forces for the terms of the 037112 Bifurcation of Axisymmetric
Fourier expansion. In a numerical example Equilibrium of Thin Shells of Revolution
these forces are computed for a spherical cap with Regular Shaped Imperfections. An
with the half central angle cPo = 38 As can
asymptotic formula is derived to characterize
be seen, for n = 2,3,4 closed formulae can be the effect of a regular axisymmetric shape
obtained, while for n ~ 5 the calculation has imperfection upon the classical critical load of
to be carried out numerically. (Edited author a perfect convex shell belonging to a certain
abstract) 4 Refs. class. 4 Refs.
Olitzscher, Frank. Acta Tech (Budapest) v 100 n 3-4 Teterin, I.Yu. (Leningrad Univ, Leningrad, USSR).
1987 P 225 - 238. Leningrad Univ Mech Bull n 2 1988 P 62-64.

037113 Assessment of Assumed Strain

037109 Shallow Shells with Local Deviations Methods in Finite Rotation Shell Analysis. A
in Shape. A simple solution is presented for critical assessment of the 4-node assumed strain
the stress analysis of shallow shells with element as proposed by E.N. Dvorkin and K.J.
imperfections in the geometry. The model is Bathe is made. The element performed
based on the bending equations of the shell, excellently in all investigated shell problems
and the imperfection is considered by an which sometimes caused difficulties for other
equivalent load method. A Ritz solution for a assumed strain techniques. For efficient
given shape of local imperfection is obtained in computation in the non-linear range,
explicit form, and the expressions are applied linearization of the virtual work equation is
to the case of an elliptical paraboloidal shell. done to yield the consistent tangent stiffness.
(Author abstract) 14 Refs. The shell formulation is done for stress and
Godoy, L.A. (Univ Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba, strain tensors based on local element
Argent); Quinones, D.; Wagner, R. Bull Int Assoc coordinates. To demonstrate the effectiveness
Shell Spat Struct v 29 - 2 Aug 1988 P 55 - 62. and rapid convergence of the non-linear
formulation, three examples are tested for
037110 Stress Distribution by the large displacements. (Edited author abstract)
Misalignment of Spherical and its Allowable 19 Refs.
Limit. The expressions for stress distribution Stander, Nielen (Univ Stuttgart, Stuttgart, West
in the region of misalignment of spherical Ger); Matzenmiller, Anton; Ramm, Ekkehard. Eng
shells have been derived on the basis of the Comput (Swansea Wales) v 6 n I May 1989 p 58 - 66.
theory of plates and shells. The analytical
expressions are verified with the results 037114 Investigation of Partially
obtained by FEM and photoelastic experiment. Pressurized Thick Cylindrical Shells. In
The effect of several parameters on stress applications of thick cylinders, such as gun
concentration has been analyzed with the barrels and hydraulic jacks, the internal
expressions derived. The regressions of the pressure is not only variable, but the pressure
analytical results of 76 misalignment have been front at each moment moves along the length
made and the expressions for engineering of the cylinder leading to the division of these
calculations are given. The nomograph for the cylinders into two segments with
allowable limits of geometric irregularities is discontinuous loading. In this work, the FEM
presented. (Edited author abstract) has been applied to investigate the state of
stress existing at the discontinuity zone of
Kui, Jishan (Nanjing Inst of Chemical Technology,
thickness or pressure (transition zone). Results
Nanjing, China); Wang, Jiuqing. HuagongJixie v 15 n
indicate the existence of a considerable
bending moment due to the variation of
longitudinal stress across the thickness at the
037111 Solution of the Axisymmetric transition zone. These results could help the
Problem for a Shallow Conical Shell by the designers to optimize the thicknesses of the
Small Parameter Method. By the method of cylinders in such applications as mentioned
small parameters, an approximate solution is above. (Edited author abstract) II Refs.
constructed for the problem of a rotating Mahmood, Najdat A. (Military Engineering Coli);
shallow conical shell. The error of the method
Jweeg, Muhsin J.; Rajab, Mumtaz Y. Modell Simul
is estimated by comparing it with the results
Control B v 25 n 3 1989 P 47-64.
obtained by a numeric computer simulation.
(Author abstract) 2 Refs. 037115 Thick General Shells Under General
Sakharov, V.Yu. (Leningrad Univ, Leningrad, Loading. Three equilibrium equations in
USSR). Leningrad Univ Mech Bull n 2 1988 P 60 - 61. terms of three displacements are derived in

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

scalar mathematics form, by linear, small-strain steady operating conditions is presented. The
elasticity principles, for the case of general heat conduction equation incorporating heat
thick-walled shells under general loading. generation due to solidification was solved by
These reduce to well-known forms for the finite element method to obtain the spatially
particular cases of flat-plates and thick circular steady temperature distribution when
cylindrical shells. (Author abstract) considering material flow. Elastic-plastic
Donnell, Lloyd H. ] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 56 n stresses in the solidified shell were also
2Jun 1989 p 391-394. evaluated. A parameter study was carried out
in order to obtain the optimal operating
037116 Shear Deformable Finite Element condition such as shell thickness, site of crater
for the Analysis of General Shells of end, and stress distribution as functions of the
Revolution. A 64-dof isoparametric casting speed and cooling condition. (Author
quadrilateral finite element is presented for abstract) 6 Refs. In Japanese.
the analysis of generally laminated shells of Tatsumi, Naohisa; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Inoue, Tatsuo.
revolution. The effects of shear deformation Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 55 n 514
and rotary inertia are accounted for by using Jun 1989 p 1389-1393.
shear deformation theory that employs the
parabolic shear strain variation across the 037119 Elastic Stress Analysis of Two
thickness. The classical thin shell theory is the Oblique Intersecting Cylindrical Shells
special case of shear deformation theory used Subjected to Internal Pressure. In this paper,
in the present study. Thus, the thin shell the elastic stress distribution in two oblique
element also can be obtained from the present intersecting cylindrical shells subjected to
thick shell element by simply having the internal pressure is discussed. We first
displacement parameters (UI and VI) associated investigated the elastic stresses and
with the shear rotations as zeros. The displacements to the intersected shell
numerical results presented illustrate the (cylindrical vessel) with an arbitrary curved
performance of the element and the effects of hole under internal pressure. In making this
shear deformation. (Author abstract) 33 Refs. analysis, a curvilinear coordinate system (e, ~)
Bhimaraddi, A. (Univ of Canterbury, Christchurch, e eo
is used and one of which = is made to
NZ); Carr, A.J.; Moss, P.J. Comput Struet v 31 n 3 coincide with the hole contour r. The
1989 P 299-308. governing equation is the equation of shallow
shell in this coordinate system. When the hole
037117 Stressed State of Inhomogeneous contour is an ellipse, the obtained solution is a
Elastic Shells of Revolution. An extension is complex function expressed in Mathieu
discussed regarding an averaging technique function. Then, we discussed the stresses and
for the case of quasi-periodic structures with displacements expressed in the edge effect
curvilinear anisotropy, as applied to problems form on the basis of Flugge's equations for the
of elasticity written in the displacements. In intersecting shell (nozzle). At last, a boundary
this paper, the authors employ the technique condition along the intersection curve is
to reduce the static problem of derived. Numerical computation was
inhomogeneous elasticity in the stresses, conducted, and the results are compared with
utilizing hypotheses of shell theory (i.e., the experiments. (Author abstract) 10 Refs.
problem of equilibrium of an inhomogeneous Chien, Huei-Lin (Nanjing lnst of Chemical
anisotropic shell of quasi-periodic structure to Technology, Nanjing, China); Wu, Shao-Jun. ASME
a recursive sequence of problems for a Pressure Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 139 Design
homogeneous anisotropic shell. The authors and Analysis of Piping, Pressure Vessels and
offers a solution for the problem of Components, 1988, Presented at the 1988 ASME
equilibrium of a shell formed by a winding or Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Pittsburgh,
coil that is acted upon by internal pressure. 8 PA, USA,Jun 19-23 1988. Publ by American Soc
Refs. of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,
Levin, V.D.; Pobedrya, B.E. Meeh Solids v 23 n 4 USA, 1988 P 119-124.
1988 P 140-145.
037120 Cutouts in Laminated Plates and
037118 Simulation of Temperature and Shells. A finite element method for evaluating
Elastic-Plastic Stresses in Solid Shell During stresses around cutouts in thin to moderately
Continuous Casting Process. An analytical thick laminated composite plate and shell
method to simulate the temperature and the structures is presented. Ahmad's eight noded
stress fields in a continuous casting slab under isoparametric quadrilateral shell element

Excerpts from The Eneineerine Index Annual 1989

(Ahmad et aI., 1970) is extended to laminated clamped hemispherical shells subjected to

composite structures by incorporating the suddenly applied loads, including idealized
thickness concept. The element includes an step pressure, a rectangular pressure impulse
arbitrary number of bonded layers, each of of finite duration and realistic blast pressure
which may have a different thickness, over the total or partial area. The
orientation of principal material directions mathematical model is formulated in terms of
and elastic properties. The transverse shear the mid-surface displacements and cross-
deformation is taken into account in section rotation with effects of transverse
developing the stiffness matrix. (Author shear strain and rotary inertia taken into
abstract) 9 Refs. account. The Rayleigh-Ritz method is
Widera, G.E.O. (Univ of Illinois at Chicago, employed to solve the hemispherical shell
Chicago, IL, USA); Moumene, M. ASME Pressure vibration problem by assumed modes in
Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 146 Advances in Legendre polynomials, and the normal mode
Macro-Mechanics of Composite Material Vessels and superposition is used in the analysis of its
Components, Presented at the 1988 ASME Pressure dynamic response. Numerical results for the
Vessels and Piping Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, natural frequencies, mode shapes, structural
USA,Jun 19-23 1988. Publ by American Soc of deformation and dynamic stresses are obtained
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, with the fiber orientation parallel or
USA, 1988 P 155-158. perpendicular to the meridian direction as a
design guide. (Edited author abstract) 20 Refs.
037121 Thermal Stresses in Thick Spherical Chao, C.C. (Nat! Tsing Hua Univ, Hsinchu,
Shell with Internal Heat Generation. The Taiwan); Tung, T.P. Int J Impact Eng v 8 n 3 1989
elastic thermal stresses in thick spherical shells P 191-207.
with internally uniform heat generation have
been studied analytically. The dimensionless 037123 Elasto/Visco-Plastic Dynamic
stress functions have been developed. The Response ofAxisymmetrical Shells Under
computer generated graphs for the stress Mechanical and/or Thermal Loading. An
functions for various outside to inside radii analytical method for the e1asto/visco-plastic
ratios are presented to facilitate computation dynamic problems of axis ymmetrica I thin
of the stresses at any radial location of the shells subjected to mechanical and/or thermal
shell. The stress functions for the thermal loads is developed. The equations of motion
stresses for solid sphere with internal heat and the relations between the strains and
generation have also been developed. The displacements are derived by extending
radial location for the maximum values of the Sanders' elastic shell theory. For the
dimensionless stress functions have been constitutive relations, the Perzyna elasto/
determined and shown on the graphs. The visco-plastic equations including the
graphs for the stress functions are general temperature effect are employed. The
enough to compute the radial and hoop fundamental equations derived are
stresses which are produced by the numerically solved by the finite difference
temperature gradient encountered in the method. As numerical examples, the simply
shells. Additional aspects of the subject are supported cylindrical shells made of mild steel
discussed. (Edited author abstract) 8 Refs. are treated and the following two cases are
Bhaduri, S. (Univ of Texas at EI Paso, EI Paso, TX, analyzed; a nonuniform temperature cylinder
USA); Kapoor, P.S. ASME Pet Div Publ PD v 21 subjected to impulsive pressure, and an
Technical Economics, Synfuels, and Coal Energy- internal pressure cylinder subjected to
1989, Presented at the Twelfth Annual Energy- impulsive thermal load. In both cases the
Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, variations of displacements and internal forces
Houston, TX, USA, Jan 22 - 25 1989. Publ by with time are discussed. (Author abstract) 13
American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (AS ME), Refs. In Japanese.
New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 65-70. Tao, Katsumi; Takezono, Shigeo; Taguchi,
Toshihiro; Hotada, Kazuo. Nippon Kikai Gakkai
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Ronbunshu A Hen v 54 n 503 Ju1 1988 p 1457 -1464.

037122 Step Pressure and Blast Responses 037124 Investigation of the Spherical
of Clamped Orthotropic Hemispherical Membrane Cap under Partial Load. This
Shells. This paper is concerned with studies paper shows how the internal forces due to an
on the axisymmetric free vibration and axially non-symmetric load of a spherical can
dynamic response of polar orthotropic cap be determined in the frame of the

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

membrane theory. It presents the method of excitation sweeps showed a dynamic instability.
internal forces for the terms of the Fourier The frequency range over which the response
expansion. In a numerical example these is unstable decreases with increasing
forces are computed for a spherical cap with a pretension. The dynamic to static strain ratio
particular half central angle. Calculation decreased from 20% to 2.3% as pretension
results are discussed. (Edited author abstract) increased from the lowest to the highest
5 Refs. value. (Author abstract) 20 Refs.
Olitzscher, Frank. Acta Tech (Budapest) v 100 n 2-3 Gasparini, D.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ,
1987 P 225-238. Cleveland, OH, USA); Perdikaris, P.C.; Kanj, N.]
Struct Eng v 115 n 2 Feb 1989 p 363 - 381.
037125 Formulation and Accuracy of a
Circular Cylindrical Shell Theory Due to a 037127 Infinite, Elastic, Cylindrical Shell
Higher-Order Approximation. In this paper, with a Finite Number of Ring
the most general higher-Qrder equations of Constraints. The axisymmetric excitation of
three-dimensional static and dynamic theories an infinite, elastic, cylindrical shell with a
for a circular cylindrical shell are derived by finite number of ring constraints is discussed.
expanding the displacements into an infinite Exact solutions are presented for the cases of
power series with respect to the radial one and two constraints. These are then
coordinate of the shell. The present examined in an asymptotic limit that
formulation can be taken into account actually corresponds to light fluid-loading and small
any higher-order terms for both cases of static curvature. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.
and dynamic problems. Several theories which Lawrie, J.B. (Univ of Bristol, Bristol, Engl).] Sound
were proposed previously, can be deduced by Vib v 130 n 2 Apr 22 1989 P 189-206.
the employment of the lower-order terms in
our theory. Three typical theories such as 037128 Membrane Shell as an Under-
3-order theory, Levinson-type theory and constrained Structural System. Statical-
Levinson-Voyladjis-Baluch-type theory are also kinematic analysis is employed to provide a
newly derived from the present formulation. new perspective on the structural behavior of
Numerical results of natural frequencies for membrane shells and the related limitations of
simply-supported cylindrical shells are the linear membrane theory. The obtained
compared to the exact solution as well as results include a resolution of an apparent
many theories. (Author abstract) 8 Refs. In paradox in the statics of membranes, a
Japanese. description and explanation of the peculiar
Hirano, Kisaburou; Hirashima, Kenichi. Nippon behavior of toroidal membranes with an
Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 54 n 506 Oct 1988 arbitrary cross-section, and a stronger version
p 1915-1919. of a central theorem in the membrane theory.
(Author abstract) 7 Refs.
037126 Dynamic and Static Behavior of Kuznetsov, E.N. (Univ of Illinois at
Cable Dome Model. The static and dynamic Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA).] Appl Meek Trans
behavior of a cable dome was studied by ASME v 56 n 2 June 1989 p 387 - 390.
testing a 1/50 scale model. Three different
pretension levels were considered. The static 037129 Modal Analysis of a Shell's Acoustic
response of the model under a symmetric and Radiation in Light and Heavy Fluids. A
an antisymmetric loading was investigated. modal analysis study of acoustic radiation by a
The cable dome's behavior changes from a finite cylindrical shell immersed in light of
compressive to a tensile membrane with heavy fluid is presented. Attention is focused
increasing applied central load. The cable on the explanation of radiation phenomena in
model exhibits a hardening response, both fluids. The concepts of radiation,
especially in the antisymmetric mode. The structural and evenly damped modes are
nonlinearity becomes more pronounced with explained. These lead to clarification of the
decreasing pretension. The stiffness in the shells' vibro-acoustic behaviour in heavy fluid
antisymmetric mode is dominated by the and to confirmation of the well known case of
geometric stiffness from pretensioning. In the light fluid. Relationships between these new
vertical acceleration (symmetric) test at the concepts and the more classical one of radiating
intermediate pretension the first dominant and non-radiating modes are presented. It is
mode was antisymmetric. A sail exciter was shown that this previous classification of modes
also used to apply a single asymmetric is insufficient to clarify the heavy fluid-shell
controlled force. Up and down harmonic coupling, especially in the critical frequency

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

range. In this range the behaviour of a shell in also built and tested in laboratory to validate
water is very different from that of one in air, the results. (Author abstract) 24 Refs.
and is entirely controlled by modes which are Tzou, H.S. (Univ of Kentucky, Lexington, KY,
overdamped by radiation. In particular, it is USA); Gadre, M.] Sound Vib] Sound Vib v 132 v
shown that structural damping is ineffective in 132 n 3 n 3 Aug 8 Aug 819891989 P 433-450.
reducing radiated power in the critical
frequency range when the fluid is water. 037132 Analysis of Laminated Shells.
(Author abstract) 22 Refs. Laminated shell structures are increasingly
Laulagnet, B. (INSA, Villeurbanne, Fr); Guyader, being used in chemical, marine and aerospace
J.L.] Sound Vib v 131 n 3 Jun 22 1989 P 397 - 415. applications. A significant amount of research
has been conducted in the past on studying
037130 Analysis of Elasto/Visco-Plastic the structural response of these structures. A
Dynamic Response of General Thin Shells by review of various investigations on the analysis
Means of Overlay Model. The numerical of these shells is given here. Specifically, this
analysis of the elasto/visco-plastic dynamic review deals with the development of various
response of the general thin shells to arbitrary theories for modelling the thick laminated
loads is carried out by the use of the elasto/ shells including shear effects; analytical
visco-plastic overlay model which is able to studies, development of various finite elements
express the Bauschinger effect and the strain to model these shells including applications to
rate dependence. Namely Perzyna's equation is tire modelling; buckling and post buckling
used for the constitutive relation of each layer analysis of perfect and imperfect laminated
of the overlay model and as a whole the shells; vibration and dynamic response analysis
Bauschinger effect and the influence of of various laminated shells. (Author abstract)
viscosity in the plastic range of the material are 148 Refs.
taken into account. The equations of motion Kapania, R.K. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State
derived from the Sanders nonlinear theory for Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA). ASME Aerosp Div Publ
thin shells by adding the inertia terms are used, AD v 13 Recent Advances in the Macro- and
and the relations between strains and Micro-Mechanics of Composite Materials Structures,
displacements where rotations of the shell are Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting of the
considered for the membrane strains are American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
employed. (Edited author abstract) 18 Refs. In Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by
Japanese. American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
Tao, Katsumi; Takezono, Shigeo. Nippon Kikai New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 177-187.
Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 55 n 514 Jun 1989
p 1453-1460. 037133 Analysis of Glulam Lattice Dome.
Glued-laminated timber (glulam) domes have
037131 Theoretical Analysis of a Multi- become competitive in the engineering of
Layered Thin Shell Coupled with large-span roof structures. Three-way glulam
Piezoelectric Shell Actuators for Distributed grid domes, such as the Triax and Varax
Vibration Controls. Structural dynamics and domes, are particularly well-suited for glulam
controls of distributed mechanical systems have construction because the members lie on great
drawn much attention in recent years. In this circles and, thus, have the same radius of
paper, a multilayered thin shell coupled with an curvature. The curved members are
active distributed vibration actuator- interconnected by patented steel hubs. The
polymeric piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride restraints offered by these connectors are the
(PVDF)-is proposed and evaluated. Dynamic major differences in the designs of the Triax
equations for the generalized multi-layered and Varax domes. The domes rest on tension
thin shell coupled with the polymeric rings made of steel or reinforced concrete.
piezoelectrets are derived based on Love's Because of their economy and acoustic
theory and Hamilton's principle. Each layer of quality, Triax and Varax domes are widely
the shell can be a polymeric piezoelectric used for multipurpose facilities involving
control layer subjected to feedback voltages sports, recreational, and social activities. The
resulting in a local control force to suppress the purpose of this paper is to report on a project
vibration of the shell. To demonstrate the that was initiated to formulate a finite
derived equations, a cantilever beam coupled element method of analysis that can predict
with the polymeric piezoelectric actuator is the complete structural response of glulam
derived by directly simplifying the modified space frames and lattice domes up to collapse.
Love's equations. An experimental model was 25 Refs.

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

Holzer, S.M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,
Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Huang, C.Y.; USA, 1989 P 743-751.
Davalos, J.F.; Loferski, J.R. Struet Des, Anal Test
Structural Design, Analysis and Testing, STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Proceedings of the sessions at Structures Congress
'89, San Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ 037136 Carrying Capacity and Optimal
by ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 914-921. Design of Reinforced Cylindrical
Shells. Models were constructed for
calculating the carrying capacity and
037134 Why Bifurcation: A Study of a optimizing the design of cylindrical shells
Recticulated Dome. Numerical results for a reinforced by regular frames and supported
hexagonal lattice dome subjected to uniform by discrete 'saddle' supports of various
gravity loading are presented. We demonstrate configurations or resting on a continuously
that a perfect nonlinear bifurcation analysis plastic base. The closed shell was considered
plays a crucial role in the identification of the to be made from an ideal rigidly plastic
critical imperfection. In the process we also material with constant thickness with a given
advertise the capabilities of some recently yield point and to be filled with fluid. It was
developed techniques for computational assumed that exhaustion of the shell carrying
bifurcation problems with symmetry. (Author capacity occurs with rupture. Calculations of
abstract) 6 Refs. the upper boundaries of the limit loads were
Healey, Timothy L. (Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY, performed in a broad range of thicknesses.
USA). Struet Des, Anal Test Structural Design, Parameters for the analysis of the shell
Analysis and Testing, Proceedings of the sessions at carrying capacity reinforced by regular
Structures Congress '89, San Francisco, CA, USA, annular ribs were established. Analysis of the
May 1-5 1989. Publ by ASCE, New York, NY, optimal designs shows that the models first
USA, 1989 P 942 - 948. tend to assure a given carrying capacity
because of an increase in thickness and only
037135 Application of Mathematical then are the frames introduced. 4 Refs.
Programming to the Limit Analysis of Shell Dekhtyar, A.S. (Kiev Art Inst, Kiev, USSR). Sov
Structures. Limit analysis of a shell structure Appl Meeh v 23 n 11 May 1988 p 1049-1054.
has been expressed, in the present paper, as a
nonlinear programming problem, where the 037137 Wplyw Geometrycznych I
principle of virtual displacement in Fizycznych Parametrow Trojwarstwowej
combination with rigid perfect-plastic Powloki Wnlcowoj Nn Jej Statecznosc Przy
assumption and von Mises yield criterion are Obclazenlach Zlozonych. [Influence of
used. The structure is separated into several Physical and Geometrical Parameters of
rigid and plastic regions for the purpose of Sandwich Cylindrical Shell Under Composed
saving computer storage, since the Load for its Stability]. The paper presents
displacement functions should be generated numerical analysis results of stability loss for
only in plastic regions. By use of the Lagrange an elastic, open, cylindrical sandwich shell
multiplier method, the primary problem can with light-weight core and with thin faces of
be expressed as a non-linear programming equal thickness. The shell is loaded by
problem without restrictions. By using the composed load, i.e. compression longitudinal
gradient of the object function, a set of forces, lateral surface pressure and shear edge
suitable displacement velocities can be found forces. The influence of shell curvature, shell
by iteraction to minimize the object function length, the thickness of each layer, and the
and obtain an upper bound solution of the core elasticity modulus on the values of upper
ultimate load of the structure. A cylindrical and lower critical load is investigated. (Edited
shell and a tubular T-joint are computed and author abstract) 4 Refs. In Polish.
the results are satisfactory in comparison with Sekulski, Zygmunt; Szyc, Waclaw. Arch Budowy Masz
classical solutions or experimental results. v34n31987p321-336.
(Author abstract) 7 Refs.
Chen, T.Y. (Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Shanghai, TESTING
China); Chen, W.M.; Wang, Y.Q. Proe Int Offshore
Meeh Arct Eng Symp v II (of VI), Proceedings of the 037138 Deformation and Fracture of
Eighth International Conference on Offshore Two-Layer Metal-Plastic Shells Under
Mechanics and Arctic Engineering-1989, Hague, Internal Shock Loading. The goal of this
Neth, Mar 19-23 1989. Publ by American Soc of paper was to study the feasibility of making

Excerpts from The En8ineerin8 Index Annual 1989

fuller use of the strength reserves of a mentioned composites vary significantly as a

glass-plastic in a thin-walled shell under function of the component content by
internal shock loading. We studied the volume, the bonding scheme and a number of
deformation and fracture of cylindrical two- other technological factors. Taking account of
layer metal-plastic shells (a shell of steel 20 the real properties of composites, including
was inserted without a gap inside the glass- the anisotropy and nonlinearity of the strain
plastic shell) under an internal explosion. diagram attention must be paid in formulating
Fracture was established from the break- the problems, compiling the governing
through of explosion products, ruptures of equations, refining the computational schemes,
the strain gages, and external inspection. We and performing the strength analyses of
determined the maximum hoop strains in the structural elements (rods, plates, shells) or the
first phases of tension and compression for typical structures of complex geometric shape.
the most heavily loaded central section of the 9 Refs.
shells. The deformation process took the form Guz', A.N. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR,
of rapidly decaying vibrations. We also Kiev, USSR); Chernyshenko, I.S.; Georgievskii,
evaluated the effect of the steel on the decay V.P.; Maksimyuk, V.A. Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p
of vibrations in the shell in a simplified 337-342.
formulation for the case of decaying sinusoidal
free vibrations of a system with Coulomb 037141 Refinement of Shear Theory of
friction. Characteristic chronograms and Laminar Orthotropic Sloping Shells. This
oscillograms of the strains of the glass-plastic paper proposes refinement of the shear
and steel shells are shown with a cross section theory. A second-approximation model is
of the metal-plastic shells. Test results are proposed, allowing this effect to be described
analyzed. 6 Refs. on the basis of an approach invariant with
Tsypkin, V.I.; Rusak, V.N.; Ivanov, A.G.; respect to the number of layers in the system
Fedorenko, A.G.; Vorontsova, O.S. Meeh Compos and allowing the distortion of the normal in
Mater v 23 n 5 Mar 1988 p 586-590. the course of shell deformation to be taken
into account. The discontinuities in the
smoothness of the functions between the
outer layers are observed both for tangential
037139 Numerical Solution Method for and for normal stress, which allows the
Dynamical Problems of Shell Theory. The lamination process of the structure to be
forced vibrations of shells of revolution modeled. 12 Refs.
subjected to a load changes in an arbitrary Rasskazov, A.O. (Kiev Highway Inst, USSR);
manner with time was examined. The Burygina, A.O. Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p 343-347.
majority of the existing algorithms for
numerical analysis of thin elastic shell 037142 Higher Order Theories for Thick
vibrations are based on the method of Cylindrical Shells. A variational derivation is
expansion of eigenmodes and on asymptotic used to obtain 10th and 12th order shell
method. This paper describes a method that is theories along with the associated boundary
not associated with the constraints of the conditions. A computer program produces the
above-mentioned algorithms. Analysis of the coefficients in the reductions of the sets of
results shows that the vibration mode of a equilibrium equations to equivalent single
shell subjected to a unit rectangular pulse 10th and 12th order equations. Exact
differs noticeably from the lowest eigenmodes. solutions for closed shells which decay in the
6 Refs. axial direction are obtained and compared
Naraikin, O.S. (M.E. Bauman Higher Technical
with exact three dimensional solutions in
Inst, USSR). Sov Appl Meeh v 24 n 2 Aug 1988 P
order to assess the accuracy of the shell
theory as an approximation to the elasticity
theory. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.
037140 Stress State of Thin-Walled Faraji, Susan (Univ of Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA);
Elements of Structures Fabricated from Archer, R.R. Aeta Meeh v 74 n 1-4 Oct 1988 p 9-24.
Nonlinearly Elastic Orthotropic Composite
Materials. Experimental results indicate that 037143 Self-Equilibrated Singular Solutions
the material of certain composites (glass-plastic of a Complete Spherical Shell: Classical
on a fabric base, organic plastics, etc.) Theory Approach. The elastic response of a
possesses nonlinear properties; the elastic complete spherical shell under the influence of
characteristics and strain diagram of the concentrated loads (normal point loads,

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

concentrated tangential loads, and proposed numerical treatment of the

concentrated surface moments) which apply in membrane and bending fields, based on a
a self-equilibrating fashion is obtained. The mixed HeIlinger-Reissner formulation,
mathematical analysis incorporates the classical provides excellent results for the 4-node
uncoupled system of equations for the bilinear isoparametric element. (Edited author
transverse displacement Wand a stress abstract) 46 Refs.
function F. The solution formulae for all Simo, J.C. (Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA, USA);
three types of singular loading are in closed Fox, D.O.; Rifai, M.S. Comput Methods Appl Meeh
form and they are expressed in terms of Eng v 73 n 1 Apr 1989 p 53-92.
complex Legendre and other elementary
functions. The two latter portions of the 037146 Maguerre-Mindlin Shallow Shell
analysis are associated with a multivalued Elements. Two isoparametric Lagrangian
stress function F which leads to a single-valued shallow shell elements are presented: a 4-node
stress and displacement formulae. (Edited element Quad4 and a 9-node element Quad9.
author abstract) 19 Refs. These elements are based on Mindlin/
Simos, Nikolaos (City Univ of New York, New Reissner plate elements. These elements are
York, NY, USA); Sadegh, Ali M.] Appl Meeh Trans sophisticated by adding conventional
ASME v 56 n 1 Mar 1989 p 105-112. membrane stiffness and membrane-bending
coupling terms based on Maguerre's
037144 On a Stress Resultant Geometrically approximate shallow shell theory. This results
Exact Shell Model. Part I: Formulation and in double curved shell elements which
Optimal Parametrization. The main thrust originally possess severe membrane locking
of this work is to demonstrate that classical behavior. This defect is overcome in the same
shell theory, phrased as one-director Cosserat way as the shear locking problem is solved.
surface, leads itself to an efficient numerical (Edited author abstract) 10 Refs.
implementation which is free from Kraus, Gerhard (Ingenieurbuero fuer
mathematical complexities and suitable for Strukuranalyse, Berlin, West Ger). Eng Comput
large scale computation. Examples are given (Swansea Wales) v 6 n 1 Mar 1989 p 44-48.
which contain simulations involving extremely
large displacements and rotations obtained 037147 Work-Conjugate Boundary
with the formulation described. It is shown Conditions in the Nonlinear Theory of Thin
that this approach is able to reproduce the Shells. Work-conjugate boundary conditions
exact solutions of standard benchmark linear for a class of nonlinear theories of thin shells
problems often used to assess the performance formulated in terms of displacements of the
of numerical formulations based on the reference surface are discussed. Applying
degenerated solid approach. 48 Refs. theorems of the theory of differential forms it
Simo, J.C. (Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA, USA); is shown that many of the sets of static
Fox, D.D. Comput Methods Appl Meek Eng v 72 n 3 boundary conditions which have been proposed
Mar 1989 p 267-304. in the literature do not possess work-conjugate
geometric counterparts. The general form of
037145 On a Stress Resultant Geometrically four geometric boundary conditions and their
Exact Shell Model. Part II: The Linear work-conjugate static boundary conditions is
Theory; Computational Aspects. Computa- constructed and three particular cases are
tional aspects of a linear stress resultant analyzed. The boundary conditions given here
(classical) shell theory, obtained by systematic are valid for unrestricted displacements,
linearization of the geometrically exact rotations, strains and/or changes of curvatures
nonlinear theory are examined in detail. In of the reference surface. (Author abstract) 30
particular, finite element interpolations for the Refs.
reference director field and the linearized Makowski,J. (Ruhr Univ, Bochum, West Ger);
rotation field are constructed such that the Pietraszkiewicz, W.] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 56 n
underlying geometric structure of the 2June 1989 p 395-402
continuum theory is preserved exactly by the
discrete approximation. A discrete canonical, 037148 Formulation and Accuracy of the
singularity-free mapping between the five and Circular Cylindrical Shell Theory Due to
the six degree of freedom formulation is Higher Order Approximation. The most
constructed by exploiting the geometric general higher order equations of the three-
connection between the orthogonal group dimensional static and dynamic theories for a
(SO(3)) and the unit sphere (S2). The circular cylindrical shell are derived by

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

expanding the displacements into an infinite Temperature-time history and heat flow rates
power series with respect to the radial have been obtained. The problem considered
coordinate of the shell. The present theory has got its application in the transient thermal
takes into account any higher order terms for analysis of an adiabatic engine. Any other
both the static and dynamic problems. Several similar problem in metallurgical, aeronautical,
theories, which have been proposed, can be furnace design, boiler design applications may
deduced by using the lower order terms of our be solved by the formula obtained. (Author
theory. Three typical theories are the third- abstract) 8 Refs.
order theory, the Levinson theory and the Prasad, Ravindra (Banaras Hindu Univ, Varanasi,
Levinson-Voyiadjis-Baluch theory, which are India); Samria, N.K. Appl Sci Res (The Hague) v 46 n
redefined according to the present theory. 2Jun 1989 p 141-157
Numerical results of natural frequencies for
the simply supported cylindrical shell, as well as THERMOELASTICITY
many other theories, are compared with the
exact solutions. (Author abstract) 8 Refs. 037151 Thermoelasticity of a Regularly
Hirano, Kisaburou (Oita Natl Coil of Technology, Nonhomogeneous Thin Curved Layer with
Oita, Jpn); Hirashima, Kenichi.JSME IntJ Ser 1 v 32 Rapidly Varying Thickness. A regular
n 3Jul1989 p 337-340. nonhomogeneous (composite), anisotropic,
thin curved layer with rapidly oscillating
THERMAL EFFECTS material parameters and thickness is
considered for the case when mean thickness
037149 Parabolic Shells Subjected to Solar and period scale have small magnitudes of the
Radiation. Questions of the theory and same order. A three-dimensional
analysis of parabolic shells under solar side and thermoelasticity problem for this layer is
central illumination were considered. A reduced to a homogenized shell model by
thermal balance equation was constructed means of an asymptotic homogenization
incorporating the heat fluxes and coefficients method for periodic structures. This general
of thermal conduction and radiation transfer model is applied to the derivation of
along with expressions for the optical thermoelastic and thermal constitutive
coefficients of metals. Equations were derived equations for network periodic shells. The
for determining the temperature fields. Using relations obtained lay the foundation for a
these fields, the stress-strain states for a new continuous model of thermoelasticity and
parabolic shell closed at the apex and for the heat conductivity for network period shells
domain of connection of the shell to a stiffener and plates. (Edited author abstract) 15 Refs.
ring were examined. 6 Refs. Parton, Vladimir Z. (Moscow Inst of Chemical
Gudramovich, V.S. (Acad of Sciences of the Engineering, Moscow, USSR); Kalamkarov,
Ukrainian SSR, Dnepropetrovsk, USSR); Diskovskii, Aleksandr L. J Therm Stresses v 11 n 4 1989
l.A.; Sel'skii, Yu, S. Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n 11 May P 405-420.
1988 p 1043-1049.
037152 Stochastic Thermoelasticity of
037150 Transient Temperature Distribution Laminated Shells. The paper proposes a
in an Internally and Externally Insulated theory and develops a numeric method for
Cylindrical Shell. This paper presents the computing the stochastic characteristics of
analytical solution for unsteady state stress fields in the layers of a multilayer shell
temperature distribution in a cylindrical shell needed for estimating its reliability and
having thin layer of thermal insulation coating longevity. The statistical characteristics of the
at the inner and outer surfaces. The formula external temperature field are assumed to be
has been derived assuming different initial known. Centered fields of temperatures and
temperatures of shell and insulation coating displacements are considered, assuming that
while the contact between them has also been the expectations of the fields have already
assumed to be imperfect. The internal and been evaluated. The assumptions adopted in
external surfaces of the shell and coatings are the construction of the theory are divided
exposed to the convective boundary into three kinds. Thermophysical hypotheses:
conditions of third kind. The generalized thermophysical parameters of the materials of
formula obtained has been used to obtain the the layers are temperature independent.
warming-up-period of the cylindrical wall of a Mechanical hypotheses: the rigid layers of a
Diesel engine coated internally and externally multilayer shell conform to the Kirchhoff-
by ceramic insulation material. A plot of Love hypothesis. Stochastic hypotheses: the

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

statistical characteristics of displacement fields are calculated numerically, and the effects of
and stress fields are analyzed in the the spinning of the shell on the free vibration
framework of a correlation theory. The are studied. (Author abstract) 7 Refs. In
external temperature field is a stationary Japanese.
time-random, space-homogeneous field. Yamada, Cen; Kobayaski, Yukinori; Sawae,
(Edited author abstract) 14 Refs. Tatsuhiro; Irie, Toshihiro. Nippon Kikai Gakkai
Butko, A.M.; Novichkov, Yu.N. Mech Solids v 23 n Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 505 Sep 1988 p 2009-2015.
21988 p 133-143.
037155 Evaluation of the Modal Density of
VIBRATIONS Paraboloidal and Similar Shells. Modal
densities of various structures have been found
037153 Nonlinear Analysis of Doubly both theoretically in terms of expressions
Curved Symmetrically Laminated Shallow involving integrals, and also experimentally.
Shells with Rectangular Plan form. A They are of interest to designers of, for
multi-mode solution to the dynamic example, satellite aerials and spacecraft
Marguerre-type nonlinear equations is structures. The theoretical method is
presented for the nonlinear free vibration of hampered by the difficulty of evaluating the
doubly curved, symmetrically laminated, integrals. For certain shells such as a thin
imperfect shallow shells of rectangular plate, spherical cap or circular cylinder, the
plan-form on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic integrals can be evaluated analytically. In this
foundation. The shell edges are assumed to paper a numerical method is presented for
be transversely supported and the variation of the computation of modal densities of other
rotational stiffness is identical along opposite shell geometries, in particular the paraboloidal
edges. Generalized double Fourier series with shell. Both the isotropic and honeycomb types
time-dependent coefficients and the method are considered. Enough details of the
of harmonic balance are used in the solution. numerical method are given to allow the
The boundary condition for the varying reader to adapt it to other shapes for which
rotational stiffness is fulfilled by replacement analytic integration is not possible. (Author
of bending moments along the four edges by abstract) 3 Refs.
an equivalent lateral pressure. Based on a Elliott, C.H. (Portsmouth Polytechnic, Portsmouth,
single-mode approximation numerical results Engl). ] Sound Vib v 126 n 3 Nov 8 1988 P 477 -483.
for the amplitude-frequency response of
doubly curved isotropic, orthotropic, cross-ply 037156 Non-Linear Vibration Analysis of
and angle-ply shallow shells with square Fluid-Filled Cylindrical Shells. A theoretical
plan form are presented for various boundary analysis is presented for determining the
conditions, material properties, curvature elastic non-linear vibrations of a prestressed
ratios, initial imperfections, edge tensions, and thin-walled cylindrical shell filled with an ideal
moduli of the elastic foundation. (Edited fluid. For the vibrations of the shell itself, the
author abstract) 25 Refs. dynamic version of the Sanders non-linear
Chia, C.Y. (Univ of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Can). equations for the case of moderately small
Ing Arch v 58 n 4 1988 P 252 - 264. rotations is employed. Modal expansions are
used for the displacements of the shell middle
037154 Free Vibration of a Spinning surface that are required to satisfy the
Spherical Shell. An analysis is presented for 'classical simply supported' boundary
the free vibration of a spinning spherical shell. conditions and the circumferential periodicity
For this purpose, the governing equations and condition. The fluid is taken as non-viscous
the boundary conditions of the shell are and incompressible, and the coupling between
derived by applying Hamilton's principle to the deformable shell and this medium is taken
the strain and kinetic energies of the shell. into account. The velocity potential is
The variables in the equations can be written expanded in terms of harmonic functions
as summation of the quasi-static components which satisfy the Laplace equation term by
which are independent of time and the term. The Galerkin method is used to reduce
dynamic ones. The linear equations on the the problem to a system of coupled algebraic
vibration about the deformed state are solved non-linear equations for the modal amplitudes.
by using the transfer matrix method. The Solutions are presented to show the effects of
method is applied to a spinning clamped-free fluid and shell parameters on the non-linear
spherical shell. The quasi-static and dynamic vibrations of the shell. (Author abstract) 27
displacement and the frequency parameters Refs.

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

Goncalves, P.B. (Pontificia Univ Catolica, Rio de for thick shells of revolution having
Janerio, Braz); Batista, R.C. J Sound Vib v 127 n 1 meridionally varying curvature. Based on the
Nov 221988 P 133-143. improved thick shell theory, the Lagrangian
of the shells of revolution are obtained, and
037157 Hydroelastic Vibrations of Liquid- the equations of motion and the boundary
Filled Finite Length, Rotating Cylindrical conditions are derived from the stationary
Shells. A theoretical investigation is presented condition of the Lagrangian. The method is
for the hydroelastic vibration of finite length, demonstrated for thick shells of revolution
rotating cylindrical shells partially filled with having elliptical, cycloidal, parabolical,
incompressible and nonviscous liquid. Gravity catenary and hyperbolical meridional
and surface tension is neglected, while the curvature. The results by the present method
initial tension due to the rotation is are compared with those by the thin shell
considered. On the basis of the Fluegge-type theory and the effects of the rotary inertia
equations, the shell with both edges clamped is and the shear deformation upon the natural
analyzed by the variation of parameters. It is frequencies are clarified. (Author abstract) 11
found that the magnitude of the initial Refs.
tension due to the centrifugal force depends Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yachita, Takumi; Kosawada,
on the rotating speed and the quantity and Tadashi. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 54
density of liquid. The frequency increases n 508 Dec 1988 p 2822 - 2829.
with the initial tension, while it decreases with
the inertia of liquid. (Author abstract) 7 Refs.
In Japanese. 037160 Asymmetric Vibrations of Shells of
Revolution Having Meridionally Varying
Tani, Junji; Zhang, Hebing. Nippon Kikai Gakkai
Curvature and Thickness. An exact method
Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 507 Nov 1988 P
using power series expansions is presented for
solving asymmetric free vibration problems
for shells of revolution having meridionally
037158 Theoretical and Experimental Study varying curvature and thickness. The
of Vibrations of Thick Circular Cylindrical
governing equations of motion and the
Shells and Rings. The free vibrations of
boundary conditions are derived from the
thick circular cylindrical shells and rings are
stationary conditions of the Lagrangian of the
discussed in this paper. The well-known
shells of revolution. The method is
energy method, which is based on the
demonstrated for shells of revolution having
three-dimensional theory of elasticity, is used
elliptical cycloidal, parabolical, catenary and
in the derivation of the frequency equation of
hyperbolical meridional curvature. The
the shell. The frequency equation yields
natural frequencies are numerically calculated
resonant frequencies for all the
for these shells having second degree
circumferential modes of vibration, including
thickness variation. (Author abstract) 8 Refs.
the breathing and beam-type modes.
In Japanese.
Experimental investigations were carried out
on several models in order to assess the Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Miura, Kazuyuki; Kosawada,
validity of the analysis. This paper first Tadashi. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 54
describes briefly the method of analysis. In n 508 Dec 1988 p 2830- 2836.
the end, the calculated frequencies are
compared with the experimental values. A 037161 Free Vibration Analysis of Singly
very close agreement between the theoretical Curved Shell by Spline Finite Strip
and experimental values of the resonant Method. The spline finite strip method has
frequencies for all the models was obtained been applied to the free vibration analysis of a
and this validates the method of analysis. singly curved shell panel. The convergence of
(Author abstract) 14 Refs. the method is reviewed. Additional numerical
Singal, R.K. (Communications Research Cent, examples on shells of different geometrical
Ottawa, Ont, Can); William, K. J Vib Acoust Stress shapes are employed to demonstrate the
Reliab Des v 110 n 4 Oct 1988 p 533-537. accuracy and versatility of the method. Design
charts showing the variations of the four
037159 Asymmetric Vibrations of Thick lowest modes with the geometry of such panels
Shells of Revolution Having Meridionally are presented. (Edited author abstract) 20 Refs.
Varying Curvature. An exact method using Cheung, Y.K. (Univ of Hong Kong, Hong Kong);
power series expansions is presented for Li, W.Y.; Tham, L.G. J Sound Vib v 128 n 3 Feb 8
solving asymmetric free vibration problems 1989 P 411-422.

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

037162 Effect of Boundary Conditions on finitely deformed static state and the
the Free Vibrations of Circular Cylindrical superposed secondary dynamical state which
Shells. A simple formula for the natural are obtained, respectively, by the theory of
frequency is derived as an asymptotic solution finite elasticity and the theory of small
for the eigenvalue problems of the breathing deformations superposed on large, elastic
type of free vibrations of a circular cylindrical deformations are solved analytically and in
shell. It is applicable under any possible closed form to yield the frequency expression.
combinations of the boundary conditions for Some numerical results are provided to study
the simply supported, the clamped, and the the effect of several parameters. (Author
free ends. A characteristic value involved in abstract) 12 Refs.
the formula depends on the combination of Evirgen, H. (Cazi Univ, Ankara, Turk); Ertepinar,
three representative boundary conditions A.J Sound Vib v 130 n 2 Apr 221989 P 177-187.
SR(w = u = 0), SF(w = N = 0), and FR(N =
S = 0), indicating that the free vibration 037165 Vibration Analysis of Thick
characteristics depend on whether an end is Rotating Cylindrical Shells Based on the
free or supported and whether the supported Two-dimensional Elasticity Theory. Vibra-
end is allowed or not to move freely in the tion analysis of infinite thick rotating
axial direction. The accuracy of the formula is cylindrical shells is described on the basis of
examined by a comparison with numerical the two-dimensional elasticity theory. Starting
solutions and experimental results. (Author from the state of plane strain, the basic
abstract) 9 Refs. equation in the steady rotating state, which is
Koga, Tatsuzo (Univ of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Jpn). used to obtain the initial stresses, is derived
AIAAJ v 26 n 11 Nov 1988 P 1387-1394. from Hamilton's principle, and the frequency
equation, including the effect of the initial
037163 Inextensional Free Vibrations of stresses due to the rotation, is formulated by
Circular Cylindrical Shells. Asymptotic Ritz's method. The numerical results for the
solutions are obtained for the eigenvalue frequencies in the non-rotating and rotating
problems of the inextensional free vibrations state are compared with those based on
of circular cylindrical shells, considering all 45 Timoshenko type shell theory and the
possible combinations of the boundary available range in the latter theory is
conditions, characterizing the simply examined about the thickness and rotating
supported, the clamped, and the free ends. In speed of a shell. (Author abstract) 7 Refs. In
addition to the well-known L. Rayleigh and Japanese.
A.E.H. Love types of inextensional vibrations Saito, Takashi; Endo, Mitsuru; Fujimoto, Kohji.
for shells with the free ends, a type Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 n 511
represented by a linear combination of those Mar 1989 p 525-53l.
classical ones is found in cases where one end
is free and the other is supported in such a
manner that it can move freely in the axial 037166 Free Vibration Analysis of Coupled
direction. The existence of the three types of External Fluid-Elastic Cylindrical Shell-
inextensional mode is proved by an Internal Fluid Systems. The free vibrations
experiment, and the mode shapes are of an infinitely long cylindrical shell under
visualized by holographic interferometry. axisymmetrical hydrodynamic pressures due to
(Author abstract) 7 Refs. external and internal fluids are studied
Koga, Tatsuzo (Univ of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Jpn); theoretically. The basic equations of motion
Saito, Arihumi. AIAA J v 26 n 12 Dec 1988 p for axisymmetric vibrations of such a shell are
1499-1505. given, based on the bending theory. These
equations are solved analytically by means of
037164 Small Radial Vibrations of Layered, Fourier cosine transformation, and the general
H yperelastic, Spherical Shells of Arbitrary frequency equation for the coupled systems is
Wall Thickness Subjected to Finite, Initial obtained by consideration of the dynamic
Radial Deformations. Small, radial vibrations interaction between the shell surface and fluids.
of layered spherical shells of arbitrary wall Furthermore, seven cases are derived from the
thickness and subjected to initial external general coupled frequency equation. The
and/or internal pressure causing finite radial general frequency equation is calculated for
deformations are investigated. The material of some kinds of mass density of the internal
each layer is assumed to be of neo-Hookean fluid. (Edited author abstract) 6 Refs.
type. The governing equations of both the Endo, Ryuji (Inst of Vocational Training, Aihara,

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual J989

Jpn); Tosaka, Nobuyoshi. jSME Int j SeT 1 v 32 n 2 of circular cylindrical shells, which are used in
Apr 1989p217-221. centrifugal separators to enrich uranium, and
rotating at higher speeds, it is considered that
037167 Dynamic Stability of Fluid-Coupled circular cylindrical shells are connected with
Coaxial Cylindrical Shells under Vertical bellows. Vibration analysis of circular
Excitation. Theoretical analyses are presented cylindrical shells connected with bellows is
for the dynamic stability of a free-clamped carried out by the substructure synthesis
coaxial cylindrical shell partially filled in the method for various numbers and dispositions
annular gap with incompressible, in viscid of bellows, and the optimum ones are
liquid and subjected to vertical excitation. The examined. Moreover, the transfer matrix
dynamic version of the Donnell equations and method, by which the critical speeds are simply
the velocity potential theory are used for the obtained, is described and the results are
motions of the shell and the liquid, respectively. examined by the substructure synthesis
The problem is solved by using the modified method. (Author abstract) 5 Refs. In Japanese.
Galerkin method so as to satisfy the boundary Saito, Takashi; Endo, Mitsuru; Yachigo, Katsuyuki.
conditions, and the governing equation is Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 512 Apr
reduced to a type of coupled Mathieu's 1989 p 887 -893.
equation. The instability boundaries where
parametric resonance occurs are determined 037170 Vibrations of a Cylindrical Shell
by using Hsu's method. It is found that a Acted Upon by Concentrated Loads. We set
principal instability resonance and a up Green's matrix of harmonic vibrations of a
combination instability resonance of the sum circular cylindrical shell of finite length with
type of two natural vibrations, each of which hinging conditions on the edges. The solution
has the same circumferential wave number and is represented by a trigonometric Fourier
different axial mode of vibration, are likely to series in the circumferential coordinate. The
occur. (Edited author abstract) 6 Refs. In coefficients of the series are expressed in
Japanese. terms of elementary functions. The response
Tani, Junji; Sakai, Tatsuyoshi; Chiba, Masakatsu. of shells of infinite and finite length to
Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 n 512 Apr concentrated actions is compared. The
1989 p 870-876. solution obtained is the kernel of the integral
equations of contact problems of shell
037168 Vibration Analysis of Thick Rotating vibrations. It also enables us, by using simple
Prestressed Cylindrical Shells (1st Report. integration, to calculate the amplitude of
The Case of Exposure to an Initial Torque). oscillation of a shell acted upon by arbitrarily
Vibration analysis of thick rotating cylindrical distributed surface loads. (Author abstract) 8
shells subjected to an initial torque is Refs.
described. The basic equations, including the Averbukh, A.Z.; Mavlyutov, I.G. Meeh Solids v 23
effects of the initial tensions and resultant n 51988 P 130-135.
shear stresses due to rotation, torque, external
pressure and axial compression load, are 037171 Free Vibrations of the Rotating
derived by the Timoshenko-type shell theory. Shells of Revolution. This paper is devoted
By the modified Galerkin's method, frequency to the problems of free vibrations of thin
analysis is carried out for four boundary con- rotating shells. The theory of vibration of
ditions (i.e., both ends (A) clamped with axial rotating shells is part of the theory of an
constraint. (B) Simply supported without arbitrary rotating body and the results which
axial constraint. (C) Simply supported with are valid for an arbitrary body are also valid
axial constraint and (D) clamped without axial for the shells. Though numerical methods are
constraint). Numerical results are compared the main approach to the investigation of the
with those based on the Flugge-type shell dynamics of rotating bodies, some analytical
theory and the difference between both results have been obtained for some simple
theories is examined. (Author abstract) 6 Refs. bodies like rotating beams and discs. The
In Japanese. mathematical theory of nonrotating thin shells
Saito, Takashi; Endo, Mitsuru. Nippon Kikai Gakkai is well developed. Several of the most
Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 n 512 Apr 1989 p 878-885. successful are two-dimensional theories of the
Kirchoff-Love type. The aim of this paper is
037169 Vibration Analysis of Cylindrical to apply asymptotic methods to the solution of
Shells Connected with Bellows. For the the eigenvalue problem for a rotating shell.
purpose of decreasing the lower critical speed The authors use Novozhilov's two-dimensional

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

shell theory to obtain the equations of the inconsistencies in the mathematical analysis
vibration of the shell and the theory of carried out by Evensen and also in the
asymptotic integration of the differential physical behavior of the three-term model of
equation to solve the eigenvalue problem for Dowell and Ventres. The comments made by
these equations. 23 Refs. Prathap led to reinvestigation of the earlier
Smirnov, Andrei (Leningrad Univ, Leningrad, problem in the present study. The
USSR).] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 56 n 2 Jun 1989 axisymmetric part of the assumed deflected
p 423-429. shape plays an important role in the nonlinear
behavior of the shell, and so two appropriate
037172 Dynamic Boundary Layer in three-term mode shapes for the transverse
Problems of Vibration of Shells. Within the displacement are chosen. The modal equations
framework of the three-dimensional theory, obtained by the Galerkin method are solved
the authors consider a thin elastic by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to
axisymmetric shell of revolution of arbitrary obtain the amplitude-frequency relationship.
profile, that executes steady-state oscillations The numerical results based on the present
under the action of an edge load. It was study and on the analysis of Evensen are
established on the basis of the equations of compared with the existing experimental
the classical two-dimensional theory, that for values. (Edited author abstract) 10 Refs.
fixed m and increasing w the variability of the Varadan, T.K. (Indian Inst of Technology, Madras,
stress-strain state of the shell increases, and India); Prathap, G.; Ramani, H.V. AIAA] v 27 n 9
there exist critical frequency values above Sep 1989 p 1303-1304.
which the solution of the force-oscillation
problem becomes a solution of differing 037175 Free Vibrations of Circular
variability. In this paper, the authors consider Cylindrical Shells. The eigenvalue problem
approximate methods of setting up solutions of the free vibrations of thin elastic circular
of differing variability for the equations of cylindrical shells is a well-established classical
elasticity, and consider the use of such topic in structural mechanics. All the
solutions for purposes of approximate characteristic values of interest can now be
investigation of forced oscillations of shells at calculated to a desired degree of accuracy as
frequencies that preclude the use of the routine work with the aid of high-speed
classical two-dimensional theory. 5 Refs. digital computers. A number of analytical
Gol'denveizer, A.L. (Kaplunov, Yu.D.) Meeh Solids v solutions have been proposed, and they may
23 n 41988 P 146-155. help us gain good insight into the physical
nature underlying the numerical data. This
037173 Spline Finite Element for paper reviews the historical background and
Axisymmetric Free Vibrations of Shells of provides a unified view of the current state of
Revolution. A new isoparametric element the art through asymptotic solutions recently
suitable for the analysis of axisymmetric free obtained by the author. Emphasis is placed on
vibrations of shells of revolution is developed the effects of the boundary conditions.
in this paper. This element, which is based on (Edited author abstract) 33 Refs.
classical thin shell theory, employs a set of Koga, Tatsuzo (Univ of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Jpn).
B-spline shape functions for the interpolation ]SME Int] Ser 1 v 32 n 3 Jul 1989 P 311-319.
of the geometry as well as the displacements.
It inherits the merits of both the finite 037176 Improved Multi-Segmental Transfer
element method and spline interpolation. The Matrix Method for Closed Axisymmetric
efficiency and accuracy of the proposed Shells. In literature the vibrating problem of
element are illustrated by examples in the thin, elastic axisymmetric shells is modeled by
paper. (Author abstract) 20 Refs. a set of ordinary differential equations, which
Fan, S.C. (Nanyang Technological Inst, Singapore); are singular at closed ends. This paper
Luah, M.H.] Sound Vib v 132 n 1 Jul 8 1989 P presents an improved multi-segmental transfer
61-72. matrix method to overcome the numerical
difficulties resulted from the singularities.
037174 Nonlinear Free Flexural Vibration Examples are given for the calculations of
of Thin Circular Cylindrical Shells. The several typical axisymmetric shells. (Author
early development on the topic of nonlinear abstract) 5 Refs.
vibrations of isotropic circular cylindrical Jian, Zhao (Zhong Shan Univ, Guangzhou, China);
shells is well documented by Evensen. Hong-zhen, Wang; Wu-hua, Zhu. Proe Int Offshore
Subsequently, Prathap pointed out some Meeh Aret Eng Symp v II (of VI), Proceedings of the

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

Eighth International Conference on Offshore BirIik, G.A. (Middle East Technical Univ, Ankara,
Mechanics and Arctic Engineering-1989, Hague, Turk); Mengi, Y.] Sound Vib v 130 n 1 Apr 8 1989
Neth, Mar 19-23 1989. Publ by American Soc of P 69-77.
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,
USA, 1989 P 713-718. WA VE EFFECTS
VISCOELASTICITY 037179 Wave Forces on Hemicylinders.
037177 Refined Dynamic Theory for Potential solutions describing the flow about
Viscoelastic Cylindrical Shells and two-dimensional marine structures on or near
the ocean bottom are formulated, based on
Cylindrical Laminated Composites, Part 1:
Airy's wave model. The solutions for a
General Theory. Through the use of a new
half-cylinder and semicircular shell are
technique, approximate theories are developed
considered in detail and evaluated in the case
for the dynamic response of viscoelastic
cylindrical shells and cylindrical laminated of deep submergence. The formulation with
and without flow underneath the structure is
composites. The work is divided into two
given and, in particular, the existence of a
parts. The first part is devoted to the
large difference between the two cases in. the
development of the approximate theories and
vertical forces is shown. The effect of
the second part to the assessment. In this
introducing vorticity at the edges of the shell
part, first the approximate equations of a
is investigated. Numerical results for
single viscoelastic cylindrical shell are derived.
Then, a discrete model (DM) is proposed for hemicylinders resting on the bottom and
slightly raised off the bottom are presented.
a composite made of viscoelastic laminae. In
establishing DM, it is noted that the equations The results obtained for the wave forces are
of a single shell hold also in each lamina of compared with experimental results obtained
the composite. The equations of DM are for a slightly raised, open hemicylinder.
completed by adding the interface continuity (Author abstract) 17 Refs.
conditions to the above-mentioned equations. Chakrabarti, Subrata K. (CBI Research Corp,
Finally, a continuum model (CM) is developed Plainfield, IL, USA); Naftzger, Rober A. Ocean Eng
for a composite shell made of two alternating (Pergamon) v 16 n 1 1989 P 49-69.
layers by using a smoothing operation. eM
simplifies the determination of dynamic WIND EFFECTS
behavior of composite shells when the number
of laminae is large. (Edited author abstract) 037180 Stability of Wind-Loaded Cylindrical
10 Refs. Shells. Stability analysis of perfect and
Mengi, Y. (Cukurova Univ, Adana, Turk); Birlik, imperfect cylindrical shells under wind
pressures is performed using the finite element
G.A.] Sound Vib v 130 n 1 Apr 81989 P 55-67.
method. A 48 degree-of-freedom thin shell
037178 Refined Dynamic Theory for element previously developed by the present
Viscoelastic Cylindrical Shells and authors is used. The element is free from
Cylindrical Laminated Composites, Part 2: both shear and membrane locking and is
An Application. In this study, the general capable of modelling shells with arbitrary
approximate theory developed in Part 1 for imperfections. Nonlinear effects due to
shells is assessed for axially symmetric elastic pre buckling rotations are taken into account.
waves propagating in a dosed circular The nonlinear response is obtained using
cylindrical shell (hollow rod). The spectra Riks-Wempner algorithm. Effects of the
predicted by zeroth and second order imperfection amplitude and that of the
approximate theories are determined for material orthotropy on the limit load points
various values of shell thicknesses and the are studied. Wherever possible, the present
Poisson ratios and they are compared with results are compared with existing results. A
those of exact theory. It is found that the favorable agreement is observed. (Author
agreement between the two is good. abstract) 17 Refs.
Approximate and exact cut-off frequencies Kapania, Rakesh K. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst &
match almost exactly. The approximate State Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Yang, T.Y.]
theory is valid for thin as well as thick shells. Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn v 28 pt 1 n 1- 3 Aug 1988
These results, which are obtained without Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on
using correction factors, give an indication of Wind Engineering, Held under the Auspices of the
the power of the general theories proposed in International Association for Wind Engineering,
Part 1. (Author abstract) 6 Refs. Aachen, West Ger,juI6-10 1987. p 281-290.

Selected Biblionraphy

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Abu Ghazeleh, B.N. 1966. Analysis of plate Apeland, K. and Popov, E. V. 1962. Analysis of
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ACI Building Code Requirements for Rein- Methods. Brussels. Amsterdam: North-HoI-
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Adler, F., and Lusher,]. K. 1967. The analysis
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Batdorf, S. B. 1974. A simplified method of
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Bauserfeld, W. 1963. Development of the Zeiss-
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255-86. Les Editions d' Architecture (Artemis).

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- - - . 1967. Nonlinear theories of thin elas- the pavilion. [The Philips Pavilion at the
tic shells with reference to axisymmetric 1958 Brussels World's Fair.] Eindhoven,
shells of revolution. Delft, Netherlands: Lab- Netherlands: Philips Technical Review vol. 20,
oratory for Applied Mechanics, Technical no. 1.
University of Delft, Oan.). - - - ; Van Riel, A. C.; Van Koten, H.; and
- - - . Note on finite symmetrical deflections Beranek, W. J. 1961. Investigations on
in thin shells of revolution. Applied Mechanics models of eleven cylindrical shells made of
vol. 34, no. 3 (Sept.):763-74. reinforced and prestressed concrete. Pro-
- - - . 1970. From theory to practice via re- ceedings, Symposium on Shell Research
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Association for Shell Structures, Madrid, Bradshaw, Richard R. 1961. Application of the
1969 Madrid, Session 3. general theory of shells. ACI. (Aug.).
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H. and C. N. Gaylord, eds. New York: Brebbia, C. 1965. On the bending solutions
McGraw-HilI. for hyperbolic paraboloid shells. University
- - - . 1985. The Tower and the Bridge. of Southhampton, Department Report
Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. CE/9/65.
Bleich, H. H., and Salvadori, M. G. 1959. - - - . 1967. On the calculation of shallow
Bending moments on shell boundaries. ACSE hyperbolic paraboloid shells. Revue de Me-
Proceedings vol. 85 ST 8 (Oct.):91-101. canique Appliquee vol. 12, no. 4. (Bucharest):
Block, D. L. 1966. Buckling of eccentrically 873-98.
stiffened orthotropic cylinders under pure - - - . Umbrella hyperbolic paraboloidal
bending. NASA, TN-D-3351 (Mar.). shells. Proceedings, International Congress
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1968. Buckling of eccentrically stiffened Mexico City.
orthotropic cylinders. NASA, TN-D-2960 Brielmaier, A. A. 1962. Prismatic folded plates.
(Aug.). ACI vol. 59. (Mar.):407.
Blum, R. E., and McComb, H. G., Jr. 1968. Broadbent, B. H., and Jenkins, R. S. 1960.
Buckling of an equatorial segment of a Complete cylindrical shell roofs precast on
spherical shell loaded by its own weight. the ground. International Association for
NASA, TN-D-4921. Shell Structures, Madrid, Bull. no. 2, Paper
Bongard, Werner. 1959. Zur Theorie und Be- A-9.
rechnung von Schalentragwerken in Form Buckling of Thin-Walled Doubly Curved Shells.
gleichseitiger hyperbolischer Paraboloide. 1969. NASA. SP-8032 (Aug.).
Berlin, Bautechnik-Archiv, no. 15. Buyer, K. 1957. Beispiele neuer Schalenbauten.
Bonnes, G.; Chatt, G.; Giroux, Y.; and Robi- Beton-und Stahlbeton. no. 1.
chaud, L. 1968. Curved triangular elements
for the analysis of shells. Proceedings, Second Candela, Felix. 1950. Cubierta Prismatica de
Conference on Matrix Methods in Structural Hormigon Armado en la Cuidad de Mejico.
Mechanics, Air Force Institute of Technol- Resista Nacional de Arquitectura no. 99: 126
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Also available in AFFDL-TR-68-150 (Dec. - - - . 1951. Las Cubiertas Laminares en la
1969). Arquitectura Industrial. Espacios no. 7.
Bouma, A. L. 1959. Some applications of the - - - . Simple concrete shell structures. ACl.
bending theory regarding doubly curved (Dec.):321 ff.
shells. Proceedings, Symposium on the - - - . 1952. Una Pequena Demonstracion
Theory of Thin Elastic Shells. Amsterdam, Practica de la Validez de la Teoria de la
North-Holland Publishing Company. Membrana en Superficies Alabeadas. Revista
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shell analysis. A general survey. Proceedings, - - - . 1953. Divagaciones Estructurales en
World Conference on Shell Structures (San torno al Estilo. Espacios no. 15.

Selected Biblioeraphy

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ACI. (Mar.):657 ff. Coques en Beton Arme. Aujourd'hui no.
- - - . 1954. Construccion. Caracas. Ouly). 23:62 ff.
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ings, Conference on Thin Concrete Shells. no. 232:48 ff.
MIT Oune):5 ff. - - - . Weg zu einer neuen Strukturauffas-
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architecture. Student Publications, School of Cantin, R., and Clough, R. 1968. A curved cy-
Design, North Carolina State College, vol. 5, lindrical shell discrete element. AIAAJournal
no. 1:18 ff. vol. 6, no. 5 (May): 1057 - 68.
- - - . Toward a new philosophy of struc- Carr, A. j., and Clough, R. W. 1969. Dynamic
tures. Student Publications, School of De- earthquake behavior of shell roofs. Proceed-
sign, North Carolina State College, vol. 5, ings, Fourth World Conference on Earth-
no. 3:2 ff. quake Engineering, Santiago, Chile Oan.).
- - - . Warped surfaces. Proceedings, Confer- Cauchy, A. 1828. Sur l'equilibre et Ie mouve-
ence on Thin Concrete Shells. MIT, June. ment d'une plaque solide. Exercise de mathi-
91 ff. matique. (10) 3.
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tensado. La Construccion Moderna. July. investigation into the bending analysis of hy-
- - - . Estructuras Laminares Parabolico- perbolic paraboloid shells. Indian Concrete
hiperbolicas. In/ormes de la Construccion no. Journal. Bombay, vol. 38, no. 7:248-58.
76 (Dec.). Cheung, Y. K. 1969. Folded plate structures by
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5:35 ff. Chinn, j. 1959. Cylindrical shell analysis simpli-
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paraboloidal shells. ACI. Oan.):397 ff. vol. 55, no. 11 (May):1l83-92.
- - - . Thin shell roofs for large buildings. Chronowicz, A. 1963. Reinforced concrete
Consulting Engineer. (May):35 ff. roof to swimming pool. Civil Engineering
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sign, North Carolina State College, vol. 6, Chu, K. H., and Pinjarkar, S. G. 1966. Multiple
no. 1:16 ff. folded plate structures. Proceedings, ASCE
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In/ormes se la Construccion no. 86 (Dec.): 140 Clebsch, A. 1883. Theorie de I'elasticite des
ff. corps solides. Paris, Translated from the
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and Design, University of Michigan element analysis of arbitrary thin shells. Sym-
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New York, June, August, Manuel del Con- ceedings, U. S.-Japan Seminar on Matrix
structor. 3 ff. Methods of Structural Analysis and Design,
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boloid. Architectural record. Ouly): 191 ff. - - - , and Brebbia, C. 1967. Stiffness ma-
(Aug.):205 ff. trix for shallow rectangular shell element.
- - - . 1959. EI Arquitecto Felix Candela. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 93, EM5 (Oct.):
Viajes. Mexico City, no. 41:22 ff. 43-65.

Selected Biblionraphy

- - - . 1959. La Construction Moderne. Spe- concrete elements. Bull. International Asso-

cial No.: Le Palais des Expositions du ciation for Shell Structures, no. 3 A-12
C.N.LT., no. 1. (Madrid).
Cowan, H. J. 1961. Some applications of the use Das Gupta, N. C. 1962. Edge disturbances in a
of direct model analysis in the design of ar- hyperbolic paraboloid. Civil Engineering and
chitecutral structures. Journal of the Institu- Public Works Review. London, vol. 58 (Feb.
tion of Engineers, Australia Ouly-Aug.). 1963):220-22.
Creasy, L. R. 1961. Prestressed concrete cylin- - - - . 1962. Using finite difference equa-
drical tanks. New York: John Wiley & Sons. tions to find the stresses in hypar shells. Civil
Cretu, Mircea. 1963. Criteria for the design of Engineering and Public Works Review. Lon-
reinforced concrete shell structures and don, vol. 56 (Feb. 1961):199-201.
folded plates. New Delhi: Indian Standard Dayaratnam, P., and Gerstle, Kurt H. 1964.
Institution, Indian Standard 2210-1962. Buckling of hyperbolic paraboloids. Pro-
Croll, J. G. A., and Scrivener, J. C. 1969. Edge ceedings, World Conference on Shell Struc-
Effects in Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells. Pro- tures, San Francisco, Oct. 1-4 1962. Wash-
ceedings, ASCE vol. 95, ST3 (Mar.):457 -78. ington D.C. National Academy of Sciences-
- - - . Convergence of hypar finite differ- National Research Council Publication
ence solutions. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 95, 1187: 289-96.
ST5 (May):809-30. De Cossio, R. D. 1961. Discussion of the paper
Crowley, F. X. 1969. Precast 150 ft. diameter "hyperbolic paraboloidal umbrella shells
dome. J. ACI, Proceedings vol. 66, no. 9 under vertical loads" by H. P. Harrenstien.
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Csonka, P. 1955. Calculations of calotte shells DeFries-Skene, A., and Scordelis A. C. 1964.
over rectangular bases. Acta Technica. Aka- Direct stiffness solution for folded plates.
demiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Budapest. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 90, ST4 (Aug.):
Tomus XI, Fasciculi 3-4. 15-47.
- - . 1956. The buckling of spheroidal Dickson, J. N., and Brolliar, R. H. 1966. The
shell curved in two directions. Acta Technica. general instability of ring-stiffened corru-
Akaademiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Buda- gated cylinders under axial compression.
pest. vol. 14, no. 3-4:25-37. NASA, TND-3089 Oan.).
Dischinger, Franz. 1925. Fortschritte im Bau
Dabrowski, Ryszard. 1963. Analysis of pre- von Massivkuppeln. Bauingenieur no. 10:
stressed cylindrical shell roofs. Journal of the 362. Also Deutsche Bauzeitung, no. 49
Structural Division, Proceedings, ASCE, ST-5 (1925).
(Oct.). - - - . 1927. Eine Neue Konstruktion fur
Daganoff, Ilia. 1957. Der Sweigelenkbogen mit Grossmarkthallen in Leipzig. Deutsche Bau-
parabelformiger Achse unter der Wirkung zeitung no. 23:161.
von Schalenlasten. Bautechnik no. 2:49. - - - . 1928. Schalen-und Rippenkuppein.
1958. Vorgefertigte, doppelt Handbuch fur den Eisenbetonbau. F. Em-
gekrummte Schalenkonstruktionen. Proceed- perger, ed. 4 ed. vol. 6. Berlin: Ernst und
ings, Second Symposium on Concrete Shell Sohn.
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- - - . 1959. Schalen und Faltwerkdacher und die Zusammenhange mit einbeschrie-
aus vorgefertigten, zusammengespannten benen Rotationsschalen. Beton und Eisen nos.
Stahlbetonelementen. Bauplanug no. 10:441 5,6, 8, 9:100 ff., 119 ff., 150 ff., 169 ff.
ff; no. 11:511 ff. - - - . 1930. Eisenbetonsc alendacher Zeiss-
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miger Achse unter der Wirkung von Scha- Raume. Lecture, Liege, 1930. Also Tech-
lenlasten. Bautechnik no. 6:235. nique des Travaux (Dec.).
- - - . 1961. Betrachtungen uber die Be- - - - . Die Grossmarkthalle Leipzig. Verein
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quium on Simplified Calculation Methods, - - - . 1935. Die strenge Theorie der Kreis-
International Association for Shell Struc- zylinderschale in ihrer Anwendung auf die
tures, Brussels (Sept. 4-6). Zeiss-Dywidag-Schalen. Beton und Eisen nos.
Daganoff, Ilia; Hoffman, Claus; and Ruhle, 16, 18:257 ff., 283 ff.
Herrmann. 1960. Shell and fold structure - - - . 1936. Der Spannungszustand in af-
roofs out of precast, prestressed reinforced finen Schalen und Raumfachwerken unter

Selected Bibiiooraphy

Anwendung des Prinzips des statischen Mas- sports a lavish design at record costs Oune
senaugleichs. Bauingerieur nos. 23 - 28:228 10):22-37.
ff. Ergauoudis, I.; Irongs, B. M.; and Zienkiewicz,
- - - . 1950. Neue Wege im Stahlbetonbau O. C. 1968. Cured isoparametric, "Quadri-
(Bogenstaum aus Zylinderschalen). Deutscher lateral" elements for finite element analysis.
Betonverein, Vortrage auf der Hauptversam- Intern. J. of Solids and Structures vol. 4 Lon-
mung (14 ff.). don: Pergamon Press.
- - - . Schlenkuppel mit 72 m Spannweite Esquillan, Nicholas. 1952. Le hangar a deux
(Mod. Projket fur die Bunaweke). Bau- nefs de 101,50 m de portee de l'Aeroport de
planug-Bautechnik no. 6: 191 ff. Marignane. Annales de l'Institute Technique
- - - , and Finsterwalder, Ulrich. 1928. Ei- due Batiment et des Travaux Publics no. 57
senbetonschalen System Zeiss-Dywidag. (Sept.).
Bauingenieur nos. 44-46:807 ff., 823 ff., - - - . 1958. The design and construction of
842 ff. the shell roof of the exhibition palace of the
- - - . 1929. Die Frankfurter Grossmark- National Center of Industries and Technol-
thalle. lement, no. 12. ogy, Paris. Cement and Concrete Associa-
Distefano, N., and Torregiani, C. 1966. A sim- tion, London (Dec.).
plified method to evaluate critical loads of - - - . 1959. C.N.I.T. Paris. Informes de la
hyperbolic paraboloidal shells. Proceedings, Construccion III (May).
Symposium on Shell Structures in Engineer- Evan-Iwanowski, R. M.; Cheng, H. S.; and Loo,
ing Proactive, Budapest, 1965, Epitestudo- T. C. 1962. Experimental investigations and
menyi Intazet. deformation and stability of spherical shells
Dong, S. B. 1966. Analysis of laminated shells subjected to concentrated loads at the apex.
of revolution. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 92, Proceedings, 4th U.S. Natl. Eng. Appl. Mech.:
EM6 (Dec.):135-55. 563-75.
Donnell, L. H. 1934. A new theory for the
buckling of thin cylinders under axial com- Feber, C. 1963. Candela: The Shell Builder. New
pression and bending. Transactions of the York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers vol. Finsterwalder, Ulrich. 1926. Die Dywidaghalle
56:108. auf der Gesolei. Bauingenieur no. 48:929.
- - - ,and Wan, C. C. 1950. Effect of imper- Fitch, J. R. 1968. The buckling and post-buck-
fections of buckling of thin cylinders and col- ling behavior of spherical caps under con-
umns under axial compression. Applied Me- centrated load. Intern. J. of Solids and Struc-
chanics vol. 17, no. 1 (Mar.). tures vol. 4, no. 4(Apr.):421-46.
Dubois, F. 1917, Uber die Festigkeit der Ku- Fletcher, Sir B. 1967. A History of Architecture,
gelschale. Zurich: Promotionsarbeit. 17 ed. Rev. by R. A. Cordingley, New York:
Charles Schribner's Sons, 198.
E/ AC EASE. 1969. Elastic analysis for str"uc- Flint, A. R., and Low, A. E. 1960. The con-
tural engineering. Program Applications struction of hyperbolic paraboloid type shells
Guide. Data Centers Division, Control Data without temporary formwork. Bull. Interna-
Corporation (Aug.). tional Association for Shell Structures, Ma-
- - - . Elastic Analysis for Structural Engi- drid, no. 4, paper no. A-15.
neering. Program User's Manual. Data Flugge, Wilhelm. 1957. Statik und Dynamic der
Centers Division, Control Data Corporation Schalen Berlin: Springer-Verlag OHG.
(Aug.). - - - . 1960. Stresses in Shells. Berlin:
Engineering News Record. 1956. Dome roof Springer-Verlag.
formed on mound needs no shoring vol. 157 Fuchssteiner, Wilhelm. 1954. Die Berechnung
(Sept. 27):35 ff. von Industriesc ornsteinen mit Fuchsoffnun-
- - - . 1957. Biggest wood dome span 300 gen. Bauingenieur no. 7.
feet vol. 158 Oan. 10):32 ff. - - - . 1955. Kreiszylinderschalen: Die ele-
- - - . 1960. For an economical roof: precast men tare Behandlung der Kampferrandstor-
barrels vol. 165, no. 12 (Sept. 15):42-44. ungen. Beton-und Stahlbetonbau no. 5.
- - - . 1964. Flying buttress holds off thrust - - - . 1960. Kreiszylinderschalen, Berech-
from precast, pleated half-dome vol. 173 nung mit Polynomen. Benton-und Stahlbeton-
(Nov. 19):40-42. bau no. 5.
- - - . 1965. Precast dome spans 202 feet - - - , and Schader, Alois. 1956. Allege-
vol. 174, no. 4 Oan. 8):66 - 67. meine Schalengrundgleichungen. Beton-und
- - - . 1976. Montreal's XXI Olympiad Stahlbetonbau no. 7.

Selected Bibli08raphy

1959. Einige neuere Schalenbauten - - - . 1944. On the applicability of the gen-

mit besonderer Beachtung wirtschaftlic en eral theorems of the theory of elasticity of
Austfuhrung. Beton-und Stahlbetonbau no. 5. thin shells. Prikl. Mat. Mekh. Academiya
Nauk., S.S.S.R. 1 (8): 1.
Gaafar, I. 1954. Hipped plate analysis, consid- - - - . 1947. On appropriate methods for
ering joint displacements. Transactions, the analysis of thin shells of zero Gaussian
ASCE vol. 119, paper 2696:743-84. curvature. Prikl. Mat. Mekh. Academiya
Galantay, E. Y. 1956. Les voiles minces et la Nauk., S.S.S.R. 1 (11):4.
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Galerkin, B. G. 1934. On the theory of elastic - - - ; Mroshchinskii, A; and Repman, Iu. V.
cylindrical shells 2:4:5 - 6. 1939. Methods of analysis of spherical domes
Gallager, R. H. 1969. Analysis of plate and shell using membrane theory. Plates and Shells.
structures. Application of Finite Element Gosstroiizdat.
Methods in Civil Engineering. Nashville: Van- Grafton, P. E., and Strome, D. R. 1963. Analy-
derbilt University. sis of axisymmetrica I shells by the direct stiff-
- - - , and Yang, H. 1968. Elastic instability ness method. AIAA Journal vol. 1, no. 10
predictions for doubly curved shells. Pro- (Oct.):2342-47.
ceedings, Second Conference on Matrix Gvozdev, A. A. 1932. On the analysis of thin-
Methods in Structural Mechanics, Air Force walled cylindrical shells. Streitel'naia pro-
Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson myshlennocm' 16:1.
Air Force Base, Ohio. AFFDL-TR-68-150
(Dec. 1969). Haas, A. M. 1962. Design of thin concrete shells
Geckeler, J. 1926. Uber die Festigkeit Achsen- vol. 1. New York: John Wiley, 108.
symmetrischer Schalen (Strengths of axially Hajnal-Konyi, K. 1959. Construction of a hy-
symmetric shells). Forschungsarbeiten auf dem perbolic paraboloid shell roof over the gar-
Gebeit des Ingenieurwesens no. 276. age of the Lincolnshire Motor Company,
- - - . 1932. Statics of elastic bodies. OGIZ. Ltd., Lincoln. International Colloquium on
Gerard, George. 1962. Compressive stability of Construction Processes of Shell Structures,
orthotropic cylinders. J. Aerospace Sci. (Oct.). Madrid, Paper A-8.
- - - . Introduction to structural stability Hamilton, R. J. 1938. Great Bend Auditorium.
theory. New York: McGraw-HilI. And Anton Tedesko, Great Bend's Z-D
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Structural Stability Part III: Buckling of - - - . 1941. Large concrete warehouse built
Curved Plates and Shells NACA TN 3783. with moving falsework. Engineering News-
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Shell Roofs. 2 ed. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van - - - . 1942. Hangars at Wright Field and
Nostrand. San Diego. Architectural Concrete 2:8, 24.
Girkmann, K. 1959. Flachentragwerke. 5 ed. Hampe, E. 1964. Statik Rotationssymmetrischer
Vienna: Springer-Verlag. Flachentragewerke. In German. vols. 1-4,
Giroux, Y. M. 1967. Finite difference tech- Berlin: VEB Verlag fur Bauwesen.
niques for multiple shells with edge mem- Harrenstein, H. P. 1961. Configuration of shell
bers. Proceedings, International Congress on structures for optimum stresses. Proceedings,
the Application of Shells in Architecture, Symposium on Shell Research. Delft, Aug.
Mexico City. 30-Sept. 2, 1961. Amsterdam: North-HoI-
Goldberg, J. E.; Bogdonoff, J. L.; and Al- land Publishing Company, 232.
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domes under arbitrary loading including Z-D dome for the Hayden Planetarium
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Selected Biblionraphy

nautics and Astronautics vol. 5, no. 8 jones, L. L. 1960. Tests on a one-tenth scale
(Aug.): 1469 -77. model of a hyperbolic paraboloid shell roof.
Technical Report TRA/334. London: Ce-
Iljushin, A. A. and Lenskij, V. S. 1959. ment and Concrete Association, (Aug.).
Strength of materials. In Russian. Fizmatgiz. - - - . 1961. Tests on a one-sixth scale
International Colloquium on Construction Pro- model of a hyperbolic paraboloid umbrella
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1961. don: Cement and Concrete Association,
International Colloquium on Construction Pro- Oan.).
cesses of Shell Structures. Madrid, Sept. jones, R. E., and Strome, D. R. 1966. Direct
1959. stiffness method analysis of shells of revolu-
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Numerical Methods in Engineering vol. 2, no.
lOan.). Kalnins, A. 1964. Analysis of shells of revolu-
Isler, Heinz. 1955. Instability of prestressed tion subjected to symmetrical and nonsym-
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bubble shells. Proceedings, International sis of thin shells with transverse shear strains
Congress on the Application of Shells in Ar- by the finite element method. Proceedings,
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6, pp. 172-75. Structural Mechanics, Air Force Institute of
- - - , and Weder, A. 1955. Die Buckel- Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force
schale, ein interessantes Bauelement. Schwei- Base, Ohio, 1968. AFFDL-TR-68-150 (Dec.
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Khojasteh-Bakht, M., and Popov, E. P. 1970.
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- - - ,and Broadbent, B. H. Complete cylin- bility of honeycomb sandwich cylinders.
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Construction Processes of Shell Structures, equilibrium of elastic shells and some
Madrid, Paper A-9. methods for their integration. Zbirnik Prats
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by a finite element procedure. Structural En- (1941 ).
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program for the analysis of thin shells. Struc- Flachentragwerke des Massivbaus. VDI-
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of Illinois, Oct. keit dunner Schalen, Viertelschr. Zurich: D.
natur. Ges., Bd. 60.
Leet, K. 1966. Study of stability in the hyperbo- Meng, Ching-Hung, and Laushey, Louis M.
lic paraboloid. Proceedings, ASEC vol. 92, 1960. Stresses in hyperbolic paraboloid
EMI (Feb.):121-42. shells loaded laterally. Bull., International
Lin, T. Y., and Kulka, F. 1964. Concrete shell Association for Shell Structures, Madrid,
prestressed for load balancing. Proceedings, no. 15.
World Conference on Shell Structures, San Mescall, J. F. 1965. Large deflections of spheri-
Francisco, 1962. Washington D.C.: National cal shells under concentrated loads. J. Appl.
Academy of Sciences, 29 - 38. Mech. vol. 32, no. 4 (Dec.):936-38.
Loo, T. C., and Evan-Iwanowski, R. M. 1966. Meyer, C., and Scordelis, A. C. 1970. Com-
Interaction of critical concentrated loads act- puter program for prismatic folded plates
ing on shallow spherical shells. J. Appl. Mech. with plate and beam finite elements. Division
vol. 33, no. 3 (Sept.):612-16. of Structural Engineering and Structural
Lundgren, H. 1960. Cylindrical Shells Vol. 1: Mechanics, Department of Civil Engineer-
Cylindrical Roofs 3 printing, 1960. Copen- ing, University of California, Berkeley,
hagen: Danish Technical Press, Institution of Structures and Materials Research Report
Danish Civil Engineers. SESM 70-3. (Feb.).
Meyer, R. R. 1967. Buckling of ring-stiffened
Makowski, Z. S. Analysis, Design, and Construc- corrugated cylinders subjected to uniform
tion of Braced Domes, New York: Nichols axial load and bending. Douglas Aircraft Co.
Publishing Co., 1984, 684. Report DAC-60698 Ouly).
March, H. W., and Kuenzi, E. W. 1958. Buck- - - - , and Harmon, M. B. 1963 Conical seg-
ling of sandwich cylinders in torsion. Forest ment method for analyzing open crown
Products Report 184 Oan.). shells of revolution for edge loading. AIAA
Marshall, W. T. 1954. The elimination of mo- Journal vol. 1, no. 3 (Apr.):886-91.
ments in shell roofs by prestressing. Proceed- - - - , and Bellinfante, R. J. 1964. Fabrica-
ings, Institution of Civil Engineers London, tion and experimental evaluation of com-
vol. 3, part III (Apr.):276-82. mon domes having waffle-like stiffening.
Martin, D. W., and Scriven, W. E. 1961. The Douglas Aircraft Company. Report
calculation of membrane stresses in hyperbo- SM-47742.
lic cooling towers. Proceedings, Institution of Michael, K. C., and Munro, J. 1967. Approxi-
Civil Engineers, London, vol. 19, no. 4 mating functions and indirect solutions of
(Aug.):503 -14. shell problems. Proceedings, International
Mast, Paul E. 1962. Design and construction of Congress on the Application of Shells in Ar-
northlight barrel shells. J. ACI vol. 59, no. 4 chitecture, Mexico City.
(Apr.). Mihailescu, M., and Ungureanu, I. 1959. A new
Medwadowski, S. J. 1962. Discussion of "De- shell form for prestressed sheds. Interna-
sign and construction of northlight barrel tional Colloquium on Construction Processes
shells," by Paul E. Mast J. ACI. Proceedings, of Shell Structures, Madrid, Paper A-13.
vol. 59, no. 12 (Dec.):1903-5. Mirza, J. 1967. Stresses and deformations in
- - - . 1963. Thin shell structures. Discovery, umbrella shells. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 93,
London, vol. 24, no. 11 (Nov.):29-35. ST2 (Apr.):27i -86.
- - - ,and Dawson, W. R. 1960. Design and Mokk, L. 1964. Prefabricated concrete for in-
construction of precast-prestressed thin shell dustrial and public structures. Budapest:
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on Precast Shell Structures, Dresden. Molke, E. C., and Kalinka,J. E. 1938. Principles
Megard, G. 1969. Analysis of thin shells using of concrete shell dome design. J. ACI
planar and curved finite elements. Report (May-June):649
No. 69-1. Trondheim, Norway: Division of - - - . 1941. Navy builds concrete hangars
Structural Mechanics, Technical University at San Diego. In Engineering News-Record
of Norway. (Dec. 4):64.
- - - . Planar and curved shell elements. Fi- Muller, G.; Kabir, A. F.; and Scordelis, A. C.
nite elements methods in stress analysis. Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete

Selected Bibliography

hyperbolic paraboloid shells. Proceedings, Pauw, Adrian, and Jenny, Daniel P. 1962.
Conference on Nonlinear Behavior of Rein- Lightweight aggregate for thin concrete
forced Concrete Spatial Structures vol. 1. shells. Proceedings, World Conference on
Darmstadt, West Germany Ouly 1978): Shell Structures, (Oct. 1-4), San Francisco.
191-203. Publication 1187. Washington D.C.: Na-
Muriel, Emanuel. 1980. Contemporary Archi- tional Academy of Sciences-National Re-
tects. New York: St. Martin's. search Council, 159.
Pecknold, D. A., and Schnobrich, W. C. 1969.
Nasser, A. R. 1964. Construction of a but- Finite-element analysis of skewed shallow
tressed dome segment. J. ACI, Proceedings shells. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 95, ST4
vol. 61, no. 5 (May):509-20. (Apr.):715-44.
- - - ,andJohnson, C. B. 1962. Semigraphi- Peterson, J.; Whitley, R.; and Deaton, J. 1962.
cal analysis of long prestressed concrete Structural behavior and compressive
vaulted shells. J. ACI, Proceedings vol. 59, strength of circular cylinders with longitu-
no. 5 (May):659-72. dinal stiffening. NASA TN D-1251.
Natural Draught Cooling Towers-Ferrybridge Pfluger, Alf. 1961. Elementary statics of shells.
and After. 1967. Institution of Civil Engi- 2 ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
neers, London. Poisson, S. D. 1829. Memoire sur l'equilibre et
Nazarov, A. A. 1949. On the theory of their Ie mouvement des corps sondes. Paris: Mem.
shallow shells. Prikl. Mat. Mech. vol. 13:547- de l'Acad. Sci. (12), 8.
50. In English in NACA TM1426 (1956). Popov, E. P., and Medawadowski, S. J., eds.
Nervi, Pier Luigi. 1956. Structures. Translated 1981. Concrete shell buckling. ACI Publ.
by Guiseppina and Mario Salvadore. New SP-67:234.
York: F. W. Dodge. - - - ; Penzien, J.; and Lu, Z. 1964. Finite
- - - . 1957. Palazzetto dello Sport, Rom. element solutions for axisymmetric shells.
Bauwelt, no. 49. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 89, EM5 (Oct.):
- - - . 1957. The Works of Pier Luigi Nervi. 199-45.
New York: Frederick A. Praeger. Powell, G. H. 1966. Interaction of edge beams
- - - . 1965. Aesthetics and Technology in with doubly curved shells. Proceedings, ASCE
Building. Translated by R. Einaudi. Cam- vol. 92, ST3 Oune):57-75.
bridge: Harvard University Press. Prato, C. A. 1969. Shell finite element method
Noor, A. K., and Veletsos, A. S. 1963. A study via Reissener's principle. Intern. J. Solids and
of doubly curved shallow shells. Champaign: Structures vol. 5, no. 10 (Oct.): 1 119-35.
Department of Civil Engineering, University Prentiss, Louis, W. 1949. Thin concrete arch
of Illinois, Structural Research Series no. roof provides 340' span for hangar. Civil En-
274. gineering (Feb.).
Novodvorskii, V. 1938. On the so-called mem- Proceedings, Conference on Thin Concrete
brane theory of shells. Stroitelnaia promysh- Shells, Cambridge, MIT, June 21-23,1954.
learocm' 16:l. Candela's two papers are on pp. 5-11 and
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Shells translated from Russian by P. G. Proceedings, Second Symposium on Concrete
Lowe. New York: Erven P. Noordhoff. Shell Roof Construction, July 13, 1957. A.
Aas-Jakobsen, S. Brusletto, J. Holand, and
G. Oxall. Oslo: Teknish Ukeblad, 1958.
Otto, Frei. 1954. Das Hangende Dach-Gestalt Proceedings, Symposium on Shell Research,
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New York Planetarium. Engineering News- Proceedings, International Association for Shell
Record Ouly 25):105. Structures Colloquium on Hanging Roofs,
Parme, A. L. 1960. Elementary analysis of hy- Paris, 1962. Amsterdam: North-Holland
perbolic paraboloid shells. Indian Concrete Publishing Company, 1963.
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International Colloquium on Progress of Proceedings, International Symposium on Shell
Shell Structures, Madrid, 1969. Madrid: In- Structures in Engineering Practice, Buda-
ternational Association for Shell Structures. pest, 1965. International Association for

Selected Biblioaraphy

Shell Structures. Madrid: Epitestudomenyi Samuely, Felix]. 1958. Folded slab construc-
Intazet, vol. 2. 1966. tion. J. ACI (Oct.).
Pultar, M; Billington, D. P.; and Riera, ]. D. Schnobrich, W. C.; Mohraz, B.; and Hoebel,].
1967. Folded plates continuous over flexible L. Influence of edge beam properties on the
supports. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 93, ST5 stress in hyperbolic parabolars. Proceedings,
(Oct.):253 -77. International Colloquium on Progress of
Shell Structures in the Last Ten Years, Ma-
Rafols,Jose F., and Folguera, Francisco. 1929. drid, 1969. Madrid: International Associa-
Gauti el gran arquitecto espanol. Barcelons: tion for Shell Structures, 1970.
Canosa, p. 195. Catalan ed. 1928. Scordelis, A. C. 1981. Stability of reinforced
Ramaswamy, G. S. 1968. Design and Construc- concrete domes and hyperbolic paraboloid
tion of Concrete Shell Roofs. New York: shells. Concrete Shell Buckling. ACI Publ.
McGraw-Hili. SP-67:63-110.
Rao, G. S. 1962. Analysis offolded plate roofs Shaaban, Ahmed, and Ketchum, Milo. 1976.
by iteration. Indian Concrete Journal. (Bom- Design of hipped hypar shells. J. Struct. Div.,
bay), vol. 36, no. 10 (Oct.):365. ASCE vol. 102, no. ST-ll (Nov.):2151-61.
Recommendations for the design of hyperbolic Shtaerman, I. la. 1932. Fundamental ideas of
and other similarly shaped cooling towers. the contemporary theory of domes and
1977. lASS Working Group no. 3. Brussels. vaults. Trudy Soviet Conference on Con-
Recommendations for reinforced concrete crete and Reinforced Concrete.
shells and folded plates. 1979. lASS Work- - - - . 1933. Analysis of a dome as an arch
ing Group no. 5. Madrid. 66 p. on an elastic foundation. Proekt. i standart
Reinforced concrete cooling tower shells: Prac- 14:9.
tice and Commentary. 1977. J. ACI, ACI- Smith, Baldwin E. 1950. The dome, a study in
ASCE Committee 334, vol. 74 Uan.). the history of ideas. Princeton, N.].: Prince-
Reissner, H. 1980. Ueber die Spannungsvertei- ton University Press, 164.
lung in Zylindrischen Behalterwanden. Beton Soare, Mircea. 1959. Membrane theory of con-
und Eisen vol. 7, no. 6 (Apr. 22):150-55. oidal shells. Translation of article in Der
Rockey, K. C., and Evans, H. R. 1966. A finite Bauingenieur, Cement and Concrete Associa-
element solution for folded plate structures. tion, London. vol. 33, no. 7 Uuly 1958):
Space Structures. R. M. Davies, ed. New 256-65.
York: John Wiley & Sons. - - - . 1962. Application des equations aux
Rowe, R. E. 1966. Modelling of shells. Pro- differences finies an cacul des coques. Bu-
ceedings, Congress, International Association charest: Editions de l'Academie de la Repub-
for Shell Structures, Leningrad, Moscow: lique Populaire Roumaine; Paris: Editions
TSNIS, 567 -80. Eyrolles.
Rusch, Hubert. 1929. Die neue Grossmarkth- Sollenberger, N.].; Scanlan, R. H.; and Billing-
aIle Leipzig. Beton und Eisen nos. 18, 19, 23, ton, D. P. 1980. Wind loading and response
24:325 ff., 341 ff., 422 ff., 437 ff. of cooling towers. J. Struct. Div., ASCE
- - - . 1973. Ulrich Finsterwalder zu seinem (Mar.).
funfzigsten Dienstjubilaum, Sein Lebensweg Starczewski, Jerzy Andrzej. 1990. Luki w Ar-
als Mensch und Ingenieur. Festschrift, chitekturze. Warsaw: Arkady.
Ulrich Finsterwalder, 50 Jahe Fur Dywidag. Stocker,]. 1965. A Review of the Literature of the
Kaqrlsruhe: Dycherhoff and Widmann, Buckling Characteristics of Conical Shells.
9-18. D2-23835-1. Seattle, Wash.: Boeing.
Russell, R. R., and Gerstle, K. H. 1967. Bend- Strickland, G., and Loden, W. 1968. A doubly-
ing of hyperbolic paraboloid structures. Pro- curved triangular shell element.
ceedings, ASCE vol. 93 ST3 Uune):181-99.
- - - . 1968. Hyperbolic paraboloid struc- Tedesko, Anton. 1935. Thin concrete shell
tures on four supports. Proceedings, ASCE, roof tested under large unsymmetrical load.
vol. 94, ST4 (Apr.):995-101O. Engineering News-Record (Nov. 7).
- - - . 1937. Shell roof at Hershey. Architec-
Salvadori, Mario G., 1954. Thin shells. Architec- tural concrete no. 1 (Apr.):7.
tural Record Uuly): 173 ff. - - - . Z-D shell roof at Hershey. Architec-
- - - .1955. Live load and temperature mo- tural Concrete vol. 3, no. 1:7 -11.
ments in shell of rotation built into cylinders. - - - . Large concrete shell roof covers ice
J. ACI (Oct.). arena. Engineering News-Record (Apr.
- - - . 1981. Structural Design in Architecture. 18):505.
Englewood Cliffs, N.].:Prentice-Hall. - - - . 1939. Thin concrete shell roof for ice

Selected Biblionraphy

skating arena. Engineering News-Record no. 7 Buckling of Cylindrical Shell End Closures by
(Feb. 16):212. Internal Pressure. NASA CR-540.
- - - . Fire Factory at Natchez. Engineering Timoshenko, S. P. 1940. Theory of Plates and
News-Record no. 17 (Oct. 26):67. Shells. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- - - . Point suppored dome of thin shell - - - , and Woinoswky-Krieger, S. 1959.
type. Engineering News-Record no. 23 Theory of Plates and Shells. 2 ed. New York:
(Dec.):38. McGraw-HilI.
- - - . 1941. Thin concrete shell roof is fea- Torroja, Eduardo. 1936. Obras de hormigon
ture of Knoxville's exhibition building. Con- armado. Estudio de un muro de contencion,
crete no. 2 (Feb.):2. formado por membranes en conoide, utiliz-
- - - . Wide span hangars for the U. S. able para muelles de atraque. Madrid. 1936.
Navy. Civil Engineering no. 12 (Dec.):697. - - - . 1942. Sulla struttura delle tribune del
- - - . 1946. Construction of wide-span nuovo ippodromo di Madrid. Rome.
hangars. J. Western Soc. of Engineers no. 4 - - - . 1946. Calculo anelastico de secciones
(Dec.): 155. de harmigon armado. Madrid.
- - - . Construction aspects of thin shell - - - . 1950. Realisations de voutes minces
structures. J. ACI. (Feb.). en Espangne - Resultats obtenus et possibil-
- - - . 1954. A shell review-design and ities futures. Paris.
construction experiences. Proceedings, Con- - - - . 1958. Philosophy of Structures. Los
ference on Thin Concrete Shells, MIT, June Angeles.
1954. - - - . The Structures of Eduardo Torroja.
- - - . Thin shell arch selected for Denver New York: Dodge Corp.
coliseum. Civil Engineering Ouly). - - - . The Structures of Eduardo Torroja.
- - - . 1957. Creative trends in structural New York: McGraw-Hill.
design-thin shells. Proceedings, Third Na- - - - . 1967. Elasticidad. 4 ed. Madrid: Edi-
tional Construction Industry Conference, torial Dossat, S. A.
Armour Research Foundation, III. Institute Tottenham, H. 1958. Approximate solutions to
of Technology, December, 1957. shell problems. Proceedings, Second Sympo-
- - - . 1958. Multiple ribless shells. Proceed- sium on Concrete Shell Roof Construction.
ings, ASCE Joint Conference with Associa- Oslo: Teknish Ukeblad.
tion of Bridge and Structural Engineering, Trefftz, E. 1935. Ableitung der Schalenbie-
New York, October 1958. gungsgliechnungen mit dem Castiglianos-
- - - . 1960. Shell at Denver-hyperbolic chen Prinzip. Z.A.M.M., 13:2
paraboloidal structure of wide span. J. ACI
vol. 32, no. 4 (Oct.):403 -12
- - - . 1961. Multiple ribless shells. J. Struc- Van Nice, R. L. 1960. Various papers on hy-
tural Div. ASCE vol. 87 (Oct.). perbolic paraboloidal shells. J. ACI. (Oct.).
- - - . 1964. The St. Louis air terminal - - - . 1963. The structure of St. Sophia.
shells. Proceedings, World Conference on Architectural Forum (May): 131- 38. Also
Shell Structures, San Francisco, 1962. Wash- Sept. 1964:45-49.
ington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, Violet-Le Due, Eugene 1863. Entretiens sur
469-74. l'Architecture. Paris: A Morel, 72.
- - - . ; Nees, L. A.; and Koermer, Marvin Vlasov, V. Z. 1939. Handbook fur Platten und
T. 1959. Special facilities for painting air Schalen. Moscow.
force planes provided in long-span pre- - - - . 1947. Some new problems on shells
stressed concrete hangar. Civil Engineering and thin structures. Izv. Akad, Nauk no.
(Jan.). 1:27-53. English translation in NACA TM
Thompson, I. 1962. Mass production of shells 1204.
for the Oakland International Airport. J. - - - . 1958. Allgemeine Schalentheorie und
ACI, Proceedings, ASCE vol. 59, no. 7 Ihre Anwendung in der Technik. Berlin:
Ouly):949 - 58. Akademie-Verla GmbH.
Thurlimann, B., and Johnston, B. G. 1954. Von Sanden, K., and Gunter, K. 1920, 1921.
Analysis and tests of a cylindrical shell roof Uber das Festigkeitproblem querversteifter
model. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 80 (Apr.). Hohlzylinder unter allseitig gleichmassigem
Thurman, A. G., and Herman, G. J. 1962. Aussendruck. Werft und Reederei 23:8, 9, 10;
Model studies of a concrete hyperbolic para- (17) 1921.
boloid. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 88, ST6 Vreedenburgh, C. G. J. 1958-9. The hyper-
(Dec.): 161- 81. bolic paraboloidal shell and its mechanical
Thurston, G. A., and Holston, A. E., Jr. 1966. properties. The Philips Pavilion at the 1958

Selected Bibliography

Brussels World Fair. Philips Technical Review and Reiss, Max. 1962. Analysis of
vol. 20, no. 1. Eindhoven, Netherlands: folded plates. J. Struct. Div., ASCE vol. 88
1958-1959. (Oct.).

Wacker, Rhodes, J. (ed.). 1982. Developments

in thin-walled structures. London: Applied
Science Publishers. Zabrowski, Robert. 1949. Hangars are what
Waling, J. L.; Ziegler, Earl E.; and Kemmer, you make them. Airports and Air Carriers
Harry G. 1962. Hypar shell construction by (Feb.).
offset wire methods. Proceedings, World - - - . 1951. Thin shell arch hockey stadium
Conference on Shell Structures. Oct. 1-4, for Quebec built in ten months. Civil Engi-
1962, San Francisco. Washington D.C.: Na- neering (Oct.)
tional Academy of Sciences-National Re- - - - ,and Gruenwald, Ott. 1944 Monolithic
search Council Publication 1187:453. concrete seaplane hangars, unique design
Waller, J. H. de W., and Aston, A. C. 1953. used by East Coast Naval Air Station. Civil
Corrugated concrete shell roofs. Proceedings, Engineering no. 8 (Aug.).
Institution of Civil Engineers vol. 2, part 3 - - - . 1954. A review of special aspects. Pro-
(Aug.):153-82. ceedings, Conference on Thin Concrete
Wang, L. R. L. 1966. Effects of edge restraint Shells, MIT, June.
on the stability of spherical caps. J. American Zalewsky, Waclaw. 1957. Niektore nowe kon-
Institute ofAeronautics and Astronautics vol. 4, strukcje Iupinowe w budownictwie przemys-
no. 4 (Apr.):718-19. lowym w Polsce. Inzynieria i Budownictwo no.
Wayss, G. A. 1887. Das System Monier. Berlin. 3:116 ff.
Pp. 33-34 and 117 -26. - - - . 1959. Vorgefertigte Stahlbetonkon-
Wells, J. G. 1958. Reinforced concrete struc- struktion fur eine Textilfabrik in Kalisch.
tures: flat slabs and concrete shell roofs. Bauwelt no. 47:1388 ff.
M.A. thesis, School of Architecture, Univer- - - - . North-light shel roofs in Poland. Con-
sity of California. crete and Constructional Engineering (Apr.).
Wempner, G; Oden,J. T.; and Kross, D. 1968. - - - . Shell and spacial structure shapes ap-
Finite-element analysis of thin-shells. Pro- plied in Poland. International Colloquium on
ceedings, ASCE vol. 94, EM6 (Dec.):1273. Construction Processes of Shell Structures ..
Whitney, Charles S. 1950. Wide spanning mon- Paper A-II. Madrid.
olithic arches in North America. 1. Airplane - - - . 1960. Hala widowiskowo-sportowa w
hangars in the United States. 11. Coliseum, Katowicach. In Polish. Inzynieria i Budow-
exposition palace in Quebec, Canada. La nictwo no. 4: 154 ff.
Technique des Travaux (Sept.-Oct.). - - - . Entwurf fur eine Mehrzweckhalle in
- - - . 1953. Reinforced concrete thin shell Kattowitz. Bauwelt no. 23:654 ff.
structures. J. ACI (Feb.). - - . Sports hall. Interbuild (May): 12 ff.
- - - ; Anderson, Boyd G.; and Birnbaum, Zeiss-Dywidag. Robert and Schaefer Co. Bull.
Harold. 1959. Reinforced concrete folded 138 Oan. 1932).
plate construction. Structural Division, Pro- Zerna, W. 1951. Membrantheorie verallge-
ceedings, ASCE vol. 85, ST8 (Oct.):15-43. meinerter Rotationsschalen. Ingenieur-Ar-
Winter, G., and Pei, M. 1947. Hipped plate chive. no. 19:228.
construction. J. ACI vol. 43 Oan.). - - - . 1959. Uber eine nichtlineare allge-
Wissler, H. 1916. Festigkeitberechnung von meine Theorie der Schalen. Proceedings,
Ringflachen. Zurich: Promotions-arbeit. Symposium on Theory of Thin Elastic
Shells, Delft.
Yitzhaki, David. 1959. The design of prismatic Zienkiewicz, O. C. 1967. The Finite Element
and cylindrical shell roofs. Amsterdam: Method in Structural and Continuum Me-
North-Holland Publishing Company. chanics. New York: McGraw-HilI.


ACI. See American Concrete Institute Army Warehouse, Columbus, Ohio, 146, 149
Acoustic wave effects, abstracts of articles on, Arslan Jadhib Tomb, Sangbast, Iran, 42, 44
361-62 Art and shell structures, 179-82
Affaita, Izydor, 74 Artificial Leather Industry building, Coswig,
Agamemnon, Tomb of, Mycenae, Greece, 14 Germany, 167
Aghia Parigoritissa, Arta, Greece, 41 Aspidin, Joseph, 122
Airport hangars Astrodome, Houston, Texas, 177, 311-12,
Chicago, 174, 175 313-16
Cuatro Vientos, Spain, 149, 150 Austro-Hungarian Bank, Vienna, 298
Marignane, France, 151, 153 Auxiliary members, 203-6, 208-9, 210, 211,
Seattle, 192 214-15,219-20
thin shells as, 193 and ACI building codes, 345, 351
Albany Mall Meeting Center, Albany, New and barrel shells, 261-63, 267 -68
York, 193
Albert Hall, Kensington, 298
Alberti, 249 Baba Luqman Mausoleum, Sarakhs, Iran, 48
Alessi, Galeazzo, 61 Balat, A. and Maguet, 299
Alfa-Romeo Factory, Milan, 146, 148 Ballou, Louis W., 85
Alvarez Ordonez, Joaquin and Fernando, 158 Baltard, V., 298
Amati, Carlo, 83 Bank of Montreal, Montreal, 86
American Concrete Institute (ACI), 221 Baptistry, Pisa, 57
Ammann and Whitney, 152, 167, 174, 193, Baroni, Giorgio, 145, 146
220 Barrel shells, 21, 26, 99, 130-32, 211
Analysis and design Base, displacement at, and computer analysis,
abstracts of articles on, 362 - 64 235-37
and ACI building codes, 347- 51 Basilica of San Gaudenzio, Novara, 82
Anisotropy, abstract of article on, 364-65 Bass, L. 0., 313
Anticlastic shells, 115, 118 Baucher, Lucien-Jacques, 108
Antonelli, Alessandro, 82 Belfry, Cathedral of Ivan the Great, Moscow,
Apex, displacement at, and computer analysis, 77, 79
237 Bellushi, Pietro, 163
Archimedean solids, 306, 307 Bending, abstracts of articles on, 365
Architects' Co-Partnership, 149 Berecci, Bartolomeo, 74


Berg, Max, 143 Casa Finlandia Futura, Finland, 201, 202

Bergman, M., and Associates, 163 Castenson, George, 298
Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo, 68, 69, 73 Cast iron domes, 83 - 84, 297 - 98
Binkley Engineering Associates, 316 Catalan vault, 100 -1 02
Bizzos, Tomb of, Ruweha, Syria, 42, 43 Catenary curves in shell design, 243, 245-46
Blasting, abstract of article on, 366 Cathedral, Pisa, 57
Blondel, jacques Fran~ois, 242 -43 Cathedral of New Norcia, Perth, Australia,
B1ondel, jean-Pierre, 108 158, 159
Blount Brothers, 316 Cathedral of St. john the Divine, New York, 86
Boat building Cathedral of the Archangel Michael, Moscow,
and ferrocement, 124, 125-27 77, 78
and fiber-reinforced plastic, 200 Cathedral of the Dormition, Moscow, 77, 78
Borromini, Francesco, 61, 65, 68, 69, 73 Cement, history of, 121-22
Boundary members. See Auxiliary members Centennial Hall, Breslau, Germany, 143-44
Bourse du Commerce, Paris, 298 Center for Industries and Technology, Paris,
Bouvard, J. A., 299 162, 163
Bramante, Donato, 62 Ceramic domes, 105-6
Bretton Hall, Yorkshire, 298 Chapel near Cuernavaca, Mexico, 157, 158
Brodrick, C., 298 Chapel of Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, San
Brunelleschi, Filippo, 58, 60, 61, 62, 72, 103, jose de Altillo, Mexico, 154, 156
214, 241 du Chateau, Stephane, 318
Bryn Mawr Rubber Factory, Wales, 149 Christian architecture, domes in, 10, 34-35
Buckling Christiansen, john V., 177, 192
abstracts of articles on, 366-70 Church, Gracanica, Yugoslavia, 41
and ACI building codes, 350 Church of Koimisis, Daphni, 40
empirical rules for, 243-45 Church of Mary, Monterrey, Mexico, 149,
Bulfinch, Charles, 83 151, 153
Bunning, J. B., 298 Church of San Antonio de las Huertas,
Buonarroti, Michelangelo. See Michelangelo Mexico City, 156
Burgi garden center, Camarino, Switzerland, Church of San jose Obrero, Monterrey,
170, 173 Mexico, 162, 164
Bus garage, Dusseldorf, Germany, 156 Church of Santa Monica, Mexico City, 168, 171
Byzantine architecture, domes in, 10, 35-41 Church of St. Barbara, Brooklyn, 86
Church of the Apostles, Athens, 39
Church of the Apostles, Constantinople, 39
Cable (tensegrity) domes, 322-24 Church of the Intercession of the Virgin,
Cajundome, Lafayette, Louisiana, 302, 321-22 Moscow, 77, 79
Camelot, de Mailly, and Zehrfuss, 162 Church of the Miraculous Virgin. Mexico,
Camoletti, Bruno, 168 154
Camoletti, Pierre, 170, 173 Church of the Nativity of Our Lady, Moscow,
Camoletti House, Geneva, 170, 173 77, 78
Candela, Felix, 152, 154, 156, 157, 158, 162, Church of the Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, 183
168, 186 Church of the Transfiguration, Kizbi, Soviet
and construction methodology, 104-5, 124, Union, 79, 80
343 Ciba-Geigy water purification plant, Prattelin,
influence on Isler, 190 Switzerland, 170, 174
and shell design, 123, 129-30, 135, 136, Ciba Plant, canopy for, Churubusco, Mexico,
137,275 154, 155
and the Sydney Opera House, 175 Cisterns, domes as, 15
Cantilevered shells, 134-36, 137 Coal Exchange, London, 298
Capitol building, Washington, D.C., 83, 84, Coliseum, Charlotte, North Carolina, 309-10
108, 203 Composite shells, abstracts of articles on,
da Caprarola, Cola, 62 370-74


Computer aided analysis, abstract of article Dow Chemical, 197 - 200

on, 374 del Duca, Giacomo, 65
Computer aided design, abstracts of articles Dyckerhoff-Widmann KG, 156, 182
on, 374 Dywidag System, 219
Concrete, 26,100,122,176-78,259-60
abstracts of articles on, 375
and boat building, 123-27 Earle A. Chiles Center, University of Portland,
and pneumatic forms, 196 Oregon, 110, III
"Concrete Shell Buckling" (American Edge beams. See Auxiliary members
Concrete Institute), 350 Eero Saarinen and Associates, 167
"Concrete Thin Shells" (American Concrete Eiffel, A. G., 299
Institute), 344 Elastic analysis and ACI building codes, 346,
Conoidal shells, 132 - 34, 195 347
Considere, 209 Elasticity, abstracts of articles on, 381
Constillares, building in, Spain, 149, 150 Elastoplasticity, abstracts of articles on, 381- 82
Constructivism, 180 - 81 Electromagnetic field effects, abstract of
Control of shell structures, abstract of article article on, 382
on, 375 Energy dissipation, abstract of article on, 382
Corbeled domes, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21 Engineering Index Annual 1989, The
Corrosion, abstracts of articles on, 375 - 76 (Engineering Information, Inc.), 359
da Cortona, Pietro, 65, 70 Eschmann factory, Switzerland, 170
Cosmic Rays Research Laboratory, University Esquillon, 162
of Mexico, Mexico City, 152, 153 Etruscan domed tombs, 9
Coyne System, 219 Euler's law, 307-8
Creep, abstract of article on, 376 Evans, Allen, 86
Curtis and Davis, 163, 316 Evolution Museum, Eindhoven, Netherlands,
168, 171
Exhibit Hall, Vienna, 299
Dagit, Henry D., 86 Experimental shell design, 182, 190-92
Darb-i Imam, Isfahan, Iran, 49, 50 and ACI building codes, 346, 348
Dardasht Minarets, Isfahan, Iran, 48 thin shell, Jena, Germany, 144, 145
Davazdah Imam Mausoleum, Yazd, Iran, 42, 44 Expo 86, Ontario Pavilion at, Vancouver, 304
Dean Smith Center, Chapel Hill, North Expo 67, U.S. Pavilion at, Montreal, 320
Carolina, 304, 305 Exposition Building, Turin, 156
Deaton, Charles, 203
Defects, abstract of article on, 376
Deflection, abstracts of articles on, 376-77 Factory for John Rennock and Sons, Haughley
Deformation, abstracts of articles on, 377 - 80 Park, Suffolk, England, 108
Del POlO, F., Associates, 141 Failure, abstract of article on, 382
Derizet, Antoine, 70 False domes, 14, 21
Design, abstracts of articles on, 380 - 81 Falsework, 89-90, 97,101,109,178
Desret, Antonio, 70 Felix und Regula Church, Zurich, 206
Dill, R. E., 215 Ferrocement, 124, 125-27, 157
Dirigible Hangar, Orly Airport, Paris, 144 Ferstel, H. von, 298
Dischinger, Franz, 184 Fiberglass formwork, 211
Doehring, W. D., 215 Fiber-reinforced plastic shells, 200 - 202
Domenig, Gunther, 170 Field House, Montana State College, Bozeman,
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 42, 43, 107 108
Domes and shells, abstracts of articles on, 360 Filippone, Odette, 108
Domus Augustana, Rome, 28 - 29 Fioravanti, Rodolfo, 77
Domus Aurea, Rome, 28-29, 30 Florentine Zone, Renaissance domes of, 58-61
Dosio, Giovanni Antonio, 61 Folded plates and ACI building codes, 345
Double-shell construction, 58, 59, 214 Fontana, Carlo, 241, 242


Fontana, Domenico, 63-65, 72, 242 Great Mosque of the Shah, Isfahan, Iran,
Fontana's rules for masonry domes, 242 50-51,52
Forest Products Pavilion, Portland, Oregon, Greek Orthodox Church, Milwaukee, 154, 155
108 Grid domes, 318
Formige,j. C., 299 GT STRUDL. See Georgia Tech Structural
Formwork, 97,104,145,177 Design Language
plastic foam for, 197 - 200 Guastavino, Rafael, 86
pneumatic, 196 - 97 GUM Department Store, Moscow, 299
rubber membrane as, 190, 192 Gunite method, 146, 163, 195
wooden, 196,211 Gur-e Amir Mausoleum, Samarkand, Soviet
Forum Baths, Pompeii, 27 Union, 49, 50
Fougner, N. K., 124
Foundry Building, Milan, 145 Hadrian Villa, Tivoli, 30, 31
Four-gable hyperbolic paraboloids, 278-83 Hardouin-Mansart, Jules, 74
Fowke, F., 298 Hardy, L., 299
Fowler, Charles, 298 Harris County Sports Stadium. See Astrodome
Fracture, abstracts of articles on, 382-83 Harrison and Abramovitz, 193, 220
Framed domes, 311 Haruniyya Tomb, Tus, Iran, 46, 47
Free nodes displacement and computer Hayden Planetarium, Manhattan, 145
analysis, 237 Heat treatment, abstract of article on, 383
Freyssinet, Eugene, 144, 184, 215 Heins and La Farge, 86
Freyssinet System, 219 Helmle and Hubert, 86
Froehlich, Arthur, 174 Hershey Chocolate Company, ice hockey
Fuller, R. Buckminster, 299, 300, 301-2, arena for, Pennsylvania, 192
318-20,322,323 HipOdromo, Caracas, Venezuela, 174, 176
Funicular polygons, 243, 245-46 Hiroshima Peace Center Monument, 181- 82
Funthaus Church, Vienna, 298 Hisatok, T., 110
Historical masonry domes, spans of, 87 (table)
Hoechel, Eric, 168
Gabellini, 124 Hoffmann, Claus, 167
Galla Placidia, Tomb of, Ravenna, 33 Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, 36
Galleria Umberto I, Naples, 299 Hoop forces in domes, 90 - 96
Galleria Victor Emmanuel II, Milan, 298 Hornblower and Marshall, 86
Garcia de Quinones, Andres, 76 Howells and Stokes, 86
Gas Station, Deitingen, Switzerland, 170, 172 Hoyer, E., 215-16
Gaudi, Antonio, 10, 182, 183 Huber, Hunt and Nichols, 316
Gaussian curvature, 117 Hunt, Richard Morris, 299
Geiger, David H., 302-3, 304, 305, 323 Hyperbolic paraboloids, 195, 211
Geldmeister, Charles, 298 in art, 180, 181
General Motors Technical Institute, in Candela's designs, 186
auditorium for, Warren, Michigan, 149, as conoidal surfaces, 132, 133
151 Gaudi's development of, 183
Gensert, R. M., 249 Hyperboloids, 137-42
Geodesic domes, 299-300, 301, 302, 318-20 H yperstatic domes, 204 - 6, 218 - 19
Geometry of shell design, 116, 129-30,305-8
Georgia Tech Structural Design Language
(GT STRUDL), 223 lASS. See International Association for Shells
Gesu Church, Rome, 63 and Spatial Structures
Girard Trust Company, Philadelphia, 86 Ice houses, domes as, 14 -15
Glass and dome design, 297 - 98 Igloos, 22-23
Gonzales Reyna, Jorge, 152 Illinois State University Arena, Normal,
Grand Palais, Louvet, France, 299 Illinois, 303, 323
Gran Madre di Dio, Rome, 83 II Redentore, Venice, 71


Imamzada Sayyid Ishaq Tomb, Saveh, Iran, 46 Kresge Auditorium, Massachusetts Institute of
Imamzada Yahya Mausoleum, Varamin, Iran, Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts,
46, 47 152,154,193,209
Inelastic analysis and ACI building codes, Kuh-i Banan Tomb, Iran, 48, 49
346, 347
Information Pavilion, Brussels, 108
Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn, 85 - 86 La Clerecia Church, Salamanca, Spain, 76
Instituto Tecnico de la Construccion y del Lambot, Joseph-Louis, 124
Cemento, Constillares, Spain, 160 - 61 Lamella domes, 210, 311-18
International Association for Shells and Lardy, Pierre, 190
Spatial Structures (lASS), 221- 22 Larrosa, Manuel, 157
International Exhibition Facility, New Lattice wood shells, Nara, Japan, 110
Orleans, 163, 165 Layne, Henry M., 174
International Exhibition of 1958, Phillips Le Corbusier, 159, 168
Pavilion at, Brussels, 158-59, 161 Lederer, F., 318
I Quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books Lenzlenger Sons Company building,
on Architecture) (Palladio), 71 Switzerland, 170
Ironworks foundry, Lohr, Germany, 161-62 Lesage, 122
Islamic dome, Mimar Sinan's contributions to Les Invalides, Paris, 74
the, 53-55 Leuzinger, Hans, 146
Isler, Heinz, 170, 172, 173, 174, 190-92 Lindsay Park Sports Center, Calgary, Alberta,
Isostatic domes, 204-6, 216, 217 -18 304
luvarra, Filippo, 61 Lissitzky, Elieyer, 180
Little Metropole Cathedral, Athens, 41
Lloyd and Morgan, 313
Jabal I Sang, Kerman, Iran, 45, 46 Lombardo, Pietro, 71
Jackson, P. H., 215 Lombardo, Tullio, 71
Jami Mosque, Ardistan, Iran, 44, 45 Long barrel vaults, 131,244-45,269 (table)
Jami Mosque, Ashtarjan, Iran, 46, 47 Lopez Carmona, Fernando, 154, 156, 162, 168
Jami Mosque, Golpaegan, Iran, 44, 45 Lott, H. A., 313
Jami Mosque, Qazvin, Iran, 44, 46 Loudon, John Claudius, 298
Jami Mosque, Saveh, Iran, 50, 51 Lutheran church, Warsaw, 82
Jami Mosque, Varamin, Iran, 48
Jami Mosque, Zavareh, Iran, 44, 45
Jardin d'Hiver, Laeken Royal Park, Brussels, Macalloy System, 219
299 Mackenzie and Moncur, 298
Jefferson, Thomas, 84 Maderno, Carlo, 65
Johns, Slater & Howard, 108 Madison Square Presbyterian Church, New
Johnson, Drake and Piper, 313 York, 86
Madonna di Loreto, Rome, 65, 67, 68
Madonna di San Biagio, Montepulciano, Italy,
Kaiser Aluminum building, Honolulu, 320 63
Kalff, 168 Maeno, T., 110
Kapnikarea Church, Athens, 39 Magnel, G., 215, 219
Karaganda works, Soviet Union, 213 Magni,83
Khaidukov, G. K., 213 Maguire, C. A., and Associates, 165
Kibble, John, 299 Maillart, Robert, 146, 181, 183
Kibble Palace, Botanic Gardens, Glasgow, 298 Mail-processing facilities, Providence, Rhode
Kiewitt, G. R., 313 Island, 165, 166, 167
Kiewittdomes, 311-12, 313-16 Makowsi, Z. S., 313
Kilns, domes as, 14, 15 -16 Manetti, Antonio, 60
Kingdome, Seattle, 176-78, 192, 324 Manufacture, abstracts of articles on, 383-84
Kirsis, Uldis, 249 Marcus, Henri, 313


Market, Agadir, Morocco, 318 Nehrbass, Neil, 302

Market Hall, Algeciras, Spain, 144-45 Nervi, Pier Luigi, 136, 156, 158, 159, 163,
Market Hall, Royan, France, 154 184-85
Mashhad-i Mir Buzurg Shrine, Amul, Iran, and boat design, 125
51,52 and construction strategies, 105, 178, 195
Masonry shells, 21, 22, 83, 89-92, 96-99, and the Sydney Opera House, 175
259-60 Nervi e Bartolli Construction Company, 156,
spans of historical domes, 87 (table) 160
and trussed domes, 297 Network domes, 310-11
Mathematical models, abstracts of articles on, New Corn Exchange, Leeds, 298
384-85 "New Shapes for Shells" (Isler), 190
Matsushita, Fujio, 318 New York University, New York, 85
Mausoleum of Sultan Muhammad Adil Shah, Niccolini Chapel, San Croce, Florence, 61
Bijapur, India, 51, 53 Niemeyer, Oscar, 167
May-D & F Department Store, Denver, Nikken Sekkei Ltd., 325
157 -58, 159 Noise abatement, abstracts of articles on, 385
McDonald Brothers, 85 Nolan, Norman and Nolan, 316
McGuire nuclear power plant, Cornelius, Nondestructive examination, abstract of article
North Carolina, 179 on, 385
McKim, Mead and White, 85, 86 Nonspherical shells, 255, 256- 57 (tables)
McKinley National Memorial, Canton, Ohio, Nuclear reactors, 178-79
86 Nuraghi, 16, 18-20
McSweeney, Ryan and Lee, 163
Medici Chapel, Florence, 63
Mengoni, G., 298 Obata, 142
Mesnager, 209 Oconee nuclear power plant, Seneca, South
Mesopotamia, vaults and domes in, 25 - 26 Carolina, 179
Metal sheathing, 298 Octagonal Roof, Villaverde, Spain, 145, 146
Michelangelo, 63, 64, 65, 214 Odell Associates, 309
Michelozzi, 61 Olympic Games of 1988, buildings for, Seoul,
Mihailescu, Mircea, 187 Korea,303,323,324
Minerva Medica, Rome, 30-32 Opera House, Sydney, Australia, 129, 136,
Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, 320 174-76,184
Model analysis and ACI building codes, 348 Origins of domes, 4 - 5
Mole Antonelliana, Turin, 82 Otto, Frei, 110
de Montferrand, Auguste Ricard, 298 Outdoor shelter, Sancti Spiriti, Spain, 149, 151
Moore, Walter, 313
de la Mora, Enrique, 149, 154, 156, 162, 168
Morisseau, Andre, 154 Paez, A., 141
Mosque of Gawhar Shad, Mashhad, Iran, 49, 50 Palace of the Assembly, Chandigarh, India,
Mouton, William, 302, 320-22 168,171
Muller-Grah, Walter, 182 Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, 156-57,210,
Murphy and Mackey, 320 211
Mushtaquiyya'Ali Shah, Kerman, Iran, 53 Palazzo dei Congressi, E.U.R., Rome, 146,
Music Pavilion, "Santa Fe" Housing Project, 148 .
Mexico City, 135-36 Palazzo dello Sport, Rome, 159-60, 161
Myers, E. E., 84 Palladio, Andrea, 71, 249
Palmer and Hornbostel, 86
Palm House, Munich, 298
Nagase, T., 110 Palm House at Sefton Park, Liverpool, 298
Naramore, Bain, Brady and Johanson, 177 Pani, Aldo, 135
Nash, John, 298 Pantheon, Paris, 82, 83
Nea Moni Chios, Athens, 40 Pantheon, Rome, 29-30, 89, 102


Paolina Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore, Reichstag, Berlin, 301

Rome, 65 Reinforced concrete, 4, 82, 86, 124, 143,
Parker, 122 193-94
Parsons, John K., and Associates, 109 Residence, Pougny, France, 168, 169
Pazzi Chapel, Florence, 60 Restaurant, Xochimilco, Mexico, 158, 160, 190
Pei, I. M., and Associates, 141, 158 Ribbed shells and ACI building codes, 345
Peller, Miklos, 249 Ricchini, Francesco, 61
Perret, Auguste, 151 Rivergate Exhibition Hall, New Orleans, 192
Pevsner, Antoine, 180, 181 Roberts and Schaefer Company, 141, 158,
Pevsner, Naum, 181 192-93
Physical Education Building, De Kalb, Illinois, Robinson and Associates, 163
193 Rocco, Emanuele, 299
Piacentini, Marcello, 159 Rock-cut tombs, 13 -14
Pierson, James G., 108 Rodchenko, Alexander, 180
Planetarium, St. Louis, Missouri, 142 Rodef Sholem Synagogue, Pittsburgh, 86
Planetarium, Trenton, New Jersey, 212 -13 Roebling System, 219
Plasticity, abstract of article on, 385 Roman architecture, domes and vaults in,
Plastics applications, abstracts of articles on, 26-32
386 Roman Zone, Renaissance domes of, 61-70
Platonic solids, 306, 319 Roof Structures, Inc., 311, 313
Pneumatic domes, 324-25 Rosati, Rosato, 70
Pneumatic forming, 196-97 Rosell, Guillermo, 157
Point supports for domes, 206, 207 Rossman and Partners, 109
Poleni, Giovanni, 241, 243 Rotunda, University of Virginia,
Polygonal domes, 34 - 35 Charlottesville, 84-85
Polyhedra as trussed domes, 305 - 8 Royal Brighton Pavilion, 298
Ponzio, Flaminio, 65 RSG Architects, 110
Porro, Ricardo, 149 Russell, S., Hansehauer, and Schmidt, 299
della Porta, Giacomo, 63 - 65
Portinari Chapel in San Eustogio, Florence, 61
Portland Cement Association, 221 Saarinen, Eero, 149, 152, 175, 186
Posttensioning, 125 - 26, 215, 219 - 20 Saarinen, Eliel, 149
Power station, Grandval, France, 318 Saddle-type hyperbolic paraboloids, 271-77
Pozzolana, 96, 100, 122 Sado, 320
Prader and Cie., 146 Saints Martina and Luca, Rome, 65, 67
Praeger, Kavanagh and Waterbury, 177,313 Salvi, Dioti, 57
Precast shell technology, 195, 211 - 13 San Andrea, Rome, 63
Preload Company, 215 San Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, 69
Pressure effects, abstract of article on, 386 San Andrea della Valle, Rome, 65
Prestressing, 125 - 26, 141-42, 195, 215 -19 San Carlino, Rome, 67 -68,69, 89
Protestant Church, Warsaw, 76 San Carlo, Milan, 83
Pseudoshells, 23-24, 202-3 San Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, 70
San Carlo al Corso, Rome, 70
San Claudio e San Andrea dei Borgognoni,
Qubab structures, 6
Rome, 70
da Sangallo, Antonio, 63
Race Track, Madrid, 146, 147 da Sangallo, Giuliano, 61
Rainaldi, 69 San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, 71
Rastrelli, Carlo Bartolomeo, 79 San Giuseppe, Milan, 61
Ravelli, L., 156 San Ivo della Sapienza, Rome, 68, 69
"Recommendations for Concrete Shells and San Lorenzo, Florence, 60
Folded Plates" (International Association San Salvatore, Venice, 71
for Shell and Spatial Structures), 344 San Satiro, Milan, 62


San Sebastiano, Mantua, 61 Sound insulation, abstract of article on, 386

San Sebastiano, Milan, 61 Space frames, 116,297,299-300,320-22
San Spirito, Florence, 60 Spavento, Giorgio Pietro, 71
Sant' Agnese, Rome, 68 Specchie, 20
Santa Maria dei Miracoli, Rome, 69-70 Spherical shells, dimensions for, 120 (table),
Santa Maria dei Miracoli, Venice, 71 250 (tables), 252-53 (table), 254-55
Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, 58-60, 72, (table)
89,102,103,214 Spiral Generation, 197 - 200
Santa Maria della Consolazione, Todi, Italy, Spirex Structures, Inc., 200
62-63 Sports building, Northern Arizona University,
Santa Maria delle Carceri, Prato, Italy, 61 Flagstaff, 108 - 9, III
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, 62 Sports center, Tbilisi, Soviet Union, 213
Santa Maria di Monte Santo, Rome, 69 Sports complex, Chamonix, France, 170, 173
Santa Maria in Carignano, Genoa, Italy, 61 Sports complex, University of Northern
Santissimo Nome di Maria, Rome, 70 Michigan, Marquette, 110-11
San Tommaso Villanova, Castel Gandolfo, Squinches, 207 - 8
Rome, 68 St. Andrew's Cathedral, Kiev, 79-81
Sarger, Rene, 154 St. Antony of Padova Church, Warsaw, 74
Savvestic, L., 299 St. Augustin, Paris, 298
Schaarschmidt, F., 167 St. Basil, Moscow, 41
School addition, Graz-Eggenberg, Austria, St. Casimir, Warsaw, 74
170, 174 St. Costanza, Rome, 33
School of Plastic Arts, Havana, 149, 152 St. Fosca, Torcello, Italy, 41
Schulze, 299 St. Francis de Sales Church, Philadelphia, 86
Schwedler, Johann Wilhelm, 300- 301 St. Front, Perigueux, France, 41
Schwedler domes, 309 -1 0, 327 - 30 St. George, Salonica, Greece, 33
Scott, H. G., 298 St. Irene, Constantinople, 39
Senate and Chamber of Deputies, Brasilia, 167 St. Isaac's Cathedral, St. Petersburg, Soviet
Sesi, 16, 18 Union, 79
Severud, Fred, Elstadt, and Kruger, 309 St. Mark's, Venice, 40
Shah Firuz, Tomb of, Sirjan, Iran, 48,49 St. Mary's Cathedral, San Francisco, 163, 166
Shah Mosque, Mashhad, Iran, 49,50 St. Mary's Cathedral, Tokyo, 168, 169, 170
Shell reinforcement and ACI building codes, St. Paul's, London, 74-76
351-54 St. Paul's Chapel, Columbia University, New
Short barrel vaults, 130, 131,264-66 (tables) York, 86
Shrine of Fatima, Qum, Iran, 50, 52 St. Peter's, Rome, 58, 63-65, 66, 67, 72,
Shrine of Shaykh Ni'Matallah, Mahan, Iran, 214,242
49,51 St. Petersburg Cathedral, St. Petersburg,
Sicily Company, Geneva, 170, 172 Soviet Union, 298
Siegel, C., and R. Wonneberg, 162 St. Sophia, Constantinople, 36-39, 89, 102
Sigismund Chapel, Cracow, Poland, 73-74 St. Sophia, Novgorod, Soviet Union, 40
Silos, domes as, 14 St. Theodore, Athens, 40
Silverstein, Edward and Associates, 163, 316 St. Theodore, Constantinople, 41
Simon, Louis, 154 St. Theodore Stratelates, Novgorod, Soviet
Sinan, Mimar, 53-55 Union, 77
Sistine Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore, St. Theodosia, Constantinople, 41
Rome, 63 St. Vincent's Chapel, Coyoacan, Mexico,
Skilling, Helle, Christiansen and Robertson, 162-63, 165
163, 177 St. Vitale, Ravenna, 39
Smithsonian Museum, Washington, D.C., 86 Stabian Baths, Pompeii, 27
Smolny Convent, St. Petersburg, Soviet Stability, abstracts of articles on, 386-88
Union, 79 State Capitol Building, Boston, 83
Souffiot, Jacques, 82 State Capitol Building, Denver, 84


Statical analysis of structures, 300, 301 Terminal building for Trans World Airlines,
Steel, abstract of article on, 388 Kennedy Airport, New York, 149, 152,
Steel and dome design, 82, 86, 87 (table), 299 167, 168, 169,209
Storage shed, Ferrara, Italy, 146 Testing, abstracts of articles on, 396-97
Storrs, John W., 108 Thatched domes, 21, 22
Strain, abstracts of articles on, 388 - 89 Theiler, Otto, 170
Stresses, abstracts of articles on, 389 - 93 Theodoric, Tomb of, Ravenna, Italy, 33-34
Structural analysis, abstracts of articles on, Theory, abstracts of articles on, 397 -99
393-96 "Theory of Bridge Girder Systems"
Structural behavior of shells, 89-90,122-23, (Schwedler), 300
210-11 Thermae of Agrippa, Rome, 27
conoidal domes, 95-96 Thermae of Caracalla, Rome, 30
spherical domes, 90 - 94 Thermae of Diocletian, Rome, 32
thin shells, 143 Thermal effects, abstracts of articles on, 399
Structural design, abstracts of articles on, 396 Thermoelasticity, abstracts of articles on,
STRUDL II, 327 399-400
Stupas, 23-24 Thin shells, 119-20, 135, 143, 193-94
Styrofoam, 197 - 200, 202 and ACI building codes, 343, 345
Suncoast Dome, St. Petersburg, Florida, 303, computer analysis of, 223-37
323, 324 experimentation on, 144, 145, 182
Superdome, New Orleans, 176, 177, 316, 324 and ferrocement, 125
Superga, Turin, 61 Tibaldi, Pellegrino, 61
Suuronen, Matti, 201 Tile domes, 86
Sverdrup and Parcel, 316 Timber Development Association, 108
Swimming pool, Draney, France, 318 Timbrel vaulting, 100 -1 02
Swiss National Exhibition, Cement Hall at, T.M.P. Associates, 110
Zurich, 146, 148 Tombs, rock-cut, 13 -14
Symbolism of domes, 4 - 11 Tomb Tower, Lajin, Iran, 42, 44
Synclastic shells, 115, 117, 118 Toroidal shells, 153
Syon House, 298 Torroja Miret, Eduardo, 141, 144, 145, 146,
Trade fair building, Afghanistan, 320
Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, 14
Tacoma Dome, Tacoma, Washington, Trosch Company factory, Switzerland, 170
109-10, III Trowbridge and Livingston, 145
Tacoma Dome Associates, 109-10 Tylman of Gameren, 74
Taillibert, R., 170
Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 53, 54
Takenaka Komuten Company, 325 Umbrella-type hyperbolic paraboloids, 283-93
Talayots, 21 UNESCO building, entrance canopy for, Paris,
Talin, Vladimir Evgrafovitch, 180 136,137
Tange, Kenzo, 168, 181 Union Tank Car Company plant, Baton
Tedesko, Anton, 146, 185-86, 192 Rouge, Louisiana, 320
Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 62 Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical
Temple of Diana, Baiae, Italy, 27 Society, San Diego, 299
Temple of Mercury, Baiae, Italy, 28 University of Illinois, Assembly Hall, Urbana,
Temple of Venus, Baalbek, Syria, 32 193
Temple of Venus, Baiae, Italy, 27 University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 85
Temple of Vesta, Rome, 30 Utzon, Jorn, 136, 175
Tennis center, Heimburg, Switzerland, 170
Tensegrity, 322, 323
Terminal building, St. Louis airport, St. Louis, Vacchini, F., 158
Missouri, 152, 154, 155 Van Buren Magonigk, H., 86


Vannoni, C., 158 Wooden domes, 86, 88 (table), 106-11,203

Varax wood domes, 110, 111 Wooden formwork, 196
Vault abutments, Blondel's rule for, 242-43 World's Columbian Exposition, administration
Vaulting, 4-5,26,89,99-100,101 building for, New York, 299
Venetian Zone, Renaissance domes, 70-71 World's Fair of 1853, Crystal Palace at, New
Vibrations, abstracts of articles on, 400-405 York,298
Victoria Regia House, Schoneburg Royal World's Fair of 1878, three domes at, Paris,
Botanic Garden, Berlin, 299 299
da Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi, 61, 63 World's Fair of 1889, central dome for, Paris,
Villa Capra (Villa Rotonda), Vicenza, Italy, 71 299
Villa Trissino, Vicenza, Italy, 71 World's Fair of 1900, Palais des Machines,
Viscoelasticity, abstracts of articles on, 405 Paris, 299
Vitellozzi, Annibel, 156 Wren, Christopher, 74
Vitruvius, 249 Wright, Donald R., 197-98
Voit, A. von, 298 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 154
von Emperger's Handbuch (Dischinger), 184 Wrought iron and dome design, 297 -98
Wyatts, 122
Wyss Garden Center, Solo Thurn,
Wada, M., 110 Switzerland, 170, 172
Walter, Thomas Ustick, 83
Water tower, Fedala, Spain, 141-42
Wave effects, abstract of article on, 405
Western Wood Structures, 110, III Yamasaki, Minoru, 152
White, Stanford, 85
Wieskopt and Pickworth, 145
Wilhelma Botanical Garden, Stuttgart, 298 Zanth, Ludwig von, 298
Wilson, Morris, Crain and Anderson, 313 Zimmermann, Hermann, 30 I
Wind effects, abstract of article on, 405 Zimmermann domes, 311
Wind forces, 246 Zug, Szymon Bugumil, 76, 82