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Shells and Folded Plates*

Since concrete is the basic, most common material for the construction of thin shells,

the requirements of such specific codes as those of the American Concrete Institute

must be followed. Unfortunately, for many years these codes did not address in

specific terms the unique problems related to thin shells, so that in the absence of

special provisions only the common rules on concrete structures could in general be

followed. One major result has been a great thickness for shells being imposed by

minimum cover requirements for steel reinforcement. Naturally, code requirements

vary from country to country, so that although ACI restrictions were enforced in the

United States, shells only three-quarters of an inch thick were legally possible in

Mexico, as demonstrated by the numerous thin shells there by Felix Candela.

The ACI's design provisions for shells and folded plates are covered in Chapter

19 of its code. These include such major topics as definitions, criteria for structural

and model analysis, reinforcement, prestressing, and construction. In separating the

supporting members of a thin shell structure from its whole, the code explicitly

specifies that Chapter 19's provisions apply only on the thin shell portion of the

structure. The edge beams, columns, footings, and other supporting members are

covered by other chapters in the code. Naturally, thin shell designs should also be

controlled by the rest of the code, except for provisions that may conflict with those

in Chapter 19.

*From Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-89). The full text of

Chapter 19 and its Commentary are reprinted with the permission of the American Concrete

Institute, Detroit.

343

ACI Buildina Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.0-NOTATION

Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi (see

8.5.1)

Fe = specified compressive strength of concrete,

psi

= square root of specified compressive strength

of concrete, psi

= specified yield strength of nonprestressed re-

inforcement, psi

= thickness of shell or folded plate, in.

= develop length, in.

= strength reduction factor (see 9.3)

This code and commentary provides building

code information on the design, analysis, and

construction of concrete thin shells and folded

plates. The process began in 1964 with the pub-

lication of a practice and commentary by ACI

Committee 334,19.1 and continued with the in-

clusion of Chapter 19 in ACI Building Code

ACI 318-71 and in later editions. The current

revision reflects additional experience in de-

sign, analysis, and construction gained since the

earlier publications, and was influenced by the

publication of the "Recommendations for

Concrete Shells and Folded Plates" of the In-

ternational Association for Shell and Spatial

Structures (lASS) in 1979. 19 .2

Since Chapter 19 applies to concrete thin

shells and folded plates of all shapes, extensive

discussion of their design, analysis, and con-

struction in the commentary is not possible. Ad-

ditional information can be obtained from the

references listed at the end of this chapter,

which are provided for the assistance of the

designer. They are not an official part of the

code. The designer is responsible for their in-

terpretation and use. Particular emphasis on de-

velopments and practice in the United States is

given in "Concrete Thin Shells," ACI

SP_28. 19-3

thin shell and folded plate concrete structures, thin shells and folded plate concrete structures

including ribs and edge members. in building construction. Discussion of the ap-

plication of thin shells in special structures such

as cooling towers and circular prestressed con-

crete tanks may be found in the reports of ACI-

ASCE Committee 334 19.4 and ACI Committee

344. 19 .5

344

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

cally excluded, and not in conflict with provi-

sions of Chapter 19 shall apply to thin-shell

structures.

19.1.3 Thin shells: three-dimensional spatial R 19.1. 3 Common types of thin shells are

structures made up of one or more curved slabs domes (surfaces of revolution), 19.3. 19.6-19.9 cy-

or folded plates whose thicknesses are small lindrical shells, 19.3. 19.6. 19.8. 19.10-19.15 conoids,

compared to their other dimensions. Thin shells 19.6. 19.16-19.18 elliptical paraboloids, 19.6. 19.19 hy-

are characterized by their three-dimensional perbolic paraboloids, 19.3. 19.6. 19.8. 19.19-19.28 and

load-carrying behavior which is determined by groin vauIts.19.3. 19.19. 19.29. 19.30 Considerable in-

the geometry of their forms, by the manner in formation on the experience gained in the de-

which they are supported, and by the nature of sign, analysis and construction of these shells

the applied load. may be found in the cited references.

Less experience is available regarding other

shell types or shapes, including free-form shells.

However, a number of these have been success-

fully built.

Thin shell elements are slabs or plates with

thicknesses less than one-fifth the transverse

width and less than one-twentieth the radius of

curvature on span lengths.

19.1.4 Folded plates: a special class of shell R19.1.4 Folded plates may be prismatic,19.3.

structures formed by joining flat, thin slabs 19.6. 19.31-33 nonprismatic,19.34 or faceted. The

along their edges so as to create a three-dimen- first two types, which are the most common,

sional spatial structure. consist generally of planar thin slabs joined

along their longitudinal edges to form a beam-

like structure spanning between supports. Fac-

eted folded plates, which are much less com-

mon, are made up of triangular and/or poly-

gonal planar thin slabs joined along their edges

to form three-dimensional spatial structures

similar to continuously curved thin shells such

as domes or other shell forms. Only limited ex-

perience is available on the design, analysis, and

construction of faceted folded plates.

19.1.5 Ribbed shells: spatial structures with R19.1.5 Ribbed shells I9.3. 19.35. 19.36 generally

material placed primarily along certain pre- have been used for larger spans where the in-

ferred rib lines, with the area between the ribs creased thickness of the curved slab alone be-

filled with thin slabs or left open. comes excessive or uneconomical. Ribbed shells

also have been used because of the construction

techniques employed and to enhance the aes-

thetic impact of the completed structure.

19.1.6 Auxiliary members: ribs or edge beams R 19.1.6 Most thin shell structures require ribs

which serve to strengthen, stiffen, and/or sup- or edge beams at their boundaries to carry the

port the shell; usually, auxiliary members act shell boundary forces, to assist in transmitting

jointly with the shell. them to the supporting structure, and to accom-

modate the increased amount of reinforcement

in these areas.

345

ACI BUilding Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.1.7 Elastic analysis: an analysis of defor- R 19.1. 7 Elastic analysis of thin shells and

mations and internal forces based on equilib- folded plates means any method of structural

rium, compatibility of strains, and assumed elas- analysis which is based on assumptions which

tic behavior, and representing to suitable provide suitable approximations to the three-

approximation the three-dimensional action of dimensional behavior of the structure. The

the shell together with its auxiliary members. method must provide the internal forces and

displacements needed in the design of the shell

proper, the rib or edge members, and the sup-

porting structure. Equilibrium of internal

forces and external loads and compatibility of

deformations must be satisfied.

Methods of elastic analysis based on classical

shell theory, simplified mathematical or analyti-

cal models, or numerical solutions using finite

e1ement,19.37 finite differences, or numerical in-

tegration techniques, are described in the cited

references.

The choice of the method of analysis and the

degree of accuracy required depend on certain

critical factors. These include: the size of the

structure, the geometry of the thin shell or

folded plate, the manner in which the structure

is supported, the nature of the applied load and,

finally, the extent of personal or documented

experience regarding the reliability of the given

method of analysis in predicting the behavior of

the specific type of shell or folded plate.

19.1.8 Inelastic analysis: an analysis of defor- R19.1.8 Inelastic analysis of thin shells and

mations and internal forces based on equilib- folded plates means a refined method of analy-

rium, nonlinear stress-strain relations for con- sis based on the specific nonlinear material

crete and reinforcement, consideration of properties, nonlinear behavior due to the crack-

cracking and time dependent effects, and com- ing of concrete, and time dependent effects

patibility of strains. The analysis shall represent such as creep, shrinkage, temperature, and load

to suitable approximation the three-dimen- history. These effects are incorporated in order

sional action of the shell together with its auxil- to trace the response and crack propagation of a

iary members. reinforced concrete shell through the elastic,

inelastic and ultimate ranges. Such analyses usu-

ally require incremental loading and iterative

procedures to converge on solutions which sat-

isfy both equilibrium and strain compatibil-

ity.19.38 Analysis of this type generally requires

extensive computer time.

cedure based on the measurement of deforma-

tions and/or strains of the structure or its

model; experimental analysis is based on either

elastic or inelastic behavior.

346

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2.1 Elastic behavior shall be an accepted R19.2.1 For types of shell structures where

basis for determining internal forces, and dis- experience, tests, and analyses have shown that

placements, of thin shells. This behavior may be the structure can sustain reasonable overloads

established by computations based on an analy- without undergoing brittle failure, elastic analy-

sis of the uncracked concrete structure in which sis is a generally acceptable procedure. The de-

the material is assumed linearly elastic, homoge- signer may assume that reinforced concrete is

neous, and isotropic. Poisson's ratio of concrete ideally elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic,

may be assumed equal to zero. having identical properties in all directions.

Poisson's ratio may be assumed equal to zero

since in concrete shells the three-dimensional

effects of Poisson's ratio are not very signifi-

cant. In shells of unusual size, shape, or com-

plexity, the analysis should consider behavior

through the elastic, cracking, inelastic, and fac-

tored load.

For unusual shell types, it is important to

verify that the elastic behavior is not terminated

by a brittle failure.

19.2.2 Inelastic analyses may be used where it R19.2.2 Inelastic analysis procedures will gen-

can be shown that such methods provide a safe erally require extensive use of computer proce-

basis for design. dures. Several references indicate possible solu-

tion methods.19.~8-19.40

ances and external loads shall be made to en-

sure consistency of results.

347

ACI Buildino Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

procedures may be used where it can be shown procedures is available. The designer must en-

that such procedures provide a safe basis for sure that the method selected is appropriate.

design. The finite element method can be used to sat-

isfy displacement compatibility and boundary

conditions. It does not necessarily satisfy overall

or local equilibrium with sufficient accuracy un-

less a fine enough finite element mesh size is

used. Other computational techniques include

finite difference and numerical integration

methods. Experimental analysis of elastic

models has been used as a substitute for an ana-

lytical solution of a complex shell structure. Ex-

perimental analysis of reinforced micro-con-

crete models through the elastic, cracking,

inelastic, and ultimate ranges should be consid-

ered for shells of unusual size, shape, complex-

ity, or importance.

For model analysis, only those portions of

the structure which affect significantly the items

under study need be simulated. Every attempt

should be made to ensure that the experiments

reveal the quantitative behavior of the proto-

type structure.

Similarly, wind tunnel tests of a scaled-down

model do not necessarily provide usable results

and should be conducted by a recognized ex-

pert in wind tunnel testing of structural

models. 19.41

19.2.5 Approximate methods of analysis not R19.2.5 In general, solutions that include

satisfying compatibility of strains either within both membrane and bending effects and satisfy

the shell or between the shell and auxiliary compatibility of strains and equilibriums are

members may be used where it can be shown preferred. Approximate solutions which satisfy

that such methods provide a safe basis for statics but not the compatibility of strains may

design. be used only when extensive experience has

proved that safe designs have resulted from

their use. Such methods include beam-type

analysis for barrel shells and folded plates hav-

ing large ratios of span to either width or radius

of curvature, simple membrane analysis for

shells of revolution, and others in which the

equations of equilibrium are satisfied, while the

strain compatibility equations are not.

However, in complex structures where sev-

eral shells join together, or where shells join

auxiliary members, a more accurate analysis

should be used.

348

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2.6 In prestressed shells, the analysis must RI9.2.6 If the shell is prestressed, the analysis

also consider behavior under loads induced must include its strength at factored loads as

during prestressing, at cracking load, and at well as its adequacy under service loads, the

factored load. Where prestressing tendons are load which causes cracking, and the behavior

draped within a shell, design shall take into ac- under loads induced during prestressing. This

count force components on the shell resulting was recommended in ACI 318R-77, 19.2.3,

from tendon profile not lying in one plane. and was moved to the code for clarity. Axial

forces due to draped prestressed tendons may

not lie in one plane and due consideration must

be given to the resulting force components.

The effects of post-tensioning of supporting

members on the shell must be taken into

account.

19.2.7 The thickness h of a thin shell, and its RI9.2.7 In general, Chapter 19 assumes the

reinforcement, shall be proportioned for the use of the strength design method of 8.1.1. On

required strength and serviceability. All ele- this basis the thin shell's thickness and rein-

ments shall be proportioned by the same forcement must be proportioned to satisfy the

method, using either the strength design strength provisions of this code, so as to resist

method of 8.1.1 or the alternate design method internal forces obtained from an analysis, an

of 8.1.2. experimental model study, or a combination

thereof. The thickness of the shell is often dic-

tated not by the requirements of strength, but

by the limitation of deflection of edge members,

by the requirements of stability imposed by

19.2.8, or by the required reinforcement cover

and the construction exigencies.

The necessary thickness and reinforcement

may be also provided by using the alternate

design method prescribed in 8.1.2. The design

method chosen shall be used consistently

throughout the structure.

If composite action is involved, the provi-

sions of Chapter 17 must be satisfied. Chapter

16 applies if elements are precast. When shell or

folded plate elements are precast and connected

by cast-in-place segments, composite action

must be considered.

349

ACI BUilding Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2.8 Shell design shall investigate and pre- R19.2.8 Thin shells, like other structures that

clude the possibility of general or local insta- experience in-plane compressive forces, are

bility. subject to buckling when the applied load

reaches a critical value. Because of the surface-

like geometry of shells, the problem of calculat-

ing buckling load is complex. If one of the prin-

cipal membrane forces is tensile, the shell is less

likely to buckle than if both principal mem-

brane forces were compressive. The kinds of

membrane forces that develop in a shell depend

on its initial shape and the manner in which the

shell is supported and loaded. In some types of

shells, post-buckling behavior must be consid-

ered in determining safety against instability. 19.2

Investigation of thin shells for stability shall

consider the effect of the following factors: (1)

anticipated deviation of the geometry of the

shell surface as built from the idealized, perfect

geometry, (2) large deflections, (3) creep and

shrinkage of concrete, (4) inelastic properties of

materials, (5) cracking of concrete, (6) location,

amount, and orientation of reinforcement, and

(7) possible deformation of supporting ele-

ments.

For shells of moderate size, the smallest

practical shell thickness used in reinforced con-

crete construction is such that the danger of

buckling is usually minimal and simplified anal-

yses suffice. Practical measures to improve re-

sistance to buckling successfully used in the past

include the provision of two mats of rein-

forcement - one near each outer surface of the

shell, a local increase of shell curvatures, the use

of ribbed shells, and the use of concrete with

high tensile strength and low creep.

A practical procedure for determining criti-

cal buckling loads of shells is given in the lASS

recommendations. 19.2 Some recommendations

for buckling design of domes used in industrial

applications are given in ACI Committee 344

Report. 19.5 Approaches for other shells are con-

tained in "Concrete Shell Buckling," ACI

SP_67. 19,42

350

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.2.9 Auxiliary members shall be designed RI9.2.9 Auxiliary members must be designed

according to the applicable provisions of this in accord with the general provisions of the

code. The design method selected for shell ele- code, using one of the two methods prescribed

ments under 19.2.7 shall also be used for auxil- in 8.1, which is consistent with the design

iary members. A portion of the shell equal to method of the shell elements. Portions of the

the flange width specified in 8.10 may be as- shell may be utilized as flanges for transverse or

sumed to act with the auxiliary member. In longitudinal frames or arch-frames and beams.

such portions of the shell, the reinforcement Such flanges may be curved or sloping. Canti-

perpendicular to the auxiliary member shall be lever action of the flanges must be investigated

at least equal to that required for the flange of a in determining reinforcement in the flange per-

T-beam by 8.10.5. pendicular to the longitudinal axis of the sup-

porting member, as required by Chapter 8. In

all cases, at least the minimum shrinkage and

temperature reinforcement must be used.

19.3.1 Specified compressive strength of con-

crete!,. at 28 days shall not be less than 3,000

psi.

stressed reinforcement J, shall not exceed

60,000 psi.

19.4.1 Shell reinforcement shall be provided R19.4.1 At any point in a shell, two different

to resist tensile stresses from internal membrane kinds of internal forces may occur simulta-

forces, to resist bending and twisting moments, neously: those associated with membrane ac-

to control shrinkage and temperature cracking, tion, and those associated with bending of the

and as special reinforcement at shell bounda- shell. The membrane forces are assumed to act

ries, load attachments, and shell openings. in the tangential plane midway between the sur-

faces of the shell and are the two axial forces

and the membrane shears. Flexural effects in-

clude bending moments, twisting moments, and

the associated transverse shears.

vided in two or more directions in all parts of provided to carry the full calculated membrane

the shell. tension forces with no tensile stress carried by

concrete. Throughout the shell membrane re-

inforcement must be provided in at least two

approximately orthogonal directions. In high

stress areas, a third layer of membrane rein-

forcement may be utilized.

19.4.3 The area of shell reinforcement at any R19.4.3 Minimum membrane reinforcement

section as measured in two orthogonal direc- corresponding to slab shrinkage and tempera-

tions shall not be less than the slab shrinkage or ture reinforcement must be provided in at least

temperature reinforcement required by 7.12. two approximately orthogonal directions even

if the calculated membrane forces are compres-

sive in one or more directions.

351

ACI BuiJdina Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

membrane forces shall be provided so that the strength in every direction is based on safety

design strength in every direction shall be at considerations. Any method of design which as-

least equal to the component of the principal sures sufficient strength consistent with equilib-

membrane forces in the same direction due to rium is considered acceptable. The direction of

factored loads. the principal membrane tensile force at any

point may sometimes vary depending on the

direction, magnitudes, and combinations of the

various applied loads.

The magnitude of the internal membrane

forces, acting at any point due to a specific load

system, generally is calculated on the basis of an

elastic theory in which the shell is assumed un-

cracked. The computation of the required

amount of reinforcement to resist the internal

membrane forces has been traditionally based

on the assumption that concrete cannot resist

tension. A great many shell structures have

been successfully designed and constructed

over the years. This experience provides evi-

dence of the adequacy of this approach. The

associated deflections, and the possibility of

cracking, should be investigated in the service-

ability phase of the design.

Where reinforcement is not placed in the

direction of the principal tensile forces and

where cracks at the service load level would be

objectionable, the computation of reinforce-

ment may have to be based on more refined

approaches I9 .43. 19.44 which consider the exis-

tence of cracks. In the cracked state, the con-

crete is assumed unable to resist either tension

or shear. Thus, equilibrium is attained by

means of tensile resisting forces in reinforce-

ment and compressive resisting forces in

concrete.

19.4.5 The area of shell tension reinforce- R19.4.5 The requirement that the tensile re-

ment shall be limited so that the reinforcement inforcement yield before the concrete crushes is

will yield before crushing of concrete in com- consistent with 10.3.3. In shells, initial crushing

pression can take place. of the concrete is not likely to occur. However,

it has been suggested that such crushing would

occur in some portions of some shells where the

principal membrane forces are approximately

equal and opposite in sign. It can be shown l9 .45

that a limit on the maximum amount of rein-

forcement effective in resisting the principal

tensile membrane force will insure that the

crushing of concrete does not take place before

the yielding of reinforcement. The limit sug-

gested on the ratio of reinforcement in any por-

tion of shell is the smaller of 0.6f'. J, or 2,400/

J,. These limits are the same as those used in

ACI 318-77 but are expressed here in ratio

form.

352

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

[Code] [Commentary]

19.4.6 In regions of high tension, membrane RI9.4.6 It is generally desirable for all shells

reinforcement shall, if practical, be placed in and particularly important in regions of sub-

the general directions of the principal tensile stantial tension that the directions of reinforce-

membrane forces. Where this is not practical, it ment approximate the directions of the princi-

is permitted to place membrane reinforcement pal tensile membrane forces. However, in some

in two or more component directions. structures it is not always possible or practical

for the reinforcement to follow the stress trajec-

tories. For such cases, orthogonal component

reinforcing is allowed.

19.4.7 If the direction of reinforcement varies RI9.4.7 When the directions of reinforce-

more than I 0 deg from the direction of princi- ment deviate significantly (10 deg) from the di-

pal tensile membrane force, the amount of rein- rections of the principal membrane forces,

forcement may have to be increased to limit the higher strains in the shell must occur to develop

width of possible cracks at service load levels. the capacity of reinforcement. 19.44 This might

lead to the development of unacceptably wide

cracks. The crack width should be estimated

and controlled if necessary.

Permissible crack widths for service loads

under different environmental conditions are

given in the report of ACI Committee 224.19.46

Crack width can be limited by an increase in the

amount of reinforcement used, by reducing the

stress at the service load level, by providing re-

inforcement in three or more directions in the

plane of the shell, or by using closer spacing of

smaller diameter bars rather than wider spaced

larger bars.

19.4.8 Where the magnitude of the principal RI9.4.S The practice of concentrating tensile

tensile membrane stress within the shell varies reinforcement in the regions of maximum ten-

greatly over the area of the shell surface, rein- sile stress has led to a number of successful and

forcement resisting the total tension is to be economical designs, primarily for long folded

concentrated in the regions of largest tensile plates, long barrel vault shells, and for domes.

stress where it can be shown that this provides a The requirement of providing the minimum re-

safe basis for design. However, the ratio of shell inforcement in the remaining tensile zone is in-

reinforcement in any portion of the tensile zone tended to control cracking.

shall be not less than 0.0035 based on the over-

all thickness of the shell.

19.4.9 Reinforcement required to resist shell RI9.4.9 The sign of bending moments may

bending moments shall be proportioned with change rapidly from point to point of a shell.

due regard to the simultaneous action of mem- For this reason, bending reinforcement, where

brane axial forces at the same location. Where required, is to be placed near both outer sur-

shell reinforcement is required in only one face faces of the shell. In many cases, the thickness

to resist bending moments, equal amounts shall required to provide proper cover and spacing

be placed near both surfaces of the shell even for the multiple layers of reinforcement may

though a reversal of bending moments is not govern the design of the shell thickness.

indicated by the analysis.

353

ACI Buildino Code Requirements

[Code] [Commentary]

19.4.10 Shell reinforcement in any direction RI9.4.10 The value of cp to be used is that

shall not be spaced farther apart than 18 in. nor prescribed in 9.3.2.2(a) for axial tension.

five times the shell thickness. Where the princi-

pal membrane tensile stress on the gross con-

crete area due to factored loads exceeds 4cp if.

reinforcement shall not be spaced farther apart

than three times the shell thickness.

19.4.11 Shell reinforcement at the junction of RI9.4.11 and RI9.4.12 On curved shell sur-

the shell and supporting members or edge faces it is more difficult to control the alignment

members shall be anchored in or extended of precut reinforcement. This must be consid-

through such members in accordance with the ered to avoid insufficient splice and develop-

requirements of Chapter 12, except that the ment lengths. Sections 19.4.11 and 19.4.12

minimum development length shall be 1.2t" but specify extra reinforcement length to maintain

not less than 18 in. the minimum lengths on curved surfaces.

reinforcement shall be governed by the provi-

sions of Chapter 12, except that the minimum

splice length of tension bars shall be 1.2 times

the value required by Chapter 12 but not less

than 18 in. The number of splices in principal

tensile reinforcement shall be kept to a practical

minimum. Where splices are necessary they

shall be staggered at least t" with not more than

one-third of the reinforcement spliced at any

section.

19.5 Construction

19.5.1 When removal of formwork is based on RI9.5.1 When early removal of forms is nec-

a specific modulus of elasticity of concrete be- essary, the magnitude of the modulus of elastic-

cause of stability or deflection considerations, ity at the time of proposed form removal must

the value of the modulus of elasticity E. shall be be investigated in order to insure safety of the

determined from flexural tests of field-cured shell with respect to buckling, and to restrict

beam specimens. The number of test speci- deflections. 19.s. 19.47 The value of the modulus of

mens, the dimensions of test beam specimens, elasticity E. must be obtained from a flexural

and test procedures shall be specified by the test of field-cured specimens. It is not sufficient

Engineer. to determine the modulus from the formula in

8.5.1, even if f. is determined for the field-

cured specimen.

19.5.2 The Engineer shall specify the toler- RI9.5.2 In some types of shells, small local

ances for the shape of the shell. If construction deviations from the theoretical geometry of the

results in deviations from the shape greater shell can cause relatively large changes in local

than the specified tolerances, an analysis of the stresses and in overall safety against instability.

effect of the deviations shall be made and any These changes can result in local cracking and

required remedial actions shall be taken to en- yielding which may make the structure unsafe

sure safe behavior. or can greatly affect the critical load producing

instability. The effect of such deviations should

be evaluated and any necessary actions should

be taken promptly.

354

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

REFERENCES

19.1. ACI Committee 334, "Concrete Shell Structures-Practice and Commentary," (ACI

334.IR-64) (Revised 1982), ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 61, No.9, Sept. 1964, pp. 1091-

1108. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 4. See also, Discussion, ACI JOURNAL,

Proceedings V. 62, No.3, Part 2, Mar. 1965, pp. 1755-1765.

19.2. lASS Working Group No.5, "Recommendations for Reinforced Concrete Shells and

Folded Plates," International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures, Madrid, 1979, 66 pp.

19.3. Concrete Thin Shells, SP-28, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1971, 424 pp.

19.4. ACI Committee 334, "Reinforced Concrete Cooling Tower Shells-Practice and

Commentary," (ACI 334.2R-77) (Revised 1982), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1977,

10 pp. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 4.

19.5. ACI Committee 344, "Design and Construction of Circular Prestressed Concrete

Structures," (ACI 344R-70) (Reaffirmed 1981), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1970,

16 pp. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 4.

19.6. Billington, David P., Thin Shell Concrete Structures, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,

New York, 1982,373 pp.

19.7. Ketchum, Milo S., "Design of Shell Structures-Short Shells and Domes of

Revolution," Consulting Engineer, V. 17, No.1, July 1962.

19.8. Tedesko, Anton, "How Have Concrete Shell Structures Performed?," Bulletin,

International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid), No. 73, Aug. 1980,

pp.3-13.

19.9. Christiansen, j. V., "The King County Multipurpose Domed Stadium," Proceedings,

lASS World Congress on Space Enclosures (Montreal, 1976), Building Research Centre,

Concordia University, Montreal, 1976, V. 2, pp. 11)49-1061.

19.10. "Design of Cylindrical Concrete Shell Roofs," Manual of Engineering Practice No. 31,

American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1952, 1977.

19.11. Chinn,j., "Cylindrical Shell Analysis Simplified by Beam Method," ACIJoURNAL,

Proceedings V. 55, No. 11, May 1959, pp. 1183-1192. Also, Discussion, ACIJoURNAL,

Proceedings V. 55, No.6, Part 2, Dec. 1959, pp. 1583-1603.

19.12. Gibson, j. E., The Design of Shell Roofs, 3rd Edition, E. & F. Spon Limited, London,

1968, 300 pp.

19.13. Bryant, Anthony H., and Scrivener, John C., "Cylindrical Shell Roofs with Draped

Prestressing," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 95, ST4, Apr. 1969, pp. 611-634.

19.14. Harris, Harry G., and White, Richard N., "Inelastic Behavior of RC Cylindrical Shells,

Proceedings, ASCE, V. 98, ST7, July 1972, pp. 1633-1653.

19.15. Mast, Paul E., "Design and Construction of Northlight Barrel Shells," ACI JOURNAL,

Proceedings, V. 59, No.4, Apr. 1962, pp. 481-525. Also, Discussion, ACI JOURNAL,

Proceedings, V. 59, No. 12, Dec. 1962, pp. 1903-1910.

19.16. Hadid, H. A., and Chandra, R., "An Experimental Investigation of a Reinforced

Mortar Parabolic Conoidal Shell," Bulletin, International Association for Shell and Spatial

Structures (Madrid), No. 28, Dec. 1966, pp. 53 - 62.

19.17. Hadid, H. A., "Variational Methods for the Analysis of a Conoidal Shell," Bulletin,

International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid), No. 35, Sept. 1968,

pp. 23-36.

19.18. Medwadowski, S. j., "Bending of Thin Shell Conical Frustum Segments," Proceedings,

lASS Symposium on Simplified Calculation Methods (Brussels, 1961), North-Holland

Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1962.

19.19. Parme, Alfred L., "Hyperbolic Paraboloids and Other Shells of Double Curvature,"

Proceedings, ASCE, V. 82, ST5, Sept. 1956, pp. 1057-1081. Also, Discussion, V. 83, ST2,

Mar. 1957.

19.20. Candela, Felix, "General Formulas for Membrane Stresses in Hyperbolic Paraboloidal

Shells," ACIJoURNAL, Proceedings, V. 57, No.4, Oct. 1960, pp. 353-371.

355

ACI Building Code Requirements

19.21. Scordelis, Alexander C.; Ramirez, H. D.; and Ngo, D., "Membrane Stresses in

Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells Having an Arbitrary Quadrilateral Shape in Plan," ACI JOURNAL,

Proceedings, V. 67, No. I,Jan. 1970, pp. 36-44.

19.22. Schnobrich, William C., "Analysis of Hipped Roof Hyperbolic Paraboloid Structures,"

Proceedings, ASCE, V. 98, ST7,July 1972, pp. 1575-1583.

19.23. Shaaban, Ahmed, and Ketchum, Milo S., "Design of Hipped Hypar Shells," Proceedings,

ASCE, V. 102, STll, Nov. 1976, pp. 2151-2161.

19.24. Schnobrich, W. C.; Mohraz, B.; and Hoebel, J. L., "Influence of Edge Beam Properties

on the Stress in Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells," Proceedings, lASS International Colloquium on

Progress of Shell Structures in the Last Ten Years and Its Future Development (Madrid,

1969), International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures, Madrid, 1970, V. 3.

19.25. Gioncu, V., "Stresses and Deflections in Umbrella Roof HP Shells," Bulletin,

International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid), No. 56, Dec. 1974,

pp.31-38.

19.26. White, Richard N., "Reinforced Concrete Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells," Proceedings,

ASCE, V. 101, ST9, Sept. 1975, pp. 1961-1980.

19.27. Scordelis, Alexander C., and Ketchum, Mark A., "Structural Behavior and Design of

Saddle HP Shells," Proceedings, lASS World Congress on Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid,

1979), Laboratorio Central de Ensayo de Materiales de Construccion, Madrid, 1980, V. 2,

pp. 4.239-4.254.

19.28. Tedesko, Anton, "Shell at Denver-Hyperbolic Paraboloidal Structure of Wide

Span," ACIJoURNAL, Proceedings, V. 57, No.4, Oct. 1960, pp. 403-412.

19.29. Csonka, P., "Composite Sectorial Shells with Cantilevered Front Side," Bulletin,

International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (Madrid), No. 28, Dec. 1966,

pp.25-36.

19.30. Scordelis, Alexander C., "Analysis and Design of HP Groined Vaults," Proceedings,

lASS World Congress on Space Enclosures (Montreal, 1976), Building Research Centre,

Concordia University, Montreal, 1976, pp. 561-568.

19.31. Pultar, Mustafa; Billington, David P., and Riera, Jorge D., "Folded Plates Continuous

Over Flexible Supports," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 93, ST5, Oct. 1967, pp. 253-277 .

. 19.32. Cheung, Yau-Kai, "Folded Plate Structure by the Finite Strip Method," Proceedings,

ASCE, V. 95, STl2, Dec. 1969, pp. 2963-2979.

19.33. Klaiber, F. Wayne; Gutzwiller, MartinJ.; and Lee, Robert H., "Analytical and Model

Studies of Prestressed Folded Plates," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 99, ST6, June 1973, pp.

1287-1307.

19.34. Johnson, Claude D., and Lee, Ti-Ta, "Long Nonprismatic Folded Plate Structures,"

Proceedings, ASCE, V. 94, ST6, June 1968, pp. 1457 -1484.

19.35. Esquillan, Nicholas, "The Shell Vault of the Exposition Palace, Paris," Proceedings,

ASCE, V. 86, STl,Jan. 1960, pp. 41-70.

19.36. Esquillan, Nicholas, "Olympic Ice Stadium at Grenoble," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings, V.

66, No.7, July 1969, pp. 513-521.

19.37. Ashwell, D. G., and Gallagher, R. H., Editors, Finite Elementsfor Thin Shells and Curved

Members, John Wiley & Sons, London, 1976, 268 pp.

19.38. Lin, Cheng-Shung, and Scordelis, Alexander C., "Nonlinear Analysis of RC Shells of

General Form," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 101, ST3, Mar. 1975, pp. 523-538.

19.39. Hand, Frank R.; Pecknold, David A.; and Schnobrich, William C., "Nonlinear Layered

Analysis of RC Plates and Shells," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 99, ST7, July 1973, pp. 1491-1505.

19.40. Kabir, Ahmad F., and Scordelis, Alexander C., "Analysis of RC Shells for Time

Dependent Effects," Bulletin, International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures

(Madrid), No. 69, Apr. 1979, pp. 3-13.

19.41. Models for Concrete Structures, SP-24, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1970, 448 pp.

19.42. Concrete Shell Buckling, SP-67, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1981,234 pp.

19.43. Gupta, Ajaya K., "Membrane Reinforcement in Shells," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 107,

STl, Jan. 1981, pp. 41-56.

356

Thin Shells and Folded Plates

19.44. Baumann, T., "On the Question of Multi-Directional Reinforcement of Plate and Shell

Structure," Der Bauingenieur (Heidelberg), V. 97, No. 10,1972 (in German).

19.45. Fialkow, Morris N., "Ductility Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Cylindrical Shells

and Folded Plate Structures," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings, V. 77, No.2, Mar.-Apr. 1980, pp.

82-86.

19.46. ACI Committee 224, "Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures," (ACI 224R-80),

American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1980, 42 pp. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 3.

19.47. Tedesko, Anton, "Construction Aspects of Thin-Shell Structures," ACI JOURNAL,

Proceedings, V. 49, No.6, Feb. 1953, pp. 505-520.

357

APPENDIX B

Annual 1989

anyone interested in exploring this field in all its ramifications. It is essential to find

access to the latest bibliographical data, especially for researchers outside the United

States.

The original source of the following reference material is The Engineering Index

Annual 1989, a major publication that describes itself as "the world's first and most

comprehensive collection of time-saving abstracts on engineering developments."

This work, published annually since 1884, has been compiled by Engineering

Information, Inc., a nonprofit organization.

Because the list of publications in this field is quite extensive, it has been found

necessary to give only the references to the 1989 Index. It should be kept in mind

that for each group of publications published each year the Index classifies the

various articles into different areas that may vary from year to year. In the 1989

Index, for instance, fifty-four subtitles were selected.

The abstracts for the individual articles can be found within the Annual Index.

The six-digit number at the beginning of each listing here is used to locate the

abstract for that particular article. Any major research library should have the

engineering indexes.

Reprinted with the permission of Engineering Information, Inc. The full text of most of

articles referred to herein can be ordered directly from Engineering Information, Inc., 345

East 47 St., New York, NY 10016.

359

Excerpts from The Eneineerine Index Annual 1989

036954 Numerical Study of Axisymmetric transmit loads to the foundation. The article

Waves in an Elastic Cylindrical Shell discusses the foundation requirements, cutting

Partially Filled with a Viscous Liquid. This and assembling the triangular panels; setting

paper is devoted to a study of the natural steel and applying concrete; interior and

longitudinal-transverse waves in an elastic exterior finishes; and the costs and material

cylindrical shell of the Kirchoff-Love type, quantities.

filled with a viscous compressible liquid. Hurd, M.K. Caner Constr v 33 n 11 Nov 1988 4p.

Direct numerical integration of the equations

of motion is the basis of this study. Examples

of the calculation of the eigenvalues of 036957 Transient Waves in Inhomogeneous

natural and steady oscillations in this Anisotropic Elastic Shells. This paper

formulation of the problem are discussed. For considers the problem of transient wave

a shell with a viscous compressible liquid there propagation in linearly elastic Cosserat shells

are an infinite number of modes with of constant thickness that may be anisotropic

complex eigenvalues. The Wien effect is and inhomogeneous. The methods of rays and

observed for the upper conical waves. 12 Refs. of singular wave curves are combined to find

Nochkin, I.M. (Moscow Inst of Electronics and and integrate the transport equations

Mechanical Engineering, Moscow, USSR); Pashkov, governing growth-decay behavior of the six

LA.; Troyanovskii, I.E. Sov Appl Meek v 24 n 2 Aug possible wave modes. Conditions on material

1988 P 144-148. parameters and wave geometry are obtained

for various different uncouplings of the wave

modes. Some special cases of propagation

036955 Axisymmetric Problem of the conditions and of decay equations are worked

Penetration of a Compressible Fluid by out in detail. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.

Thin Elastic Spherical Shells. This article Cohen, H. (Univ of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manit,

describes the solution of a linear axisymmetric Can); Thomas, R.S.D. Acta Meek v 77 n 1- 2 Apr

problem concerning the penetration of a 1989 p 47-67.

compressible fluid by thin elastic spherical

shells. The problem is solved in four

formulations with different boundary 036958 Elasto/Visco-Plastic Dynamic

conditions on the free surface of the fluid. In Response ofAxisymmetrical Shells Under

the first two formulations, the free surface is Mechanical and/or Thermal Loading. An

assumed to be movable. However, its rise near analytical method for the e1asto/visco-plastic

the penetrating shell is not considered in dynamic problems of axisymmetricaI thin

formulation 1 and is accounted for in shells subjected to mechanical and/or thermal

formulation 2. In the other two formulations, loads is developed. The equations of motion

the free surface is constrained by a rigid and the relations between the strains and

shield in formulation 3 and by a deformable displacements are derived by extending

shield in formulation 4. It is assumed that the Sanders' elastic shell theory. For the

wetted surface of the shell is impermeable to constitutive relations, Perzyna's elasto/visco-

the fluid and that the disturbances generated plastic equations including the temperature

in the fluid by the shell decay at infinity. 6 Refs. effect are employed. The derived fundamental

Kubenko, V.D. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian equations are numerically solved by the finite

SSR, Kiev, USSR); Gavrilenko, V.V. Sov Appl Meek difference method. As numerical examples,

Oct 1988 p 374-384. the simply supported cylindrical shells made of

mild steel are treated and the following two

cases are analyzed: a nonuniform temperature

036956 Geodesic Dome of Polystyrene and cylinder subjected to impulsive internal

Concrete. Structurally, the geodesic dome is a pressure, and an internal pressure cylinder

space truss and is the strongest known subjected to impulsive thermal load. In both

straight-line form enclosing space. It is cases the variations of displacements and

efficient as well as strong; there is no straight- internal forces with time are discussed.

line geometric form that requires less surface (Author abstract)

skin to enclose a given amount of space than Tao, Katsumi (Toyohashi Univ of Technology,

a geodesic dome. In the concrete and Toyohashi, jpn); Takezono, Shigeo; Taguchi,

polystyrene dome described, folds in the Toshihiro; Hotada, Kazuo. ]SME Int] Ser 1 ]SME

concrete shell replace the straight bars. The Int] Ser 1 v 32 v32 n3 n3 jul jul 1989 1989 P

folds, however, act just as the bars would to 341-347.

360

Excerpts from The Eneineerine Index Annual 1989

Azerbaidzhan SSR, Baku, USSR). Sov Appl Meek v

036959 Interaction of Unsteady Acoustic 24 n 2 Aug 1988 P 138 - 144.

Waves with Plates and Hollow Shells in a

Fluid. A method is developed for solving 036962 Soundproof Characteristics of

coupled problems for the unsteady interaction Orthotropic Cylindrical Shells. This paper is

of acoustic waves with plates and hollow concerned with the soundproof characteristics

spherical or cylindrical shells in a fluid by of infinitely long, cylindrical sandwich shells

applying double integral transforms and composed of orthotropic face layers and a

investigating them simultaneously. Analytical honeycomb core. The shell is excited by

solutions of unsteady hydroelastic problems axisymmetric acoustic waves traveling within

are obtained for spherical and cylindrical the shell. To simplify the shell governing

shells. These solutions can be used to study equations it is assumed that the facings resist

transient processes and their effect on the only bending moments and the honeycomb

stress and deformation of the structural core resists only transverse shear forces. The

elements for a wide range of parameters of sound transmission loss for the shell wall, TL,

the hydroelastic system. 15 Refs. is derived and calculated numerically for

Kubenko, V.D. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian various values of the physical parameters

SSR, Kiev, USSR); Moseenkov, Yu. B. Sov Appl involved. (Author abstract) 11 Refs. In

Meek v 23 n 10 Apr 1988 p 951-957. Japanese.

Chonan, Seiji. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunsku A

036960 Investigation of Axisymmetric Hen v 54 n 505 Sep 1988 p 1684-1691.

Electroacoustic Waves in a Cylindrical

Sandwich Shell by Three-Dimensional and 036963 Soundproof Characteristics of

Applied Theories. The power series method Cylindrical Sandwich Shells with a

is utilized in the present paper to solve Honeycomb Core. An analysis is presented

problems on axisymmetric electroacoustic for the soundproof characteristics of infinitely

wave propagation in a cylindrical sandwich long sandwich cylindrical shells subjected to

shell on the basis of the three-dimensional inner axisymmetric acoustic waves. To

electroelasticity equations. Approximate simplify the shell equation it is assumed that

dispersion dependences are obtained on the the core material resists only transverse shear

basis of the theory of vibrations of forces and that the facings do not resist

piezoceramic shells with finite shear stiffness transverse shear forces. Acoustic waves in the

extended to the case of inhomogeneity over air surrounding the shell is denoted by the

the thickness, and comparison of these Helmholtz equation. Sound transmission loss

dependences with the exact solutions found TL is calculated for various values of the

permits estimation of the limits of applied physical parameters of the core and the

theory applicability. 6 Refs. facings. (Author abstract) 6 Refs. In Japanese.

Shul'ga, N.A. (Acad of the Sciences of the Chonan, Seiji. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C

Ukrainian SSR, Kiev, USSR); Rudnitskii, S. 1.; Hen v 54 n 505 Sep 1988 p 2156-2163.

Evseichik, Yu. B. Sov Appl Meek v 23 n 10 Apr 1988

p 1005-1011. 036964 Sound Insulation Characteristics of

Finite Length Orthotropic Shells. An

036961 Action of Acoustic Waves on a analysis is presented of the acoustic

Spherical Shell Filled by a Viscous, characteristics of orthotropic cylindrical shells

Compressible Fluid. This paper considers excited by axisymmetric plane sound waves

within the axisymmetric problem, the action traveling within the shells. The shell is

of acoustic waves on a spherical shell, filled by exposed in a free field in the range of length

a viscous compressible fluid. The limitations L, and is otherwise covered with an infinite

for an imcompressible, viscous, and ideal fluid rigid baffle. The problem is studied on the

follow from the results. The tangential and basis of a thick shell theory in which account

bending stresses are shown as functions of the is taken of the effects of shear deformation

angular coordinate at relatively high and rotatory inertia. The air outside the shell

frequency when the shell is filled by air, oil, is described by the Helmholtz linear acoustic

and kerosene. When the shell is filled by air, equation. The sound transmission loss

the stresses created by the plane wave are through the shell wall, TL, is obtained and

larger than for a shell filled by kerosene or calculated for various values of the physical

oil. 8 Refs. parameters involved. (Author abstract) 10 Refs.

361

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

Chonan, s. (Tohoku Univ, Sendai, Jpn); Koriyama, cylindrical shells weakened by a curvilinear

H.i Sound Vib v 126 n 3 Nov 8 1988 P 525-532. hole. A modified method of series expansion

in a small parameter is proposed in this paper,

036965 Simplified Method for a which can be utilized in analyzing cylindrical

Hydrodynamic Loading Prediction of an composite orthotropic shells weakened by

Acoustic Wave. This paper discusses existing small and medium elliptical holes. 13 Refs.

methods for the hydrodynamic loading Revenko, V.P. (Scientific-Production Organization,

prediction on a circular cylindrical shell USSR). Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p 368-373.

subjected to an underwater weak shock wave.

To this end, a new, special purpose finite 036968 Fourier Integral Representation of

element program was developed. The new Curvilinear Influence Functions Applied to

program treats the acoustic fluid medium by Surface Structures. The paper proposes the

an equation which defines the incident application of curvilinear influence functions

particle velocity in the fluid in the absence of represented by Fourier integrals to problems

the structure. This is then coupled to the of surface structures. It investigates in detail

structure to yield the total fluid loading. characteristic properties of such integrals.

Tensile pressures are not allowed by Particular attention is called to differentiation

restricting the water pressure to above of the integrals representing functions with

ambient level. (Edited author abstract) 14 Refs. curvilinear discontinuities, as in this case their

Moussouros, Minos (US Naval Surface Warfare distributional features are most visible. The

Cent, Silver Spring, MD, USA). Am Soe Meeh Eng problem is illustrated by an example of an

Pap Preprint - American Society of Mechanical infinite plate. (Author abstract) 12 Refs.

Engineers, Houston, TX, USA, Jan 22-25 1989. Muc, A. (Technical Univ of Cracow, Cracow, Pol);

Publ by American Soc of Mechanical Engineers Zielinski, A.P. Thin-Walled StTuct v 7 n 2 1989 P

(ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1989 OCN12 18p. 85-98.

036966 Inelastic Response of an Infinite 036969 Co Shell Plate and Beam Elements

Cylindrical Shell to Transient Acoustic Free From Their Deficiencies. The author

Waves. The geometrically and constitutively proposes a generally applicable new

nonlinear response of an infinite, circular, formulation which removes all shear and

cylindrical shell submerged in an infinite fluid membrane locking mechanisms from the finite

medium to a transverse, transient acoustic element equations of the structural Co shell,

wave is analyzed. Circumferential Fourier plate, and beam elements. Employment. of full

series solutions are obtained through the integration with the proposed formulatIon

numerical integration of coupled ordinary eliminates also the zero energy modes problem,

differential equations and convolution and!or softening effects, associated with the

integrals. Numerical results are presented in use of the technique of reduced integration in

the form of response histories, response Co plate and shell element applications. The

snapshots, and iso-damage curves for incident formulation proposed is obtained through a

waves of rectangular pressure profile. simple and cost effective scheme. (Edited

Response solutions obtained with the first- author abstract) 52 Refs.

order doubly asymptotic approximation are

compared with their 'exact' counterparts. Briassoulis, Demetres (Agricultural Univ of Athens,

(Edited author abstract) 25 Refs. Greece). Comput Methods Appl Meeh Eng v 72 n 3

Mar 1989 p 243-266.

Geers, T.L. (Univ of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA);

Yen, C.-L. AMD Symp SeT ASME Appl Meek Div v 94 036970 Analysis of Simply-Supported

1988 Large-Scale Interaction Problems, Presented Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shell

at the Winter Annual Meeting of the ASME, Roofs. An elasticity solution has been

Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27-Dec 21988. p 13-45. presented for the analysis of a laminated

circular cylindrical shell roof with simply.

supported edges, and the displacements and

ANALYSIS stresses of the solution are expressed in terms

of infinite series. A solution according to the

036967 Analysis of the Stress-Strain State of classical shell theory (CST) is also developed.

a Nonshallow-Orthotropic Cylindrical Shell Computations are made for various ratios of

with an Elliptical Hole. The method of midsurface radii to thicknesses and the results

expansion in a series in a small parameter has of the CST have been examined in the light of

been applied successfully in analyzing isotropic the elasticity solution results. (Author abstract)

362

Excerpts from The Ensineerins Index Annual 1989

Ren, J.G. (Changsha lnst of Technology, Hunan, coupled first order differential equations is

China). Compos Struct v 11 n 4 1989 P 277 - 292. solved for each shell substructure using the

Pade approximation for matrix

036971 Continuum-Based Stiffened exponentiation. The substructures are then

Composite Shell Element for Geometrically joined by matching all of the displacement and

Nonlinear Analysis. A continuum-based, force boundary variables. The strength of

laminated, stiffened shell element is used to SSM from the substructure synthesis viewpoint

investigate the static, geometrically nonlinear is demonstrated by analyzing several shell

response of composite shells. The element is structures including a hermetic capsule and a

developed from a three-dimensional continuum refrigeration compressor shell. In all

element based on the incremental, total examples, finite element method (FEM)

Lagrangian formulation. The Newton-Raphson predictions are used to support SSM results.

method or modified Riks method is used to For the compressor shell, SSM results compare

trace the nonlinear equilibrium path. A well with the limited experimental data.

number of sample problems of un stiffened and (Edited author abstract) 58 Refs.

stiffened shells are presented to show the Tavakoli, M.S. (Georgia lnst of Technology,

accuracy of the present element and to Atlanta, GA, USA); Singh, R. ] Sound Vib v 130 n 1

investigate the nonlinear response of laminated Apr 8 1989 P 97 -123.

composite plates and shells. (Author abstract)

28 Refs. 036974 Extending Life of LD Converter

Liao, C.L. (Virginia Polytechnic lnst & State Univ, Vessel. At Kakogawa Works, all three LD

Blacksburg, VA, USA); Reddy,J.N. AlAAJ v 27 n 1 converter vessels were renewed for 1987-

Jan 1989p95-101. 1988 because of working limits caused by shell

deformation. In renewing the vessels, an

036972 Accurate Rigid-Body Modes analytical method was developed to quantify

Representation for a Nonlinear Curved deformation of the barrel shell, which is the

Thin-Shell Element. For certain highly curved dominant factor in vessel life. Based on the

shells, such as bellows, the formulation of a analytical results, an air jet cooling technique

curved-shell finite element with curvilinear and steel plate were developed and applied to

displacement components may fail to properly the new vessels. As a result, it is now possible

model some rigid body modes, even with to extend the life of vessels using a high ratio

either the explicit inclusion of rigid-body terms of MgO-C bricks. (Author abstract) 4 Refs. In

or the use of high-order displacement Japanese.

functions. It is suggested in this paper that the Kita, Ryuji; Nishikawa, Tsuneaki; Okazaki,

rigid-body modes can be properly included if Toshiyuki; Mine, Takao; Nishijima, Akifumi;

the Cartesian displacement components are Kawasaki, Hiroya. R&D Res Dev Kobe Steel Ltd v 39

used. A 48-degree-of-freedom (DOF) curved n 1 Jan 1989 p 61-64.

thin-shell element is formulated, and both the

curvilinear and the Cartesian forms are used 036975 Review on the Analysis of

for this investigation. Examples of the Laminated Shells. Laminated shell structures

nonlinear analyses of a bellows shell and a are increasingly being used in chemical,

spherical cap are given to demonstrate the mechanical, marine and aerospace

advantage of using the Cartesian formulation. applications. A significant amount of research

Curved elements may also suffer from has been conducted in the past on studying

membrane locking, which is caused by the the structural response of these structures. A

inability of an element to bend without review of various investigations on the analysis

stretching. (Edited author abstract) 53 Refs. of these shells is given here. Specifically, this

Yang, T.Y. (Purdue Univ, West Lafayette, IN, review deals with the development of various

USA); Kapania, Rakesh K.; Saigal, Sunil. AlAAJ v 27 theories for modeling the thick laminated

n 2 Feb 1989 p 211-218. shells, including shear effects; analytical

studies, development of various finite elements

036973 Eigensolutions of Joined/Hermetic to model these shells, including applications to

Shell Structures Using the State Space tire modeling; buckling and post-buckling

Method. A substructure synthesis method analysis of perfect and imperfect laminated

based on state space mathematics is proposed shells; and vibration and dynamic response

for the eigensolution of axisymmetric joined/ analysis of various laminated shells. (Author

hermetic thin shell structures. In the state abstract) 157 Refs.

space method (SSM), a system of eight Kapania, R.K. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State

363

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA). J Pressure Vessel in the form of elastically or rigidly fastened

Tecknol Trans ASME v III n 2 May 1989 p 88-96. plates and shallow shells. We employ

Timoshenko's theory of shells. The desired

036976 Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of unknown functions are represented as series in

Shallow Shells Using Higher Order Finite the coordinate functions, each of which may

Elements. Based on K. Marguerre's shallow not necessarily satisfy the specified attachment

shell theory, a family of higher-order finite conditions for the structure. We employ

elements each consisting of 17 - 25 nodes and solution methods for problems of plates and

with separate in-plane and bending shells based on the use of complete functionals

displacement variables has been developed for and of the contour equation of the domain in

the geometrically nonlinear analysis of shallow setting up the approximating function. (Edited

shells subjected to lateral loads. A step- author abstract) 11 Refs.

iteration Newton-Raphson scheme has been Serazutdinov, M.N. Meek Solids v 23 n 3 1988 P

adopted in solving the final system of 136-14l.

recurrent nonlinear equations. Several

numerical examples, including a spherical cap 036979 Analysis of Simply Supported

and a square shallow shell with surface in Orthotropic Cylindrical Shells Subject to

double sine curves, are presented to Lateral Impact Loads. An analytic solution is

demonstrate the versatility and convenience of given for the problem of simply-supported

the use of higher-order elements in modelling orthotropic cylindrical shells subject to impact

shallow shells and also the sufficient accuracy loading. The closed-form solution has not

of the predictions made by the present been obtained previously. The analysis is based

formulation in the context of geometrically on an expansion of the loads, displacement

nonlinear analysis. (Author abstract) 13 Refs. and rotations in a double Fourier series which

Chan, H.C. (Univ of Hong Kong, Hong Kong); satisfies the end boundary conditions of

Chung, W.C. Comput Struct v 31 n 3 1989 P simple support. Each expansion is assumed to

329-338. be separable into a function of time and a

function of position. By neglecting in-plane

and rotary inertia the problem becomes a

036977 Nonlinear Analysis of Shell second order ordinary differential equation in

Structures by Degenerated Isoparametric

time for the Fourier coefficients of the radial

Shell Element. Two rotation strategies

deflection. For a given loading impulse the

termed the finite rotation method and the

solution can be found by invoking the

mixed rotation method are proposed to

described the rotation of the shell normal and convolution integral. The results show that

four rotation strategies in the literature are for impact by a heavy mass, the solution is

equivalent to that obtained by an approximate

reviewed. The rotation variables of the finite

procedure of neglecting the mass of the shell,

rotation method are chosen to be the

incremental rotations with respect to the Xl which leads to a simple single degree of

freedom analysis. For problems of impact by

and X2 axes of a moving coordinate system

rigidly tied to the shell. Both the rotation smaller masses, the higher response

frequencies of the cylinder become important.

increments between two successive increments

The impact duration, peak force, and peak

and the rotation corrections between two

deflection relative to the quasi-static response.

successive iterations are used as the

(Edited author abstract) 17 Refs.

incremental rotations. The previous covergent

stress is employed to update the geometric Christoforou, A.P. (Univ of Utah, Salt Lake City,

stiffness matrix and its performance is UT, USA); Swanson, S.R. ASME Aerosp Div Publ AD

compared with that of the standard geometric v 13 Recent Advances in the Macro- and Micro-

stiffness matrix update method. (Edited Mechanics of Composite Materials Structures,

author abstract) 20 Refs. Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting of the

American Society of Mechanical Engineers,

Hsiao, Kuo-Mo (Nat! Chiao Tung Univ, Hsinchu,

Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27-Dec 21988. Publ by

Taiwan); Chen, Yeh-Ren. Comput Struct v 31 n 3

American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),

1989 P 427 -438.

New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 77-84.

036978 On the Analysis of Shallow Shells ANISOTROPY

with Complex Contours. In this paper, we

offer a variational method and some solutions 036980 Membrane Theory for Anisotropic

for the problem of determining the stress- Laminated Shells of Revolution. The

strain state of thin-walled structural elements present paper discusses the derivation and

364

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual J989

application of the membrane theory equations spherical shells with simply supported

governing the small deformation of laminated, boundaries. Numerical examples show that

anisotropic, elastic shells of revolution. The the approach developed in the paper is

equations are derived by use of the Hellinger- effective. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.

Reissner variational principle in conjunction Ye, Jianqiao (Hefei Polytechnical Univ, Hefei, Jpn).

with the asymptotic expansion technique. Appl Math Modelling v 12 n 5 Oct 1988 p 467 - 470.

They are then used to analyze specific shells

under loadings of practical interest. (Author 036984 Optimal Design of a Cylindrical

abstract) 3 Refs. Shell Under Overall Bending with Axial

Logan, D.L. (Rose-Hulman lnst of Technology, Force. The problem of optimal design of a

Terre Haute, IN, USA); Widera, G.E.O. J Pressure cylindrical shell loaded by bending moment

Vessel Technol Trans ASME viii n 2 May 1989 p Mo and axial force N is presented. As a

130-135. criterion of optimality we assume the

minimum value of the cross-sectional area for

BENDING given values of external loadings. In the

general case the shape of the central line of

036981 Plane Bending of a Long Cylindrical the profile and thickness of the wall of a shell

Shell During Simple Thermomechanical are used as design variables. The constraints

Deformation. This paper examines dynamic are connected with strength and with local

processes in a long cylindrical shell-tube in the stability of the wall of a shell. The concept of

case of simple thermomechanical deformation a 'shell of uniform stability' is applied and two

under the influence of mechanical and different types of profiles of uniform stability

thermal loads. Since the shell is long it is are looked for, namely the uniform stability

regarded as a beam with corrected stiffness in profile with variable thickness and a constant

bending, tension, and torsion. Governing thickness profile of uniform stability. (Author

relations for small strains and finite abstract) 9 Refs.

displacements are obtained on the basis of Kruzelecki, Jacek (Technical Univ, Cracow, Pol).

thermodynamic relations from the nonlinear Bull Pol Acad Sci Tech Sci v 36 n 3-4 1988 P

theory of elasticity. Nonlinear equations of 141-150.

motion for the plane bending of such a

shell-tube are obtained. 10 Refs. 036985 Theory and Numerics of Thin

Kayuk, Ya. F. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian Elastic Shells with Finite Rotations. A

SSR, Kiev, USSR); KiI'chinskaya, G.A. Sov Appl bending theory for thin shells undergoing

Mech v 24 n 2 Aug 1988 P 157-162. finite rotations is presented, and its associated

finite element model is described. The

036982 Monomial Test: Testing the Flexural kinematic assumption is based on a Reissner-

Behavior of the Degenerated Shell Mindlin theory. The work-conjugate stress

Element. Shear locking of the degenerated resultants and stress couples are integrals of

shell element is a result of the development of the Biot stress tensor. This tensor is invariant

spurious shear strain by the element, when with respect to rigid body motions and

subjected to high order Kirchhoff therefore appropriate for the formulation of

displacement fields. The shear locking constitutive equations. The rotations are

phenomenon is analyzed in this paper using described by using Eulerian angles. The finite

an analytical test. The effects of the element descretization of arbitrary shells is

integration scheme, order of the element, performed using isoparametric elements. The

order of the modeled Kirchhoff field and the advantage of the proposed shell formulation

element distortion are analyzed explicitly and and its numerical model is shown by

quantitatively for the four-node, eight-node application to different non-linear plate and

and nine-node degenerated shell elements. shell problems. Finite rotations can be

(Author abstract) 23 Refs. calculated within one load increment. Thus

Briassoulis, Demetres (Univ of Illinois, the step size of the load increment is only

Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA). Comput Struct v 29 n limited by the local convergence behaviour of

6 1988 P 949-958. Newton's method or the appearance of

stability phenomena. (Edited author abstract)

036983 New Approach for the Bending 27 Refs.

Problem of Shallow Shell by the Boundary Gruttmann, F. (Univ Hannover, Hanover, West

Element Method. A very simple method is Ger); Stein, E.; Wriggers, P. Ing Arch v 59 n 1 1989

suggested in this paper to analyze shallow P 54-67.

365

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

extent that this is often the dominant

036986 Using Geometry to Improve consideration in their design. Early attempts

Survivability. The research effort has to determine buckling pressures were

concentrated on developing the Hyperbolic unsatisfactory. Although initial geometric

Paraboloid (HYP AR) structural system for distortions are now recognised as the cause of

buried shelters. Individual HYPAR panels- this, little comprehensive work has been

hyperbolic paraboloidal curved surfaces-are conducted on doubly-curved shells,

joined together in varying geometries to form particularly hemispheres, subjected to external

protective shelters. The HYP AR structure has pressure and having asymmetric initial shapes.

several advantages: reduced wall thickness; This paper presents the results of such a

reduced materials and field labor costs; and study, in two parts. In Part I, the background

reduced field erection time. The HYP AR research on doubly-curved shells is briefly

panel uses its geometry and construction reviewed. The kinematic, equilibrium and

materials to efficiently dissipate the energy constitutive equations used in the work are

released by the detonation of conventional stated. The adopted numerical procedure

weapons. The HYPAR panel is a composite which can generate static or dynamic solutions

consisting of an outer layer of fiberglass- is described along with the results of

reinforced asphalt, a middle layer of steel- convergence studies. (Edited author abstract)

reinforced portland cement concrete, and an 44 Refs.

inner layer of polyester fabric. The reinforced Shao, W.J. (Ministry of Communications, Shanghai,

asphalt and concrete layers are structural ones China); Frieze, P.A. Thin-Walled Struet v 8 n 2 1989

which help dissipate blast energy through p99-118.

deformation and cracking, while the polyester

fabric provides a spall protection. 4 Refs. 036989 Simple Buckling Problems Within

Burkett, William R. Mil Eng v 80 n 523 Aug 1988 the Shell Theory of Rubber-like

P 450-452. Materials. In an earlier paper, the authors

have formulated a fairly general theory of

BUCKLING finite strains deformation of shells of an

incompressible hyperelastic material. The

036987 Influence of Initial Imperfections basic equations of this theory were derived,

on the Buckling of Orthotropic Truncated from 3-D finite elasticity under the single

Spherical and Conical Shells. The influence assumption: material fibers initially normal to

of small geometric imperfections in the shape the shell reference surface remain straight in

of the middle surface on the non- the process of an isochronic deformation.

axisymmetric buckling and post-critical Consequently the resulting 2-D model of the

behavior of thin elastic shallow orthotropic shell incorporates effects due to transverse

truncated spherical shells under uniform shear and transverse normal deformations as

external pressure truncated conical shells well as higher order effects accommodated in

under axial compression is studied by the dependency of the 2-D strain energy

Lyapunov-Schmidt method. Cases of buckling function on the gradient of strain measures.

are investigated when the least bifurcation In this note they present some further results

load of non-axisymmetric buckling of a for the buckling of initially straight rods

corresponding ideal shell is a double under axial end forces. They illustrate

eigenvalue of the linearized problem and limitations of particular variants of the general

either two unstable eigenmodes or one stable shell theory. 5 Refs.

and one unstable eigenmode interact. It is Makowski, J. (Ruhr-Univ, Bochum, West Ger);

obtained that small imperfections lower the Stumpf, H. Z Angew Math Meeh v 68 n 6 1988 P

value of the upper critical load of an ideal 251-252.

shell. Examples are presented of special

non-axisymmetric shell buckling cases. 14 Refs. 036990 Zwei Varianten der

Bermus, I.M. (Rostov Univ, USSR); Srubshchik, Schalenbeulrechnung im Elastoplastischen

L.S. Sov Appl Meeh v 24 n 2 Aug 1988 P 149 -156. Bereich. [Two Different Methods'for Shell

Buckling Calculation in the Elastic-Plastic

036988 Static and Dynamic Numerical Region]. The material behavior in the

Analysis Studies of Hemispheres and elastic-plastic region depends on the fact

Spherical Caps. Part I. Background and whether the concerned point is loaded or

Theory. Shell-like structures are prevalent in unloaded. For buckling calculations one

nature. However, because of their slenderness transfers generally the criterion for loading or

366

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

ideal shell. But there are no ideal shells. Every Fluessigkeitsgefuellten Schalen. [Buckling

real shell has initial imperfections, and real Tests on Thin-Walled Fluid-Filled

events start with the growing of one buckle. Shells.]. This paper deals with the problem of

Hence it corresponds better to the reality to the buckling of thin walled cylindrical tanks

transfer the criterion for loading or unloading under the action of a fluid filling and an axial

from the buckling mode. A calculation load. In addition, the partial removal of the

procedure of that kind is presented; its bottom membrane of such tanks is studied. The

applications demonstrated by numerical experimental results obtained can be used for

examples. (Edited author abstract) In German. the testing of mathematical models. 3 Refs. In

Esslinger, Maria (DFVLR, Braunschweig, West Ger); German.

Poblotzki, Gert. Forschungsber Dtsch Forsch Rammerstorfer, Franz Georg (Technische Univ

Versuchsanst Luft Raumfahrt DFVLR n FB 88-26 Wien, Vienna, Austria); Billinger, Wolfgang; Fischer,

1988pl-49. Franz Dieter. DIAl Desterr Ing Archit l v 133 n 8

Aug 1988 P 430-43l.

036991 On Buckling of Ellipsoidal Cups

Under Internal Pressure. A method for the 036994 Numerical Analysis of Diamond

calculation of the critical load for a semi- Buckles. Both linear and nonlinear analyses

ellipsoidal shell with a stiffening rib at the edge are performed on the buckling of a cylindrical

is presented. The external and internal shell under axial compression. Among the

buckling energy of the shell is described. The post buckling shapes of the cylindrical shell, a

Rayleigh quotient is used as the static buckling number of diamond modes are found to be

criterion, assuming the deflection function to possible. The analysis is compared to those

depend on four shape parameters. Some conducted by A. Maewall and W. Nachbar,

numerical examples are presented showing the M.A. Crisfield, and Y. Yoshida et al.

influence of the rib stiffness and the shell Agreement is established in conceiving the

dimensions on the critical pressure value. deformed shape with circumferential number

(Author abstract) 6 Refs. of 14 as the stable postbuckling mode of the

cylindrical shell. The transition from the

Magnucki, K. (Technical Univ of Poznan, Poznan,

axisymmetric mode to a diamond mode of

Pol); Wegner, T.; Szye, W. Ing Arch v 58 n 5 1988 P

collapse is shown to be an instantaneous

339-342.

process triggered in the proximity of the

critical state by a small perturbation of the

036992 Schalenbeulen: Von der DASt- load increment. (Edited author abstract) 17

Richtlinie 013 zur DIN 18800, Tell 4. [Shell Refs.

Buckling: From DASt Guideline 013 to DIN Liu, Wing Kam (Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL,

18800. Part 4]. Following a review of the USA); Lam, Dennis. Finite Elem Anal Des v 4 n 4

buckling safety proof for shells according to Feb 1989 p 291-302.

DASt guideline 013 which must be kept in two

stages, the method of representation in DIN 036995 Theoretical and Experimental Study

18800, Part 4 is explained in detail. It is shown of a Curved Strip Compressed by a Flat

that the large rlt dependency of the reduction Plate. The quasi-static loading of a curved

factor ex which exists for the axially compressed strip compressed by a flat, rigid plate is

cylinder can be suppressed for the building considered, with particular reference to large

material steel. In this way, it is possible to deformations and the ensuing buckling

conduct the buckling safety proof in a single behavior. Experiments were performed on

stage for all shells examined analogous to the curved strips of constant width but of different

buckling of columns. Only two basic buckling thickness. The strips were initially deformed

curves, for K) 'normal' and K2 for 'very' to a fixed radius of curvature and stress

imperfection-sensitive shells, are sufficient. relieved before pinning the ends. The span

With the aid of detailed investigations, it is was held constant at about 305 mm. The

shown that the K2 curve may possibly be raised deformation characteristics have been

slightly. As compared with dimensioning analyzed using an incremental finite element

methods according to DASt guideline 013 used technique. Particular attention has been paid

in the past, economic benefits would be to modeling the situation when a node

possible using this method. (Author abstract) contacts the plate and the condition for

14 Refs. In German. separation of the strip from the plate. The

Bornscheuer, Friedrich Wilhelm. Bautechnik v 65 n predicted loads and deformation modes

10 Oct 1988 p 325-33l. agreed well with experimental results from

367

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

tests on steel and aluminum specimens. uniform external pressure is analysed using

(Edited author abstract) 9 Refs. the spline finite strip method. A Total

Iseki, H. (McMaster Univ, Hamilton, Ont, Can); Lagrangian formulation on the displacement

Sowerby, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Gatt, P. J Appl Meeh dependent pressure load in the orthogonal

Trans ASME v 56 n 1 Mar 1989 p 96-104. curvilinear reference frame is derived. An

improvement for the arc-length iteration

036996 Buckling of Edge Damaged, method is presented. The postbuckling

Cylindrical Composite Shells. The stability equilibrium path and the contour map of

of thin composite layered anisotropic equal radial deflection computed an~ in good

cylindrical shells under axial compression is agreement with the experimental and

considered for the case of nonuniform analytical results reported in Esslinger, M. and

boundary conditions. Such conditions are Geier, B., Postbuckling Behaviour of

employed to model the situation where there Structures, Springer-Verlag, Wien, New York,

is edge damage to the shell. The influence of 1975. (Author abstract) 14 Refs.

weakening or a crack at an edge on the Cheung, Y.K. (Univ of Hong Kong, Hong Kong);

critical buckling load of a variety of single and Zhu, D.S. Thin-Walled Struet v 7 n 3-4 1989 P

multilayered shells is investigated. Results 239-256.

indicate that isotropic shells exhibit a rather

sudden steep reduction in the critical buckling 036999 Non-probabilistic Models of

load for relatively small edge damage. Uncertainty in the Nonlinear Buckling of

However, some anisotropic composite shells Shells with General Imperfections:

may not be so sensitive and, in contrast, only Theoretical Estimates of the Knockdown

a gradual reduction may be brought about by Factor. A nonprobabilistic, set-theoretical

the edge damage. The degree of sensitivity to treatment of the buckling of shells with

edge damage appears to be dependent, in uncertain initial geometrical imperfections is

some complex fashion, on the various presented. The minimum buckling load is

geometric and physical shell parameters. determined as a function of the parameters

(Author abstract) 8 Refs. which describe the (general infinite) range of

Sabag, M. (Technion - Israel Inst of Technology, possible initial imperfection profiles of the

Haifa, Isr); Stavsky, Y.; Greenberg, J.B. J Appl Meeh shell. The central finding of this paper is a

Trans ASME v 56 n 1 Mar 1989 p 121-126. theoretical estimate of the knockdown factor

as a function of the characteristics of the

036997 Bifurcation Buckling of Circular uncertainty in the initial imperfections. Two

Cylindrical Shells Under Uniform External classes of set-theoretical models are employed.

Pressure. This paper presents asymptotic The first class represents the range of

solutions for the eigenvalue problems of variation of the most significant N Fourier

buckling under uniform external pressure of a coefficients by an ellipsoidal set in N-

circular cylindrical shell having an arbitrary dimensional Euclidean space. The minimum

combination of the boundary conditions for buckling load is then explicitly evaluated in

the simply supported, clamped, and free ends. terms of the shape of the ellipsoid. (Edited

A simple formula for the buckling pressure is author abstract) 29 Refs.

derived, which is shown to be accurate Ben-Haim, Yakov (Technion - Israel Inst of

enough for engineering purposes by Technology, Haifa, Isr); Elishakoff, Isaac. J Appl

comparison with available results. The Meeh Trans ASME v 56 n 2 Jun 1989 p 403 -41 o.

eigenvalues calculated for all possible

combinations of the boundary conditions show 037000 Post-buckling Behavior and

that the buckling pressures are affected Imperfection Sensitivity of Spherical Shells

significantly by the presence of a free end as Based on Nonlinear Elastic Stability

well as axial constraint at a supported end. Theory. Using the nonlinear elastic stability

(Author abstract) 17 Refs. theory and its applications to shells, we have

Koga, Tatsuzo (Univ of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Jpn); investigated the post-buckling behavior and

Morimatsu, Shigeyuki. AIAA J v 27 n 2 Feb 1989 p imperfection sensitivity of spherical shells with

242-248. amplitude modulation. For this purpose, we

assume that the buckling modes have the

036998 Postbuckling Analysis of Circular form of Legendre polynomials with an

Cylindrical Shells Under External exponential function as a modulating factor.

Pressure. The postbuckling behavior of We use a numerical analysis technique with

circular cylindrical shells of finite length under high precision. The amplitudes of the post-

368

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

buckling modes and the critical loading design procedure is suggested. (Edited author

factors of the spherical shell with various abstract) 15 Refs. In German.

imperfection modes are presented. (Edited Knoedel, Peter (Univ Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, West

author abstract) 10 Refs. Ger); Maierhoefer, Dieter. Stahlbau v 58 n 3 Mar

Fan, Q.S. (Tsinghan Univ, Beijing, China). 1989 p 81-86.

Thin-Walled Struct v 8 n I 1989 P 1-18.

037004 Experimental Investigation on the

037001 Postbuckling Analysis of Shells by Dynamic Buckling of a Cylindrical Shell

Spline Finite Strip Method. The postbuckling Due to Seismic Excitation. (lst Report:

analysis of shells is studied by the spline finite Plastic Buckling Due to Bending Load). The

strip method. The selection of higher order fundamental characteristics of plastic dynamic

terms in the incremental variational principle buckling of a thin cylindrical shell due to

is discussed. An improvement on the arc- seismic excitation, where bending load was

length iteration method is presented. The predominant, were clarified experimentally.

examples all demonstrated the versatility and The relationship between seismic response

accuracy of the present method. The displacement acceleration, strain of cylindrical

computed results for a circular cylindrical shell model and input acceleration was

shell under axial compression correlate very investigated. The dynamic buckling load was

well with the experiment results. (Author compared with that for static buckling, and

abstract) 15 Refs. the differences between them were discussed

Zhu, D.S. (Univ of Hong Kong, Hong Kong); as well as the threshold for postbuckling.

Cheung, Y.K. Comput Struct v 31 n 3 1989 P (Author abstract) 6 Refs. In Japanese.

357-364. Fujita, Katsuhisa; Ito, Tomohiro; Wada, Hiroshi.

Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 n 515

037002 Transverse Shear Effects in Stability Jul 1989 P 1634-1637.

Problems of Laminated Shallow Shells. This

paper presents the analysis of the accuracy of 037005 New Solution for Vessel Liner

the classical shell theory in the prediction of Buckling Analysis. The thermally

buckling loads of laminated shallow shells of constrained and perfectly confined cylindrical

revolution loaded by external pressure or shell finds its critical buckling load in infinity.

axially compressed. The shells studied are Disturbances such as shape or support

circular cylinders, barrels, inverse barrels and imperfections are required to yield finite

spherical sections. In each case the boundary critical buckling loads. Based on a conservative

conditions are simple supports. (Author imperfection model, the new solution allows

abstract) 7 Refs. the quantification of the influence of

Muc, Aleksander (Univ of Liverpool, Liverpool, imperfections on buckling stress. As a large

Engl). Compos Struct v 12 n 3 1989 P 171-180. deflection solution, it follows the load

displacement path under increasing prestress

037003 Zur Stabilitaet von ZyIindern Vnter up to neutral equilibrium. Thus, the

Axiallast und Randmomenten. [Stability of occurrence of subcritical limit load conditions

Cylindrical Shells V nder Axial Loads and due to non-linear bending can be determined.

Edge Moments]. Existing methods of (Edited author abstract) 12 Refs.

determining the critical axial loads of Tschiersch, R.T. (Thyssen Henrichshuette AG,

cylindrical shells take into account only the Hattingen, West Ger); Huessler, W. ASME Pressure

membrane stress state. However, parts of the Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 139 Design and

shell structures are loaded by additional edge Analysis of Piping, Pressure Vessels and

moments. These result from external forces, Components, 1988, Presented at the 1988 ASME

from the edge conditions themselves or from Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Pittsburgh,

the deviation of the membrane forces due to PA, USA,Jun 19-23 1988. Publ by American Soc

a break in the generatrix. This paper reports of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,

on a study, which investigated the influence of USA, 1988 P 133-138.

edge moments on the nonlinear bifurcation

loads of axially compressed cylinders. Edge 037006 Static Buckling of the Shells of

moments are shown to reduce the bifurcation Revolution Due to the Asymmetric

load irrespective of the length of the cylinder. Loading. Finite element buckling analysis

The results obtained were approximated by program of the shells of revolution under an

easy to handle formulas. After some remarks asymmetric loading was developed. In this

on the imperfection sensitivity, a practical program, the buckling mode for asymmetric

369

Excerpts from The Eneineerine Index Annual 1989

vibration modes. The program was verified by

comparing with the test and the theoretical 037009 Finite Deformations of Thin

results. (Author abstract) 7 Refs. Anisotropic and Composite Shells and

Chiba, T. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Defining Relations. Defining relations for

Co, Yokohama, Jpn); Sugino, H.; Mieda, T.; composite shells formed by superposition of

Yoshida, M.; Ohya, H.; Kobayashi, N. ASME layers with specified structure of the

Pressure Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 150 reinforcement were derived using Green's

Application of Modal Analysis to Extreme Loads, strain formula and the Cauchy stress tensor as

Presented at the 1988 ASME Pressure Vessels and a starting point. An asymptotic analysis was

Piping Conference, Pittsburgh, P A, USA, Jun carried out for revealing the kind of functions

19 - 23 1988. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical contained in the defining relations, with

Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1988 P plastic and creep deformations taken into

1-7. account. A system of experiments was

suggested for finding these functions on the

assumption that with finite deformations the

037007 Nonlinear Investigations of material is nonlinearly elastic. The cause of a

Composite Shells by Finite Element deviation of the obtained results from given

Method. For investigations of structures computational conditions was suggested as a

consisting of layered fiber composite shells a noticeable manifestation of inelastic properties.

special shell finite element has been developed Evaluations for glass reinforced plastics are

and applied to some illustrative problems. presented. 12 Refs.

The element's features are: geometrically

Teregulov, I.G. (Kazan Inst of Civil Engineering,

nonlinear formulation; arbitrary set-up of the

USSR). Meek Compos Mater v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p

composite (i.e. symmetric or non-symmetric

stacking sequences with different layer 453-458.

materials); material non-Iinearities in terms of

stiffness degradation due to layer cracking; 037010 Stress-strain State of a Composite

thermal loading. Due to the FE-formation Shell with Circular Slit. A shell of revolution

used, buckling analyses can be conducted by with an infinitely thin slit cut on the

solving accompanying eigenvalue problems. circumference was subjected under

(Author abstract) 19 Refs. mathematical simulation to a distributed load.

A system of coordinates was introduced to

Dominger, K. (Vienna Technical Univ, Vienna,

describe the state of stress and strain of the

Austria); Rammerstorfer, F.G. ASME Pet Div Publ

PD v 24 Composite Material Technology 1989,

shell. The elasticity relations were derived and

Twelfth Annual Energy-Sources Technology

the state of stress and strain of each shell was

Conference and Exhibition, Houston, TX, USA,

determined and reduced to the solution of a

Jan 22-25 1989. Publ by American Soc of

system of equations. The boundary-value

Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,

problem of the slit was solved with the network

USA, 1988 P 117-125.

method. A calculation algorithm system was

recommended which was based on Godunov's

orthogonal matching method. It was found

037008 Buckling Design of Vierendeel from analyzing the curves that a

Recticular Shells. Double layer reticular shell circumferential slit with axisymmetric load

structures carry very little transverse shear, induces an inhomogeneous state of stress and

thus, it may be appropriate to substitute the strain. 3 Refs.

inter-layer diagonal members with 'space' Gerasimenko, P.V. (All-Union Extramural

members perpendicular to the middle surface. Polytechnic Inst, Moscow, USSR); Preobrazhenskii,

In this paper the shear stiffness of double I.N. Meek Compos Mater v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p

layer grids without diagonals is presented and 459-462.

used to calculate the design buckling load for

domes built with this geometry. (Author 037011 Allowing for Binder Stiffness and

abstract) 8 Refs. Reinforcement Extensibility in Designing a

Castano, Francisco (Unistrut Space Frame Systems, Shell of Revolution Made of a Composite

Canton, MI, USA). Proe Sess Relat Steel StTUet StTUet Material. A method for determining the

Congr Proceedings of the Sessions Related to Steel configuration and equilibrium state of a shell

Structures at Structures Congress '89, San under the effects of internal pressure with

Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ by allowance for the extensibility of the fibers and

ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 195-204. the elasticity of the threads was devised. The

370

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

boundary value problem for linearized coordinate axes of the shell. To expand the

equations was solved by the method of initial possibility of the model for evaluating the

parameters with the use of Godunov's stress-strain state at the microscopic level, the

procedure for orthogonalization. Two cases order and number of resolvent equations

are given: a shell with a movable head made by were independent of the number of layers as

spiral winding wherein the initial form of the well as the ratio of the physico-geometric

shell is designed as being equilibrium for a properties. In this paper, the model is

recticular shell with a geodesic winding, and a generalized to the case of laminated shallow

geodesic shell wound on a mandrel of the same shells made of anisotropic layers. The model

profile for which the strains were calculated considers transverse shear and compression,

under internal pressure and a compressive tangential and normal forces of inertia, and

force applied to the head. The method makes geometric nonlinearity. Kinematic hypotheses

it possible to determine the geometry of the are introduced to reduce the three-

shell and its stress state. 6 Refs. dimensional problem to two dimensions. Two

Biderman, V.L. (N.E. Bauman Moscow Higher examples illustrating the ability of the model

Technical lnst, USSR); Mart'yanova, G.V.; Sorokin, to reflect the three-dimensional nature of the

F.D. Meek Compos Mater v 23 n 5 Mar 1988 p stress-strain state of multilaminate plates and

579-585. shells are examined. 12 Refs.

Prisazhnyuk, V.K. (Kiev Highway lnst, USSR);

037012 Optimization of Structures of Piskunov, V.G. Meek Compos Mater v 23 n 6 May

Reinforced Cylindrical Shells Made of 1988 p 719-726.

Composites. A method is given for selecting

the parameters for the design optimization of 037014 Analysis of Thermoelastic Stresses

reinforced cylindrical shells which satisfies the in Laminated Shells of Double Curvature. A

system of restrictions and minimizes the target curvilinear coordinate system was used to

function. The active physical restrictions construct a model describing the thermoelastic

included general and local stability, the stresses in laminated shells of double

strength of the material of the cloth of the curvature. It was assumed that the stresses

shell, and the reinforcing set. The design and depended linearly on strains and temperature.

technological restrictions imposed on the Near the edges of the outer layer the shell

geometrical parameters of the shell were also element was regarded as two finite elements;

taken into account. Two possible forms of the one element modeled the packet of inner

loss of stability of the reinforced shells were layers and the second modeled the outer shell

evaluated. Strength calculations of the cloth layer. The solution of the thermoelastic

were based on a macromodel according to problem satisfied the condition of the

which the load-carrying capacity of the entire minimum of potential energy of the shell.

packet was exhausted when the limiting stress Shear stress distributions were determined.

state was reached in at least one layer. An The method was applied to a stiff cylindrical

algorithm was constructed for optimum design shell with a thin outer layer heated uniformly

on the basis of heuristic combinatorial analysis. from within. The stresses determined on the

It was shown that longitudinal-transverse edge of the outer layer were compared with

reinforcement in respect of mass is 1.5-2.0 results of holographic measurements of strains

times more effective than the unidirectional of a steel shell with a sheet made of carbon-

longitudinal reinforcement. 4 Refs. fiber plastic stuck to it and were found to

Tomashevskii, V.T. (Marshall A.A. Grechko Naval agreed qualitatively with the experimental

Military Acad, Leningrad, USSR); Anufriev, A.P.; data. 4 Refs.

Shalygin, V.N.; Yakovlev, V.S.; Kalimulin, R.l. Meek Bakulin, V.N. (S. Ordzhonikidze Moscow lnst,

Compos Mater v 23 n 5 Mar 1988 p 603-607. USSR); Kaledin, V.O.; Rassokha, A.A. Meek Compos

Mater v 23 n 6 May 1988 p 732-737.

037013 Model of Composite Shallow Shells

and Plates for Solving Problems of Statics, 037015 Axisymmetric Divergence of

Dynamics, and Contact Interaction. In an Ring-stiffened Composite Cylindrical Shells

earlier paper, the authors constructed a Subject to Axial Compression. Static

theory for the evaluation of the stress-strain aeroelastic instability of structures, which is

state of composite structures for the case of also called divergence, represents an important

laminated composite shallow shells and plates theoretical and practical problem. Divergence

of orthotropic materials in which the principal of composite structures has been intensively

directions of orthotropy coincided with the studied due to increasing utilization of

371

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

composite materials in the aerospace industry. three-layer plastic structures fabricated from

In this paper, axisymmetric divergence of an ideally plastic material that obeys the Hill

simply supported, internally ring-reinforced plasticity condition. We also compare designs

composite shells is considered. The shell is obtained by the constant-dissipation method

subject to an air flow, directed parallel to the and equal-strength designs; we demonstrate

shell axis, and to static axial loading. The that equal-strength designs display a greater

analytical conditions of divergence are volume of the supporting layers. For the

obtained both for discrete ring stiffeners and sandwich shells considered here, equal-

based on the smeared stiffeners technique. 4 strength designs are understood to mean

Refs. those for which, at each meridian point, the

Birman, Victor (Univ of New Orleans, New plasticity condition is realized as an equality in

Orleans, LA, USA).] Appl Meek Trans ASME v 55 one of the supporting layers, and as a

n 4 Dec 1988 p 984-985. nonstrict inequality in the other. (Edited

author abstract) 16 Refs.

037016 Design of Composite Cylindrical Nemirovskii, Yu.V.; Shul'gin, A.V. Meek Solids v 23

Vessels for Fluid Loading. A theoretical n 51988 P 104-112.

approach is presented to examine the problem

of the fluid loading of a simply supported

037019 Finite-element Method in Problems

Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) composite

cylindrical pipe. The shell layup is composed of Nonline Deformation of Reinforced

of specially orthotropic layers, the Shells of Arbitrary Shape. A method of

calculation of reinforced shells of arbitrary

arrangement of which may be nonsymmetrical

shape is proposed. It applies the finite element

through the wall thickness. The theory is

method to problems of nonlinear deformation

developed using Sanders' thin shell theory,

of these shells and it is based on specification

neglecting the effect of transverse shear. An

example of the use of the method is given, of primary geometrical information regarding

where the behavior of a horizontal pipe is the object. Such information can be provided

examined when it is partially or totally filled by the radius vectors of the nodes of the

elements and the positions of the unit normal

with fluid. Three layups are examined, one of

an isotropic construction using chopped vectors to the surface at these nodes.

strand mat (CSM) and two of a laminated Differences in the geometry of the shells

construction. (Author abstract) 5 Refs. under consideration are unimportant from the

standpoint of algorithmization of the

Banks, W.M. (Univ of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scod); calculations, since the same node-by-node

Tooth, A.S.; Wilson, P.M.] Pressure Vessel Teeknol information is required for calculations. A

Trans ASME v III n 2 May 1989 p 102-108. universal approach can &pan an extensive class

of calculation problems for reinforced shells

037017 Shear Deformable Theory of of arbitrary shape, operating in the large-

Laminated Composite Shallow Shell-type displacement region. As an example the

Panels and Their Response Analysis: II. problem of compression of a cylindrical panel

Static Response. In the second part of this of rectangular shape is considered. The

paper, by using the static counterparts of the method used allows the problem to be solved

governing equations derived in Part I, the for arbitrary elastic displacements.

static response of shallow composite shell-type

panels subjected to a sinusoidal transverse Kuznetsov, V.V.; Soinikov, Yu.V. Meek Solids v 23

load is investigated. The numerical n 31988 P 129-135.

applications, encompassing a large number of

boundary conditions and various lamination 037020 Hygrothermal Effects on the

schemes, allow one to obtain some conclusions Stability of a Cylindrical Composite Shell

which are formulated in the paper. (Edited Panel. In this paper the finite element

author abstract) 1 Ref. method is applied to study the problem of

Khdeir, A.A. (Virginia Polytechnic lost & State moisture and temperature effects on the

Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Librescu, L.; stability of a general orthotropic cylindrical

Frederick, D. Acta Meek v 77 n 1- 2 Apr 1989 p composite shell panel subjected to axial or

1-12. in-plane shear loading. The element employed

is a 9-node isoparametric shell element. Since

037018 Sandwich Shells of Absolute the hygrothermal effects on the elastic

Minimum Volume. We consider a number of properties of the matrices and the fibers are

new solutions of optimal design problems for very different, the degrading of the matrices

372

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

and the fibers are very different, the Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,

degrading of elastic moduli, the transverse USA, 1988 P 71-76.

shear effect and the induced initial stress are

all considered in the present study. Numerical 037022 Divergence Instability of Reinforced

investigation shows that if the temperature Composite Cylindrical Shells. Divergence

increase from 300 K to 422K and the

0 instability of a simply supported orthotropic

moisture concentration is saturated, the composite shell reinforced in both axial and

buckling load with both the degrading of circumferential directions is considered. The

elastic moduli and transverse shear shell is subject to an axial static load and to an

deformation considered is approximately 12% action of an outside supersonic gas flow in the

lower than Snead/Papazoto's result where direction parallel to the shell axis. Two

only the degrading of elastic moduli is variants of the solution considered in the

considered. (Edited author abstract) 10 Refs. paper include discrete widely spaced stiffeners

Lee, S.Y. (Nat! Cheng-Kung Univ, Tainan, and closely spaced stiffeners; the latter case

Taiwan); Yen, W.J. ASME Aerosp Div Publ AD v 13 can be treated using a smeared stiffeners

Recent Advances in the Macro- and Micro- technique. It is proven that divergence

Mechanics of Composite Materials Structures, instability of shells treated by smeared

Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting of the stiffeners technique can occur only if they are

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, subject to axial compressive loads exceeding

Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by the static buckling value. (Author abstract) 9

American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (AS ME), Refs.

New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 21-31. Birman, V. (Univ of New Orleans, New Orleans,

LA, USA). ASME Aerosp Div Publ AD v 13 Recent

037021 Delamination Effects on Composite Advances in the Macro- and Micro-Mechanics of

Shells. An analytical investigation was Composite Materials Structures. Presented at the

performed to study the effect of delamination Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of

on the response of cylindrical composite shells Mechanical Engineers, Chicago, IL, USA, Nov

subjected to external loadings. It was of 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by American Soc of

particular interest to determine the buckling Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,

load and the post-buckling behavior of USA, 1988 P 169-175.

externally pressurized cylindrical composite

shells containing delamination. An analytical 037023 Failure Prediction for Composite

model was developed which consists of a Shells: Shear Deformable Finite Element

structural analysis for calculating the global Formulation. Piecewise smooth stress-based

deformations of the structures and a fracture failure criteria are implemented in a shear

analysis for determining the delamination deformable finite element formulation. Both

growth in the structures. A nonlinear finite plate and shell elements are utilized to

element code based on the updated Lagrange represent thin to moderately thick laminated

formulation was developed for the model. structures. Accurate stresses are obtained both

Based on the results of calculations, it was in the plane of each ply as well as in the

found that delamination can significantly through-the-thickness direction. Such stress

effect the buckling load and response of information is essential in differentiating

cylindrical composite shells subjected to between fiber, matrix and delamination

externally pressurized loadings, depending failures. (Author abstract) 14 Refs.

upon the initial length and location of the Engblom, JJ. (Texas A&M Univ, College Station,

delamination, ply orientation and laminate TX, USA). ASME Pet Div Publ PD v 24 Composite

curvature. The calculated strain energy Material Technology 1989, Twelfth Annual

release rate at the crack tips indicates that Energy-Sources Technology Conference and

delamination growth occurs at the wake of Exhibition, Houston, TX, USA, Jan 22 - 25 1989.

buckling due to Mode II shear fracture. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical Engineers

(Author abstract) 24 Refs. (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 37-41.

Chang, F.-K. (Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA, USA);

Kutlu, Z. ASME Aerosp Div Publ AD v 13 Recent 037024 Computer-Aided Manufacturing of

Advances in the Macro- and Micro-Mechanics of Filament-Wound Composite Shells. An

Composite Materials Structures, Presented at the interactive CAM system developed for

Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of automated manufacturing of filament-wound

Mechanical Engineers, Chicago, IL, USA, Nov axisymmetric shells is reported.

27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by American Soc of Microprocessors are designed to drive motors

373

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

for multi-axes control of mandrel rotation, dihedral angles of n-frequency spherical and

carriage and cross feeder translations, and eye ellipsoidal octahedral and icosahedral geodesic

rotation. A personal computer system is used domes with or without truncation, for plotting

as host and has software to initiate the orthographic and axonometric projections,

microprocessors, to supervise the motions of and for tabulating the chord lengths and

the rotating mandrel and of the robot-like dihedral angles for sawing the structural

assembly of carriage, cross feeder, and eye. elements for construction. (Author abstract) 4

Operator interactive capability of the software Refs.

make it possible to manually interrupt and Teter, W.D. (Univ of Delaware, Newark, DE,

perform on-the-spot adjustment and reset. USA); Nicholls, R.L. Bull Int Assoc Shell Spat Struct

The variety of filament-wound shells made by v 29-2 Aug 1988 P 47-53.

this automated system is reported. (Edited

author abstract) 12 Refs. 037027 Das System VWMESH zur

Pao, Y.C. (Univ of Nebraska, Lincoln, NB, USA); Idealisierung von Tragstrukturen im

Karamooz, S.; Spencer, B.E.; Keester, PJ. Comput CAE-Konzept. [VWMESH System for an

Eng Proc Int Comput Eng Con! Exhib v 1 (of 2), Ideal Design of Supporting Structures in the

Proceedings of the 1989 ASME International CAE Concept. Presentation of an Interactive

Computers in Engineering Conference and Module for the Eiasto-Mechanical Ideal

Exposition, Anheim, CA, USA, Jul 30-Aug 3 Design of Thin-walled Supporting

1989. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical Structures, Available for Instance in the

Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1989 P CAD Medium in Carbody Design, Aircraft

553-557. Construction, Mechanical Engineering or in

the Shipbuilding Sector]. The development

COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS of weight and cost optimized supporting

structures requires an early safe statement on

037025 Strength Analysis Algorithm of the performance criteria of the component

Discrete Stiffened Conic Shells. Computer which must be made available to the designer

aided analysis algorithm is developed for the in the design phase by way of suitable

stressed-strain state of circular conic shells of forecasting media. To this end the most

irregular structure stiffened by stringers and important test results obtained by the

frames under the effect of arbitrary loads application of modern simulation methods

applied to the frames. The problem solution must be brought to the attention and desk of

is obtained in the Fourier series using the the designer and must be made available for

method of the matrix pass by means of the interpretation without passing the construction

computer BESM-6-programmed algorithm. stage before. For the physical relationships

Contrary to known algorithms of the method which can be forecast by means of the FEM

of finite elements the suggested algorithm analysis idealizing networks are needed for

does not need considerable expenditures of the original structure. (Edited author abstract)

machine time and time for preparation of the 7 Refs. In German.

initial data necessary for the calculation. A Sorgatz, Ulrich (RWTH, Aachen, West Ger);

stressed state in the casting of the shell Deuter, Helmut. VDI Z v 131 n 3 Mar 1989 p 26-32.

supported as a cantilever under the effect of

tangential concentrated load, the effect of the 037028 Modeling of Plate and Shell

shell taper angle and frame elasticity on this Structures with P-Version of the FEM. Finite

state are investigated. The beam theory to element models for the analysis of plates and

calculation of broad fuselage of planes under shells, based on the concept of hp-extension

the effect of local forces is shown to be are presented. A methodology for the control

nonapplicable. (Author abstract) 4 Refs. In and analysis of the error of the finite element

Russian. solution is developed. Numerical results

Kabanov, V.V.; Levitskaya, T.E. Probl Prochn n 7 obtained using the proposed methodology are

Jul 1988 P 97 -100. given. (Author abstract) 16 Refs.

Sahrmann, Glenn J. (Sverdrup Technology Inc,

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN Middleburg Heights, OH, USA). Comput Util Stroct

Eng Computer Utilization in Structural

037026 Geodesign: A Computer Program Engineering, Proceedings of the sessions at

for Geodesic Dome Geometries. A computer Structures Congress '89, San Francisco, CA, USA,

algorithm is described for obtaining the May 1-51989. Publ by ASCE, New York, NY,

coordinates of vertices, chord factors, and USA, 1989 p 277-285.

374

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

structural derivation of their forms. Every

037029 Effect of Support Movement on fabric structure includes compression elements,

Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells. For many just as most shells include both tension and

hyperbolic paraboloid shells, the horizontal bending elements. Furthermore, both forms,

reaction is provided by horizontal ties between through the introduction of stiffening

the supports. It is shown that the horizontal elements, have enormous range for subjective

movement of the supports associated with the manipulations of form to achieve desired

elongation of these ties will alter sufficiently sculptural effects. Both fabric structures and

the stresses in the shell membrane and the concrete shells rely on an interplay of tension

axial forces and moments in the supporting and compression, and much of their aesthetic

edge members that these movements must be success is a function of the skill with which this

considered in the analysis. The effect of the interplay is handled by the designer.

outward support movement for gable-type HP Huntington, Craig G. (Huntington Design Associates

shells supported on four corners is to reduce Inc, Oakland, CA, USA). Proc Sess Relat Steel Struct

the arching effect across the diagonal supports, Struct Congr Proceedings of the Sessions Related to

resulting in behavior that resembles more Steel Structures at Structures Congress '89, San

closely that predicted by membrane theory. Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ by ASCE,

When such shells are placed to form continuous New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 706-715.

structures, the effect of the outward support

movement causes the portion of shell in the CONTROL

vicinity of the first rows of interior supports to

behave as inverted umbrella HP shells. 037032 Optimal Control of a Pre-stressed,

(Author abstract) 8 Refs. Orthotropic Thin Cylindrical Shell Subjected

Simmonds, Sidney H. (Univ of Alberta, Edmonton, to a Constant Pressure at Its Interior

Alberta, Can). J Struct Eng v 115 n 1 Jan 1989 p Wall. The open loop optimal control of a

19-31. pre-stressed, orthotropic thin cylindrical shell

subjected to a constant pressure at its interior

037030 Collapse Load Analysis of wall relative to a given index of performance

Prestressed Concrete Surface Structures with is investigated. The optimal control function

Unbonded Tendons by the Finite Element is obtained by using a calculus of variations

Method. The basis of the theoretical approach on the basis of a thin-shell theory.

investigation is a formulation of the principle The response and the hoop stress

of virtual work which is suitable for (circumferential stress) of the controlled shell

incremental-iterative analysis of PC surface are presented in graphical form and

structures by the finite element method (FEM). compared with those of an uncontrolled shell.

It contains the expression for the virtual work Moreover, it is observed that the time

of forces exerted by the tendons on the required for the effectiveness of the control

remaining part of the surface structure, treated increases as the orthotropy coefficient

as a free body. Geometric nonlinearity is increases. An interesting aspect of the

considered on the basis of W.T. Koiter's shell investigation is the singularity of the mass

theory of small displacements and moderately matrix. (Author abstract) 6 Refs.

large rotations. Physical nonlinearity is taken Sadigh-Esfandiari, R. (California State Univ, Long

into account by means of appropriate Beach, CA, USA); Sloss, J.M.; Bruch, J.C. Jr. J

constitutive equations for intact and cracked Sound Vib v 125 n 1 Aug 221988 P 123-130.

concrete, respectively, reinforcing steel and

prestressing steel. The numerical investigation CORROSION

consists of collapse load analysis of a PC slab

with unbonded tendons. It demonstrates the 037033 Corrosion Wear of a Thick-Walled

usefulness of the theoretical concept. (Edited Cylindrical Shell of a Nonlinearly Elastic

author abstract) 17 Refs. Material. During service the elements of

Hofstetter, Guenter (Technical Univ of Vienna, many structures are subject to the combined

Vienna, Austria); Mang, Herbert A. Finite Elem Anal action of loads, temperatures, and corrosive

Des v 5 n 2Jul1989 p 141-165. working media. In this work the case in which

the corrosive medium does not influence the

037031 Manipulation of Shell and Fabric mechanical properties of the material but does

Structure Form. Fabric structures and cause corrosion failure of the surface layers

concrete shells are readily compared because was considered. The depth of corrosion wear

375

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

was used as the parameter characterizing the orthotropic plastic theory by Hill are

process of corrosion failure of the surface. employed in the creep range. The creep

Algorithms were constructed and used to strains are related to the stresses by McVetty's

develop a program in FORTRAN-4 language equation with a thermal effect multiplier by

with the use of which a series of problems was Arrhenius. The basic differential equations

solved. The method makes it possible to quite derived are numerically solved by a finite

effectively evaluate the behavior of shells of difference method. As a numerical example,

nonlinearly elastic materials in a corrosive the creep of a two-layered, anisotropic

medium with the relationship of the properties cylindrical shell composed of mild steel and

of the material and the corrosion rate to stainless steel subjected to uniform internal

temperature. 4 Refs. pressure is analyzed. (Edited author abstract)

Ovchinnikov, I.G. (Saratov Polytechnic lnst, USSR); 14 Refs. In Japanese.

Garbuz, E. V. Sov Mater Sci v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p Takezono, Shigeo; Migita, Kohji. Nippon Kikai

405-408. Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 54 n 507 Nov 1988 p

2019-2027.

037034 Optimization of the Life and Cost of

Cylindrical Shells Subject to Mechanical and DEFECTS

Chemical Failure. The purpose of this work

is to create mathematical models of 037036 Plates and Shells with Crack-like

optimization of cylindrical shells for general Flaws. The formulation of new hierarchial

cases in which the corrosion rate is a function finite elements for the analysis of laminated

of stresses. A thin-walled cylindrical shell of plates and shells in the presence of flaws are

specified radius and length and pivotsupported discussed. The performance of the elements is

on the ends and compressed with an axial elevated with the help of a number of

load was taken as the model structure. Two example problems and the results available in

optimization problems were formulated. The the published literature. (Author abstract) 19

first, in which the corrosion rate was assumed Refs.

as a linear function of the stress intensity, was

Basu, P.K. (Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN, USA);

written in the form of linear mathematical

Ahmed, N.U.; Woo, K.S. Comput Vtil Struct Eng

programming. The second, in which the

Computer Utilization in Structural Engineering,

limitation in time was introduced, was

Proceedings of the sessions at Structures Congress

formulated in the form of nonlinear

'89, San Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ

programming and accounted for both the

by ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 286-295.

initial cost and expenditures made on the

structure at various times. Certain results of

calculation using the two models are DEFLECTION

considered. 5 Refs.

Zelentsov, D.G. (Ferrous Metallurgy Mechanization 037037 Deflection and Snapping of Ring-

Scientific & Production Union, Dnepropetrovsk, Loaded Spherical Caps. The axisymmetric

USSR); Pochtman, Yu. M. Sov Mater Sci v 23 n 4 behavior of both shallow, and deep, ring-

Jan 1988 p 400-412. loaded spherical caps, which are simply

supported but otherwise unconstrained at

CREEP their edges, is investigated using a large-strain

shell theory based on a variational principle.

037035 Creep of Anisotropic Multi-Layered A numerical technique is used to extract the

Moderately Thick Shells of Revolution. This solution. Particular attention is paid to highly

paper describes an analytical formulation and nonlinear phenomena such as snapthrough,

a numerical solution for creep problems of single and multiple snapback, and load-free

anisotropic multilayered moderately thick everted states. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.

shells of revolution with application to a Brodland, G. Wayne (Univ of Waterloo, Waterloo,

cylindrical shell. The analytical formulation is Ont, Can); Cohen, H. J Appl Mech Trans ASME v

developed by extending the Reissner-Naghdi 56 n 1 Mar 1989 p 127-132.

theory for elastic shells with consideration

given to the effect of shear deformation. For 037038 Elastic-Plastic Large Deflection

the constitutive relation, Hooke's law for Analysis of Axisymmetric Shells. A new

orthotropic materials is used in the elastic finite element formulation for elastic-plastic

deformation, and equations based on the large deflection analysis of shells of revolution

orthotropic creep theory derived from the is presented. The new formulation contains

376

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

most of the best features of nonlinear finite orthotropic layers of variable thickness. The

element analyses currently available in the shells were deformed by shock loads. This

literature, together with some new numerical method is based on a Timoshenko-type

schemes to improve the capability, accuracy geometric equation of nonlinear shell theory

and speed of the computation. It is thoroughly and physical relations from the theory of

verified using a variety of problems. The effective moduli. The boundary value problem

doubly curved thin shell finite element used was solved by finite difference discretization

has been widely applied to linear elastic stress of the Lagrange-D'Alembert variational

analysis and linear stability analysis by the equation and by integrating over time.

present authors and their co-workers. In place Equations of motion were obtained.

of the widely-used relations of Donnell, Computations were performed on a BESM-6

Novozhilov or Sanders, more comprehensive computer. Experimental and numerical results

nonlinear thin shell strain-displacement were compared. For the experiment the

relations are used, which account for dynamic deformation of a viscoelastic shell of

nonlinear strains caused by in-plane poly methyl methacrylate was used. The shells

displacements. Unlike most previous nonlinear were formed by multiple-zone spiral winding

axisymmetric shell formulations, in-plane of glass-plastic strip. It was found that by

shearing is included throughout the treatment. varying the number of zones and layers in the

For plastic analysis, a multi-layered approach winding, the stress level in the region of the

is adopted employing the Prandtl-Reuss pole opening could be reduced. 15 Refs.

normal flow rule with isotropic hardening or Abrosirnov, N.A. (Gorkii State Univ, Gorky, USSR).

perfect plasticity. (Edited author abstract) Meeh Compos Mater v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p 447 - 453.

Teng, J.G. (Univ of Sydney, Sydney, Aust); Rotter,

J.M. Comput Struet v 31 n 2 1989 P 211-233. 037041 Nonlinear Theory of the Central

Bending of Three-Layer Shells with Defects

037039 Assumed Strain Finite Element in the Form of Sections of Bonding

Model for Large Deflection Composite Failure. Thin three-layer shells with a

Shells. A nine node finite element model has light-weight filler and having sections of

been developed for analysis of geometrically bonding failure on one of the surfaces of

non-linear laminated composite shells. The contact between the filler and an external

formulation is based on the degenerate solid layer were theoretically examined. For the

shell concept and utilizes a set of assumed case of central bending of such shells, a

strain fields as well as assumed displacement. complex of nonlinear relations was

Two different local orthogonal co-ordinate constructed which were used to formulate

systems were used to maintain in variance of nonlinear problems concerning contact

the element stiffness matrix. The formulation interaction of the external layers with the

assumes strain and the determinant of the filler, with allowance for unilateral contact on

Jacobian matrix to be linear in the thickness the sections of bonding failure. The

direction. This allows analytical integration in Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses traditionally used

the thickness direction regardless of ply in the theory of three-layer shells were

layups. The formulation also allows the adopted to describe the mechanics of

reference plane to be different from the shell deformation of the external layers. 11 Refs.

midsurface. The results of numerical tests Pairnushin, V.N. (Kazan Aviation Inst, USSR). Sov

demonstrate the validity and the effectiveness Appl Meeh v 23 n 11 May 1988 p 1038 -1 043.

of the present approach. (Author abstract) 17

Refs. 037042 Approaches to Numerical Solution

Yeorn, C.H. (Univ of Maryland, College Park, MD, of Linear and Nonlinear Boundary-value

USA); Lee, S. W. Int J Numer Methods Eng v 28 n 8 Problems of the Theory of Layered

Aug 1989 P 1749-1768. Anisotropic Shells. Certain approaches to the

numerical solution of boundary-value

DEFORMATION problems are presented, describing the

stress-strain state of layered shells with

037040 Numerical Study of the isotropic and anisotropic layers of variable

Axisymmetric Deformation of Composite thickness in the linear and geometrically

Shells of Revolution Under Shock Loads. A nonlinear formulations on the basis of classical

method was proposed of numerically solving and improved models for nonuniform force

problems of transient deformation of and temperature interactions. The proposed

composite shells composed of rigidly joined approaches to the numerical solution of the

377

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

static shell problems are realized by programs well-known shear locking that appears in some

in FORTRAN and tested on many examples. finite element representations, were not

Solutions of some problems based on the observed. However, in connection with

discussed methods are demonstrated. 10 Refs. kinematically slightly supported boundaries,

Grigorenko, Va. M. (Acad of Sciences of the such as corresponding to membrane theory,

Ukranian SSR, Kiev, USSR). Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n oscillating solutions may occur. 21 Refs.

10 Apr 1988 p 923-927. Wimmer, H. (Univ of Innsbruck, Innsbruck,

Austria). Aeta Meeh v 73 n 1-4 Aug 1988 P 163 -175.

037043 Deformation of a Spherical Shell

Under Internal Loading by a Shock 037046 Betti's Theorem for Rotationally

Generated by an Underwater Electrical Symmetric Infinitesimal Deformations

Discharge. This article is devoted to a Superimposed on the Finite Deformation of

theoretical and experimental study of the a Thin Shell of Revolution. It is intuitively

nonsteady hydroelastic deformation of a thin clear that the tangent stiffness matrix for a

spherical shell subjected to an underwater finitely deformed shell, treated as a two-

electrical discharge at its center. The range of dimensional continuum, should be symmetric.

application of model representation of the The governing differential equations for

latter in the form of a point source and a continuing rotationally symmetric quasi-static

source of finite dimensions with an ideally bending and extensional deformation of thin

flexible boundary is determined. The test shell shells of revolution with no shear deformation

was composed of two stamped hemispheres are employed to derive Betti's theorem from

which were subsequently welded about their which symmetry of the tangent stiffness

perimeters. 8 Refs. matrix follows, provided the pressure load is

Saprykin, Yu. V. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian conservative. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.

SSR, Kiev, USSR); Tsurkin, V.N.; Shvets, I.S.; DaDeppo, D.A. (Univ of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ,

Sholom, V.K. Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p 392-396. USA); Keppel, W.J. Ind Math v 38 pt 1 1988 P

71-82.

037044 Stability of a Viscoelastic Shell of

Double Curvature. In this paper, we consider 037047 FDM in Arbitrary Curvilinear

the stability of a viscoelastic ellipsoidal shell. Co-ordinates-Formulation, Numerical

We examine the behavior of the shell in Approach & Applications. The basic concept

relation to the load, curvatures, and of automatization of operations in curvilinear

eccentricity of the support ellipse. We co-ordinate systems are briefly presented and

establish the conditions for 'snapping' of the applied to the analysis of large deformations of

shell to occur, and for asymmetrical membrane shells by the FDM. Several

equilibrium forms to appear and develop. 1 examples provide the basis for a comparison of

Ref. this approach with other descriptions of

Vorovich, 1.1.; Drobysheva, T.P. Meeh Solids v 22 n deformation. 23 Refs.

61987 P 174-178. Tworzydlo, Wlodzimierz, W. (Technical Univ of

Krakow, Cracow, Pol). Intl Numer Methods Eng v 28

037045 Application of the Two-Dimensional n 2 Feb 1989 p 261-277.

Hermitian Finite-Difference Method to

Linear Shear Deformation Theory of Plates 037048 Consistent Linearization in Elasto-

and Arbitrarily Curved Shells. In this paper Plastic Shell Analysis. The present paper is

the linear shear deformation theory of thin directed towards elasto-plastic large

shells formulated by Basar/Kratzig has been deformation analysis of thin shells based on the

used to demonstrate a special kind of the concept of degenerated solids. The main

Hermitian finite-difference method. The aspect of the paper is the derivation of an

governing differential equation system efficient computational strategy placing

established in an appropriate matrix form emphasis on consistent elasto-plastic tangent

contains only first derivatives of the unknown moduli and stress integration with the radial

tensor components. After transformation into return method under the restriction of 'zero

an algebraic form by applying two- normal stress condition' in thickness direction.

dimensional operators and solving the global The advantageous performance of the

system, no further differentiation of the standard Newton iteration using a consistent

unknown field functions is necessary. The tangent stiffness matrix is compared to the

procedure shows fast convergence and, in classical scheme with an iteration matrix based

general, numerical instabilities like the on the infinitesimal elasto-plastic constitutive

378

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

tensor. Several numerical examples also function method is used accurately to treat the

demonstrate the effectiveness of the standard contact condition involving a finite amount of

Newton iteration with respect to modified and sliding. Axisymmetric large deformations of

quasi-Newton methods like BFGS and others. contacting spherical shells are analyzed, and it

(Author abstract) 21 Refs. is shown that elastic unloading resulting from

Ramm, E. (Univ of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, West Ger); the sliding definitely affects the crushing of

Matzemiller, A. Eng Comput (Swansea Wales) v 5 n 4 one shell by another. The possibility of

Dec 1988 p 289- 299. nonaxisymmetric bifurcation of deformation is

examined on the basis of the J2-deformation

037049 Whole-Field Optical Examination of theory. (Author abstract) 10 Refs.

Cylindrical Shell Deformation. An optical Kitagawa, Hiroshi (Osaka Univ, Suita, Jpn); Hiura,

technique for the measurement of radial Seiji.]SME Int] Ser 1 v 32 n 2 Apr 1989 p 199-207.

deformation in circular cylindrical shells is

discussed. The technique is a modification and 037052 Determination of Shell

improvement of an earlier method, using a Constructions Deformations with

conical mirror of simple geometry to view a Application of Linear Transformation

grating reflected from the inner surface of the Theory. In this paper concepts for

shell. The new system allows more precise determining shell structure deformations are

alignment of the components of the optical presented for the case of the surface of a

system with the shell. Fringes obtained by tria pial ellipsoid. Observations by the spatial

superposition as in the Ligtenberg moire incision method in a rectangular xyz

method, or deviations of lines from a regular coordinate system are assumed. The method

pattern in a photographic image provide a of determining the deformation components

measure of the slope changes on the surface of in the points under examination in the

the shell. Theoretical relations are presented t = T - To time interval is based on the

for three grid orientations, at least two of principle of a minimum sum of the squares of

which have to be used in conjunction to the (vx' vy ' v,) corrections. (Edited author

determine the two components of slope. abstract) 8 Refs. In Russian.

Illustrations for the use and accuracy of the Baran, P.1. (Kiev Engineering-Constructional lnst,

technique are presented for two cases. (Edited Kiev, USSR); Przewlocki, Stefan. Zesz Nauk Politeeh

author abstract) 8 Refs. Lodz Budownietwo n 39 1988 P 151-159.

Krishnakumar, S. (Univ of Tasmania, Hobart, Aust); 037053 Experimental Study of Deformation

Foster, C.G. ExpMeeh v 29 n 1 Mar 1989 p 16-22. of Thin Conical Shells During Penetration

into Soil. The penetration of various solids

037050 New Method of Multisegment into deformable media has been previously

Integration for the Nonlinear Analysis of considered. At the same time, insufficient

Shells of Revolution. A new method of attention has been paid to deformation of thin

multi segment integration has been developed shells in the process of penetration into soil.

for solving boundary value problems of a This paper describes an experimental study of

system of nonlinear ordinary differential deformation of thin-walled shells upon

equations as encountered in the large indentation into soil; it determines the effect

deflection analysis of the axisymmetric of the angle of taper, the shape of the tip,

deformations of the shells of revolution. The and the manner of attachment of the

method developed here involves much less concentrated mass to the shell structure on

computational work than the multisegment the deformation process. The authors

integration developed by Kainins and Lestingi. employed an experimental setup consisting of

The new method has been applied to a number a pneumatic gun with a control panel for

of problems to ascertain its soundness and regulating the delivery of compressed gas, a

accuracy. (Edited author abstract) 28 Refs. target, and measurement and recording

Uddin, Md. Wahhaj (Bangladesh Univ of equipment with an automatic control unit.

Engineering & Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh). Int The gun was capable of accelerating shells to

J Pressure Vessels Piping v 38 n 1 1989 P 39-55. specified velocities. 5 Refs.

Bakulin, V.N.; Ovcharov, P.N.; Potopakhin, V.A.

037051 Elastic-plastic Unstable Deformation Meeh Solids v 23 n 41988 P 183-186.

of Shells in Contact (Case of a Spherical

Shell). This paper deals with the numerical 037054 Deformation of Slender Shells with

analysis of large elastic-plastic deformation of Openings. Cutouts of various shapes are

shells in contact with each other. The penalty often made in shell structures for design

379

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

paper describes a numeric method for solving Extensible Plastic Collapse of Thin-Walled

a wide range of problems of the stressed- Shells. A theoretical model describing the

strained state of shells with cutouts. Results of progressive extensible plastic collapse of

some specific studies are reported. 21 Refs. thin-wall conical and cylindrical shells is

Dmitriev, V.G.; Preobrazhenskii, I.N. Meek Solids v presented. The proposed theory enables the

23 n 1 1988 P 169-175. load-deflection curves during axial

compression following the deformation history

037055 Dynamic Deformation of of the shell to be evaluated. The comparison

Orthotropic Cylinders. The theory of thick of theoretical curves with experimental ones

orthotropic shells is used here to analyze a shows a fair degree of accuracy. (Author

cylinder subjected to dynamic loads. The abstract) 14 Refs.

formulation includes shear deformation and Mamalis, A.G. (Natl Technical Univ of Athens,

rotatory inertia effects similar to the Athens, Greece); Manolakos, D.E.; Viegelahn, G.L.;

first-order, shear deformation, laminated plate johnson, W. Int] Meek Sei v 30 n 3-41988 Some

theory. Dynamic line loads (along the Papers Presented at the International Symposium

longitudinal direction) and patch loads are on Structural Failure, Second International

considered. The time-dependent part of the Symposium on Structural Crashworthiness,

load is a step pulse or a half sine wave. Cambridge, MA, USA,jun 6-81988 P 249-261.

(Author abstract) 11 Refs.

Cederbaum, G. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State

Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Heller, R.A. ASME DESIGN

Pressure Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 146 Advances

in Macro-Mechanics of Composite Material Vessels 037058 Design of Barrel Shells by the

and Components, Presented at the 1988 ASME Strength Method. For shells and folded plates,

Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Pittsburgh, the ACI Code (318-83), Section 19, permits

PA, USA,jun 19-23 1988. Publ by American Soc the reinforcing to be selected by strength

of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, design. The method of applying this to barrel

USA, 1988 P 43-48. shells is not specified. Possible procedures and

the results for an interior barrel of a multiple

series of barrel shells is described and

037056 Large Elastic Deformation of Shear compared to other methods of selecting

Deformable Shells of Revolution: Numerical reinforcing. (Author abstract)

and Experimental Results. Through an Ketchum, Milo S. Stroet Eng Praet v 4 n 3-4

integrating matrix approach, a numerical 1987-1988 P 165-177.

solution is obtained to the equations governing

large elastic deformation of a clamped circular 037059 Formwork for Spiral Ramps at

cylinder due to internal pressure. The shell Dolphins' Stadium. The problems presented

equations include the effects of large strains, by forming spirals included: wider forms

thickness changes, and transverse shear needed for the ramps' slabjoist system at

deformation. The numerical solution is outer edge; forms needed to provide for

compared to results from asymptotic analysis ramp's slope; after the first revolution,

and experiments on rubber cylinders. A formwork had to be supported on the

specialized Rivlin-Saunders strain energy structure below, and had to be designed to be

density function is assumed for the rubber, removed readily from one section to another.

with material constants determined from These problems were solved by assembling a

tensile tests and deformed cylinder profiles at number of modules, each consisting of a beam

a high inflation pressure. (Author abstract) 15 table section and its shoring. The shoring

Refs. incorporated adjustable scaffold frames that

Kempski, M.H. (Rochester Inst of Technology, could be lowered 6 to 8 inches to facilitate

Rochester, NY, USA); Taber, L.A.; Su, FongChin. stripping of concrete and repositioning of the

Am Soe Meek Eng Pap Preprint-American Society module at another level. The article discusses:

of Mechanical Engineers, Presented at the Winter forming the first 180 of ramp, the second

Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27-Dec 2 180 of ramp and the ramp beyond the first

1988. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical 360.

Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1988 Kathe, Chris (Ceco Corp, jacksonville, FL, USA).

WA/APM486. Coner Constr v 33 n 11 Nov 1988 4p.

380

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

the need for building integration in the States for Axisymmetric Elastic Shells in

design of fabric structures by examining the Tension. The problem of non uniqueness of

different necessary components and how they static axisymmetric solutions for a non-

fit together. It provides examples of this linearity elastic cylindrical shell in which the

integrated process that suggests its use in ends are pulled apart with a constant traction

conventional construction. (Author abstract) while retaining the radii of its ends fixed is

Goldsmith, Nicholas S. (FTL Associates, New York, studied. In the elastic case, we prove the

NY, USA). Proe Sess Relat Steel Struet Struet Congr existence of buckled states and the possibility

Proceedings of the Sessions Related to Steel of necking. In the hyperelastic case a global

Structures at Structures Congress '89, San existence and nonuniqueness theorem is

Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ by proved, via the energy criterion. (Author

ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 726-735. abstract) 19 Refs.

Pastrone, Franco (Univ di Torino, Turin, Italy);

Tonon, Maria Luisa. J Elast v 21 n 1 1989 P 43-59.

ELASTICITY

037064 Nonlinear Analysis of Elastomeric

037061 Application of Generalized Ray Keyboard Domes. The large deflection of an

Methods in Hydroelasticity Problems of elastomeric dome is studied using the finite

Thin Shells of Noncanonical Shape. A element method. The material properties of

substantial simplification in the solution of the elastomer are described by a hyperelastic

hydroelasticity problems, for primarily shells model in order to capture the strain energy

of noncanonical shape, can be utilization of stored in the dome during deformation. The

generalized ray methods based on replacement nonlinear responses are determined by the

of the wave equation by its equivalent modified Riks procedure. The calculated

first-order vector differential equation, a load-deflection curve agrees well with

generalized transport equation, and by the experimental results. In addition, a pressurized

analysis of the wave fronts that occur during thick-walled spherical hyperelastic shell is

shell interaction with the fluid. A further analyzed and the stress results obtained by the

development of the method proposed earlier finite element method are in excellent

to the case of nonstationary radiation agreement with the closed-form solutions.

problems and to stationary problems is The results provide a better understanding of

examined in this paper. The approach is the mechanical behavior of elastomeric

apparently applicable for shells of arbitrary keyboard domes and demonstrate the

shape, however its realization is shown in usefulness of the finite element method in

axisymmetric and plane problems. 24 Refs. designing such structures. (Author abstract)

15 Refs.

Podil'chuk, Yu. N. (Acad of Sciences of the

Ukrainian SSR, Kiev, USSR); Rubtsov, Yu. K. Sov Lau, John H. (Hewlett-Packard Lab, Palo Alto, CA,

Appl Meeh v 23 n 10 Apr 1988 p 981-988. USA); Jeans, Albert H. Am Soc Meeh Eng Pap

Preprint-American Society of Mechanical

Engineers, Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting,

037062 On Drilling Degrees of Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by

Freedom. Variational principles employing American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),

independent rotation fields are investigated. In New York, NY, USA, 1988 WA/EEP8 9.

the two-dimensional case these lead to

membrane elements with 'drilling degrees of ELASTOPLASTICITY

freedom', of practical use in shell analysis. We

argue that convenient interpolatory patterns 037065 Elastic-Plastic Analysis of a Radially

require modifications of the classical Loaded Spherical Shell. An elastic-plastic

variational framework. Several formulations analysis of a spherical loaded radially through

are proposed and shown to be convergent for a rigid inclusion is performed. The sphere is

displacement/rotation interpolations of all modeled as a shallow shell of infinite extent.

orders. (Author abstract) 29 Refs. The Tresca yield condition is used to derive

Hughes, Thomas J.R. (Inst for Computer Methods the elastic-plastic moment-curvature

in Applied Mechanics & Engineering, Stanford, CA, relationship in a simple form. This is used to

USA); Brezzi, F. Comput Methods Appl Meeh Eng v develop a computationally efficient solution

72 n 1 Jan 1989 p 105-12l. method. (Author abstract) 22 Refs.

381

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

Brooks, G.N. (Univ of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, Radovinskii, A.L. Meeh Solids v 23 n 5 1988 P

USA); Leung, C.-P. J Pressure Vessel Technol Trans 117-122.

ASME v III n 1 Feb 1989 p 39-46.

ENERGY DISSIPATION

037066 Elastojvisco-plastic Dynamic

Response of Thin Shells of Revolution by 037068 Energy Dissipation in Braced

Means of Overlay Model. The numerical Cylindrical Shells. This paper presents an

analysis of the elasto/visco-plastic dynamic experimental and numerical investigation of

response of axisymmetricaI thin shells the energy dissipation characteristics of mild

subjected to arbitrary loads is carried out by steel cylindrical shells subjected to large

the elasto/visco-plastic overlay model which is deformations under line loadings acting

able to express the Bauschinger effect and the parallel and perpendicular to the shells'

strain rate dependence. Namely, Perzyna's longitudinal axes. The effects of diametrical

equation is used for the constitutive relation bracing, cylindrical length and external

of each layer of the overlay model, and as a loading orientation on the deformation

whole, the Bauschinger effect and the patterns and energy dissipation capacities are

influence of viscosity in plastic range of the described. The results are applied to the

material are taken into account. The equations design of a new impact attenuation system

of motion and the relations between the used in highway safety applications. (Author

strains and displacements are derived by abstract) 9 Refs.

extending the Sanders linear theory in elastic Carney III, J.F. (Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN,

shells. The numerical method selected for this USA); Pothen, S. Int J Meeh Sci v. 30 n 3 -4 1988

problem is a method using finite difference in Some Papers Presented at the International

both space and time. (Edited author abstract) Symposium on Structural Failure, Second

16 Refs. In Japanese. International Symposium on Structural

Tao, Katsumi; Takezono, Shigeo; Ohtsubo, Kazumi; Crashworthiness, Cambridge, MA, USA, Jun 6-8

Mochidone, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Hironobu. Nippon 1988 P 203-216

Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 55 n 513 May

1989 p 1145-1152. FAILURE

States of Elastic-Plastic Toroidal Shells

037067 Elastic Conducting Shells in Under Pressure with Bending. A study of

Alternating Electromagnetic the limit states of elastic-plastic toroidal shells

Fields. Problems of excitation of elastic under combined bending and pressure is

vibrations of shells by variable electromagnetic presented. Generally, two different modes of

fields are considered. For problems of this failure have been observed, however, the

type, we give the equations in vector form, the possibility of their existence depends on the

corresponding initial and boundary conditions, value of pipe factor. It is shown that the

and the limits of applicability of the equations, appearance of the determined limit state is

and we provide a description of the general also strongly connected with the elastic

technique for solving them. For the carrying capacity of the torus and in this way

electrodynamic part of the problem, we give with the position of hoop stresses peak. The

an expression for the total-power functional, numerical results explain, in detail, the

and we formulate the orthogonality conditions discussed problem. (Edited author abstract) 11

for the eigensolutions of the corresponding Refs.

equations; for problems involving shells in Muc, Aleksander (Technical Univ of Cracow,

specified harmonic fields, we write out the Cracow, Pol). Thin-Walled Struet v 7 n 3-4 1989 P

expansion formula for the magnetic potential 197-212.

of the eddy currents in eigensolutions. As an

example, we consider the problem of relative FRACTURE

rotation of a thin-walled elastic sphere and a

constant oblique magnetic field, considered in 037070 Local Stresses and Strains in Axially

the rigid-shell approximation in some earlier Cracked Cylindrical Shells. A perturbation

papers; we also obtain formulas for solution is obtained for the local stress-strain

determining the magnetic pressure on the fields in an axially cracked cylindrical shell.

sphere when a constant magnetic field is The tenth-order differential equations are used

applied. (Edited author abstract) 6 Refs. that take into account the transverse shear

382

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

parameter, A., is employed. The stress intensity throughout production. Optimal hardening

factors for finite size cylindrical shells subjected regimes were assessed for cylinders made of

to bending and internal pressure are evaluated. fiberglass based on the VM-I fiber and binder

Sufficient accuracy can be obtained without EDT-I0 or binder EKR. To establish the

using fine mesh sizes in regions near the crack causes of the differences in the test results the

tip. Also analyzed are the influence of cylinder variations in the physicomechanical properties

diameter and shearing stiffness on bulging. of the solid polymers EDTI0 and EKR as

(Edited author abstract) 7 Refs. functions of temperature were investigated.

Liu, C.T. (Acad Sinica, Beijing, China); Wu, X.J. The optimization problem was solved

Theor Appl Fraet Meeh v 11 n 1 Apr 1989 p 51 - 58. numerically. 10 Refs.

Turusov, R. A. (Acad of Sciences of the USSR,

037071 Finite Element Analysis of a Moscow, USSR); Korotkov, V.N.; Rogozinskii, A.K.;

Circumferentially Cracked Cylindrical Shell Kuperman, A.M.; Sulyaeva, Z.P.; Garanin, V.V.;

Loaded in Torsion. Finite element methods Rozenberg, B.A. Meeh Compos Mater v 23 n 6 May

are used to evaluate all possible fracture modes 1988 p 773-777.

at the tip of a circumferential crack in an

isotropic cylindrical shell subjected to torsion. MANUFACTURE

The finite element results are compared with

shallow-shell theory data for cylinders with 037073 On the Determination of the

different geometries. The results indicate that Redrawing Ratio in the Redrawing of

there is good agreement between the Cylindrical Shells with a Numerical

membrane stress intensity factors calculated Simulation (2nd Report, on the

from finite element displacements at the crack Determination of the Redrawing Ratio by

tip and the factors found using shallow-shell the Reduction of the Maximum Deep

theory for small crack lengths. For longer Drawing Force). A determination method for

cracks, disagreement between these two the redrawing ratios has been proposed by

approaches is very pronounced. In particular, analyzing the redrawing process of cylindrical

the bending stress intensity factors from the shells from flat circular blanks using the

finite element analysis are significantly greater elementary theory of plasticity. These

than the corresponding values determined redrawing ratios were calculated using the

from the shallow-shell theory. It is observed criterion based on the reduction of the

that the out-of-plane, antisymmetric maximum deep drawing forces. These

deformation near the crack produces mixed theoretical results on the variations of the

mode fracture with crack opening and tearing redrawing ratios with the profile radius, the

displacements. (Author abstract) 14 Refs. blank thickness, the frictional force, the

Kumosa, M. (Univ of Cambridge, Cambridge, Engl); blankholder load and the strain-hardening

Hull, D. Eng Fraet Meeh v 32 n 1 1989 P 123 -136. exponent are presented using a developed

computer program aimed at rationalizing,

HEAT TREATMENT planning and simulating the redrawing

process. It is shown that the maximum deep

037072 Technological Monolithic Character drawing forces decreased at about 10-40%

of Shells Formed from Polymeric comparing the predicted drawing force with

Composition Materials. Solution of the the usual drawing force. This is based on the

problem of maintaining a monolithic character experience of many years standing and skilled

throughout production requires the labor. (Author abstract) 13 Refs. In Japanese.

development of such a heat-treatment regime Iseki, Hideo; Murota, Tadao; Katoh, Kazunori.

that would make it possible to obtain Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 505

monolithic thick-wall wound articles formed Sep 1989 p 2249-2256.

from reinforced plastics. The heat-treatment

process includes two stages: hardening of the 037074 Reduction of the Metal Volume in

initially liquid polymer-binder in the Pressed Conical Shells. A reduction in the

composition of the structure and cooling of the metal volume in pressed axisymmetric shells of

already hard polymeric composite. In this narrowing form (high-pressure containers,

paper, an attempt was made to demonstrate transition elements, fairings etc.) can be

the need for conducting detailed investigations achieved by improving the uniformity of

of the mechanical phenomena in the complex thickness of the components being produced.

hardening process for the final solution of the An improvement in the uniformity of

383

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

narrowing form is attained by combining radius, blank thickness, frictional force,

compression and drawing operations while blankholder load and strain-hardening

producing such shells. A technology of exponent are presented using a developed

multi-stage pressing, in which the concluding computer program aimed at rationalizing,

drawing operations have been replaced by planning and simulating the redrawing

compression of the bottom region of the process. It is shown that the maximum non-

blank, has been developed for manufacture of attainment value decreased to about 20-70%

axisymmetric shells with a large relative compared to those values of other

height. 2 Refs. optimization criteria. (Author abstract) 16

Maslov, V.D.; Popov, I.P.; Gostev, A.1. Sov Eng Res Refs. In Japanese.

v 8 n 1 1988 P 59-61. Iseki, Hideo; Sowerby, Robert. Nippon Kikai Gakkai

Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 508 Dec 1988 p 3115-3121.

037075 On the Determination of the

Redrawing Ratio in the Redrawing of MATHEMA TICAL MODELS

Cylindrical Shells with a Numerical

Simulation (3rd Report, on the 037077 Elastic-Plastic Ring-Loaded

Determination of the Redrawing Ratio by Cylindrical Shells. The elastic plastic solution

the Reduction of the Maximum Deep for an infinitely long cylindrical shell with an

Drawing Energy). A determination method axisymmetric ring load is presented. Except

for redrawing ratios has been proposed by for the material nonlinearity, the standard

analyzing the redrawing process of cylindrical assumptions of small deflection shell theory

shells from flat circular blanks using an were made. Because the principal directions

elementary theory of plasticity. These are known for the axisymmetric problem, the

redrawing ratios were calculated using a Tresca yield condition was used. This made it

criterion based on the reduction of the possible to obtain closed-form expressions for

maximum deep drawing energy. Variation of the elastic-plastic, moment-curvature relations,

redrawing ratio with profile radius, blank greatly simplifying the computational task.

thickness, frictional force, blankholder load The actual stress distribution through the

and strain-hardening exponent were obtained thickness was used, making these relations

using a developed computer program aimed exact. Yielding was contained near the load.

at rationalizing, planning and simulating the Thus, for the analysis the cylinder was divided

redrawing process. It is shown that the along its axis into elastic-plastic and purely

maximum deep drawing energy decreased elastic regions. Solutions were obtained for

about 10-40%, comparing the predicted each region which were then matched at their

drawing energy by the usual determination intersection to give the complete solution. All

method for the redrawing ratios. (Author results are given in dimensionless form so that

abstract) 14 Refs. In Japanese. they may be applied to any shell. (Author

Iseki, Hideo; Sowerby, Robert; Katoh, Kazunori. abstract) 12 Refs.

Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 508 Brooks, Gregory N. (Univ of Tennessee, Knoxville,

Dec 1988 p 3106-3114. TN, USA).] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n 4 Dec

1988 p 761-766.

037076 On the Determination of the

Redrawing Ratio in the Redrawing of 037078 Mechanics and Finite Elements of

Cylindrical Shells with a Numerical Shells. This article begins with a brief review

Simulation (4th report, on the Determination of the foundations: The classical theory of

of the Redrawing Ratio by the Minimax Love is described with attention to the

Optimization of Compromise underlying hypothesis and consequent

Programming). A determination method for limitations. A more general theory is described

the redrawing ratios has been proposed by which removes the constraints of Love; the

analyzing the redrawing process of cylindrical inclusion of transverse strains admits simpler

shells from flat circular blanks using the finite elements, accommodates the thick shell

elementary theory of plasticity, and by via layers and even a transition to the three-

applying multi-objective optimization theory. dimensional approximation. The concept of

These redrawing ratios were calculated using the finite element is reviewed in the context of

the minimax optimization of a compromise the discrete approximation of shells. Specific

solution of multi-objective optimization attention is given to those problems which are

theory. These theoretical results on the peculiar to shells: The predominant roles of

384

Excerpts from The En8ineerin8 Index Annual 1989

flexural and extensional deformations, the Hampton, VA, USA); Lester, H.C.; Abler, S.B. J

lesser role of transverse shear, can lead to Vib Acoust Stress Reliab Des v III n 3 Jul 1989 P

excessive stiffness ('locking'). Origins and 337-342.

procedures are described to circumvent these

problems. (Edited author abstract) 147 Refs.

Wempner, Gerald (Georgia Inst of Technology, NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

Atlanta, GA, USA). Appl Meek Rev v 42 n 5 May

1989 p 129-142. 037081 Non Contacting Testing and NDT

for Composite Shells. There is, today, a

NOISE ABATEMENT strong need for reliable large-field ways of

inspecting for the initial quality of composite

037079 Statistical Theory of Internal structures and for monitoring, over long

Soundproofing in Cylindrical Shells. In a times, the continued integrity of such

number of cases of practical interest, an structures. This paper introduces two new

interesting question is about the capability of methods which, when used in combination,

thin-walled shells of localizing wave energy has strong promise of meeting this need. The

close to the radiator encased in this shell, i.e., first, called Spectral Density Analysis is a

is separated by it from the environment. This purely optical method for full field

phenomenon represents the concept of measurement of surface displacements. The

internal soundproofing (isolation). The paper second is a fiber-optic laser based method to

concludes that as the case of soundproofing of generate and detect ultrasonic waves for

a shell from the external field (enclosure), the interrogating the interior of structures. It is

following physical phenomena are important: called Thermal Acousto Photonic NDE.

1. Increase of soundproofing effectiveness is (Author abstract) 5 Refs.

nonmonotonous with respect to the frequency. Burger, C.P. (Texas A&M Univ, College Station,

2. Dips (notches) in the spectral characteristic TX, USA). ASME Pressure Vessels Piping Div Publ

of soundproofing are due to resonant PVP v 146 Advances in Macro-Mechanics of

phenomena in the shell and in air volume Composite Material Vessels and Components,

within the shell. 3. The experimental analysis Presented at the 1988 ASME Pressure Vessels and

of the internal soundproofing of shells (using Piping Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, Jun

standard measuring techniques) does not 19- 23 1988. Publ by American Soc of Mechanical

reveal these dips (notches) in soundproofing Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, USA, 1988 P

due to averaging in the octave frequency 167-171.

bands. 4 Refs.

Guzhas, D.R. Vib Eng v 3 n 1 1989 P 21- 26.

PLASTICITY

in a Cylindrical Shell. This paper examines the Thermoplasticity Problem for Locally

the physical mechanisms governing the use of Heated Shallow Shells. We construct a

active noise control in an extended volume of numerical-analytic solution of the

a cylindrical shell. Measured data were thermoplasticity problem for locally heated

compared with computed results from a shallow shells. The solution is obtained by

previously derived analytical model based on using the method of integral equations and

infinite shell theory. For both the analytical the self-correcting method of successive

model and experiment, the radiation of loadings. As an example, we investigate the

external monopoles is coupled to the internal thermally stressed state in plates heated by

acoustic field through the radial displacement normal-circular heat sources. In the case of

of the thin, elastic, cylindrical shell. An active unilateral heating of a plate by normal-circular

noise control system was implemented inside heat sources, we estimate the accuracy of our

the cylinder using a fixed array of discrete solution. We consider the problem of

monopole sources, all of which lie in the plane optimization of the heating parameters of a

of the exterior noise sources. Good agreement plate with the aim of bringing the residual

between measurement and prediction was compressive stresses into a specified region of

obtained for both internal pressure response favorable values (from the standpoint of

and overall noise reduction. (Edited author strength). (Author abstract) 10 Refs.

abstract) 6 Refs. Maksimovich, V.N.; Khomlyak, L.V. Meek Solids v

Silcox, R.J. (NASA Langley Research Cent, 23 n 51988 P 123-129.

385

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

Design Multiply Closed Cylindrical Shells of Response Formulae for Submerged Elastic

a Reinforced Plastic. Multiply closed, Shells Impinged Upon by an Incident

convex, thin-walled cylindrical shells of Pressure Pulse. The early-time solutions for

arbitrary cross section are widely used in this class of problems have often been

different types of power plants. obtained by the use of integral transform

Semimomentless theory was used in this paper techniques and the method of steepest

to account for the effect of any distributed or descents to asymptotically evaluate the inverse

concentrated loads if they were discontinuous transform integrals. These steepest descent

along the shell and was illustrated using a solutions overestimated the elastic restoring

composite shell as an example. A onceclosed force of the shell for the early time period in

cylindrical shell of rectangular cross section which the shell response is of practical

was examined. The shell was secured in interest. The accuracy of the early-time

cantilever fashion and loaded by a transverse solution is improved by a correction of this

force distributed uniformly over the length. elastic restoring force term. 13 Refs.

After minimizing the potential energy Huang, H. (US Naval Surface Warfare Cent, Silver

functional, a system of resolvent equations was Spring, MD, USA). Am Soe Meeh Eng Pap Preprint

obtained, and the calculations were performed - American Society of Mechanical Engineers,

for an orthotropic material with given Houston, TX, USA, Jan 22-251989. Publ by

stiffness characteristics. The structure of the American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),

material was assumed to be constant for each New York, NY, USA, 1989 OCNll 5p.

panel used in the shell. 3 Refs.

Dudchenko, A.A. (S. Ordzhonikidze Moscow SOUND INSULATION

Aviation Inst, Moscow, USSR). Meeh Compos Mater

v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 p 437 -443. 037086 Soundproof Characteristics of

Sandwich Cylindrical Shells with a

Honeycomb Core Partially Exposed in Free

Field. An analysis is presented for the sound-

037084 Experimental Study of Coefficients proof characteristics of sandwich cylindrical

of Variation of Strength Characteristics of shells with honeycomb core excited by axially

Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Shells under propagating internal plane acoustic waves. The

Internal Shock Loading. Variation shell is exposed in a free field by the length of

coefficient estimates were obtained of the I, however is otherwise covered with infinitely

limit load and limit strain on cylindrical long rigid cylindrical walls. To simplify the

glass-fiber-reinforced plastic shells under shell equations, it is assumed that the core

impulsive loading. The test objects were free material resists only transverse shear forces

cylindrical glass-fiber-reinforced plastic shells and that the facing resist only bending

into which steel 20 reinforcing shells were moments. The sound transmission loss of the

inserted. The glassplastic shells were made by shell wall, TL, is derived and calculated

the method of 'wet' winding of the fabric and numerically for various values of the physical

impregnated with binder EDT-IO. Loading parameters involved. (Author abstract) 20

was accomplished by exploding a spherical Refs. In Japanese.

charge in the center of the shell. Estimates of Chonan, Seiji. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu CHen

the mathematical expectation and the v 54 n 508 Dec 1988 p 2883-2889.

standard deviation were calculated by the

method of functional probabilities and STABILITY

statistical modeling. It was found that under

extreme shock loads, glass-plastic shells have 037087 Determination of Critical Parameters

higher strength than under static loading, of Momentary External Pressure for a

according to the limit strain criterion. 10 Refs. Spherical Shell with Initial De8ection. A

Vorontsova, O.S.; Syrunin, M.A.; Fedorenko, A.G.; solution is presented for the problem of the

Khomutinin, Yu.V.; Tsypkin, V.I.; Bilyk, N.A.; dynamic loss of stability of a spherical shell

Ivanov, A.G. Meeh Compos Mater v 23 n 4 Jan 1988 subjected to momentary external pressure. The

p 443-447. shell, reinforced in two directions, is regarded

386

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

as being structurally orthotropic. The critical considered. The linear stability problem and

value of compressive forces in the radial the deformation of the shell under large

sections of the shell are determined within the deflections with the construction of the 'load-

framework of a linear formulation of the deflection' graphs is investigated. 2 Refs.

problem, with the use of analytical criteria of Samol'yanov, 1.1. (L'vov Polytechnic Inst, USSR).

dynamic instability, for linear and parabolic Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p 353-357.

laws of change in the compressive forces over

time. 3 Refs. 037091 Stability of a Multilayer Cylindrical

Amiro, I. Va. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian Shell in Interlayer Pressure. The problem of

SSR, Kiev, USSR). Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n 10 Apr 1988 the stability of a cylindrical shell or circular

p 903-907. ring with one-side connection with the

surrounding elastic or absolutely rigid space

037088 Stability of Shells of Revolution of has been studied in a number of investigations.

Fiber Composites with Initial Cracks in the In solving this problem for thin shells it is

Microstructure. A method of calculating the possible to neglect the variation of the shell

stability and initial postcritical behavior of geometry as a result of subcritical behavior,

shells of revolution of composite materials with and also changes in the area of contact with

variable mechanical characteristics dependent the surrounding space during the loss of

on microstructural damages at the interface stability. Consequently, the solution can be

between the components is presented. The obtained in linear formulation, as carried out

stability of glass-plastic cylindrical and conical in the present paper. 4 Refs.

shells with different degrees of damage to the Pal'chevskii, A.S. Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p

material is examined. The method makes it 358-362.

possible to study the stability of shells of

composite materials in which the components 037092 Analysis of Parametric Oscillations

separate from one another during mechanical of Shells of Revolution with Variable

or other types ofloading. 9 Refs. Parameters. This paper examines the

Vanin, G.A. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, parametric oscillations of thin shells of

Kiev, USSR); Semenyuk, N.P. Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n revolution of arbitrary contour closed in the

10 Apr 1988 p 908-914. annular direction. The shells were assembled

from a certain number of orthotropic and

037089 In8uence of Conditions of End isotropic layers of variable thickness. The

Fixing on the Stability of Longitudinal material of each layer is assumed to be elastic

Compressed Multilayer Conical Shells. The and governed by Hooke's generalized law.

problem of the stability of multilayer The problem is solved on the basis of the

orthotropic conical shells-and also cylindrical linear theory of shells and assuming that the

shells, as a particular case - is considered, and hypothesis of nondeformable normals for the

the influence of the boundary conditions on entire packet of the shell as a whole is

the critical values of the longitudinal satisfied. 9 Refs.

compressive force is analyzed. A family of Vasilenko, A.T. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian

curves of the critical load as a function of the SSR, Kiev, USSR); Cherin'ko, P.N. Sov Appl Meeh

current value of L/Rme for shells with different Oct 1988 p 363-367.

conditions at the ends is shown. Analysis of the

results offers the possibility of dividing the 037093 Initial Post-Critical Behavior and

consideration of the boundary conditions into Flaw Sensitivity of Composite Cylindrical

two groups with four versions in each. 9 Refs. Shells with Difference Reinforcement

Shul'ga, N.A. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian Schemes. Results of the stability of reinforced

SSR, Kiev, USSR); Primak, A.P. Sov Appl Meeh Oct shells are used to study the character of their

1988 p 348 - 352. post-critical behavior and sensitivity to the

initial geometrical defects. The formulated

037090 Stability of a Sloping Panel of problem is solved through the theory of initial

Negative Gaussian Curvature. The problem post-critical behavior and Koiter's special

of the stability of a thin elastic shell of the theory. A circular cylindrical shell of the

hyperbolic paraboloid type, rectangular in the length L, radius R, and thickness t consisting

plane, when the contour lines coincide with the of N layers with different fiber orientations is

direction of the principal curvatures is examined. 6 Refs.

387

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

Semenyuk, N.P. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian boards, orthogonally attached to each other

SSR, Kiev, USSR); Zhukova, N.B. Sov Appl Meeh by nails. As far as the investigated hypar-shells

Oct 1988 p 385-392. are concerned, reaching of the ultimate load

(in this paper the term 'ultimate load' is used

037094 Loss of Stability for a Spherical in a restrictive sense) is found to be the

Shell. On the basis of three-dimensional relevant mode of loss of stability. This agrees

linearized stability theory, we obtain the with experimental results reported in the

characteristic equation for determining the literature. (Author abstract) 23 Refs. In

critical inner radius of a spherical support, German.

whose outer surface is acted upon by a load Rattasepp, T. (Technische Univ Tallinn, Tallinn,

equal to the contact pressure on the boundary USSR); Mang, H.A. Bauingenieur v 64 n 6 Jun

of the support and the rock mass. The 1989 p 255-266.

magnitude of the contact pressure is

determined in solving the problem of the STEEL

precritical stress-strain state of the support and

the elastic-plastic mass, which has an interface 037097 Optimized Wall Thickness of Shells

between zones of elastic and plastic of Revolution. The aim of this paper was to

deformation. (Edited author abstract) 7 Refs. develop a concept for the design of shells of

Meshkov, S.I.; Shashkin, A.I. Meeh Solids v 23 n 5 revolution with different Gaussian curvature

1988 P 113-116 using a simplified finite element buckling

analysis. A cooling tower shell was used as an

037095 Numerische Stabilitaetsanalyse example for calculations. 7 Refs.

Linear und Nichtlinear, Deformierbarer, Wittek, Udo (Univ Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern,

Parametererregter Schalentragwerke. West Ger). Proe Sess Relat Steel Struet Stroet Congr

[Numerical Stability Analysis of Linearly Proceedings of the Sessions Related to Steel

and Nonlinearly Deformable Shell Structures at Structures Congress '89, San

Structures Under Parametric Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ by

Excitation]. The present contribution derives ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 686-695.

a numerical concept for the stability analysis

of linearly and nonlinearly responding shell STRAIN

structures under parametric excitation.

Starting from a displacement discretization of 037098 Deformation Bounds for Cyclically

the incremental principle of virtual Loaded Shell Structures Operating under

displacements and using Ljapunow's stability Creep Conditions. Constitutive relations,

definitions, handy stability bounds are based on the Bailey-Orowan's creep theory,

presented, especially also for nonlinear are used to develop a maximum work

fundamental motions. Two of many computed condition which includes the influence of an

examples demonstrate their applicability; the internal state. A bounding theorem on

correctness of the results is checked by displacement is obtained for structures

properties of line-search evaluated subjected to cyclic loading. An application of

neighbouring motions. (Author abstract) 15 the bound is illustrated. (Author abstract) 6

Refs. Refs.

Eller, Conrad (Ruhr-Univ Bochurn, Bochurn, West Cocks, Alan C.F. (Univ of Leicester, Leicester,

Ger); Kraetzig, W. B. lng Areh v 59 n 5 1989 P Engl); Leckie, F.A. J Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n

345-356. 3 Sep 1988 p 509-516.

037096 Zur Stabilitaet Flacher 037099 Refined Small Strain and Moderate

Eckgestuetzter Hyparschalen aus Holz mit Rotation Theory of Elastic Anisotropic

Geradlinigen Randtraegern. [On the Stability Shells. A general refined shell theory that

of Shallow, Wooden Hypar-shells with accounts for the transverse deformation, small

Straight, Point-Supported Edge Beams]. This strains, and moderate rotations is presented.

paper is concerned with finite element The theory can be reduced to various existing

stability analysis of shallow, thin hypar-shells shell theories including: the classical (i.e.,

made of timber, with straight, COrner- linear Kirchhoff-Love) shell theory, the

supported edge beams. A feature of the Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov shell theory, the

analysis model is the direct consideration of Leonard-Koiter-Sanders moderate rotations

the structural anisotropy of the shell shell theory, the von Karman type shear-

membrane consisting of two layers of wooden deformation shell theory and the moderate-

388

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

rotation shear-deformation plate theory IL, USA, Nov 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by American

developed by Reddy. The present theory is Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York,

developed from an assumed displacement NY, USA, 1988 WA/APM37 7.

field, nonlinear strain-displacement equations

that contain small strain and moderate STRESSES

rotation terms, and the principle of virtual

displacements. (Edited author abstract) 47 Refs. 037102 Analysis of an Axisymmetric

Schmidt, R. (Univ of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, West Thermoelastic Plastic Stress-Strain State of a

Ger); Reddy, IN. ] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n Laminar Shell Under Repeated Loading.

3 Sep 1988 p 611 - 61 7. Simple repeated loading processes were

considered on laminar shells of revolution by

037100 Assumed Strain Stabilization loads of both the same and the reverse sign as

Procedure for the 9-Node Lagrange Shell for the initial loading. The investigation was

Element. An assumed strain (strain done within the framework of the Kirchhoff-

interpolation) method is used to construct a Love hypothesis. It was assumed that the

stabilization matrix for the 9-node shell creep strain is negligibly small as compared to

element. The stabilization procedure can be the instantaneous elastic-plastic strains. A thin

justified based on the Hellinger-Reissner shell of revolution with meridian section of

variational method. It involves a projection arbitrary shape and consisting of variable-

vector which is orthogonal to both linear and thickness layers was considered. The shell was

quadratic fields in the local co-ordinate system subjected, from an initially unstressed and

of each quadrature point. All terms in the unstrained state, to axisymmetric loads and

development involve 2 X 2 quadrature in the nonuniform heating that varied in time in

9-node element. Example problems show such a way that plastic strain domains

good accuracy and an almost optimal rate of occurred in which unloading then took place.

convergence. (Author abstract) 40 Refs. The results of the analysis showed that the

Belytschko, Ted (Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL, active loading process occurred in the first two

USA); Wong, Bak Leong; Stolarski, Henryk. IntJ steps in the shell in the form of a plastic strain

Numer Methods Eng v 28 n 2 Feb 1989 p 385-414. zone at the shell inner surface. 6 Refs.

Babeshko, M.E. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian

037101 Refined Small Strain and Moderate SSR, Kiev, USSR); Prokhorenko, l.V.;

Rotation Theory of Elastic Anisotropic Sokolovskaya. V.l. Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n 11 May

Shells. A general refined shell theory that 1988 p 1054-1058.

accounts for the transverse deformation, small

strains, and moderate rotations is presented. 037103 Combined Theoretical and

The theory can be reduced to existing shell Experimental Method of Determining

theories including the classical (i.e., linear Residual Stresses in Wound Composite

Kirchhoff-Love) shell theory, Donnell- Shells. A combined theoretical and

Mushtari-Vlasov shell theory, Leonard-Koiter- experimental method of determining residual

Sanders moderate rotations shell theory, von stresses, and the strains of wound composite

Karman type shear-deformation shell theory shells induced by these stresses, is suggested.

and moderate rotation shear deformation The method makes use of shells of revolution

plate theory developed by J.N. Reddy. The that are formed by a system of layers of

present theory is developed from an assumed unidirectional composite material placed at

displacement field, nonlinear strain given angles to the generatrix. Each of the

displacement equations that contain small elementary unidirectional layers is allotted

strain and moderate rotation terms, and the rigidities in tension and compression as well as

principle of virtual displacements. The in shear. The elastic constants of such a layer,

governing equations exhibit strong coupling including the modulus and Poisson's ratio, are

between the membrane and bending determined experimentally in tests of

deformation which should alter the bending, circularly wound tubular specimens. For

stability, and post-buckling behavior of certain determining residual stresses it is assumed that

shell structures as predicted using available the deformations of the layer are composed of

theories. (Edited author abstract) 47 Refs. elastic, thermal, and curing components and

Schmidt, R. (Univ of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, West deformations induced by prestressing of the

Ger); Reddy, IN. Am Soe Meeh Eng Pap Preprint- reinforcing elements. The method was

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, experimentally verified in tests of cylindrical

Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, shells made of glass reinforced plastic

389

Excerpts from The En8ineerin8 Index Annual 1989

comprised of glass fiber VMPS and epoxy J Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n 3 Sep 1988 p

resin ED-20 binder. The results confirm the 629-634.

possibility of using the combined theoretical

and experimental method for determining 037106 Stress-Strain Fields at Crack Tip in

technological stresses and deformations of Axially Cracked Cylindrical Shells and the

wound composite shells. 5 Refs. Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors. A

Morozov, E.V. (K.E. Tsiolkovskii Moscow lnst of perturbation solution for stress-strain fields

Aviation Technology, USSR). Meeh Compos Mater v (including modes I, II, III) at crack tip in

23 n 6 May 1988 p 802-807. axially cracked cylindrical shells is given. The

analysis, using 10th-order differential

equations which take the transverse shear

037104 Axisymmetric Elastoplastic Stress deformations into account, involves

State of Branched Shell Systems with perturbation in a curvature parameter y2,

Nonisothermal Loading Processes. The (y2 = [12(Inv2) J'a 2/Rh). Stress intensity

axisymmetric elastoplastic stress state of a factors for finite size cylindrical shells under

branched shell with a complex form of the bending and internal pressure loading are

meridian and poles is investigated, in evaluated. A good accuracy can be obtained

conditions of quasistatic thermal and force without using fine meshes in a region near

loading which varies over time. A shell of the crack tip. Besides, the influence of the

revolution with a branched meridian is finite size and the shearing stiffness on

considered in conditions of axisymmetric bulging factors, which are commonly used in

connective heat transfer with the surrounding engineering, are analyzed. (Author abstract) 6

medium, under the action of a variable load. Refs.

The problem is solved within the framework Liu, Chuntu (Acad Sinica, China); Wu, Xijia. Aeta

of the Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis in a Meeh Sin v 3 n 3 1987 P 223-230.

geometrically linear, quasistatic formulation;

creep deformation is neglected in comparison

with the instantaneous elastoplastic 037107 Surface Crack in Shells Under

deformation. The equations of state employed Mixed-Mode Loading Condition. The

are the relations of the theory of simple problem of a shallow shell containing a surface

loading processes, taking account of their crack and subjected to general loading

previous history which are linearized by the conditions is considered. It is shown that, as

method of variable elasticity parameters. 8 in the three-dimensional elasticity formulation,

Refs. the mode I state can be separated whereas

modes II and III remain coupled. A line

Galishin, A.Z. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian

spring model is developed to formulate the

SSR, Kiev, USSR). Sov Appl Meeh Sep 1988 p

part-through crack problem under mixed-

234-38.

mode conditions. A shallow shell of arbitrary

curvature having a part-through crack located

037105 Large Elastic Deformation of Shear on the outer or the inner surface of the shell

Deformable Shells of Revolution: Numerical is then considered. Reissner's transverse shear

and Experimental Results. Through an theory is used to formulate the problem by

integrating matrix approach, a numerical assuming that the shell is subjected to all five

solution is obtained to the equations governing moment and stress resultants. The uncoupled

large elastic deformation of a clamped circular antisymmetric problem is solved for

cylinder due to internal pressure. The shell cylindrical and toroidal shells having a surface

equations include the effects of large strains, crack in various orientations and the primary

thickness changes, and transverse shear and the secondary stress intensity factors are

deformation. The numerical solution is given. (Edited author abstract) 20 Refs.

compared to results from an asymptotic Joseph, P.F. (Lehigh Univ, Bethlehem, PA, USA);

analysis and from experiments on rubber Erdogan, F. J Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 55 n 4 Dec

cylinders. A specialized Rivlin-Saunders 1988 p 795-804.

strain-energy density function is assumed for

the rubber, with material constants 037108 Investigation of the Spherical

determined from tensile tests and deformed Membrane Cap Under Partial Load. It is

cylinder profiles at a high inflation pressure. shown how the internal forces due to an

(Author abstract) 15 Refs. axially non-symmetric load of a spherical cap

Kempski, M.H. (Rochester lnst of Technology, can be determined within the framework of

Rochester, NY, USA); Taber, L.A.; Su, Fong-Chin. the membrane theory. We present the

390

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

method of internal forces for the terms of the 037112 Bifurcation of Axisymmetric

Fourier expansion. In a numerical example Equilibrium of Thin Shells of Revolution

these forces are computed for a spherical cap with Regular Shaped Imperfections. An

with the half central angle cPo = 38 As can

0

asymptotic formula is derived to characterize

be seen, for n = 2,3,4 closed formulae can be the effect of a regular axisymmetric shape

obtained, while for n ~ 5 the calculation has imperfection upon the classical critical load of

to be carried out numerically. (Edited author a perfect convex shell belonging to a certain

abstract) 4 Refs. class. 4 Refs.

Olitzscher, Frank. Acta Tech (Budapest) v 100 n 3-4 Teterin, I.Yu. (Leningrad Univ, Leningrad, USSR).

1987 P 225 - 238. Leningrad Univ Mech Bull n 2 1988 P 62-64.

037109 Shallow Shells with Local Deviations Methods in Finite Rotation Shell Analysis. A

in Shape. A simple solution is presented for critical assessment of the 4-node assumed strain

the stress analysis of shallow shells with element as proposed by E.N. Dvorkin and K.J.

imperfections in the geometry. The model is Bathe is made. The element performed

based on the bending equations of the shell, excellently in all investigated shell problems

and the imperfection is considered by an which sometimes caused difficulties for other

equivalent load method. A Ritz solution for a assumed strain techniques. For efficient

given shape of local imperfection is obtained in computation in the non-linear range,

explicit form, and the expressions are applied linearization of the virtual work equation is

to the case of an elliptical paraboloidal shell. done to yield the consistent tangent stiffness.

(Author abstract) 14 Refs. The shell formulation is done for stress and

Godoy, L.A. (Univ Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba, strain tensors based on local element

Argent); Quinones, D.; Wagner, R. Bull Int Assoc coordinates. To demonstrate the effectiveness

Shell Spat Struct v 29 - 2 Aug 1988 P 55 - 62. and rapid convergence of the non-linear

formulation, three examples are tested for

037110 Stress Distribution by the large displacements. (Edited author abstract)

Misalignment of Spherical and its Allowable 19 Refs.

Limit. The expressions for stress distribution Stander, Nielen (Univ Stuttgart, Stuttgart, West

in the region of misalignment of spherical Ger); Matzenmiller, Anton; Ramm, Ekkehard. Eng

shells have been derived on the basis of the Comput (Swansea Wales) v 6 n I May 1989 p 58 - 66.

theory of plates and shells. The analytical

expressions are verified with the results 037114 Investigation of Partially

obtained by FEM and photoelastic experiment. Pressurized Thick Cylindrical Shells. In

The effect of several parameters on stress applications of thick cylinders, such as gun

concentration has been analyzed with the barrels and hydraulic jacks, the internal

expressions derived. The regressions of the pressure is not only variable, but the pressure

analytical results of 76 misalignment have been front at each moment moves along the length

made and the expressions for engineering of the cylinder leading to the division of these

calculations are given. The nomograph for the cylinders into two segments with

allowable limits of geometric irregularities is discontinuous loading. In this work, the FEM

presented. (Edited author abstract) has been applied to investigate the state of

stress existing at the discontinuity zone of

Kui, Jishan (Nanjing Inst of Chemical Technology,

thickness or pressure (transition zone). Results

Nanjing, China); Wang, Jiuqing. HuagongJixie v 15 n

indicate the existence of a considerable

61988p341-347,353.

bending moment due to the variation of

longitudinal stress across the thickness at the

037111 Solution of the Axisymmetric transition zone. These results could help the

Problem for a Shallow Conical Shell by the designers to optimize the thicknesses of the

Small Parameter Method. By the method of cylinders in such applications as mentioned

small parameters, an approximate solution is above. (Edited author abstract) II Refs.

constructed for the problem of a rotating Mahmood, Najdat A. (Military Engineering Coli);

shallow conical shell. The error of the method

Jweeg, Muhsin J.; Rajab, Mumtaz Y. Modell Simul

is estimated by comparing it with the results

Control B v 25 n 3 1989 P 47-64.

obtained by a numeric computer simulation.

(Author abstract) 2 Refs. 037115 Thick General Shells Under General

Sakharov, V.Yu. (Leningrad Univ, Leningrad, Loading. Three equilibrium equations in

USSR). Leningrad Univ Mech Bull n 2 1988 P 60 - 61. terms of three displacements are derived in

391

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

scalar mathematics form, by linear, small-strain steady operating conditions is presented. The

elasticity principles, for the case of general heat conduction equation incorporating heat

thick-walled shells under general loading. generation due to solidification was solved by

These reduce to well-known forms for the finite element method to obtain the spatially

particular cases of flat-plates and thick circular steady temperature distribution when

cylindrical shells. (Author abstract) considering material flow. Elastic-plastic

Donnell, Lloyd H. ] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 56 n stresses in the solidified shell were also

2Jun 1989 p 391-394. evaluated. A parameter study was carried out

in order to obtain the optimal operating

037116 Shear Deformable Finite Element condition such as shell thickness, site of crater

for the Analysis of General Shells of end, and stress distribution as functions of the

Revolution. A 64-dof isoparametric casting speed and cooling condition. (Author

quadrilateral finite element is presented for abstract) 6 Refs. In Japanese.

the analysis of generally laminated shells of Tatsumi, Naohisa; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Inoue, Tatsuo.

revolution. The effects of shear deformation Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 55 n 514

and rotary inertia are accounted for by using Jun 1989 p 1389-1393.

shear deformation theory that employs the

parabolic shear strain variation across the 037119 Elastic Stress Analysis of Two

thickness. The classical thin shell theory is the Oblique Intersecting Cylindrical Shells

special case of shear deformation theory used Subjected to Internal Pressure. In this paper,

in the present study. Thus, the thin shell the elastic stress distribution in two oblique

element also can be obtained from the present intersecting cylindrical shells subjected to

thick shell element by simply having the internal pressure is discussed. We first

displacement parameters (UI and VI) associated investigated the elastic stresses and

with the shear rotations as zeros. The displacements to the intersected shell

numerical results presented illustrate the (cylindrical vessel) with an arbitrary curved

performance of the element and the effects of hole under internal pressure. In making this

shear deformation. (Author abstract) 33 Refs. analysis, a curvilinear coordinate system (e, ~)

Bhimaraddi, A. (Univ of Canterbury, Christchurch, e eo

is used and one of which = is made to

NZ); Carr, A.J.; Moss, P.J. Comput Struet v 31 n 3 coincide with the hole contour r. The

1989 P 299-308. governing equation is the equation of shallow

shell in this coordinate system. When the hole

037117 Stressed State of Inhomogeneous contour is an ellipse, the obtained solution is a

Elastic Shells of Revolution. An extension is complex function expressed in Mathieu

discussed regarding an averaging technique function. Then, we discussed the stresses and

for the case of quasi-periodic structures with displacements expressed in the edge effect

curvilinear anisotropy, as applied to problems form on the basis of Flugge's equations for the

of elasticity written in the displacements. In intersecting shell (nozzle). At last, a boundary

this paper, the authors employ the technique condition along the intersection curve is

to reduce the static problem of derived. Numerical computation was

inhomogeneous elasticity in the stresses, conducted, and the results are compared with

utilizing hypotheses of shell theory (i.e., the experiments. (Author abstract) 10 Refs.

problem of equilibrium of an inhomogeneous Chien, Huei-Lin (Nanjing lnst of Chemical

anisotropic shell of quasi-periodic structure to Technology, Nanjing, China); Wu, Shao-Jun. ASME

a recursive sequence of problems for a Pressure Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 139 Design

homogeneous anisotropic shell. The authors and Analysis of Piping, Pressure Vessels and

offers a solution for the problem of Components, 1988, Presented at the 1988 ASME

equilibrium of a shell formed by a winding or Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Pittsburgh,

coil that is acted upon by internal pressure. 8 PA, USA,Jun 19-23 1988. Publ by American Soc

Refs. of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,

Levin, V.D.; Pobedrya, B.E. Meeh Solids v 23 n 4 USA, 1988 P 119-124.

1988 P 140-145.

037120 Cutouts in Laminated Plates and

037118 Simulation of Temperature and Shells. A finite element method for evaluating

Elastic-Plastic Stresses in Solid Shell During stresses around cutouts in thin to moderately

Continuous Casting Process. An analytical thick laminated composite plate and shell

method to simulate the temperature and the structures is presented. Ahmad's eight noded

stress fields in a continuous casting slab under isoparametric quadrilateral shell element

392

Excerpts from The Eneineerine Index Annual 1989

composite structures by incorporating the suddenly applied loads, including idealized

thickness concept. The element includes an step pressure, a rectangular pressure impulse

arbitrary number of bonded layers, each of of finite duration and realistic blast pressure

which may have a different thickness, over the total or partial area. The

orientation of principal material directions mathematical model is formulated in terms of

and elastic properties. The transverse shear the mid-surface displacements and cross-

deformation is taken into account in section rotation with effects of transverse

developing the stiffness matrix. (Author shear strain and rotary inertia taken into

abstract) 9 Refs. account. The Rayleigh-Ritz method is

Widera, G.E.O. (Univ of Illinois at Chicago, employed to solve the hemispherical shell

Chicago, IL, USA); Moumene, M. ASME Pressure vibration problem by assumed modes in

Vessels Piping Div Publ PVP v 146 Advances in Legendre polynomials, and the normal mode

Macro-Mechanics of Composite Material Vessels and superposition is used in the analysis of its

Components, Presented at the 1988 ASME Pressure dynamic response. Numerical results for the

Vessels and Piping Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, natural frequencies, mode shapes, structural

USA,Jun 19-23 1988. Publ by American Soc of deformation and dynamic stresses are obtained

Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY, with the fiber orientation parallel or

USA, 1988 P 155-158. perpendicular to the meridian direction as a

design guide. (Edited author abstract) 20 Refs.

037121 Thermal Stresses in Thick Spherical Chao, C.C. (Nat! Tsing Hua Univ, Hsinchu,

Shell with Internal Heat Generation. The Taiwan); Tung, T.P. Int J Impact Eng v 8 n 3 1989

elastic thermal stresses in thick spherical shells P 191-207.

with internally uniform heat generation have

been studied analytically. The dimensionless 037123 Elasto/Visco-Plastic Dynamic

stress functions have been developed. The Response ofAxisymmetrical Shells Under

computer generated graphs for the stress Mechanical and/or Thermal Loading. An

functions for various outside to inside radii analytical method for the e1asto/visco-plastic

ratios are presented to facilitate computation dynamic problems of axis ymmetrica I thin

of the stresses at any radial location of the shells subjected to mechanical and/or thermal

shell. The stress functions for the thermal loads is developed. The equations of motion

stresses for solid sphere with internal heat and the relations between the strains and

generation have also been developed. The displacements are derived by extending

radial location for the maximum values of the Sanders' elastic shell theory. For the

dimensionless stress functions have been constitutive relations, the Perzyna elasto/

determined and shown on the graphs. The visco-plastic equations including the

graphs for the stress functions are general temperature effect are employed. The

enough to compute the radial and hoop fundamental equations derived are

stresses which are produced by the numerically solved by the finite difference

temperature gradient encountered in the method. As numerical examples, the simply

shells. Additional aspects of the subject are supported cylindrical shells made of mild steel

discussed. (Edited author abstract) 8 Refs. are treated and the following two cases are

Bhaduri, S. (Univ of Texas at EI Paso, EI Paso, TX, analyzed; a nonuniform temperature cylinder

USA); Kapoor, P.S. ASME Pet Div Publ PD v 21 subjected to impulsive pressure, and an

Technical Economics, Synfuels, and Coal Energy- internal pressure cylinder subjected to

1989, Presented at the Twelfth Annual Energy- impulsive thermal load. In both cases the

Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, variations of displacements and internal forces

Houston, TX, USA, Jan 22 - 25 1989. Publ by with time are discussed. (Author abstract) 13

American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (AS ME), Refs. In Japanese.

New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 65-70. Tao, Katsumi; Takezono, Shigeo; Taguchi,

Toshihiro; Hotada, Kazuo. Nippon Kikai Gakkai

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Ronbunshu A Hen v 54 n 503 Ju1 1988 p 1457 -1464.

037122 Step Pressure and Blast Responses 037124 Investigation of the Spherical

of Clamped Orthotropic Hemispherical Membrane Cap under Partial Load. This

Shells. This paper is concerned with studies paper shows how the internal forces due to an

on the axisymmetric free vibration and axially non-symmetric load of a spherical can

dynamic response of polar orthotropic cap be determined in the frame of the

393

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

membrane theory. It presents the method of excitation sweeps showed a dynamic instability.

internal forces for the terms of the Fourier The frequency range over which the response

expansion. In a numerical example these is unstable decreases with increasing

forces are computed for a spherical cap with a pretension. The dynamic to static strain ratio

particular half central angle. Calculation decreased from 20% to 2.3% as pretension

results are discussed. (Edited author abstract) increased from the lowest to the highest

5 Refs. value. (Author abstract) 20 Refs.

Olitzscher, Frank. Acta Tech (Budapest) v 100 n 2-3 Gasparini, D.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ,

1987 P 225-238. Cleveland, OH, USA); Perdikaris, P.C.; Kanj, N.]

Struct Eng v 115 n 2 Feb 1989 p 363 - 381.

037125 Formulation and Accuracy of a

Circular Cylindrical Shell Theory Due to a 037127 Infinite, Elastic, Cylindrical Shell

Higher-Order Approximation. In this paper, with a Finite Number of Ring

the most general higher-Qrder equations of Constraints. The axisymmetric excitation of

three-dimensional static and dynamic theories an infinite, elastic, cylindrical shell with a

for a circular cylindrical shell are derived by finite number of ring constraints is discussed.

expanding the displacements into an infinite Exact solutions are presented for the cases of

power series with respect to the radial one and two constraints. These are then

coordinate of the shell. The present examined in an asymptotic limit that

formulation can be taken into account actually corresponds to light fluid-loading and small

any higher-order terms for both cases of static curvature. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.

and dynamic problems. Several theories which Lawrie, J.B. (Univ of Bristol, Bristol, Engl).] Sound

were proposed previously, can be deduced by Vib v 130 n 2 Apr 22 1989 P 189-206.

the employment of the lower-order terms in

our theory. Three typical theories such as 037128 Membrane Shell as an Under-

3-order theory, Levinson-type theory and constrained Structural System. Statical-

Levinson-Voyladjis-Baluch-type theory are also kinematic analysis is employed to provide a

newly derived from the present formulation. new perspective on the structural behavior of

Numerical results of natural frequencies for membrane shells and the related limitations of

simply-supported cylindrical shells are the linear membrane theory. The obtained

compared to the exact solution as well as results include a resolution of an apparent

many theories. (Author abstract) 8 Refs. In paradox in the statics of membranes, a

Japanese. description and explanation of the peculiar

Hirano, Kisaburou; Hirashima, Kenichi. Nippon behavior of toroidal membranes with an

Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 54 n 506 Oct 1988 arbitrary cross-section, and a stronger version

p 1915-1919. of a central theorem in the membrane theory.

(Author abstract) 7 Refs.

037126 Dynamic and Static Behavior of Kuznetsov, E.N. (Univ of Illinois at

Cable Dome Model. The static and dynamic Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA).] Appl Meek Trans

behavior of a cable dome was studied by ASME v 56 n 2 June 1989 p 387 - 390.

testing a 1/50 scale model. Three different

pretension levels were considered. The static 037129 Modal Analysis of a Shell's Acoustic

response of the model under a symmetric and Radiation in Light and Heavy Fluids. A

an antisymmetric loading was investigated. modal analysis study of acoustic radiation by a

The cable dome's behavior changes from a finite cylindrical shell immersed in light of

compressive to a tensile membrane with heavy fluid is presented. Attention is focused

increasing applied central load. The cable on the explanation of radiation phenomena in

model exhibits a hardening response, both fluids. The concepts of radiation,

especially in the antisymmetric mode. The structural and evenly damped modes are

nonlinearity becomes more pronounced with explained. These lead to clarification of the

decreasing pretension. The stiffness in the shells' vibro-acoustic behaviour in heavy fluid

antisymmetric mode is dominated by the and to confirmation of the well known case of

geometric stiffness from pretensioning. In the light fluid. Relationships between these new

vertical acceleration (symmetric) test at the concepts and the more classical one of radiating

intermediate pretension the first dominant and non-radiating modes are presented. It is

mode was antisymmetric. A sail exciter was shown that this previous classification of modes

also used to apply a single asymmetric is insufficient to clarify the heavy fluid-shell

controlled force. Up and down harmonic coupling, especially in the critical frequency

394

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

range. In this range the behaviour of a shell in also built and tested in laboratory to validate

water is very different from that of one in air, the results. (Author abstract) 24 Refs.

and is entirely controlled by modes which are Tzou, H.S. (Univ of Kentucky, Lexington, KY,

overdamped by radiation. In particular, it is USA); Gadre, M.] Sound Vib] Sound Vib v 132 v

shown that structural damping is ineffective in 132 n 3 n 3 Aug 8 Aug 819891989 P 433-450.

reducing radiated power in the critical

frequency range when the fluid is water. 037132 Analysis of Laminated Shells.

(Author abstract) 22 Refs. Laminated shell structures are increasingly

Laulagnet, B. (INSA, Villeurbanne, Fr); Guyader, being used in chemical, marine and aerospace

J.L.] Sound Vib v 131 n 3 Jun 22 1989 P 397 - 415. applications. A significant amount of research

has been conducted in the past on studying

037130 Analysis of Elasto/Visco-Plastic the structural response of these structures. A

Dynamic Response of General Thin Shells by review of various investigations on the analysis

Means of Overlay Model. The numerical of these shells is given here. Specifically, this

analysis of the elasto/visco-plastic dynamic review deals with the development of various

response of the general thin shells to arbitrary theories for modelling the thick laminated

loads is carried out by the use of the elasto/ shells including shear effects; analytical

visco-plastic overlay model which is able to studies, development of various finite elements

express the Bauschinger effect and the strain to model these shells including applications to

rate dependence. Namely Perzyna's equation is tire modelling; buckling and post buckling

used for the constitutive relation of each layer analysis of perfect and imperfect laminated

of the overlay model and as a whole the shells; vibration and dynamic response analysis

Bauschinger effect and the influence of of various laminated shells. (Author abstract)

viscosity in the plastic range of the material are 148 Refs.

taken into account. The equations of motion Kapania, R.K. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State

derived from the Sanders nonlinear theory for Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA). ASME Aerosp Div Publ

thin shells by adding the inertia terms are used, AD v 13 Recent Advances in the Macro- and

and the relations between strains and Micro-Mechanics of Composite Materials Structures,

displacements where rotations of the shell are Presented at the Winter Annual Meeting of the

considered for the membrane strains are American Society of Mechanical Engineers,

employed. (Edited author abstract) 18 Refs. In Chicago, IL, USA, Nov 27 - Dec 2 1988. Publ by

Japanese. American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),

Tao, Katsumi; Takezono, Shigeo. Nippon Kikai New York, NY, USA, 1988 P 177-187.

Gakkai Ronbunshu A Hen v 55 n 514 Jun 1989

p 1453-1460. 037133 Analysis of Glulam Lattice Dome.

Glued-laminated timber (glulam) domes have

037131 Theoretical Analysis of a Multi- become competitive in the engineering of

Layered Thin Shell Coupled with large-span roof structures. Three-way glulam

Piezoelectric Shell Actuators for Distributed grid domes, such as the Triax and Varax

Vibration Controls. Structural dynamics and domes, are particularly well-suited for glulam

controls of distributed mechanical systems have construction because the members lie on great

drawn much attention in recent years. In this circles and, thus, have the same radius of

paper, a multilayered thin shell coupled with an curvature. The curved members are

active distributed vibration actuator- interconnected by patented steel hubs. The

polymeric piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride restraints offered by these connectors are the

(PVDF)-is proposed and evaluated. Dynamic major differences in the designs of the Triax

equations for the generalized multi-layered and Varax domes. The domes rest on tension

thin shell coupled with the polymeric rings made of steel or reinforced concrete.

piezoelectrets are derived based on Love's Because of their economy and acoustic

theory and Hamilton's principle. Each layer of quality, Triax and Varax domes are widely

the shell can be a polymeric piezoelectric used for multipurpose facilities involving

control layer subjected to feedback voltages sports, recreational, and social activities. The

resulting in a local control force to suppress the purpose of this paper is to report on a project

vibration of the shell. To demonstrate the that was initiated to formulate a finite

derived equations, a cantilever beam coupled element method of analysis that can predict

with the polymeric piezoelectric actuator is the complete structural response of glulam

derived by directly simplifying the modified space frames and lattice domes up to collapse.

Love's equations. An experimental model was 25 Refs.

395

Excerpts from The Enoineerino Index Annual 1989

Holzer, S.M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst & State Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,

Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Huang, C.Y.; USA, 1989 P 743-751.

Davalos, J.F.; Loferski, J.R. Struet Des, Anal Test

Structural Design, Analysis and Testing, STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Proceedings of the sessions at Structures Congress

'89, San Francisco, CA, USA, May 1- 5 1989. Publ 037136 Carrying Capacity and Optimal

by ASCE, New York, NY, USA, 1989 P 914-921. Design of Reinforced Cylindrical

Shells. Models were constructed for

calculating the carrying capacity and

037134 Why Bifurcation: A Study of a optimizing the design of cylindrical shells

Recticulated Dome. Numerical results for a reinforced by regular frames and supported

hexagonal lattice dome subjected to uniform by discrete 'saddle' supports of various

gravity loading are presented. We demonstrate configurations or resting on a continuously

that a perfect nonlinear bifurcation analysis plastic base. The closed shell was considered

plays a crucial role in the identification of the to be made from an ideal rigidly plastic

critical imperfection. In the process we also material with constant thickness with a given

advertise the capabilities of some recently yield point and to be filled with fluid. It was

developed techniques for computational assumed that exhaustion of the shell carrying

bifurcation problems with symmetry. (Author capacity occurs with rupture. Calculations of

abstract) 6 Refs. the upper boundaries of the limit loads were

Healey, Timothy L. (Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY, performed in a broad range of thicknesses.

USA). Struet Des, Anal Test Structural Design, Parameters for the analysis of the shell

Analysis and Testing, Proceedings of the sessions at carrying capacity reinforced by regular

Structures Congress '89, San Francisco, CA, USA, annular ribs were established. Analysis of the

May 1-5 1989. Publ by ASCE, New York, NY, optimal designs shows that the models first

USA, 1989 P 942 - 948. tend to assure a given carrying capacity

because of an increase in thickness and only

037135 Application of Mathematical then are the frames introduced. 4 Refs.

Programming to the Limit Analysis of Shell Dekhtyar, A.S. (Kiev Art Inst, Kiev, USSR). Sov

Structures. Limit analysis of a shell structure Appl Meeh v 23 n 11 May 1988 p 1049-1054.

has been expressed, in the present paper, as a

nonlinear programming problem, where the 037137 Wplyw Geometrycznych I

principle of virtual displacement in Fizycznych Parametrow Trojwarstwowej

combination with rigid perfect-plastic Powloki Wnlcowoj Nn Jej Statecznosc Przy

assumption and von Mises yield criterion are Obclazenlach Zlozonych. [Influence of

used. The structure is separated into several Physical and Geometrical Parameters of

rigid and plastic regions for the purpose of Sandwich Cylindrical Shell Under Composed

saving computer storage, since the Load for its Stability]. The paper presents

displacement functions should be generated numerical analysis results of stability loss for

only in plastic regions. By use of the Lagrange an elastic, open, cylindrical sandwich shell

multiplier method, the primary problem can with light-weight core and with thin faces of

be expressed as a non-linear programming equal thickness. The shell is loaded by

problem without restrictions. By using the composed load, i.e. compression longitudinal

gradient of the object function, a set of forces, lateral surface pressure and shear edge

suitable displacement velocities can be found forces. The influence of shell curvature, shell

by iteraction to minimize the object function length, the thickness of each layer, and the

and obtain an upper bound solution of the core elasticity modulus on the values of upper

ultimate load of the structure. A cylindrical and lower critical load is investigated. (Edited

shell and a tubular T-joint are computed and author abstract) 4 Refs. In Polish.

the results are satisfactory in comparison with Sekulski, Zygmunt; Szyc, Waclaw. Arch Budowy Masz

classical solutions or experimental results. v34n31987p321-336.

(Author abstract) 7 Refs.

Chen, T.Y. (Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Shanghai, TESTING

China); Chen, W.M.; Wang, Y.Q. Proe Int Offshore

Meeh Arct Eng Symp v II (of VI), Proceedings of the 037138 Deformation and Fracture of

Eighth International Conference on Offshore Two-Layer Metal-Plastic Shells Under

Mechanics and Arctic Engineering-1989, Hague, Internal Shock Loading. The goal of this

Neth, Mar 19-23 1989. Publ by American Soc of paper was to study the feasibility of making

396

Excerpts from The En8ineerin8 Index Annual 1989

glass-plastic in a thin-walled shell under function of the component content by

internal shock loading. We studied the volume, the bonding scheme and a number of

deformation and fracture of cylindrical two- other technological factors. Taking account of

layer metal-plastic shells (a shell of steel 20 the real properties of composites, including

was inserted without a gap inside the glass- the anisotropy and nonlinearity of the strain

plastic shell) under an internal explosion. diagram attention must be paid in formulating

Fracture was established from the break- the problems, compiling the governing

through of explosion products, ruptures of equations, refining the computational schemes,

the strain gages, and external inspection. We and performing the strength analyses of

determined the maximum hoop strains in the structural elements (rods, plates, shells) or the

first phases of tension and compression for typical structures of complex geometric shape.

the most heavily loaded central section of the 9 Refs.

shells. The deformation process took the form Guz', A.N. (Acad of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR,

of rapidly decaying vibrations. We also Kiev, USSR); Chernyshenko, I.S.; Georgievskii,

evaluated the effect of the steel on the decay V.P.; Maksimyuk, V.A. Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p

of vibrations in the shell in a simplified 337-342.

formulation for the case of decaying sinusoidal

free vibrations of a system with Coulomb 037141 Refinement of Shear Theory of

friction. Characteristic chronograms and Laminar Orthotropic Sloping Shells. This

oscillograms of the strains of the glass-plastic paper proposes refinement of the shear

and steel shells are shown with a cross section theory. A second-approximation model is

of the metal-plastic shells. Test results are proposed, allowing this effect to be described

analyzed. 6 Refs. on the basis of an approach invariant with

Tsypkin, V.I.; Rusak, V.N.; Ivanov, A.G.; respect to the number of layers in the system

Fedorenko, A.G.; Vorontsova, O.S. Meeh Compos and allowing the distortion of the normal in

Mater v 23 n 5 Mar 1988 p 586-590. the course of shell deformation to be taken

into account. The discontinuities in the

smoothness of the functions between the

THEORY

outer layers are observed both for tangential

037139 Numerical Solution Method for and for normal stress, which allows the

Dynamical Problems of Shell Theory. The lamination process of the structure to be

forced vibrations of shells of revolution modeled. 12 Refs.

subjected to a load changes in an arbitrary Rasskazov, A.O. (Kiev Highway Inst, USSR);

manner with time was examined. The Burygina, A.O. Sov Appl Meeh Oct 1988 p 343-347.

majority of the existing algorithms for

numerical analysis of thin elastic shell 037142 Higher Order Theories for Thick

vibrations are based on the method of Cylindrical Shells. A variational derivation is

expansion of eigenmodes and on asymptotic used to obtain 10th and 12th order shell

method. This paper describes a method that is theories along with the associated boundary

not associated with the constraints of the conditions. A computer program produces the

above-mentioned algorithms. Analysis of the coefficients in the reductions of the sets of

results shows that the vibration mode of a equilibrium equations to equivalent single

shell subjected to a unit rectangular pulse 10th and 12th order equations. Exact

differs noticeably from the lowest eigenmodes. solutions for closed shells which decay in the

6 Refs. axial direction are obtained and compared

Naraikin, O.S. (M.E. Bauman Higher Technical

with exact three dimensional solutions in

Inst, USSR). Sov Appl Meeh v 24 n 2 Aug 1988 P

order to assess the accuracy of the shell

126-132.

theory as an approximation to the elasticity

theory. (Author abstract) 9 Refs.

037140 Stress State of Thin-Walled Faraji, Susan (Univ of Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA);

Elements of Structures Fabricated from Archer, R.R. Aeta Meeh v 74 n 1-4 Oct 1988 p 9-24.

Nonlinearly Elastic Orthotropic Composite

Materials. Experimental results indicate that 037143 Self-Equilibrated Singular Solutions

the material of certain composites (glass-plastic of a Complete Spherical Shell: Classical

on a fabric base, organic plastics, etc.) Theory Approach. The elastic response of a

possesses nonlinear properties; the elastic complete spherical shell under the influence of

characteristics and strain diagram of the concentrated loads (normal point loads,

397

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

concentrated surface moments) which apply in membrane and bending fields, based on a

a self-equilibrating fashion is obtained. The mixed HeIlinger-Reissner formulation,

mathematical analysis incorporates the classical provides excellent results for the 4-node

uncoupled system of equations for the bilinear isoparametric element. (Edited author

transverse displacement Wand a stress abstract) 46 Refs.

function F. The solution formulae for all Simo, J.C. (Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA, USA);

three types of singular loading are in closed Fox, D.O.; Rifai, M.S. Comput Methods Appl Meeh

form and they are expressed in terms of Eng v 73 n 1 Apr 1989 p 53-92.

complex Legendre and other elementary

functions. The two latter portions of the 037146 Maguerre-Mindlin Shallow Shell

analysis are associated with a multivalued Elements. Two isoparametric Lagrangian

stress function F which leads to a single-valued shallow shell elements are presented: a 4-node

stress and displacement formulae. (Edited element Quad4 and a 9-node element Quad9.

author abstract) 19 Refs. These elements are based on Mindlin/

Simos, Nikolaos (City Univ of New York, New Reissner plate elements. These elements are

York, NY, USA); Sadegh, Ali M.] Appl Meeh Trans sophisticated by adding conventional

ASME v 56 n 1 Mar 1989 p 105-112. membrane stiffness and membrane-bending

coupling terms based on Maguerre's

037144 On a Stress Resultant Geometrically approximate shallow shell theory. This results

Exact Shell Model. Part I: Formulation and in double curved shell elements which

Optimal Parametrization. The main thrust originally possess severe membrane locking

of this work is to demonstrate that classical behavior. This defect is overcome in the same

shell theory, phrased as one-director Cosserat way as the shear locking problem is solved.

surface, leads itself to an efficient numerical (Edited author abstract) 10 Refs.

implementation which is free from Kraus, Gerhard (Ingenieurbuero fuer

mathematical complexities and suitable for Strukuranalyse, Berlin, West Ger). Eng Comput

large scale computation. Examples are given (Swansea Wales) v 6 n 1 Mar 1989 p 44-48.

which contain simulations involving extremely

large displacements and rotations obtained 037147 Work-Conjugate Boundary

with the formulation described. It is shown Conditions in the Nonlinear Theory of Thin

that this approach is able to reproduce the Shells. Work-conjugate boundary conditions

exact solutions of standard benchmark linear for a class of nonlinear theories of thin shells

problems often used to assess the performance formulated in terms of displacements of the

of numerical formulations based on the reference surface are discussed. Applying

degenerated solid approach. 48 Refs. theorems of the theory of differential forms it

Simo, J.C. (Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA, USA); is shown that many of the sets of static

Fox, D.D. Comput Methods Appl Meek Eng v 72 n 3 boundary conditions which have been proposed

Mar 1989 p 267-304. in the literature do not possess work-conjugate

geometric counterparts. The general form of

037145 On a Stress Resultant Geometrically four geometric boundary conditions and their

Exact Shell Model. Part II: The Linear work-conjugate static boundary conditions is

Theory; Computational Aspects. Computa- constructed and three particular cases are

tional aspects of a linear stress resultant analyzed. The boundary conditions given here

(classical) shell theory, obtained by systematic are valid for unrestricted displacements,

linearization of the geometrically exact rotations, strains and/or changes of curvatures

nonlinear theory are examined in detail. In of the reference surface. (Author abstract) 30

particular, finite element interpolations for the Refs.

reference director field and the linearized Makowski,J. (Ruhr Univ, Bochum, West Ger);

rotation field are constructed such that the Pietraszkiewicz, W.] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 56 n

underlying geometric structure of the 2June 1989 p 395-402

continuum theory is preserved exactly by the

discrete approximation. A discrete canonical, 037148 Formulation and Accuracy of the

singularity-free mapping between the five and Circular Cylindrical Shell Theory Due to

the six degree of freedom formulation is Higher Order Approximation. The most

constructed by exploiting the geometric general higher order equations of the three-

connection between the orthogonal group dimensional static and dynamic theories for a

(SO(3)) and the unit sphere (S2). The circular cylindrical shell are derived by

398

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

expanding the displacements into an infinite Temperature-time history and heat flow rates

power series with respect to the radial have been obtained. The problem considered

coordinate of the shell. The present theory has got its application in the transient thermal

takes into account any higher order terms for analysis of an adiabatic engine. Any other

both the static and dynamic problems. Several similar problem in metallurgical, aeronautical,

theories, which have been proposed, can be furnace design, boiler design applications may

deduced by using the lower order terms of our be solved by the formula obtained. (Author

theory. Three typical theories are the third- abstract) 8 Refs.

order theory, the Levinson theory and the Prasad, Ravindra (Banaras Hindu Univ, Varanasi,

Levinson-Voyiadjis-Baluch theory, which are India); Samria, N.K. Appl Sci Res (The Hague) v 46 n

redefined according to the present theory. 2Jun 1989 p 141-157

Numerical results of natural frequencies for

the simply supported cylindrical shell, as well as THERMOELASTICITY

many other theories, are compared with the

exact solutions. (Author abstract) 8 Refs. 037151 Thermoelasticity of a Regularly

Hirano, Kisaburou (Oita Natl Coil of Technology, Nonhomogeneous Thin Curved Layer with

Oita, Jpn); Hirashima, Kenichi.JSME IntJ Ser 1 v 32 Rapidly Varying Thickness. A regular

n 3Jul1989 p 337-340. nonhomogeneous (composite), anisotropic,

thin curved layer with rapidly oscillating

THERMAL EFFECTS material parameters and thickness is

considered for the case when mean thickness

037149 Parabolic Shells Subjected to Solar and period scale have small magnitudes of the

Radiation. Questions of the theory and same order. A three-dimensional

analysis of parabolic shells under solar side and thermoelasticity problem for this layer is

central illumination were considered. A reduced to a homogenized shell model by

thermal balance equation was constructed means of an asymptotic homogenization

incorporating the heat fluxes and coefficients method for periodic structures. This general

of thermal conduction and radiation transfer model is applied to the derivation of

along with expressions for the optical thermoelastic and thermal constitutive

coefficients of metals. Equations were derived equations for network periodic shells. The

for determining the temperature fields. Using relations obtained lay the foundation for a

these fields, the stress-strain states for a new continuous model of thermoelasticity and

parabolic shell closed at the apex and for the heat conductivity for network period shells

domain of connection of the shell to a stiffener and plates. (Edited author abstract) 15 Refs.

ring were examined. 6 Refs. Parton, Vladimir Z. (Moscow Inst of Chemical

Gudramovich, V.S. (Acad of Sciences of the Engineering, Moscow, USSR); Kalamkarov,

Ukrainian SSR, Dnepropetrovsk, USSR); Diskovskii, Aleksandr L. J Therm Stresses v 11 n 4 1989

l.A.; Sel'skii, Yu, S. Sov Appl Meeh v 23 n 11 May P 405-420.

1988 p 1043-1049.

037152 Stochastic Thermoelasticity of

037150 Transient Temperature Distribution Laminated Shells. The paper proposes a

in an Internally and Externally Insulated theory and develops a numeric method for

Cylindrical Shell. This paper presents the computing the stochastic characteristics of

analytical solution for unsteady state stress fields in the layers of a multilayer shell

temperature distribution in a cylindrical shell needed for estimating its reliability and

having thin layer of thermal insulation coating longevity. The statistical characteristics of the

at the inner and outer surfaces. The formula external temperature field are assumed to be

has been derived assuming different initial known. Centered fields of temperatures and

temperatures of shell and insulation coating displacements are considered, assuming that

while the contact between them has also been the expectations of the fields have already

assumed to be imperfect. The internal and been evaluated. The assumptions adopted in

external surfaces of the shell and coatings are the construction of the theory are divided

exposed to the convective boundary into three kinds. Thermophysical hypotheses:

conditions of third kind. The generalized thermophysical parameters of the materials of

formula obtained has been used to obtain the the layers are temperature independent.

warming-up-period of the cylindrical wall of a Mechanical hypotheses: the rigid layers of a

Diesel engine coated internally and externally multilayer shell conform to the Kirchhoff-

by ceramic insulation material. A plot of Love hypothesis. Stochastic hypotheses: the

399

Excerpts from The Ennineerinn Index Annual 1989

statistical characteristics of displacement fields are calculated numerically, and the effects of

and stress fields are analyzed in the the spinning of the shell on the free vibration

framework of a correlation theory. The are studied. (Author abstract) 7 Refs. In

external temperature field is a stationary Japanese.

time-random, space-homogeneous field. Yamada, Cen; Kobayaski, Yukinori; Sawae,

(Edited author abstract) 14 Refs. Tatsuhiro; Irie, Toshihiro. Nippon Kikai Gakkai

Butko, A.M.; Novichkov, Yu.N. Mech Solids v 23 n Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 505 Sep 1988 p 2009-2015.

21988 p 133-143.

037155 Evaluation of the Modal Density of

VIBRATIONS Paraboloidal and Similar Shells. Modal

densities of various structures have been found

037153 Nonlinear Analysis of Doubly both theoretically in terms of expressions

Curved Symmetrically Laminated Shallow involving integrals, and also experimentally.

Shells with Rectangular Plan form. A They are of interest to designers of, for

multi-mode solution to the dynamic example, satellite aerials and spacecraft

Marguerre-type nonlinear equations is structures. The theoretical method is

presented for the nonlinear free vibration of hampered by the difficulty of evaluating the

doubly curved, symmetrically laminated, integrals. For certain shells such as a thin

imperfect shallow shells of rectangular plate, spherical cap or circular cylinder, the

plan-form on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic integrals can be evaluated analytically. In this

foundation. The shell edges are assumed to paper a numerical method is presented for

be transversely supported and the variation of the computation of modal densities of other

rotational stiffness is identical along opposite shell geometries, in particular the paraboloidal

edges. Generalized double Fourier series with shell. Both the isotropic and honeycomb types

time-dependent coefficients and the method are considered. Enough details of the

of harmonic balance are used in the solution. numerical method are given to allow the

The boundary condition for the varying reader to adapt it to other shapes for which

rotational stiffness is fulfilled by replacement analytic integration is not possible. (Author

of bending moments along the four edges by abstract) 3 Refs.

an equivalent lateral pressure. Based on a Elliott, C.H. (Portsmouth Polytechnic, Portsmouth,

single-mode approximation numerical results Engl). ] Sound Vib v 126 n 3 Nov 8 1988 P 477 -483.

for the amplitude-frequency response of

doubly curved isotropic, orthotropic, cross-ply 037156 Non-Linear Vibration Analysis of

and angle-ply shallow shells with square Fluid-Filled Cylindrical Shells. A theoretical

plan form are presented for various boundary analysis is presented for determining the

conditions, material properties, curvature elastic non-linear vibrations of a prestressed

ratios, initial imperfections, edge tensions, and thin-walled cylindrical shell filled with an ideal

moduli of the elastic foundation. (Edited fluid. For the vibrations of the shell itself, the

author abstract) 25 Refs. dynamic version of the Sanders non-linear

Chia, C.Y. (Univ of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Can). equations for the case of moderately small

Ing Arch v 58 n 4 1988 P 252 - 264. rotations is employed. Modal expansions are

used for the displacements of the shell middle

037154 Free Vibration of a Spinning surface that are required to satisfy the

Spherical Shell. An analysis is presented for 'classical simply supported' boundary

the free vibration of a spinning spherical shell. conditions and the circumferential periodicity

For this purpose, the governing equations and condition. The fluid is taken as non-viscous

the boundary conditions of the shell are and incompressible, and the coupling between

derived by applying Hamilton's principle to the deformable shell and this medium is taken

the strain and kinetic energies of the shell. into account. The velocity potential is

The variables in the equations can be written expanded in terms of harmonic functions

as summation of the quasi-static components which satisfy the Laplace equation term by

which are independent of time and the term. The Galerkin method is used to reduce

dynamic ones. The linear equations on the the problem to a system of coupled algebraic

vibration about the deformed state are solved non-linear equations for the modal amplitudes.

by using the transfer matrix method. The Solutions are presented to show the effects of

method is applied to a spinning clamped-free fluid and shell parameters on the non-linear

spherical shell. The quasi-static and dynamic vibrations of the shell. (Author abstract) 27

displacement and the frequency parameters Refs.

400

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

Goncalves, P.B. (Pontificia Univ Catolica, Rio de for thick shells of revolution having

Janerio, Braz); Batista, R.C. J Sound Vib v 127 n 1 meridionally varying curvature. Based on the

Nov 221988 P 133-143. improved thick shell theory, the Lagrangian

of the shells of revolution are obtained, and

037157 Hydroelastic Vibrations of Liquid- the equations of motion and the boundary

Filled Finite Length, Rotating Cylindrical conditions are derived from the stationary

Shells. A theoretical investigation is presented condition of the Lagrangian. The method is

for the hydroelastic vibration of finite length, demonstrated for thick shells of revolution

rotating cylindrical shells partially filled with having elliptical, cycloidal, parabolical,

incompressible and nonviscous liquid. Gravity catenary and hyperbolical meridional

and surface tension is neglected, while the curvature. The results by the present method

initial tension due to the rotation is are compared with those by the thin shell

considered. On the basis of the Fluegge-type theory and the effects of the rotary inertia

equations, the shell with both edges clamped is and the shear deformation upon the natural

analyzed by the variation of parameters. It is frequencies are clarified. (Author abstract) 11

found that the magnitude of the initial Refs.

tension due to the centrifugal force depends Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yachita, Takumi; Kosawada,

on the rotating speed and the quantity and Tadashi. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 54

density of liquid. The frequency increases n 508 Dec 1988 p 2822 - 2829.

with the initial tension, while it decreases with

the inertia of liquid. (Author abstract) 7 Refs.

In Japanese. 037160 Asymmetric Vibrations of Shells of

Revolution Having Meridionally Varying

Tani, Junji; Zhang, Hebing. Nippon Kikai Gakkai

Curvature and Thickness. An exact method

Ronbunshu C Hen v 54 n 507 Nov 1988 P

using power series expansions is presented for

2633-2639.

solving asymmetric free vibration problems

for shells of revolution having meridionally

037158 Theoretical and Experimental Study varying curvature and thickness. The

of Vibrations of Thick Circular Cylindrical

governing equations of motion and the

Shells and Rings. The free vibrations of

boundary conditions are derived from the

thick circular cylindrical shells and rings are

stationary conditions of the Lagrangian of the

discussed in this paper. The well-known

shells of revolution. The method is

energy method, which is based on the

demonstrated for shells of revolution having

three-dimensional theory of elasticity, is used

elliptical cycloidal, parabolical, catenary and

in the derivation of the frequency equation of

hyperbolical meridional curvature. The

the shell. The frequency equation yields

natural frequencies are numerically calculated

resonant frequencies for all the

for these shells having second degree

circumferential modes of vibration, including

thickness variation. (Author abstract) 8 Refs.

the breathing and beam-type modes.

In Japanese.

Experimental investigations were carried out

on several models in order to assess the Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Miura, Kazuyuki; Kosawada,

validity of the analysis. This paper first Tadashi. Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 54

describes briefly the method of analysis. In n 508 Dec 1988 p 2830- 2836.

the end, the calculated frequencies are

compared with the experimental values. A 037161 Free Vibration Analysis of Singly

very close agreement between the theoretical Curved Shell by Spline Finite Strip

and experimental values of the resonant Method. The spline finite strip method has

frequencies for all the models was obtained been applied to the free vibration analysis of a

and this validates the method of analysis. singly curved shell panel. The convergence of

(Author abstract) 14 Refs. the method is reviewed. Additional numerical

Singal, R.K. (Communications Research Cent, examples on shells of different geometrical

Ottawa, Ont, Can); William, K. J Vib Acoust Stress shapes are employed to demonstrate the

Reliab Des v 110 n 4 Oct 1988 p 533-537. accuracy and versatility of the method. Design

charts showing the variations of the four

037159 Asymmetric Vibrations of Thick lowest modes with the geometry of such panels

Shells of Revolution Having Meridionally are presented. (Edited author abstract) 20 Refs.

Varying Curvature. An exact method using Cheung, Y.K. (Univ of Hong Kong, Hong Kong);

power series expansions is presented for Li, W.Y.; Tham, L.G. J Sound Vib v 128 n 3 Feb 8

solving asymmetric free vibration problems 1989 P 411-422.

401

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

037162 Effect of Boundary Conditions on finitely deformed static state and the

the Free Vibrations of Circular Cylindrical superposed secondary dynamical state which

Shells. A simple formula for the natural are obtained, respectively, by the theory of

frequency is derived as an asymptotic solution finite elasticity and the theory of small

for the eigenvalue problems of the breathing deformations superposed on large, elastic

type of free vibrations of a circular cylindrical deformations are solved analytically and in

shell. It is applicable under any possible closed form to yield the frequency expression.

combinations of the boundary conditions for Some numerical results are provided to study

the simply supported, the clamped, and the the effect of several parameters. (Author

free ends. A characteristic value involved in abstract) 12 Refs.

the formula depends on the combination of Evirgen, H. (Cazi Univ, Ankara, Turk); Ertepinar,

three representative boundary conditions A.J Sound Vib v 130 n 2 Apr 221989 P 177-187.

SR(w = u = 0), SF(w = N = 0), and FR(N =

S = 0), indicating that the free vibration 037165 Vibration Analysis of Thick

characteristics depend on whether an end is Rotating Cylindrical Shells Based on the

free or supported and whether the supported Two-dimensional Elasticity Theory. Vibra-

end is allowed or not to move freely in the tion analysis of infinite thick rotating

axial direction. The accuracy of the formula is cylindrical shells is described on the basis of

examined by a comparison with numerical the two-dimensional elasticity theory. Starting

solutions and experimental results. (Author from the state of plane strain, the basic

abstract) 9 Refs. equation in the steady rotating state, which is

Koga, Tatsuzo (Univ of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Jpn). used to obtain the initial stresses, is derived

AIAAJ v 26 n 11 Nov 1988 P 1387-1394. from Hamilton's principle, and the frequency

equation, including the effect of the initial

037163 Inextensional Free Vibrations of stresses due to the rotation, is formulated by

Circular Cylindrical Shells. Asymptotic Ritz's method. The numerical results for the

solutions are obtained for the eigenvalue frequencies in the non-rotating and rotating

problems of the inextensional free vibrations state are compared with those based on

of circular cylindrical shells, considering all 45 Timoshenko type shell theory and the

possible combinations of the boundary available range in the latter theory is

conditions, characterizing the simply examined about the thickness and rotating

supported, the clamped, and the free ends. In speed of a shell. (Author abstract) 7 Refs. In

addition to the well-known L. Rayleigh and Japanese.

A.E.H. Love types of inextensional vibrations Saito, Takashi; Endo, Mitsuru; Fujimoto, Kohji.

for shells with the free ends, a type Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 n 511

represented by a linear combination of those Mar 1989 p 525-53l.

classical ones is found in cases where one end

is free and the other is supported in such a

manner that it can move freely in the axial 037166 Free Vibration Analysis of Coupled

direction. The existence of the three types of External Fluid-Elastic Cylindrical Shell-

inextensional mode is proved by an Internal Fluid Systems. The free vibrations

experiment, and the mode shapes are of an infinitely long cylindrical shell under

visualized by holographic interferometry. axisymmetrical hydrodynamic pressures due to

(Author abstract) 7 Refs. external and internal fluids are studied

Koga, Tatsuzo (Univ of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Jpn); theoretically. The basic equations of motion

Saito, Arihumi. AIAA J v 26 n 12 Dec 1988 p for axisymmetric vibrations of such a shell are

1499-1505. given, based on the bending theory. These

equations are solved analytically by means of

037164 Small Radial Vibrations of Layered, Fourier cosine transformation, and the general

H yperelastic, Spherical Shells of Arbitrary frequency equation for the coupled systems is

Wall Thickness Subjected to Finite, Initial obtained by consideration of the dynamic

Radial Deformations. Small, radial vibrations interaction between the shell surface and fluids.

of layered spherical shells of arbitrary wall Furthermore, seven cases are derived from the

thickness and subjected to initial external general coupled frequency equation. The

and/or internal pressure causing finite radial general frequency equation is calculated for

deformations are investigated. The material of some kinds of mass density of the internal

each layer is assumed to be of neo-Hookean fluid. (Edited author abstract) 6 Refs.

type. The governing equations of both the Endo, Ryuji (Inst of Vocational Training, Aihara,

402

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual J989

Jpn); Tosaka, Nobuyoshi. jSME Int j SeT 1 v 32 n 2 of circular cylindrical shells, which are used in

Apr 1989p217-221. centrifugal separators to enrich uranium, and

rotating at higher speeds, it is considered that

037167 Dynamic Stability of Fluid-Coupled circular cylindrical shells are connected with

Coaxial Cylindrical Shells under Vertical bellows. Vibration analysis of circular

Excitation. Theoretical analyses are presented cylindrical shells connected with bellows is

for the dynamic stability of a free-clamped carried out by the substructure synthesis

coaxial cylindrical shell partially filled in the method for various numbers and dispositions

annular gap with incompressible, in viscid of bellows, and the optimum ones are

liquid and subjected to vertical excitation. The examined. Moreover, the transfer matrix

dynamic version of the Donnell equations and method, by which the critical speeds are simply

the velocity potential theory are used for the obtained, is described and the results are

motions of the shell and the liquid, respectively. examined by the substructure synthesis

The problem is solved by using the modified method. (Author abstract) 5 Refs. In Japanese.

Galerkin method so as to satisfy the boundary Saito, Takashi; Endo, Mitsuru; Yachigo, Katsuyuki.

conditions, and the governing equation is Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 512 Apr

reduced to a type of coupled Mathieu's 1989 p 887 -893.

equation. The instability boundaries where

parametric resonance occurs are determined 037170 Vibrations of a Cylindrical Shell

by using Hsu's method. It is found that a Acted Upon by Concentrated Loads. We set

principal instability resonance and a up Green's matrix of harmonic vibrations of a

combination instability resonance of the sum circular cylindrical shell of finite length with

type of two natural vibrations, each of which hinging conditions on the edges. The solution

has the same circumferential wave number and is represented by a trigonometric Fourier

different axial mode of vibration, are likely to series in the circumferential coordinate. The

occur. (Edited author abstract) 6 Refs. In coefficients of the series are expressed in

Japanese. terms of elementary functions. The response

Tani, Junji; Sakai, Tatsuyoshi; Chiba, Masakatsu. of shells of infinite and finite length to

Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 n 512 Apr concentrated actions is compared. The

1989 p 870-876. solution obtained is the kernel of the integral

equations of contact problems of shell

037168 Vibration Analysis of Thick Rotating vibrations. It also enables us, by using simple

Prestressed Cylindrical Shells (1st Report. integration, to calculate the amplitude of

The Case of Exposure to an Initial Torque). oscillation of a shell acted upon by arbitrarily

Vibration analysis of thick rotating cylindrical distributed surface loads. (Author abstract) 8

shells subjected to an initial torque is Refs.

described. The basic equations, including the Averbukh, A.Z.; Mavlyutov, I.G. Meeh Solids v 23

effects of the initial tensions and resultant n 51988 P 130-135.

shear stresses due to rotation, torque, external

pressure and axial compression load, are 037171 Free Vibrations of the Rotating

derived by the Timoshenko-type shell theory. Shells of Revolution. This paper is devoted

By the modified Galerkin's method, frequency to the problems of free vibrations of thin

analysis is carried out for four boundary con- rotating shells. The theory of vibration of

ditions (i.e., both ends (A) clamped with axial rotating shells is part of the theory of an

constraint. (B) Simply supported without arbitrary rotating body and the results which

axial constraint. (C) Simply supported with are valid for an arbitrary body are also valid

axial constraint and (D) clamped without axial for the shells. Though numerical methods are

constraint). Numerical results are compared the main approach to the investigation of the

with those based on the Flugge-type shell dynamics of rotating bodies, some analytical

theory and the difference between both results have been obtained for some simple

theories is examined. (Author abstract) 6 Refs. bodies like rotating beams and discs. The

In Japanese. mathematical theory of nonrotating thin shells

Saito, Takashi; Endo, Mitsuru. Nippon Kikai Gakkai is well developed. Several of the most

Ronbunshu C Hen v 55 n 512 Apr 1989 p 878-885. successful are two-dimensional theories of the

Kirchoff-Love type. The aim of this paper is

037169 Vibration Analysis of Cylindrical to apply asymptotic methods to the solution of

Shells Connected with Bellows. For the the eigenvalue problem for a rotating shell.

purpose of decreasing the lower critical speed The authors use Novozhilov's two-dimensional

403

Excerpts from The Engineering Index Annual 1989

shell theory to obtain the equations of the inconsistencies in the mathematical analysis

vibration of the shell and the theory of carried out by Evensen and also in the

asymptotic integration of the differential physical behavior of the three-term model of

equation to solve the eigenvalue problem for Dowell and Ventres. The comments made by

these equations. 23 Refs. Prathap led to reinvestigation of the earlier

Smirnov, Andrei (Leningrad Univ, Leningrad, problem in the present study. The

USSR).] Appl Meeh Trans ASME v 56 n 2 Jun 1989 axisymmetric part of the assumed deflected

p 423-429. shape plays an important role in the nonlinear

behavior of the shell, and so two appropriate

037172 Dynamic Boundary Layer in three-term mode shapes for the transverse

Problems of Vibration of Shells. Within the displacement are chosen. The modal equations

framework of the three-dimensional theory, obtained by the Galerkin method are solved

the authors consider a thin elastic by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to

axisymmetric shell of revolution of arbitrary obtain the amplitude-frequency relationship.

profile, that executes steady-state oscillations The numerical results based on the present

under the action of an edge load. It was study and on the analysis of Evensen are

established on the basis of the equations of compared with the existing experimental

the classical two-dimensional theory, that for values. (Edited author abstract) 10 Refs.

fixed m and increasing w the variability of the Varadan, T.K. (Indian Inst of Technology, Madras,

stress-strain state of the shell increases, and India); Prathap, G.; Ramani, H.V. AIAA] v 27 n 9

there exist critical frequency values above Sep 1989 p 1303-1304.

which the solution of the force-oscillation

problem becomes a solution of differing 037175 Free Vibrations of Circular

variability. In this paper, the authors consider Cylindrical Shells. The eigenvalue problem

approximate methods of setting up solutions of the free vibrations of thin elastic circular

of differing variability for the equations of cylindrical shells is a well-established classical

elasticity, and consider the use of such topic in structural mechanics. All the

solutions for purposes of approximate characteristic values of interest can now be

investigation of forced oscillations of shells at calculated to a desired degree of accuracy as

frequencies that preclude the use of the routine work with the aid of high-speed

classical two-dimensional theory. 5 Refs. digital computers. A number of analytical

Gol'denveizer, A.L. (Kaplunov, Yu.D.) Meeh Solids v solutions have been proposed, and they may

23 n 41988 P 146-155. help us gain good insight into the physical

nature underlying the numerical data. This

037173 Spline Finite Element for paper reviews the historical background and

Axisymmetric Free Vibrations of Shells of provides a unified view of the current state of

Revolution. A new isoparametric element the art through asymptotic solutions recently

suitable for the analysis of axisymmetric free obtained by the author. Emphasis is placed on

vibrations of shells of revolution is developed the effects of the boundary conditions.

in this paper. This element, which is based on (Edited author abstract) 33 Refs.

classical thin shell theory, employs a set of Koga, Tatsuzo (Univ of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Jpn).

B-spline shape functions for the interpolation ]SME Int] Ser 1 v 32 n 3 Jul 1989 P 311-319.

of the geometry as well as the displacements.

It inherits the merits of both the finite 037176 Improved Multi-Segmental Transfer

element method and spline interpolation. The Matrix Method for Closed Axisymmetric

efficiency and accuracy of the proposed Shells. In literature the vibrating problem of

element are illustrated by examples in the thin, elastic axisymmetric shells is modeled by

paper. (Author abstract) 20 Refs. a set of ordinary differential equations, which

Fan, S.C. (Nanyang Technological Inst, Singapore); are singular at closed ends. This paper

Luah, M.H.] Sound Vib v 132 n 1 Jul 8 1989 P presents an improved multi-segmental transfer

61-72. matrix method to overcome the numerical

difficulties resulted from the singularities.

037174 Nonlinear Free Flexural Vibration Examples are given for the calculations of

of Thin Circular Cylindrical Shells. The several typical axisymmetric shells. (Author

early development on the topic of nonlinear abstract) 5 Refs.

vibrations of isotropic circular cylindrical Jian, Zhao (Zhong Shan Univ, Guangzhou, China);

shells is well documented by Evensen. Hong-zhen, Wang; Wu-hua, Zhu. Proe Int Offshore

Subsequently, Prathap pointed out some Meeh Aret Eng Symp v II (of VI), Proceedings of the

404

Excerpts from The Enaineerina Index Annual 1989

Eighth International Conference on Offshore BirIik, G.A. (Middle East Technical Univ, Ankara,

Mechanics and Arctic Engineering-1989, Hague, Turk); Mengi, Y.] Sound Vib v 130 n 1 Apr 8 1989

Neth, Mar 19-23 1989. Publ by American Soc of P 69-77.

Mechanical Engineers (ASME), New York, NY,

USA, 1989 P 713-718. WA VE EFFECTS

VISCOELASTICITY 037179 Wave Forces on Hemicylinders.

037177 Refined Dynamic Theory for Potential solutions describing the flow about

Viscoelastic Cylindrical Shells and two-dimensional marine structures on or near

the ocean bottom are formulated, based on

Cylindrical Laminated Composites, Part 1:

Airy's wave model. The solutions for a

General Theory. Through the use of a new

half-cylinder and semicircular shell are

technique, approximate theories are developed

considered in detail and evaluated in the case

for the dynamic response of viscoelastic

cylindrical shells and cylindrical laminated of deep submergence. The formulation with

and without flow underneath the structure is

composites. The work is divided into two

given and, in particular, the existence of a

parts. The first part is devoted to the

large difference between the two cases in. the

development of the approximate theories and

vertical forces is shown. The effect of

the second part to the assessment. In this

introducing vorticity at the edges of the shell

part, first the approximate equations of a

is investigated. Numerical results for

single viscoelastic cylindrical shell are derived.

Then, a discrete model (DM) is proposed for hemicylinders resting on the bottom and

slightly raised off the bottom are presented.

a composite made of viscoelastic laminae. In

establishing DM, it is noted that the equations The results obtained for the wave forces are

of a single shell hold also in each lamina of compared with experimental results obtained

the composite. The equations of DM are for a slightly raised, open hemicylinder.

completed by adding the interface continuity (Author abstract) 17 Refs.

conditions to the above-mentioned equations. Chakrabarti, Subrata K. (CBI Research Corp,

Finally, a continuum model (CM) is developed Plainfield, IL, USA); Naftzger, Rober A. Ocean Eng

for a composite shell made of two alternating (Pergamon) v 16 n 1 1989 P 49-69.

layers by using a smoothing operation. eM

simplifies the determination of dynamic WIND EFFECTS

behavior of composite shells when the number

of laminae is large. (Edited author abstract) 037180 Stability of Wind-Loaded Cylindrical

10 Refs. Shells. Stability analysis of perfect and

Mengi, Y. (Cukurova Univ, Adana, Turk); Birlik, imperfect cylindrical shells under wind

pressures is performed using the finite element

G.A.] Sound Vib v 130 n 1 Apr 81989 P 55-67.

method. A 48 degree-of-freedom thin shell

037178 Refined Dynamic Theory for element previously developed by the present

Viscoelastic Cylindrical Shells and authors is used. The element is free from

Cylindrical Laminated Composites, Part 2: both shear and membrane locking and is

An Application. In this study, the general capable of modelling shells with arbitrary

approximate theory developed in Part 1 for imperfections. Nonlinear effects due to

shells is assessed for axially symmetric elastic pre buckling rotations are taken into account.

waves propagating in a dosed circular The nonlinear response is obtained using

cylindrical shell (hollow rod). The spectra Riks-Wempner algorithm. Effects of the

predicted by zeroth and second order imperfection amplitude and that of the

approximate theories are determined for material orthotropy on the limit load points

various values of shell thicknesses and the are studied. Wherever possible, the present

Poisson ratios and they are compared with results are compared with existing results. A

those of exact theory. It is found that the favorable agreement is observed. (Author

agreement between the two is good. abstract) 17 Refs.

Approximate and exact cut-off frequencies Kapania, Rakesh K. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst &

match almost exactly. The approximate State Univ, Blacksburg, VA, USA); Yang, T.Y.]

theory is valid for thin as well as thick shells. Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn v 28 pt 1 n 1- 3 Aug 1988

These results, which are obtained without Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on

using correction factors, give an indication of Wind Engineering, Held under the Auspices of the

the power of the general theories proposed in International Association for Wind Engineering,

Part 1. (Author abstract) 6 Refs. Aachen, West Ger,juI6-10 1987. p 281-290.

405

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842 ff. the shell roof of the exhibition palace of the

- - - . 1929. Die Frankfurter Grossmark- National Center of Industries and Technol-

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Distefano, N., and Torregiani, C. 1966. A sim- tion, London (Dec.).

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Dong, S. B. 1966. Analysis of laminated shells subjected to concentrated loads at the apex.

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Dubois, F. 1917, Uber die Festigkeit der Ku- Fletcher, Sir B. 1967. A History of Architecture,

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Research Series no. 351. Urbana: University Meissner, E. 1915. Uber Elastizitat und Festig-

of Illinois, Oct. keit dunner Schalen, Viertelschr. Zurich: D.

natur. Ges., Bd. 60.

Leet, K. 1966. Study of stability in the hyperbo- Meng, Ching-Hung, and Laushey, Louis M.

lic paraboloid. Proceedings, ASEC vol. 92, 1960. Stresses in hyperbolic paraboloid

EMI (Feb.):121-42. shells loaded laterally. Bull., International

Lin, T. Y., and Kulka, F. 1964. Concrete shell Association for Shell Structures, Madrid,

prestressed for load balancing. Proceedings, no. 15.

World Conference on Shell Structures, San Mescall, J. F. 1965. Large deflections of spheri-

Francisco, 1962. Washington D.C.: National cal shells under concentrated loads. J. Appl.

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Loo, T. C., and Evan-Iwanowski, R. M. 1966. Meyer, C., and Scordelis, A. C. 1970. Com-

Interaction of critical concentrated loads act- puter program for prismatic folded plates

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Lundgren, H. 1960. Cylindrical Shells Vol. 1: Mechanics, Department of Civil Engineer-

Cylindrical Roofs 3 printing, 1960. Copen- ing, University of California, Berkeley,

hagen: Danish Technical Press, Institution of Structures and Materials Research Report

Danish Civil Engineers. SESM 70-3. (Feb.).

Meyer, R. R. 1967. Buckling of ring-stiffened

Makowski, Z. S. Analysis, Design, and Construc- corrugated cylinders subjected to uniform

tion of Braced Domes, New York: Nichols axial load and bending. Douglas Aircraft Co.

Publishing Co., 1984, 684. Report DAC-60698 Ouly).

March, H. W., and Kuenzi, E. W. 1958. Buck- - - - , and Harmon, M. B. 1963 Conical seg-

ling of sandwich cylinders in torsion. Forest ment method for analyzing open crown

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Marshall, W. T. 1954. The elimination of mo- Journal vol. 1, no. 3 (Apr.):886-91.

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ings, Institution of Civil Engineers London, tion and experimental evaluation of com-

vol. 3, part III (Apr.):276-82. mon domes having waffle-like stiffening.

Martin, D. W., and Scriven, W. E. 1961. The Douglas Aircraft Company. Report

calculation of membrane stresses in hyperbo- SM-47742.

lic cooling towers. Proceedings, Institution of Michael, K. C., and Munro, J. 1967. Approxi-

Civil Engineers, London, vol. 19, no. 4 mating functions and indirect solutions of

(Aug.):503 -14. shell problems. Proceedings, International

Mast, Paul E. 1962. Design and construction of Congress on the Application of Shells in Ar-

northlight barrel shells. J. ACI vol. 59, no. 4 chitecture, Mexico City.

(Apr.). Mihailescu, M., and Ungureanu, I. 1959. A new

Medwadowski, S. J. 1962. Discussion of "De- shell form for prestressed sheds. Interna-

sign and construction of northlight barrel tional Colloquium on Construction Processes

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- - - . 1963. Thin shell structures. Discovery, umbrella shells. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 93,

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planar and curved finite elements. Report (May-June):649

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414

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415

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Shell Structures in the Last Ten Years, Ma-

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Rowe, R. E. 1966. Modelling of shells. Pro- differences finies an cacul des coques. Bu-

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- - - . 1937. Shell roof at Hershey. Architec-

Salvadori, Mario G., 1954. Thin shells. Architec- tural concrete no. 1 (Apr.):7.

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J. ACI (Oct.). arena. Engineering News-Record (Apr.

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416

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News-Record no. 17 (Oct. 26):67. Shells. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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- - - . 1941. Thin concrete shell roof is fea- Torroja, Eduardo. 1936. Obras de hormigon

ture of Knoxville's exhibition building. Con- armado. Estudio de un muro de contencion,

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Navy. Civil Engineering no. 12 (Dec.):697. - - - . 1942. Sulla struttura delle tribune del

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- - - . 1954. A shell review-design and ities futures. Paris.

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1954. - - - . The Structures of Eduardo Torroja.

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Armour Research Foundation, III. Institute Tottenham, H. 1958. Approximate solutions to

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- - - . 1958. Multiple ribless shells. Proceed- sium on Concrete Shell Roof Construction.

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- - - . 1964. The St. Louis air terminal - - - . 1963. The structure of St. Sophia.

shells. Proceedings, World Conference on Architectural Forum (May): 131- 38. Also

Shell Structures, San Francisco, 1962. Wash- Sept. 1964:45-49.

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469-74. l'Architecture. Paris: A Morel, 72.

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T. 1959. Special facilities for painting air Schalen. Moscow.

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Thurlimann, B., and Johnston, B. G. 1954. Von Sanden, K., and Gunter, K. 1920, 1921.

Analysis and tests of a cylindrical shell roof Uber das Festigkeitproblem querversteifter

model. Proceedings, ASCE vol. 80 (Apr.). Hohlzylinder unter allseitig gleichmassigem

Thurman, A. G., and Herman, G. J. 1962. Aussendruck. Werft und Reederei 23:8, 9, 10;

Model studies of a concrete hyperbolic para- (17) 1921.

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Thurston, G. A., and Holston, A. E., Jr. 1966. properties. The Philips Pavilion at the 1958

417

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vol. 20, no. 1. Eindhoven, Netherlands: folded plates. J. Struct. Div., ASCE vol. 88

1958-1959. (Oct.).

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Science Publishers. Zabrowski, Robert. 1949. Hangars are what

Waling, J. L.; Ziegler, Earl E.; and Kemmer, you make them. Airports and Air Carriers

Harry G. 1962. Hypar shell construction by (Feb.).

offset wire methods. Proceedings, World - - - . 1951. Thin shell arch hockey stadium

Conference on Shell Structures. Oct. 1-4, for Quebec built in ten months. Civil Engi-

1962, San Francisco. Washington D.C.: Na- neering (Oct.)

tional Academy of Sciences-National Re- - - - ,and Gruenwald, Ott. 1944 Monolithic

search Council Publication 1187:453. concrete seaplane hangars, unique design

Waller, J. H. de W., and Aston, A. C. 1953. used by East Coast Naval Air Station. Civil

Corrugated concrete shell roofs. Proceedings, Engineering no. 8 (Aug.).

Institution of Civil Engineers vol. 2, part 3 - - - . 1954. A review of special aspects. Pro-

(Aug.):153-82. ceedings, Conference on Thin Concrete

Wang, L. R. L. 1966. Effects of edge restraint Shells, MIT, June.

on the stability of spherical caps. J. American Zalewsky, Waclaw. 1957. Niektore nowe kon-

Institute ofAeronautics and Astronautics vol. 4, strukcje Iupinowe w budownictwie przemys-

no. 4 (Apr.):718-19. lowym w Polsce. Inzynieria i Budownictwo no.

Wayss, G. A. 1887. Das System Monier. Berlin. 3:116 ff.

Pp. 33-34 and 117 -26. - - - . 1959. Vorgefertigte Stahlbetonkon-

Wells, J. G. 1958. Reinforced concrete struc- struktion fur eine Textilfabrik in Kalisch.

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M.A. thesis, School of Architecture, Univer- - - - . North-light shel roofs in Poland. Con-

sity of California. crete and Constructional Engineering (Apr.).

Wempner, G; Oden,J. T.; and Kross, D. 1968. - - - . Shell and spacial structure shapes ap-

Finite-element analysis of thin-shells. Pro- plied in Poland. International Colloquium on

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Whitney, Charles S. 1950. Wide spanning mon- Paper A-II. Madrid.

olithic arches in North America. 1. Airplane - - - . 1960. Hala widowiskowo-sportowa w

hangars in the United States. 11. Coliseum, Katowicach. In Polish. Inzynieria i Budow-

exposition palace in Quebec, Canada. La nictwo no. 4: 154 ff.

Technique des Travaux (Sept.-Oct.). - - - . Entwurf fur eine Mehrzweckhalle in

- - - . 1953. Reinforced concrete thin shell Kattowitz. Bauwelt no. 23:654 ff.

structures. J. ACI (Feb.). - - . Sports hall. Interbuild (May): 12 ff.

- - - ; Anderson, Boyd G.; and Birnbaum, Zeiss-Dywidag. Robert and Schaefer Co. Bull.

Harold. 1959. Reinforced concrete folded 138 Oan. 1932).

plate construction. Structural Division, Pro- Zerna, W. 1951. Membrantheorie verallge-

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Winter, G., and Pei, M. 1947. Hipped plate chive. no. 19:228.

construction. J. ACI vol. 43 Oan.). - - - . 1959. Uber eine nichtlineare allge-

Wissler, H. 1916. Festigkeitberechnung von meine Theorie der Schalen. Proceedings,

Ringflachen. Zurich: Promotions-arbeit. Symposium on Theory of Thin Elastic

Shells, Delft.

Yitzhaki, David. 1959. The design of prismatic Zienkiewicz, O. C. 1967. The Finite Element

and cylindrical shell roofs. Amsterdam: Method in Structural and Continuum Me-

North-Holland Publishing Company. chanics. New York: McGraw-HilI.

418

Index

ACI. See American Concrete Institute Army Warehouse, Columbus, Ohio, 146, 149

Acoustic wave effects, abstracts of articles on, Arslan Jadhib Tomb, Sangbast, Iran, 42, 44

361-62 Art and shell structures, 179-82

Affaita, Izydor, 74 Artificial Leather Industry building, Coswig,

Agamemnon, Tomb of, Mycenae, Greece, 14 Germany, 167

Aghia Parigoritissa, Arta, Greece, 41 Aspidin, Joseph, 122

Airport hangars Astrodome, Houston, Texas, 177, 311-12,

Chicago, 174, 175 313-16

Cuatro Vientos, Spain, 149, 150 Austro-Hungarian Bank, Vienna, 298

Marignane, France, 151, 153 Auxiliary members, 203-6, 208-9, 210, 211,

Seattle, 192 214-15,219-20

thin shells as, 193 and ACI building codes, 345, 351

Albany Mall Meeting Center, Albany, New and barrel shells, 261-63, 267 -68

York, 193

Albert Hall, Kensington, 298

Alberti, 249 Baba Luqman Mausoleum, Sarakhs, Iran, 48

Alessi, Galeazzo, 61 Balat, A. and Maguet, 299

Alfa-Romeo Factory, Milan, 146, 148 Ballou, Louis W., 85

Alvarez Ordonez, Joaquin and Fernando, 158 Baltard, V., 298

Amati, Carlo, 83 Bank of Montreal, Montreal, 86

American Concrete Institute (ACI), 221 Baptistry, Pisa, 57

Ammann and Whitney, 152, 167, 174, 193, Baroni, Giorgio, 145, 146

220 Barrel shells, 21, 26, 99, 130-32, 211

Analysis and design Base, displacement at, and computer analysis,

abstracts of articles on, 362 - 64 235-37

and ACI building codes, 347- 51 Basilica of San Gaudenzio, Novara, 82

Anisotropy, abstract of article on, 364-65 Bass, L. 0., 313

Anticlastic shells, 115, 118 Baucher, Lucien-Jacques, 108

Antonelli, Alessandro, 82 Belfry, Cathedral of Ivan the Great, Moscow,

Apex, displacement at, and computer analysis, 77, 79

237 Bellushi, Pietro, 163

Archimedean solids, 306, 307 Bending, abstracts of articles on, 365

Architects' Co-Partnership, 149 Berecci, Bartolomeo, 74

419

Index

Bergman, M., and Associates, 163 Castenson, George, 298

Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo, 68, 69, 73 Cast iron domes, 83 - 84, 297 - 98

Binkley Engineering Associates, 316 Catalan vault, 100 -1 02

Bizzos, Tomb of, Ruweha, Syria, 42, 43 Catenary curves in shell design, 243, 245-46

Blasting, abstract of article on, 366 Cathedral, Pisa, 57

Blondel, jacques Fran~ois, 242 -43 Cathedral of New Norcia, Perth, Australia,

B1ondel, jean-Pierre, 108 158, 159

Blount Brothers, 316 Cathedral of St. john the Divine, New York, 86

Boat building Cathedral of the Archangel Michael, Moscow,

and ferrocement, 124, 125-27 77, 78

and fiber-reinforced plastic, 200 Cathedral of the Dormition, Moscow, 77, 78

Borromini, Francesco, 61, 65, 68, 69, 73 Cement, history of, 121-22

Boundary members. See Auxiliary members Centennial Hall, Breslau, Germany, 143-44

Bourse du Commerce, Paris, 298 Center for Industries and Technology, Paris,

Bouvard, J. A., 299 162, 163

Bramante, Donato, 62 Ceramic domes, 105-6

Bretton Hall, Yorkshire, 298 Chapel near Cuernavaca, Mexico, 157, 158

Brodrick, C., 298 Chapel of Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, San

Brunelleschi, Filippo, 58, 60, 61, 62, 72, 103, jose de Altillo, Mexico, 154, 156

214, 241 du Chateau, Stephane, 318

Bryn Mawr Rubber Factory, Wales, 149 Christian architecture, domes in, 10, 34-35

Buckling Christiansen, john V., 177, 192

abstracts of articles on, 366-70 Church, Gracanica, Yugoslavia, 41

and ACI building codes, 350 Church of Koimisis, Daphni, 40

empirical rules for, 243-45 Church of Mary, Monterrey, Mexico, 149,

Bulfinch, Charles, 83 151, 153

Bunning, J. B., 298 Church of San Antonio de las Huertas,

Buonarroti, Michelangelo. See Michelangelo Mexico City, 156

Burgi garden center, Camarino, Switzerland, Church of San jose Obrero, Monterrey,

170, 173 Mexico, 162, 164

Bus garage, Dusseldorf, Germany, 156 Church of Santa Monica, Mexico City, 168, 171

Byzantine architecture, domes in, 10, 35-41 Church of St. Barbara, Brooklyn, 86

Church of the Apostles, Athens, 39

Church of the Apostles, Constantinople, 39

Cable (tensegrity) domes, 322-24 Church of the Intercession of the Virgin,

Cajundome, Lafayette, Louisiana, 302, 321-22 Moscow, 77, 79

Camelot, de Mailly, and Zehrfuss, 162 Church of the Miraculous Virgin. Mexico,

Camoletti, Bruno, 168 154

Camoletti, Pierre, 170, 173 Church of the Nativity of Our Lady, Moscow,

Camoletti House, Geneva, 170, 173 77, 78

Candela, Felix, 152, 154, 156, 157, 158, 162, Church of the Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, 183

168, 186 Church of the Transfiguration, Kizbi, Soviet

and construction methodology, 104-5, 124, Union, 79, 80

343 Ciba-Geigy water purification plant, Prattelin,

influence on Isler, 190 Switzerland, 170, 174

and shell design, 123, 129-30, 135, 136, Ciba Plant, canopy for, Churubusco, Mexico,

137,275 154, 155

and the Sydney Opera House, 175 Cisterns, domes as, 15

Cantilevered shells, 134-36, 137 Coal Exchange, London, 298

Capitol building, Washington, D.C., 83, 84, Coliseum, Charlotte, North Carolina, 309-10

108, 203 Composite shells, abstracts of articles on,

da Caprarola, Cola, 62 370-74

420

Index

on, 374 del Duca, Giacomo, 65

Computer aided design, abstracts of articles Dyckerhoff-Widmann KG, 156, 182

on, 374 Dywidag System, 219

Concrete, 26,100,122,176-78,259-60

abstracts of articles on, 375

and boat building, 123-27 Earle A. Chiles Center, University of Portland,

and pneumatic forms, 196 Oregon, 110, III

"Concrete Shell Buckling" (American Edge beams. See Auxiliary members

Concrete Institute), 350 Eero Saarinen and Associates, 167

"Concrete Thin Shells" (American Concrete Eiffel, A. G., 299

Institute), 344 Elastic analysis and ACI building codes, 346,

Conoidal shells, 132 - 34, 195 347

Considere, 209 Elasticity, abstracts of articles on, 381

Constillares, building in, Spain, 149, 150 Elastoplasticity, abstracts of articles on, 381- 82

Constructivism, 180 - 81 Electromagnetic field effects, abstract of

Control of shell structures, abstract of article article on, 382

on, 375 Energy dissipation, abstract of article on, 382

Corbeled domes, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21 Engineering Index Annual 1989, The

Corrosion, abstracts of articles on, 375 - 76 (Engineering Information, Inc.), 359

da Cortona, Pietro, 65, 70 Eschmann factory, Switzerland, 170

Cosmic Rays Research Laboratory, University Esquillon, 162

of Mexico, Mexico City, 152, 153 Etruscan domed tombs, 9

Coyne System, 219 Euler's law, 307-8

Creep, abstract of article on, 376 Evans, Allen, 86

Curtis and Davis, 163, 316 Evolution Museum, Eindhoven, Netherlands,

168, 171

Exhibit Hall, Vienna, 299

Dagit, Henry D., 86 Experimental shell design, 182, 190-92

Darb-i Imam, Isfahan, Iran, 49, 50 and ACI building codes, 346, 348

Dardasht Minarets, Isfahan, Iran, 48 thin shell, Jena, Germany, 144, 145

Davazdah Imam Mausoleum, Yazd, Iran, 42, 44 Expo 86, Ontario Pavilion at, Vancouver, 304

Dean Smith Center, Chapel Hill, North Expo 67, U.S. Pavilion at, Montreal, 320

Carolina, 304, 305 Exposition Building, Turin, 156

Deaton, Charles, 203

Defects, abstract of article on, 376

Deflection, abstracts of articles on, 376-77 Factory for John Rennock and Sons, Haughley

Deformation, abstracts of articles on, 377 - 80 Park, Suffolk, England, 108

Del POlO, F., Associates, 141 Failure, abstract of article on, 382

Derizet, Antoine, 70 False domes, 14, 21

Design, abstracts of articles on, 380 - 81 Falsework, 89-90, 97,101,109,178

Desret, Antonio, 70 Felix und Regula Church, Zurich, 206

Dill, R. E., 215 Ferrocement, 124, 125-27, 157

Dirigible Hangar, Orly Airport, Paris, 144 Ferstel, H. von, 298

Dischinger, Franz, 184 Fiberglass formwork, 211

Doehring, W. D., 215 Fiber-reinforced plastic shells, 200 - 202

Domenig, Gunther, 170 Field House, Montana State College, Bozeman,

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 42, 43, 107 108

Domes and shells, abstracts of articles on, 360 Filippone, Odette, 108

Domus Augustana, Rome, 28 - 29 Fioravanti, Rodolfo, 77

Domus Aurea, Rome, 28-29, 30 Florentine Zone, Renaissance domes of, 58-61

Dosio, Giovanni Antonio, 61 Folded plates and ACI building codes, 345

Double-shell construction, 58, 59, 214 Fontana, Carlo, 241, 242

421

Index

Fontana, Domenico, 63-65, 72, 242 Great Mosque of the Shah, Isfahan, Iran,

Fontana's rules for masonry domes, 242 50-51,52

Forest Products Pavilion, Portland, Oregon, Greek Orthodox Church, Milwaukee, 154, 155

108 Grid domes, 318

Formige,j. C., 299 GT STRUDL. See Georgia Tech Structural

Formwork, 97,104,145,177 Design Language

plastic foam for, 197 - 200 Guastavino, Rafael, 86

pneumatic, 196 - 97 GUM Department Store, Moscow, 299

rubber membrane as, 190, 192 Gunite method, 146, 163, 195

wooden, 196,211 Gur-e Amir Mausoleum, Samarkand, Soviet

Forum Baths, Pompeii, 27 Union, 49, 50

Fougner, N. K., 124

Foundry Building, Milan, 145 Hadrian Villa, Tivoli, 30, 31

Four-gable hyperbolic paraboloids, 278-83 Hardouin-Mansart, Jules, 74

Fowke, F., 298 Hardy, L., 299

Fowler, Charles, 298 Harris County Sports Stadium. See Astrodome

Fracture, abstracts of articles on, 382-83 Harrison and Abramovitz, 193, 220

Framed domes, 311 Haruniyya Tomb, Tus, Iran, 46, 47

Free nodes displacement and computer Hayden Planetarium, Manhattan, 145

analysis, 237 Heat treatment, abstract of article on, 383

Freyssinet, Eugene, 144, 184, 215 Heins and La Farge, 86

Freyssinet System, 219 Helmle and Hubert, 86

Froehlich, Arthur, 174 Hershey Chocolate Company, ice hockey

Fuller, R. Buckminster, 299, 300, 301-2, arena for, Pennsylvania, 192

318-20,322,323 HipOdromo, Caracas, Venezuela, 174, 176

Funicular polygons, 243, 245-46 Hiroshima Peace Center Monument, 181- 82

Funthaus Church, Vienna, 298 Hisatok, T., 110

Historical masonry domes, spans of, 87 (table)

Hoechel, Eric, 168

Gabellini, 124 Hoffmann, Claus, 167

Galla Placidia, Tomb of, Ravenna, 33 Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, 36

Galleria Umberto I, Naples, 299 Hoop forces in domes, 90 - 96

Galleria Victor Emmanuel II, Milan, 298 Hornblower and Marshall, 86

Garcia de Quinones, Andres, 76 Howells and Stokes, 86

Gas Station, Deitingen, Switzerland, 170, 172 Hoyer, E., 215-16

Gaudi, Antonio, 10, 182, 183 Huber, Hunt and Nichols, 316

Gaussian curvature, 117 Hunt, Richard Morris, 299

Geiger, David H., 302-3, 304, 305, 323 Hyperbolic paraboloids, 195, 211

Geldmeister, Charles, 298 in art, 180, 181

General Motors Technical Institute, in Candela's designs, 186

auditorium for, Warren, Michigan, 149, as conoidal surfaces, 132, 133

151 Gaudi's development of, 183

Gensert, R. M., 249 Hyperboloids, 137-42

Geodesic domes, 299-300, 301, 302, 318-20 H yperstatic domes, 204 - 6, 218 - 19

Geometry of shell design, 116, 129-30,305-8

Georgia Tech Structural Design Language

(GT STRUDL), 223 lASS. See International Association for Shells

Gesu Church, Rome, 63 and Spatial Structures

Girard Trust Company, Philadelphia, 86 Ice houses, domes as, 14 -15

Glass and dome design, 297 - 98 Igloos, 22-23

Gonzales Reyna, Jorge, 152 Illinois State University Arena, Normal,

Grand Palais, Louvet, France, 299 Illinois, 303, 323

Gran Madre di Dio, Rome, 83 II Redentore, Venice, 71

422

Index

Imamzada Sayyid Ishaq Tomb, Saveh, Iran, 46 Kresge Auditorium, Massachusetts Institute of

Imamzada Yahya Mausoleum, Varamin, Iran, Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts,

46, 47 152,154,193,209

Inelastic analysis and ACI building codes, Kuh-i Banan Tomb, Iran, 48, 49

346, 347

Information Pavilion, Brussels, 108

Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn, 85 - 86 La Clerecia Church, Salamanca, Spain, 76

Instituto Tecnico de la Construccion y del Lambot, Joseph-Louis, 124

Cemento, Constillares, Spain, 160 - 61 Lamella domes, 210, 311-18

International Association for Shells and Lardy, Pierre, 190

Spatial Structures (lASS), 221- 22 Larrosa, Manuel, 157

International Exhibition Facility, New Lattice wood shells, Nara, Japan, 110

Orleans, 163, 165 Layne, Henry M., 174

International Exhibition of 1958, Phillips Le Corbusier, 159, 168

Pavilion at, Brussels, 158-59, 161 Lederer, F., 318

I Quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books Lenzlenger Sons Company building,

on Architecture) (Palladio), 71 Switzerland, 170

Ironworks foundry, Lohr, Germany, 161-62 Lesage, 122

Islamic dome, Mimar Sinan's contributions to Les Invalides, Paris, 74

the, 53-55 Leuzinger, Hans, 146

Isler, Heinz, 170, 172, 173, 174, 190-92 Lindsay Park Sports Center, Calgary, Alberta,

Isostatic domes, 204-6, 216, 217 -18 304

luvarra, Filippo, 61 Lissitzky, Elieyer, 180

Little Metropole Cathedral, Athens, 41

Lloyd and Morgan, 313

Jabal I Sang, Kerman, Iran, 45, 46 Lombardo, Pietro, 71

Jackson, P. H., 215 Lombardo, Tullio, 71

Jami Mosque, Ardistan, Iran, 44, 45 Long barrel vaults, 131,244-45,269 (table)

Jami Mosque, Ashtarjan, Iran, 46, 47 Lopez Carmona, Fernando, 154, 156, 162, 168

Jami Mosque, Golpaegan, Iran, 44, 45 Lott, H. A., 313

Jami Mosque, Qazvin, Iran, 44, 46 Loudon, John Claudius, 298

Jami Mosque, Saveh, Iran, 50, 51 Lutheran church, Warsaw, 82

Jami Mosque, Varamin, Iran, 48

Jami Mosque, Zavareh, Iran, 44, 45

Jardin d'Hiver, Laeken Royal Park, Brussels, Macalloy System, 219

299 Mackenzie and Moncur, 298

Jefferson, Thomas, 84 Maderno, Carlo, 65

Johns, Slater & Howard, 108 Madison Square Presbyterian Church, New

Johnson, Drake and Piper, 313 York, 86

Madonna di Loreto, Rome, 65, 67, 68

Madonna di San Biagio, Montepulciano, Italy,

Kaiser Aluminum building, Honolulu, 320 63

Kalff, 168 Maeno, T., 110

Kapnikarea Church, Athens, 39 Magnel, G., 215, 219

Karaganda works, Soviet Union, 213 Magni,83

Khaidukov, G. K., 213 Maguire, C. A., and Associates, 165

Kibble, John, 299 Maillart, Robert, 146, 181, 183

Kibble Palace, Botanic Gardens, Glasgow, 298 Mail-processing facilities, Providence, Rhode

Kiewitt, G. R., 313 Island, 165, 166, 167

Kiewittdomes, 311-12, 313-16 Makowsi, Z. S., 313

Kilns, domes as, 14, 15 -16 Manetti, Antonio, 60

Kingdome, Seattle, 176-78, 192, 324 Manufacture, abstracts of articles on, 383-84

Kirsis, Uldis, 249 Marcus, Henri, 313

423

Index

Market Hall, Algeciras, Spain, 144-45 Nervi, Pier Luigi, 136, 156, 158, 159, 163,

Market Hall, Royan, France, 154 184-85

Mashhad-i Mir Buzurg Shrine, Amul, Iran, and boat design, 125

51,52 and construction strategies, 105, 178, 195

Masonry shells, 21, 22, 83, 89-92, 96-99, and the Sydney Opera House, 175

259-60 Nervi e Bartolli Construction Company, 156,

spans of historical domes, 87 (table) 160

and trussed domes, 297 Network domes, 310-11

Mathematical models, abstracts of articles on, New Corn Exchange, Leeds, 298

384-85 "New Shapes for Shells" (Isler), 190

Matsushita, Fujio, 318 New York University, New York, 85

Mausoleum of Sultan Muhammad Adil Shah, Niccolini Chapel, San Croce, Florence, 61

Bijapur, India, 51, 53 Niemeyer, Oscar, 167

May-D & F Department Store, Denver, Nikken Sekkei Ltd., 325

157 -58, 159 Noise abatement, abstracts of articles on, 385

McDonald Brothers, 85 Nolan, Norman and Nolan, 316

McGuire nuclear power plant, Cornelius, Nondestructive examination, abstract of article

North Carolina, 179 on, 385

McKim, Mead and White, 85, 86 Nonspherical shells, 255, 256- 57 (tables)

McKinley National Memorial, Canton, Ohio, Nuclear reactors, 178-79

86 Nuraghi, 16, 18-20

McSweeney, Ryan and Lee, 163

Medici Chapel, Florence, 63

Mengoni, G., 298 Obata, 142

Mesnager, 209 Oconee nuclear power plant, Seneca, South

Mesopotamia, vaults and domes in, 25 - 26 Carolina, 179

Metal sheathing, 298 Octagonal Roof, Villaverde, Spain, 145, 146

Michelangelo, 63, 64, 65, 214 Odell Associates, 309

Michelozzi, 61 Olympic Games of 1988, buildings for, Seoul,

Mihailescu, Mircea, 187 Korea,303,323,324

Minerva Medica, Rome, 30-32 Opera House, Sydney, Australia, 129, 136,

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, 320 174-76,184

Model analysis and ACI building codes, 348 Origins of domes, 4 - 5

Mole Antonelliana, Turin, 82 Otto, Frei, 110

de Montferrand, Auguste Ricard, 298 Outdoor shelter, Sancti Spiriti, Spain, 149, 151

Moore, Walter, 313

de la Mora, Enrique, 149, 154, 156, 162, 168

Morisseau, Andre, 154 Paez, A., 141

Mosque of Gawhar Shad, Mashhad, Iran, 49, 50 Palace of the Assembly, Chandigarh, India,

Mouton, William, 302, 320-22 168,171

Muller-Grah, Walter, 182 Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, 156-57,210,

Murphy and Mackey, 320 211

Mushtaquiyya'Ali Shah, Kerman, Iran, 53 Palazzo dei Congressi, E.U.R., Rome, 146,

Music Pavilion, "Santa Fe" Housing Project, 148 .

Mexico City, 135-36 Palazzo dello Sport, Rome, 159-60, 161

Myers, E. E., 84 Palladio, Andrea, 71, 249

Palmer and Hornbostel, 86

Palm House, Munich, 298

Nagase, T., 110 Palm House at Sefton Park, Liverpool, 298

Naramore, Bain, Brady and Johanson, 177 Pani, Aldo, 135

Nash, John, 298 Pantheon, Paris, 82, 83

Nea Moni Chios, Athens, 40 Pantheon, Rome, 29-30, 89, 102

424

Index

Rome, 65 Reinforced concrete, 4, 82, 86, 124, 143,

Parker, 122 193-94

Parsons, John K., and Associates, 109 Residence, Pougny, France, 168, 169

Pazzi Chapel, Florence, 60 Restaurant, Xochimilco, Mexico, 158, 160, 190

Pei, I. M., and Associates, 141, 158 Ribbed shells and ACI building codes, 345

Peller, Miklos, 249 Ricchini, Francesco, 61

Perret, Auguste, 151 Rivergate Exhibition Hall, New Orleans, 192

Pevsner, Antoine, 180, 181 Roberts and Schaefer Company, 141, 158,

Pevsner, Naum, 181 192-93

Physical Education Building, De Kalb, Illinois, Robinson and Associates, 163

193 Rocco, Emanuele, 299

Piacentini, Marcello, 159 Rock-cut tombs, 13 -14

Pierson, James G., 108 Rodchenko, Alexander, 180

Planetarium, St. Louis, Missouri, 142 Rodef Sholem Synagogue, Pittsburgh, 86

Planetarium, Trenton, New Jersey, 212 -13 Roebling System, 219

Plasticity, abstract of article on, 385 Roman architecture, domes and vaults in,

Plastics applications, abstracts of articles on, 26-32

386 Roman Zone, Renaissance domes of, 61-70

Platonic solids, 306, 319 Roof Structures, Inc., 311, 313

Pneumatic domes, 324-25 Rosati, Rosato, 70

Pneumatic forming, 196-97 Rosell, Guillermo, 157

Point supports for domes, 206, 207 Rossman and Partners, 109

Poleni, Giovanni, 241, 243 Rotunda, University of Virginia,

Polygonal domes, 34 - 35 Charlottesville, 84-85

Polyhedra as trussed domes, 305 - 8 Royal Brighton Pavilion, 298

Ponzio, Flaminio, 65 RSG Architects, 110

Porro, Ricardo, 149 Russell, S., Hansehauer, and Schmidt, 299

della Porta, Giacomo, 63 - 65

Portinari Chapel in San Eustogio, Florence, 61

Portland Cement Association, 221 Saarinen, Eero, 149, 152, 175, 186

Posttensioning, 125 - 26, 215, 219 - 20 Saarinen, Eliel, 149

Power station, Grandval, France, 318 Saddle-type hyperbolic paraboloids, 271-77

Pozzolana, 96, 100, 122 Sado, 320

Prader and Cie., 146 Saints Martina and Luca, Rome, 65, 67

Praeger, Kavanagh and Waterbury, 177,313 Salvi, Dioti, 57

Precast shell technology, 195, 211 - 13 San Andrea, Rome, 63

Preload Company, 215 San Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, 69

Pressure effects, abstract of article on, 386 San Andrea della Valle, Rome, 65

Prestressing, 125 - 26, 141-42, 195, 215 -19 San Carlino, Rome, 67 -68,69, 89

Protestant Church, Warsaw, 76 San Carlo, Milan, 83

Pseudoshells, 23-24, 202-3 San Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, 70

San Carlo al Corso, Rome, 70

San Claudio e San Andrea dei Borgognoni,

Qubab structures, 6

Rome, 70

da Sangallo, Antonio, 63

Race Track, Madrid, 146, 147 da Sangallo, Giuliano, 61

Rainaldi, 69 San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, 71

Rastrelli, Carlo Bartolomeo, 79 San Giuseppe, Milan, 61

Ravelli, L., 156 San Ivo della Sapienza, Rome, 68, 69

"Recommendations for Concrete Shells and San Lorenzo, Florence, 60

Folded Plates" (International Association San Salvatore, Venice, 71

for Shell and Spatial Structures), 344 San Satiro, Milan, 62

425

Index

San Sebastiano, Milan, 61 Space frames, 116,297,299-300,320-22

San Spirito, Florence, 60 Spavento, Giorgio Pietro, 71

Sant' Agnese, Rome, 68 Specchie, 20

Santa Maria dei Miracoli, Rome, 69-70 Spherical shells, dimensions for, 120 (table),

Santa Maria dei Miracoli, Venice, 71 250 (tables), 252-53 (table), 254-55

Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, 58-60, 72, (table)

89,102,103,214 Spiral Generation, 197 - 200

Santa Maria della Consolazione, Todi, Italy, Spirex Structures, Inc., 200

62-63 Sports building, Northern Arizona University,

Santa Maria delle Carceri, Prato, Italy, 61 Flagstaff, 108 - 9, III

Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, 62 Sports center, Tbilisi, Soviet Union, 213

Santa Maria di Monte Santo, Rome, 69 Sports complex, Chamonix, France, 170, 173

Santa Maria in Carignano, Genoa, Italy, 61 Sports complex, University of Northern

Santissimo Nome di Maria, Rome, 70 Michigan, Marquette, 110-11

San Tommaso Villanova, Castel Gandolfo, Squinches, 207 - 8

Rome, 68 St. Andrew's Cathedral, Kiev, 79-81

Sarger, Rene, 154 St. Antony of Padova Church, Warsaw, 74

Savvestic, L., 299 St. Augustin, Paris, 298

Schaarschmidt, F., 167 St. Basil, Moscow, 41

School addition, Graz-Eggenberg, Austria, St. Casimir, Warsaw, 74

170, 174 St. Costanza, Rome, 33

School of Plastic Arts, Havana, 149, 152 St. Fosca, Torcello, Italy, 41

Schulze, 299 St. Francis de Sales Church, Philadelphia, 86

Schwedler, Johann Wilhelm, 300- 301 St. Front, Perigueux, France, 41

Schwedler domes, 309 -1 0, 327 - 30 St. George, Salonica, Greece, 33

Scott, H. G., 298 St. Irene, Constantinople, 39

Senate and Chamber of Deputies, Brasilia, 167 St. Isaac's Cathedral, St. Petersburg, Soviet

Sesi, 16, 18 Union, 79

Severud, Fred, Elstadt, and Kruger, 309 St. Mark's, Venice, 40

Shah Firuz, Tomb of, Sirjan, Iran, 48,49 St. Mary's Cathedral, San Francisco, 163, 166

Shah Mosque, Mashhad, Iran, 49,50 St. Mary's Cathedral, Tokyo, 168, 169, 170

Shell reinforcement and ACI building codes, St. Paul's, London, 74-76

351-54 St. Paul's Chapel, Columbia University, New

Short barrel vaults, 130, 131,264-66 (tables) York, 86

Shrine of Fatima, Qum, Iran, 50, 52 St. Peter's, Rome, 58, 63-65, 66, 67, 72,

Shrine of Shaykh Ni'Matallah, Mahan, Iran, 214,242

49,51 St. Petersburg Cathedral, St. Petersburg,

Sicily Company, Geneva, 170, 172 Soviet Union, 298

Siegel, C., and R. Wonneberg, 162 St. Sophia, Constantinople, 36-39, 89, 102

Sigismund Chapel, Cracow, Poland, 73-74 St. Sophia, Novgorod, Soviet Union, 40

Silos, domes as, 14 St. Theodore, Athens, 40

Silverstein, Edward and Associates, 163, 316 St. Theodore, Constantinople, 41

Simon, Louis, 154 St. Theodore Stratelates, Novgorod, Soviet

Sinan, Mimar, 53-55 Union, 77

Sistine Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore, St. Theodosia, Constantinople, 41

Rome, 63 St. Vincent's Chapel, Coyoacan, Mexico,

Skilling, Helle, Christiansen and Robertson, 162-63, 165

163, 177 St. Vitale, Ravenna, 39

Smithsonian Museum, Washington, D.C., 86 Stabian Baths, Pompeii, 27

Smolny Convent, St. Petersburg, Soviet Stability, abstracts of articles on, 386-88

Union, 79 State Capitol Building, Boston, 83

Souffiot, Jacques, 82 State Capitol Building, Denver, 84

426

Index

Statical analysis of structures, 300, 301 Terminal building for Trans World Airlines,

Steel, abstract of article on, 388 Kennedy Airport, New York, 149, 152,

Steel and dome design, 82, 86, 87 (table), 299 167, 168, 169,209

Storage shed, Ferrara, Italy, 146 Testing, abstracts of articles on, 396-97

Storrs, John W., 108 Thatched domes, 21, 22

Strain, abstracts of articles on, 388 - 89 Theiler, Otto, 170

Stresses, abstracts of articles on, 389 - 93 Theodoric, Tomb of, Ravenna, Italy, 33-34

Structural analysis, abstracts of articles on, Theory, abstracts of articles on, 397 -99

393-96 "Theory of Bridge Girder Systems"

Structural behavior of shells, 89-90,122-23, (Schwedler), 300

210-11 Thermae of Agrippa, Rome, 27

conoidal domes, 95-96 Thermae of Caracalla, Rome, 30

spherical domes, 90 - 94 Thermae of Diocletian, Rome, 32

thin shells, 143 Thermal effects, abstracts of articles on, 399

Structural design, abstracts of articles on, 396 Thermoelasticity, abstracts of articles on,

STRUDL II, 327 399-400

Stupas, 23-24 Thin shells, 119-20, 135, 143, 193-94

Styrofoam, 197 - 200, 202 and ACI building codes, 343, 345

Suncoast Dome, St. Petersburg, Florida, 303, computer analysis of, 223-37

323, 324 experimentation on, 144, 145, 182

Superdome, New Orleans, 176, 177, 316, 324 and ferrocement, 125

Superga, Turin, 61 Tibaldi, Pellegrino, 61

Suuronen, Matti, 201 Tile domes, 86

Sverdrup and Parcel, 316 Timber Development Association, 108

Swimming pool, Draney, France, 318 Timbrel vaulting, 100 -1 02

Swiss National Exhibition, Cement Hall at, T.M.P. Associates, 110

Zurich, 146, 148 Tombs, rock-cut, 13 -14

Symbolism of domes, 4 - 11 Tomb Tower, Lajin, Iran, 42, 44

Synclastic shells, 115, 117, 118 Toroidal shells, 153

Syon House, 298 Torroja Miret, Eduardo, 141, 144, 145, 146,

149,185,221

Trade fair building, Afghanistan, 320

Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, 14

Tacoma Dome, Tacoma, Washington, Trosch Company factory, Switzerland, 170

109-10, III Trowbridge and Livingston, 145

Tacoma Dome Associates, 109-10 Tylman of Gameren, 74

Taillibert, R., 170

Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 53, 54

Takenaka Komuten Company, 325 Umbrella-type hyperbolic paraboloids, 283-93

Talayots, 21 UNESCO building, entrance canopy for, Paris,

Talin, Vladimir Evgrafovitch, 180 136,137

Tange, Kenzo, 168, 181 Union Tank Car Company plant, Baton

Tedesko, Anton, 146, 185-86, 192 Rouge, Louisiana, 320

Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 62 Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical

Temple of Diana, Baiae, Italy, 27 Society, San Diego, 299

Temple of Mercury, Baiae, Italy, 28 University of Illinois, Assembly Hall, Urbana,

Temple of Venus, Baalbek, Syria, 32 193

Temple of Venus, Baiae, Italy, 27 University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 85

Temple of Vesta, Rome, 30 Utzon, Jorn, 136, 175

Tennis center, Heimburg, Switzerland, 170

Tensegrity, 322, 323

Terminal building, St. Louis airport, St. Louis, Vacchini, F., 158

Missouri, 152, 154, 155 Van Buren Magonigk, H., 86

427

Index

Varax wood domes, 110, 111 Wooden formwork, 196

Vault abutments, Blondel's rule for, 242-43 World's Columbian Exposition, administration

Vaulting, 4-5,26,89,99-100,101 building for, New York, 299

Venetian Zone, Renaissance domes, 70-71 World's Fair of 1853, Crystal Palace at, New

Vibrations, abstracts of articles on, 400-405 York,298

Victoria Regia House, Schoneburg Royal World's Fair of 1878, three domes at, Paris,

Botanic Garden, Berlin, 299 299

da Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi, 61, 63 World's Fair of 1889, central dome for, Paris,

Villa Capra (Villa Rotonda), Vicenza, Italy, 71 299

Villa Trissino, Vicenza, Italy, 71 World's Fair of 1900, Palais des Machines,

Viscoelasticity, abstracts of articles on, 405 Paris, 299

Vitellozzi, Annibel, 156 Wren, Christopher, 74

Vitruvius, 249 Wright, Donald R., 197-98

Voit, A. von, 298 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 154

von Emperger's Handbuch (Dischinger), 184 Wrought iron and dome design, 297 -98

Wyatts, 122

Wyss Garden Center, Solo Thurn,

Wada, M., 110 Switzerland, 170, 172

Walter, Thomas Ustick, 83

Water tower, Fedala, Spain, 141-42

Wave effects, abstract of article on, 405

Western Wood Structures, 110, III Yamasaki, Minoru, 152

White, Stanford, 85

Wieskopt and Pickworth, 145

Wilhelma Botanical Garden, Stuttgart, 298 Zanth, Ludwig von, 298

Wilson, Morris, Crain and Anderson, 313 Zimmermann, Hermann, 30 I

Wind effects, abstract of article on, 405 Zimmermann domes, 311

Wind forces, 246 Zug, Szymon Bugumil, 76, 82

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