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Solution VS Pneumatic loading

Solution or leaching is the continued removal, by water solution, of soluble matter from
bedrock or regolith. Soluble substances leached from rocks during weathering are
present in all surfaces and ground water. Sometimes their concentrations are high
enough to give the water an distinctive taste like solution of halite or table salt.

Solution occurs when minerals in rock dissolve directly into water.

Solution most commonly occurs on rocks containing carbonates such as
limestone, but may also affect rocks with large amount of halite, or rock salt

Pneumatic loading

Pneumatic loading is the repeated loading by waves of air trapped at the head of
fractures exposed in the wave zone of a sea cliff.

When a sea cliff (a steep bluff or cliff) is present along a coastline, additional erosion
problems may occur because the sea cliff is exposed to both wave action and land
erosion processes, such as running water and landslides. These processes may work
together to erode the cliff at a greater rate than either process could alone. The problem
is further compounded when people interfere with the sea cliff environment through
inappropriate development. The rocks of the cliff are steeply inclined and folded shale.
A thin veneer of sand and coarser material, such as pebbles and boulders, near the base
of the cliff covers the wave-cut platform, which is a nearly flat bench cut into the
bedrock by wave action. A mantle of sand approximately 1 m (3.3 ft) thick covers the
beach during the summer, when long, gentle, spilling breakers construct a wide berm,
while protecting the sea cliff from wave erosion.
How solution and pneumatic loading affects the structures or
One of the disadvantage of solution is you cant pour a cement during rain because the
water will add and your pouring cement will not become sticky instead it will become
too much liquid.
Acid rain eats away at stone, metal, paint -- almost any material exposed to the weather
for a long period of time. Human-made materials gradually deteriorate even when
exposed to unpolluted rain, but acid rain accelerates the process. Acid rain can cause
marble statues carved long ago to lose their features. Acid rain has the same effect on
buildings and monuments. Repairing acid rain damage to houses, buildings, and
monuments can cost billions of dollars.
Passive erosion
Wherever a hard structure is built along a shoreline undergoing long-term net erosion,
the shoreline will eventually migrate landward to (and potentially beyond) the
structure. The effect of this migration will be the gradual loss of beach in front of the
seawall or revetment as the water deepens and the shoreface moves landward. While
private structures may be temporarily saved, the public beach is lost. This process of
passive erosion is a generally agreed-upon result of fixing the position of the shoreline
on an otherwise eroding stretch of coast, and is independent of the type of seawall
constructed. Passive erosion will eventually destroy the recreational beach area unless
this area is continually replenished. Excessive passive erosion may impact the beach
profile such that shallow areas required to create breaking waves for surfing are lost.
Active Erosion
Refers to the interrelationship between wall and beach whereby due to wave reflection,
wave scouring, "end effects" and other coastal processes the wall may actually increase
the rate of loss of beach. This is site-specific and dependent on sand input, wave climate
and other local factors.


Coliseum in Rome show signs of degradation brought on by atmospheric nitric and

sulfuric acids.
How to prevent or reduce the impacts of weathering to structures or
A method called Galvanizing was invented in France over 200 years ago. Galvanization
involves coating metals such as steel in a layer of zinc.

Paint can act as another coat of protection on the steel. It can be applied over galvanized
metal. In addition to creating a moisture barrier, paint can also make a building look
more attractive and customized. With commercial and industrial buildings, steel panels
can be painted in the factory and be ready to install right away.

After your building is finished with your coatings applied, you still need to perform a bit
of maintenance to keep it rust and corrosion free. You should clean the building
regularly with a power washer. The removal of dirt can prevent stains and will help
maintain the appearance of your building. For tough spots, you can use a soft-bristled
brush and a little elbow grease.





CE 133

SUBMITTED TO: Dr. Jessica Maria Paz S. Casimiro

SUBMITTED BY: Al-Sheikh D. Amilasan