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Acceptance sampling plan (ASP): ASP is a specific plan that clearly states

the rules for sampling and the associated criteria for acceptance or

otherwise. Acceptance sampling plans can be applied for inspection of (i)

finish items, (ii) components, (iii) raw materials, (iv) materials in process,

(v) supplies in storage, (vi) maintenance operations, (vii) data or records etc.

Three aspects of the sampling are important:

quality

2. Acceptance sampling plan simply accept or reject the lots. Do not provide

any direct form of quality control.

3. Not use to inspect quality into product, instead use as a audit tool to

ensure that the output of a process conforms to requirements.

Advantages of Sampling

2. Less handling of product and hence reduce damage

3. Applicable to destructive testing

4. Fewer personnel are involved in inspection activities

5. Reduces the amount of inspection error

6. The rejection of lot motivate the vendor for quality improvement Some

Disadvantages of Sampling

2. Less information about the product

3. Need some plan and formulation compare to 100% inspection

Single Sampling Plan: Single sampling plan is the sampling inspection plan

in which the lot disposition is based on the inspection of a single sample of

size n .

the information in that sample is made either to (1) accept the lot, (2) reject

the lot or (3) take a second sample . If the second sample is taken, the

information from both the first and second sample is combined in order to

reach a decision whether to accept or reject the lot.

double sampling concept, where more than two samples are required in

order to reach a decision regarding the disposition of the lot.

sequential sampling, in which units are selected from the lot one at a time,

and the following inspection of each units, a decision is made either to

accept the lot, reject the lot or select another unit.

lots for inspection.

2. Larger lots are preferred over smaller ones

3. Lots should be conformable to the materials-handling systems used in

both the vendor and consumer facilities.

The selected units for inspection from the lot should be chosen at random,

and they should be representative of all the items in the lot. The random

sampling is an important concept in acceptance sampling plan. Without

random sample, bias will be introduced in the results.

are shown in Table 15.1, page 681. In general, the selection of an

acceptance-sampling procedure depends on both objective of the sampling

organization and the history of the organization whose product is sampled.

1. From a lot of size N , draw a random sample of size n and observe the

number of nonconforming units d.

2. If d is less than or equal to the acceptance number c , which is the

maximum allowable number of nonconforming units, accept the lot. If d > c ,

do not accept the lot.

15.2.2 OC Curve for Single Sampling Plan

consider two types of OC curves:

acceptance an isolated lot of finite size N . Suppose the sample size is n and

the acceptance number is c . Then the exact number of defective items in the

sample has the Hypergeometric distribution.

acceptance a continuous stream of lots (infinite or large size). This is a curve

showing the probability of accepting a lot as a function of the process

average p.

For very large lot size N , both curves give the same information. However,

Type A OC curve will always be below the type B OC curve (see Figure

15.6, page 640). We will discuss about Type B OC curve only and will be

used throughout the chapter.

Suppose the lot size N is large (say infinity). Under this condition, the

distribution of the number of defectives d in a random sample of n items is

binomial with parameters n and p , where p is the fraction defective items

in the lot. The probability of observing exactly d defectives is

n!

P{d defectives} = p (d ) = p d (1 p ) n d (1)

d !(n d )!

c

n!

Pa = {d c} = p d (1 p) n d (2)

d =0 d ! ( n d )!

following Table give the OC curve calculation for n = 89 and c = 2 and the

corresponding Figure is presented in Figure 15.2.

p 0.005 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080 0.090

0.9897 0.9397 0.7366 0.4985 0.3042 0.1721 0.0919 0.0468 0.0230 0.0109

Pa

Figure 15.2. OC curve of the single-sampling plan n = 89 , c = 2

lots have 1% defective, the probability of acceptance the lot is 0.9397. This

means that if 100 lots from a process that manufactures 1% defective

product are submitted to this plan, one would expect to accept 94 of the lots

and reject 6 of them. Similarly, if the lots have 2% defective, the probability

of acceptance the lot is 0.7366. This means that if 100 lots from a process

that manufactures 2% defective product are submitted to this plan, one

would expect to accept 74 of the lots and reject 26 of them.

p f(d=0) f(d=1) f(d=2) Pr{d<=c}

0.001 0.90479 0.09057 0.00449 0.99985

0.002 0.81857 0.16404 0.01627 0.99888

0.003 0.74048 0.22281 0.03319 0.99649

0.004 0.66978 0.26899 0.05347 0.99225

0.005 0.60577 0.30441 0.07572 0.98590

0.006 0.54782 0.33068 0.09880 0.97730

0.007 0.49536 0.34920 0.12185 0.96641

0.008 0.44789 0.36120 0.14419 0.95327

0.009 0.40492 0.36773 0.16531 0.93796

0.010 0.36603 0.36973 0.18486 0.92063

0.020 0.13262 0.27065 0.27341 0.67669

0.030 0.04755 0.14707 0.22515 0.41978

0.040 0.01687 0.07029 0.14498 0.23214

0.050 0.00592 0.03116 0.08118 0.11826

0.060 0.00205 0.01312 0.04144 0.05661

0.070 0.00071 0.00531 0.01978 0.02579

0.080 0.00024 0.00208 0.00895 0.01127

0.090 0.00008 0.00079 0.00388 0.00476

0.100 0.00003 0.00030 0.00162 0.00194

0.200 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Type-B OC Curve for n=100, c=2

1.20

1.00

0.80

Pr{acceptance}

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140

A sampling plan that discriminated perfectly between good and bad lots

would have an OC curve looks like Figure 15.3, page 639. The ideal OC

curve in Figure 15.3 never be obtained in practice. Figure 15.4 shows that

the OC curve becomes more like idealized OC curve shape as the sample

size increases. Figure 15.5 shows how the OC curve changes as the

acceptance number changes.

Specific Points on the OC curve

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL): The AQL represents the poorest level of

quality for the vender's process that the consumer would consider to be

acceptable as a process average.

poorest level of quality that the consumer is willing to accept in an

individual lot. Note that both AQL and LTPD are not the properties of the

sampling plan,

Exercise 15.7, page 668.

LTPD = 0.05

N1 = 5000 N2 = 10000

n1 = 500 n1 = 1000

pmax = 0.0200 pmax = 0.0200

cmax = 10 cmax = 20

binomial binomial

p Pr{d<=10} Pr{reject} Pr{d<=20} Pr{reject} difference

0.0010 1.00000 0.0000 1.00000 0.0000 0.00000

0.0020 1.00000 0.0000 1.00000 0.0000 0.00000

0.0030 1.00000 0.0000 1.00000 0.0000 0.00000

0.0040 0.99999 0.0000 1.00000 0.0000 -0.00001

0.0050 0.99994 0.0001 1.00000 0.0000 -0.00006

0.0060 0.99972 0.0003 1.00000 0.0000 -0.00027

0.0070 0.99903 0.0010 0.99999 0.0000 -0.00095

0.0080 0.99729 0.0027 0.99991 0.0001 -0.00263

0.0090 0.99359 0.0064 0.99959 0.0004 -0.00600

0.0100 0.98676 0.0132 0.99850 0.0015 -0.01175

0.0200 0.58304 0.4170 0.55910 0.4409 0.02395

0.0250 0.29404 0.7060 0.18221 0.8178 0.11183

0.0300 0.11479 0.8852 0.03328 0.9667 0.08151

0.0400 0.00967 0.9903 0.00030 0.9997 0.00938

0.0500 0.00046 0.9995 0.00000 1.0000 0.00046

0.0600 0.00001 1.0000 0.00000 1.0000 0.00001

0.0700 0.00000 1.0000 0.00000 1.0000 0.00000

For N = 5,000, Pa(p = 0.025) = 0.294; while for N = 10,000, Pa(p = 0.025) =

0.182.

0.00046 and Pa(N = 10,000) = 0.00000, but pays for the high probability of

rejecting acceptable lots like those with p = 0.025.

Suppose that we wish to construct a sampling plan such that the probability

of acceptance is 1 for lots with fraction defective p1 , and the probability

of acceptance is for lots with fraction defective p2 . Suppose that binomial

sampling (with Type -B OC curves) is appropriate, then the sample size n

and acceptance number c are the solution to

c

n!

1 = p1d (1 p1 ) n d

d =0 d!( n d )!

c

(3)

n!

= p2d (1 p2 ) n d

d =0 d!( n d )!

The two simultaneous equations in (3) are nonlinear, and there is no simple

or direct solution. The nomograph in Figure 15.9, page 643 can be used for

solving theses equations in (3).

15.2.4 Rectifying Inspection

Accepting sampling programs usually require corrective action when lots are

rejected. This generally takes the form of 100% inspection or screening of

rejected lots, with all discovered defectives items either removed for

subsequent rework or return to the supplier or replaced from a stock of

known good items. Such sampling programs are called rectifying inspection

programs, because the inspection activity affetcs the final quality of the

outgoing product. This has been illustrtaed in the following Figure 15.10.

Those lots not accepted by a sampling plan will usually be 100% inspected

or screened for nonconforming or defective units. After screening,

nonconforming units may be rectified or discarded or replaced by good

units, usually taken from accepted lots. Such a programmed of inspection is

known as a rectifying or screening inspection. For those lots accepted by the

sampling plan, no screening will be done and the outgoing quality will be

the same as that of the incoming quality p . For those lots screened, the

outgoing quality will be zero, meaning that they contain no nonconforming

items. Since the probability of accepting a lot is Pa , the outgoing lots will

contain a proportion of pPa defectives. If the nonconforming units found in

the sample of size n are replaced by good ones, the average outgoing quality

(AOQ) in lot size of N will be

( N n)

AOQ = pPa

N (4)

= pPa for latge N

In short, one defines the average outgoing quality as the expected quality of

outgoing product following the use of an acceptance sampling plan for a

given value of the incoming quality. Figure 15.11, gives a typical AOQ

curve as a function of the incoming quality.

If the incoming quality is good, then a large proportion of the lots will be

accepted by the sampling plan and only a smaller fraction will be screened

and hence the outgoing quality will be small (good). Similarly, when the

incoming quality is not good, a large proportion of the lots will go for

screening inspection and in this case also, the outgoing quality will be good

since defective items will be either replaced or rectified. Only for

intermediate quality levels, lot acceptance will be at a moderate rate and

hence the AOQ will rise (see Figure 15.11). The maximum ordinate of the

AOQ curve represents the worst possible average for the outgoing quality

and is known as the average outgoing quality limit (AOQL). In other

words, the AOQL is defined as the maximum AOQ over all possible levels

of the incoming quality for a known acceptance sampling plan. The AOQL

of a rectifying inspection plan is very important characteristic. It is possible

to design a rectifying inspection program that have specified value of

AOQL.

Exercise 15.10, page 669.

N = 3000, n = 150, c = 2

0.001 0.99951 0.0009 151

0.002 0.99646 0.0019 160

0.003 0.98927 0.0028 181

0.004 0.97716 0.0037 215

0.005 0.95991 0.0046 264

0.006 0.93769 0.0053 328

0.007 0.91092 0.0061 404

0.008 0.88019 0.0067 491

0.009 0.84615 0.0072 588

0.010 0.80948 0.0077 693

0.015 0.60884 0.0087 AOQL 1265

0.020 0.42093 0.0080 1800

0.025 0.27341 0.0065 2221

0.030 0.16932 0.0048 2517

0.035 0.10098 0.0034 2712

0.040 0.05840 0.0022 2834

0.045 0.03292 0.0014 2906

0.050 0.01815 0.0009 2948

0.060 0.00523 0.0003 2985

0.070 0.00142 0.0001 2996

0.080 0.00036 0.0000 2999

0.090 0.00009 0.0000 3000

0.100 0.00002 0.0000 3000

(a)

OC Curve for n=150, c=2

1.00

0.80

0.60

Pr{accept}

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080

p

(b)

AOQ Curve for n=150, c=2

AOQL 0.0087

0.0100

0.0090

0.0080

0.0070

0.0060

AOQ

0.0050

0.0040

0.0030

0.0020

0.0010

0.0000

0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080

(c)

ATI Curve for n=150, c=2

3500

3000

2500

2000

ATI

1500

1000

500

0

0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080

If the lot quality is 0 < p < 1 , the average amount of inspection per lot will

vary between the sample size n and the lot size N . If the lot is of quality p

and the probability of lot acceptance is Pa , then the average total inspection

per lot will be

ATI = n + (1 Pa )( N n) (5)

The ATI curves for the sampling plan n = 89 , c = 2 and lot sizes of 10000 ,

5000 and 1000 are shown in Figure 15.12.

Figure 15.12. Average outgoing quality curve for n = 89

circumstances, a second sample is required before the lot can be sentenced.

Application of double sampling requires that a first sample of size n1 is

taken at random from the (large) lot. The number of defectives is then

counted and compared to the first sample's acceptance number c1 . Denote

the number of defectives in sample 1 by d1 and in sample 2 by d 2 .

Also c2 denotes the acceptance number for both sample. If d1 > c2 , the lot is

rejected on the first sample.

If c1 < d1 c2 , a second sample of size n2 is drawn from the lot. Then the

combined number of observed defective from both sample is d1 + d 2 .

If d1 + d 2 c2 , the lot is accepted. However, if d1 + d 2 > c2 the lot is rejected.

The operation of double sampling plan is presented in Figure 15.13, page

647.

Figure 15.13: Operation of the double-sampling plan,

n1 =50, c1 =1, n 2 =100 and c 2 =3.

The double sampling OC curve has a primary OC curve that gives the

probability of acceptance as a function of lot or process quality. It also has

supplementary OC curves that show the probability of lot acceptance and

rejection on the first sample. The OC curve for the plan n1 = 50 , c1 = 1 ,

n2 = 100 and c2 = 3 are shown in Figure 15.14.

Average Sample Number Curve for a Double Sampling Plan

Since when using a double sampling plan the sample size depends on

whether or not a second sample is required, an important consideration for

this kind of sampling is the Average Sample Number (ASN) curve. This

curve plots the ASN versus lot fraction defective p . The general formula for

the ASN in double sampling, if we assume complete inspection of the

second sample, is

(6)

= n1 + n2 (1 PI )

first sample. That is

PI = P{lot is acceptaed on the first sample} + P{lot is rejected on the first sample}

The ASN curve for formula for a double-sampling plan with curtailment on

the second sample is

c2 j + 1

c2

ASN = n1 + P (n , j ) n P (n , c

1 2 L 2 2 j) + PM (n2 + 1, c2 j + 2) (7)

j = c1 +1 p

sample of size n1 , PL (n2 , c2 j ) is the probability of observing exactly c2 j

or fewer defectives in a sample of size n2 , and PM (n2 + 1, c2 j + 2) probability

of observing exactly c2 j + 2 defectives in a sample of size n2 + 1 . Figure

15.15, page 650 compares the average sample number curves of complete

and curtailed inspection for the double-sampling plan, n1 = 60 , c1 = 2 ,

n2 = 120 , c2 = 3 and the average sample number that would be used in the

single-sampling plan with n = 89 and c = 2 . For more details page 650-651.

Figure 15.15. Average sample number curves for single double sampling

Rectifying Inspection

curve is given by

[ PaI ( N n1 ) + PaII ( N n1 n2 )] p

AOQ = (8)

N

inspection, are replaced with good ones. The average total inspection curve

is give by

ATI = n1 PaI + (n1 + n2 ) PaII + N (1 Pa ) (9)

Note that

Pa = PaI + PaII

is the probability of final lot acceptance and that the acceptance probabilities

depend on the level of lot or process quality p .

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