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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 6

## Test Yourself 6.1 (page 110)

1. As the ball is thrown into the air, kinetic energy Ek is converted into gravitational potential energy
Ep. After the ball reaches the highest point C and starts falling towards the ground, gravitational
potential energy is converted back into kinetic energy.
C
max Ep

Ek + Ep B D Ek + Ep

max Ek A E max Ek
position of softball
players hand

## 2. (a) Electrical energy thermal energy

(b) Chemical potential energy electrical energy light and heat energy

3. The Principle of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but
can be converted from one form to another. Thus, the gravitational potential energy, lost by the
mango as it drops, will have to be converted into other forms of energy. In this case, it is
converted into:
kinetic energy (motion of the mango as it falls);
thermal energy (heat generated due to air resistance);
sound energy (noise produced when the mango hits the ground).

## 4. useful energy output

Efficiency = 100%
total energy input
35 J
= 100%
50 J
= 70%

= 50 N 1.5 m
= 75 J

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 6

## Test Yourself 6.2 (page 117)

1. (a) The joule (J) is the SI unit of work. One joule is defined as the work done by a force of one
newton, which moves an object through a distance of one metre in the direction of the force.

## (b) Force Distance moved in the

Work done
exerted direction of the force
20.0 N 10 m 200 J
0.1 N 10 m 1J
0.04 N 20 m 0.8 J
6
500 N 7200 m 3.60 10 J

## 2. Gain in gravitational potential energy = mgh

1
= 5 kg 10 N kg 10 m
= 500 J

3.

At the top of the frictionless slope, the block has gravitational potential energy Ep.
Ep = mgh
1
= 4 kg 10 N kg 5 m
= 200 J
Just before the block hits the ground, all the G.P.E is converted into K.E.
Hence, the K.E of the block at the bottom of the slope is 200 J.

## 4. Let vi be the initial speed (i.e. speed of the diver in air).

Let vf be the final speed (i.e speed of the diver in water).
1
Since speed is decreased by half, vf = vi
2
1 2
Initial kinetic energy = mvi
2
1 2 1 vi 2 1 1 2
Final kinetic energy = mvf = m( ) = ( mvi )
2 2 2 4 2

Hence, the kinetic energy of the diver is decreased by 75% upon entering the water.

5. No work is done on the rock moving freely through outer space at a constant speed.
W=Fs
Since F = 0, W = 0.

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 6

## Test Yourself 6.3 (page 120)

1. (a) Power is defined as the rate of work done or the rate of energy conversion. The watt is the
SI unit of power. One watt is the rate of work done or energy conversion of one joule per
second.
(b) (i) W
Power P =
t
Fs
=
t
50 N 10 m
=
5s
= 100 W
(ii) E
Power P =
t
mgh
=
t
1
1 kg 10 N kg 5 m
=
10 s
=5W

## 2. Power P = 1.0 kW = 1000 W

Time t = 0.5 h = (0.5 60 60) s = 1800 s
Work done W = Pt
= 1000 W 1800 s
6
= 1.8 10 J
= 1.8 MJ

3. The energy E needed to boil a fixed amount of water is not dependent on the kettle used. In other
words, since both kettles are filled with the same amount of water, E is constant.
E
Since E is constant, and using the formula P = :
t
E
For the 1000 W kettle, 1000 W =
t1000
E
t1000 =
1000 W
E
For the 500 W kettle, t500 = = 2(t1000)
500 W

The 1000 W kettle will take half the time it takes for the 500 W kettle to bring the water to a boil,
that is, the 1000 W electric kettle converts electrical energy to thermal energy at twice the rate of
the 500 W electric kettle.

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 6

## Get It Right (page 121)

(a) False
All the gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy only when the pendulum
reaches the bottom of its swing. At all other points of its swing, its total energy is a combination of
gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy.
(b) True
(c) False
When the speed of a bus is increased twofold, the kinetic energy of the bus increases fourfold.
1 2
(This can be deduced using the formula Ek = mv .)
2
(d) True
(e) False
Work done = force distance moved in the direction of the applied force. Since we do not know
the distance moved in the direction of the force, we cannot calculate the work done.
(f) False
Power is the rate of work done or the rate of energy conversion.

## Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions

1. B
A moving car possesses kinetic energy. When it brakes and screeches, the tyres rub against the
road. This produces heat and sound energy.

2. B
Mass of brick = 0.8 kg
Kinetic energy of brick before reaching ground = 240 J

The Principle of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Therefore, the kinetic energy gained by the brick before it hits the ground is due to its gravitational
potential energy before it is dropped.

## Loss in gravitational potential energy = Gain in kinetic energy

mgh = 240 J, where h = the height at which the brick was dropped
1
(0.8 kg)(10 N kg )(h) = 240 J
h = 30 m

3. C
Work done = force applied distance moved in direction of force
= 250 N 2.0 m
= 500 J

4. B
Work done by machine = mgh
1
= (200 kg)(10 N kg )(30 m)
= 60 000 J
work done
Power of machine =
time
60 000 J
=
50 s
= 1200 W
= 1.2 kW

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 6

## Section B: Structured Questions

1. (a) The cyclist is using his stored chemical potential energy to pedal up the hill. This stored
chemical potential energy is converted into kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy
as he pedals up the hill.
(b) Gravitational potential energy
(c) When the cyclist moves downhill without pedalling, his gravitational potential energy is
converted into kinetic energy. Thus, he gains kinetic energy and loses gravitational potential
energy.
3
2. (a) Mass of pendulum bob = 10 g = 10 10 kg
Displacement of pendulum bob from its original position = 2.0 cm
2
= 2 10 m
Gain in potential energy at point R = mgh
3 1 2
= (10 10 kg)(10 N kg )(2 10 m)
3
= 2 10 J
(b) Displacement of pendulum bob (from its original position) at point Q = 0.5 cm
3
= 5 10 m

## By the Principle of Conservation of Energy,

total energy at point Q = potential energy at point Q + kinetic energy at point Q
3
From (a), total energy of pendulum bob = potential energy at point R = 2 10 J

## Potential energy of bob at point Q = mgh

3 1 3
= (10 10 kg)(10 N kg )(5 10 m)
4
= 5 10 J
Kinetic energy of bob at point Q
= total energy potential energy of bob at point Q
3 4
= (2 10 J) (5 10 J)
3
= 1.5 10 J

3. (a) The force in the string (i.e. tension) can be measured by tying a spring balance to the model
car, as shown below.

## (b) (i) Gain in potential energy = mgh

1
= (1.5 kg)(10 N kg )(0.6 m)
=9J
(ii) Work done = force applied distance moved in direction of force
= 10 N 1.2 m
= 12 J
(iii) effective work
Efficiency = 100%
total work done
9J
= 100%
12 J
= 75 %

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 6

## 1. (a) Gravitational potential energy at point P = mgh

1
= (1500 kg)(10 N kg )(30 m)
5
= 4.5 10 J
= 450 kJ
Gravitational potential energy at point Q = mgh
1
= (1500 kg)(10 N kg )(10 m)
5
= 1.5 10 J
= 150 kJ
Loss in gravitational potential energy = 450 kJ 150 kJ
= 300 kJ
(b) (i) 20%
Dissipated energy = (300 kJ)
100%
= 60 kJ

## total gravitational kinetic

dissipated
energy of = potential + energy at +
energy
system energy at point Q
point Q

## Therefore, kinetic energy of train at point Q = 240 kJ

(ii) 1 2
K.E. at point Q = mv
2
3
2 (240 ! 10 J)
v=
1500 kg
1
= 17.9 m s
(c) Energy is dissipated as thermal and sound energy when the train moves from point P to
point Q.
(d) The amount of dissipated energy can be reduced by placing ball bearings in the wheels of
the train.

## 2. (a) (i) useful energy output

Using the formula, efficiency = 100%, the values in the table
total energy input
below are obtained.

## Power station Efficiency

13
32.8 10
P 14 100% = 30.37%
10.8 10
13
21.3 10
Q 14 100% = 12.46%
17.1 10
13
10.1 10
R 14 100% = 40.4%
2.5 10
13
7.5 10
S 14 100% = 35.71%
2.1 10
13
4.1 10
T 14 100% = 20.5%
2.0 10

(ii) I would choose to base the design of my power station on the power station with the
highest efficiency, that is, power station R. It has the highest efficiency, which means
that of the five power stations, it wastes the least energy during the process of energy
conversion.

## 2013 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 6

## (b) Energy generated by station S per day = 7.5 1013 J

energy
Power =
time
13
7.5 10 J
Power generated by power station S =
(24 60 60) s
= 868.1 MJ
(c) In power stations, there is a series of energy transfers that convert input energy to useful
output energy (i.e. electricity). The difference in the energy input and useful output energy is
because energy is lost as thermal and sound energy during the energy conversion process.

## *3. (a) Let M be the mass of the bowling ball.

Let m be the mass of the tennis ball.
Let v be the speed at which both balls are dropping.
(Note: In vacuum, the acceleration of falling objects is constant. Their accelerations (as well
as speeds) are not dependent on their masses.)

## kinetic energy of bowling ball

The ratio R =
kinetic energy of tennis ball
1 2
Mv
2
=
1 2
mv
2
M
=
m
= constant
Therefore, the ratio of the kinetic energy the bowling ball and the tennis ball possess as they
fall in a vacuum is constant.

(b) Yes, the ratio of their kinetic energies would still be constant. The value of the ratio will be
different from (a), but the ratio would still be constant.

## Let M be the mass of the bowling ball.

Let m be the mass of the tennis ball.
Let vB be the terminal velocity of the bowling ball.
Let vT be the terminal velocity of the tennis ball.
(Note: The terminal velocity of an object is dependent on its weight and the frictional forces
acting on it. Since the bowling ball and the tennis ball have different weights and dimensions,
the terminal velocities of the two balls are different.)

## kinetic energy of bowling ball

The ratio R =
kinetic energy of tennis ball
1 2
MvB
2
=
1 2
mvT
2
2
MvB
= 2
mvT
= constant

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